WorldWideScience

Sample records for watershed management study

  1. Watershed management

    Mander, Ü.; Tournebize, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a scientific overview of the basic implementation of the principles of ecological engineering in watershed management. The first two sections discuss the landscape factors of nutrient fluxes and the critical source areas in rural watersheds. The subsequent sections give an overview of the principles, role and efficiency of the main ecotechnological measures used in watershed management: (1) riparian buffer zones and buffer strips, and (2) constructed wetlands for wast...

  2. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were condu...

  3. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  4. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. PMID:26023957

  5. Watershed Management-A case study of Satara Tanda Village

    P. R. Thakare

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most critical component of life support system. India shares about 16% of the global population but it has only 4% of the water resources. The national water policy gives priority to drinking water followed by agriculture, industry and power. The single most important task before the country in the field of India’s water resource management is to pay special attention to rainwater conservation, especially which falls on our vast rain-fed lands but most of which flows away from it. The Marathwada region is declared the drought for this year by state government, to overcome the water scarcity watershed management is decided to do near the Sataratanda it is the outskirt region of Aurangabad city. The proposed site of watershed management structure bandhara is located on stream flowing near the Sataratanda village. The proposed bandhara is design for the conservation of water and recharging into the ground to raise the water table of this particular area for the benefits to villagers, fields & farmers. Since last few decades the demand for water had rapidly grown and with the increasing population would continue to rise in future. In Maharashtra, the assessment of ground water potential and scope for artificial recharge in the overdeveloped watershed is very crucial. The total cost of cement bandhara works about 9 lakhs thus the scheme is found economically feasible. The quantity of water store in the bandhara basin is 0.74 TCM.

  6. Integrated Approach for Prioritizing Watersheds for Management: A Study of Lidder Catchment of Kashmir Himalayas

    Malik, Mohammad Imran; Bhat, M. Sultan

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan watersheds are susceptible to various forms of degradation due to their sensitive and fragile ecological disposition coupled with increasing anthropogenic disturbances. Owing to the paucity of appropriate technology and financial resources, the prioritization of watersheds has become an inevitable process for effective planning and management of natural resources. Lidder catchment constitutes a segment of the western Himalayas with an area of 1,159.38 km2. The study is based on integrated analysis of remote sensing, geographic information system, field study, and socioeconomic data. Multicriteria evaluation of geophysical, land-use and land-cover (LULC) change, and socioeconomic indicators is carried out to prioritize watersheds for natural resource conservation and management. Knowledge-based weights and ranks are normalized, and weighted linear combination technique is adopted to determine final priority value. The watersheds are classified into four priority zones (very high priority, high priority, medium priority, and low priority) on the basis of quartiles of the priority value, thus indicating their ecological status in terms of degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The correlation between priority ranks of individual indicators and integrated indicators is drawn. The results reveal that socioeconomic indicators are the most important drivers of LULC change and environmental degradation in the catchment. Moreover, the magnitude and intensity of anthropogenic impact is not uniform in different watersheds of Lidder catchment. Therefore, any conservation and management strategy must be formulated on the basis of watershed prioritization.

  7. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: User Manual and Case Studies

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  8. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: User Manual and Case Study Examples

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is intended to be used as a screening tool as part of an integrated watershed management process such as that described in EPAs watershed planning handbook (EPA 2008).1 The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-doma...

  9. Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study

    Yanli Zhang; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew McBroom; John DeGroote; Rebecca L Kauten; Paul K Barten

    2011-01-01

    In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI) approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning a...

  10. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH TEAM (URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH - WSWRD)

    The Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops, and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the risk management aspects of WWF research.One...

  11. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Brown, Mark T.; Lynn V. . Saunders; Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management (AM) promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC) and apply it t...

  12. Observing, studying, and managing for change-Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds

    Medley, Nicolas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds-Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, held at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks, Alaska, September 26-30, 2011. The conference was jointly hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service.

  13. Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.

    Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530

  14. Preliminary study on streamflow in forested and forest plantation experimental watersheds for water resources management

    The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the discharge in C3 runoff while the delayed flow runoff dominate the discharge in the C1. (Author)

  15. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  16. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  17. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  18. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated research questions. The goal of this research was to investigate whether scientific research tools were available that could provide evidence that links water quality and land type. In particular, could such tools be used on raw water at the treatment point rather than monitoring over a large geographic spanning a watershed. This report summarizes the utility of using isotopic tracers to better understand sources of non-point source pollution and their relation to industry standard water quality measurements. In this study we have found that much of the water quality data generated by utilities is under-interpreted in the context of understanding watershed processes. For example, the City of St. Louis depends solely on the Missouri River for drinking water, but due to large variability in discharge and runoff sources, they are faced with DOC concentrations that vary nearly a factor of three within a single season. The relationship between discharge and concentration has not been constrained. However, we found a linear correlation between the DOC concentration and the fractional amount of downstream discharge (derived from within the State of Missouri). This correlation relates directly to differences in land use and climate between the upstream and downstream portions of the river basin.

  19. Sustainable Practices in Watershed Management: Global Experiences

    Menon, Sudha

    2007-01-01

    Watershed management is considered by scholars as well as practitioners across the world as the most appropriate approach to ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainability of all land based resources and for improving the living conditions of the people in uplands and low lands. More over watershed management technologies have proven to be effective for mitigating erosion on sloping land, stabilizing landscapes, providing clean water, stabilizing and improving agrarian production sy...

  20. A Component-Based Distributed Watershed Model for the USDA CEAP Watershed Assessment Study

    Challenges in agro-ecosystem conservation management have created demand for state-of-the-art, integrated, and flexible modeling tools. For example, Objective 5 of the USDA CEAP Watershed Assessment Study (WAS) is to develop and verify regional watershed models that quantify environmental outcomes ...

  1. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  2. Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability

    Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after appropriate modifications. (author)

  3. Water management in developing country: A case study of a watershed development program in the state of Bihar, India

    Ghosh, A.; Bose, N.; Kroesen, O.; Bruining, H.; Bawane, V.H.; Chaubey, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    It has for long been assumed that low-income communities do not know their infrastructure needs, so that decisions have been made by authorities without obtaining information and understanding of household and agricultural water demand. This top-down approach has been the reason for the failure of many water management initiatives, particularly in areas of erosion and reduced soil fertility. Watershed management plays a crucial role in sustainable development along the dry northern fringe of ...

  4. Water management in developing country: A case study of a watershed development program in the state of Bihar, India:

    Ghosh, A.; Bose, N.; Kroesen, O.; Bruining, H.; Bawane, V.H.; Chaubey, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    It has for long been assumed that low-income communities do not know their infrastructure needs, so that decisions have been made by authorities without obtaining information and understanding of household and agricultural water demand. This top-down approach has been the reason for the failure of many water management initiatives, particularly in areas of erosion and reduced soil fertility. Watershed management plays a crucial role in sustainable development along the dry northern fringe of ...

  5. Water Quality Response Times to Pasture Management Changes in Small and Large Watersheds

    To interpret the effects of best management practices on water quality at a regional or large watershed scale likely response times at various scales must be known. Therefore, 4 small (<1 ha, 2.5 ac) watersheds, in rotational grazing studies at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) nea...

  6. A review of watershed management experience

    A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3 appendices

  7. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur quickly, or challenges like climate and land use change, require water managers to become much more vigilant in protecting our watershed resources.

  8. Multiple Impact of Integrated Watershed Management in Low Rainfall Semi-Arid Region: A Case Study from Eastern Rajasthan, India

    Prabhakar Pathak; Anil Kumar Chourasia; Wani, Suhas P.; Raghavendra Sudi

    2013-01-01

    The agriculture in low rainfall areas of eastern Rajasthan, India is characterized by high risks from drought, degraded natural resources and pervasive poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. In this region, water is the main limiting factor for upgrading rainfed agriculture. For such areas integrated watershed management is recognized as a potential approach for agriculture growth and rehabilitation of fragile and degraded lands. At Gokulpura-Goverdhanpura village in Bundi eastern Rajast...

  9. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices. PMID:26784287

  10. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal H and O isotope data indicated that degraded watersheds had greater overland flow sources due to stormdrain infrastructure and engineered headwaters. The degraded urban watersheds consistently showed highly variable "pulsed" fluxes for C, N, P and indicator anions than the managed watersheds. While the managed watersheds showed lower total annual export for C, the annual N and P exports were not consistently lower than the degraded watersheds. Most of the C, N, and P was exported during higher flows in the degraded watersheds, while most of the nutrient export for the managed watersheds was during baseflow. Our results suggest that watershed restoration strategies have the potential to alter sources fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon and nitrogen. Along the urban watershed continuum, there may be differences in the potential for stormwater management vs. stream restoration to alter sources and fluxes of nutrients, which has implications for management of important biogeochemical processes in urban streams and rivers.

  11. The use of stakeholder analysis in integrated watershed management

    Mutekanga, F.P.; Kessler, A.; Leber, K.; Visser, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the Ngenge watershed, at Mt. Elgon in the eastern Ugandan highlands, agricultural practices cause serious soil erosion problems and subsequent decrease in soil and water quality. Attempts to manage soil erosion through policy interventions have not been successful, because existing policies and legislation for natural resource management are inadequate and often formulated without consulting local communities. In the Ngenge watershed, an integrated watershed management (IWM) program was in...

  12. PROFILE: Management of Sedimentation in Tropical Watersheds.

    NAGLE; FAHEY; LASSOIE

    1999-05-01

    / The sedimentation of reservoirs is a serious problem throughout the tropics, yet most attempts to control sedimentation in large river basins have not been very successful. Reliable information on erosion rates and sources of sediments has been lacking. In regions where geologically unstable terrain combines with high rainfall, natural erosion rates might be so high that the effects of human activity are limited. Estimates of natural erosion in these situations often have been poor because of the episodic nature of most erosion during large storms and because mass-wasting may supply much of the sediment. The predominance of mass-wasting in some watersheds can result in an unexpectedly high ratio of bedload to suspended load, shifting sedimentation to "live" rather than "dead" storage within reservoirs. Furthermore, the inappropriate use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to assess the effectiveness of erosion control measures has led to inaccurate estimates of the sediment reduction benefits that could accrue to watershed treatment efforts. Although reducing erosion from cultivated areas is desirable for other reasons, efforts aimed at reducing reservoir sedimentation by controlling agricultural sources of erosion may have limited benefits if the principal sources are of natural origin or are associated with construction of the dams and reservoirs and with rural roads and trails. Finally, the most appropriate locations for watershed rehabilitation depend on the magnitude of temporary storage of colluvium and alluvium within the river basin: Where storage volume is large and residence time of sediment very long, reducing agricultural erosion may have limited impacts on sedimentation within the expected life of a reservoir. Systematic development and analysis of sediment budgets for representative watersheds is needed to address these limitations and thereby improve both the planning of river basin development schemes and the allocation of resources towards reducing sedimentation. When sedimentation of reservoirs is the key issue, sediment budgets must focus especially on channel transport rates and sediment delivery from hillsides. Sediment budgets are especially critical for tropical areas where project funds and technical help are limited. Once sediment budgets are available, watershed managers will be able to direct erosion control programs towards locations where they will be most effective. KEY WORDS: Tropical watersheds; Sedimentation; Reservoirs; Erosion control PMID:10085377

  13. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY

    Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.

  14. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  15. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address challenging resource management issues in industry, government and nongovernmental agencies. Current research and analysis tools were developed to manage meteorological, climatological, and land and water resource data efficiently at high resolution in space and time. The deliverable for this work is a Whitebox-GENESYS open-source resource management capacity with routines for GIS based watershed management including water in agriculture and food production. We are adding urban water management routines through GENESYS in 2013-15 with an engineering PhD candidate. Both Whitebox-GAT and GENESYS are already well-established tools. The proposed research will combine these products to create an open-source geomatics based water resource management tool that is revolutionary in both capacity and availability to a wide array of Canadian and global users

  16. Geomorphometry through remote sensing and GIS for watershed management

    Application of remote sensing and GIS for effective determination of the quantitative description of drainage basin geometry for watershed management prioritization forms the theme of this paper. In the present study, each of the eight sub watersheds of Racherla watershed of Prakasam (District) Andhra Pradesh, have been studied in terms of the morphometric parameters -stream length, bifurcation ratio, length ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor area, perimeter, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and sediment yield index. The prioritization of the eight sub watersheds is carried out considering morphometry and sediment yield index. Using IRS IC satellite imagery, a computerized database is created availing ARC / INFO software. The initial drainage map prepared from the survey of India toposheets was later unified with satellite imagery. The prioritization of sub sheds based on morphometry compared with sediment yield prioritization and found nearly same for the study area. The information obtained from all the thematic map is integrated and action plan is suggested for land and water resources development on a sustainable basis. (author)

  17. A digraph permanent approach to evaluation and analysis of integrated watershed management system

    Ratha, Dwarikanath; Agrawal, V. P.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study a deterministic quantitative model based on graph theory has been developed for the better development and management of watershed. Graph theory is an integrative systems approach to consider and model structural components of watershed management system along with the interrelationships between them concurrently and integratively. The factors responsible for the development of watershed system are identified. The degree of interaction between one subsystem with others are determined. The eigenvalue formulation is used to take care the inconsistencies arises due to inaccurate judgement in the degree of interaction between the subsystems. In this model the visual analysis is done to abstract the information using the directed graph or digraph. Then the matrix model is developed for computer processing. Variable permanent function in the form of multinomial represents the watershed system uniquely and completely by an index value. Different terms of the multinomial represent all possible subsystems of integrated watershed management system and thus different solutions for watershed management, leading to optimum solution. This index value is used to compare the suitability of the watershed with different alternatives available for its development. So the graph theory analysis presents a powerful tool to generate the optimum solutions for the decision maker for benefit of local people living in the watershed as well as the stakeholders. The proposed methodology is also demonstrated by a suitable example and is applied to the ecosystem and environment subsystem of the lake Qionghai watershed in China.

  18. A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon

    Michael Maher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential strategies, guidance on strategy selection in other watersheds where such detailed analyses have not been completed, and a framework for organizing information and modeled predictions to best manage wide-ranging species.

  19. Optimizing Watershed Management by Coordinated Operation of Storing Facilities

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo; Weber, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    Water storing facilities in a watershed are very often operated independently one to another to meet specific operating objectives, with no information sharing among the operators. This uncoordinated approach might result in upstream-downstream disputes and conflicts among different water users, or inefficiencies in the watershed management, when looked at from the viewpoint of an ideal central decision-maker. In this study, we propose an approach in two steps to design coordination mechanisms at the watershed scale with the ultimate goal of enlarging the space for negotiated agreements between competing uses and improve the overall system efficiency. First, we compute the multi-objective centralized solution to assess the maximum potential benefits of a shift from a sector-by-sector to an ideal fully coordinated perspective. Then, we analyze the Pareto-optimal operating policies to gain insight into suitable strategies to foster cooperation or impose coordination among the involved agents. The approach is demonstrated on an Alpine watershed in Italy where a long lasting conflict exists between upstream hydropower production and downstream irrigation water users. Results show that a coordination mechanism can be designed that drive the current uncoordinated structure towards the performance of the ideal centralized operation.

  20. Evaluating sustainability of watershed resources management through wetland functional analysis

    Zalidis, G.C.; Gerakis, A. (Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Applied Soil Science)

    1999-08-01

    Unsustainable agricultural policies and water and soil resource schemes have drained two thirds of Mediterranean wetlands since 1920. An outstanding example is Karla in Greece, a former internationally important wetland that was drained in 1962 causing environmental, social, and water and soil problems. The objective of this study was to assess the functions and values of Karla, at three periods of its history, and to relate them to major events in the management of the water and soil resources of its watershed. Information on wetland and watershed features was collected from historical records and field visits. The results showed that the wetland in its pristine state had performed five functions to a high degree, one (groundwater recharge) to a moderate degree, and one (flood storage) to a low degree. Flood-control works, uncontrolled pumping, etc., in 1936--1961 degraded all functions except microclimate modification while, the bird support function was moderately altered. Drainage works in 1962 left a very small artificially flooded wetland with only four functions performed to an insignificant degree. Value degradation followed function degradation. It was concluded that past resource management has been nonintegrated. No consideration was given to the multiple functions and values of Karla. Previous restoration proposals involved the reinstatement of one or two functions only. The appropriate restoration scheme for Karla must be multiobjective and based on the integrated resource management of its own and the neighboring watersheds.

  1. Development of a Watershed Management Model for the Chesapeake Using Multiple Model

    Bhatt, G.; Shenk, G.

    2014-12-01

    Calibrated watershed models are widely used as tools for estimating the outcomes of management scenarios. Multiple models are often recommended for well-informed decision making to gain an estimate of uncertainty, to allow for multiple representations of the physical-chemical-biological system, and to provide confidence in the model predictions. Implementing and maintaining multiple watershed models, particularly of a large-scale watershed, poses significant financial and logistical challenges associated with model calibrations, computation requirements, and differences in data formats. Moreover, analysis of results from multiple models adds additional complexity in decision-making. We propose and demonstrate a framework to simulate management scenarios using a 'sensitivity' approach that incorporates the findings of multiple models into a single simulation framework. This simple and easily-understood modeling framework provides the ability to explicitly incorporate the best available science-based understanding of watershed responses to changes in nutrient balances. Generalized watershed nutrient response are derived from the synthesis of multiple lines of evidence, which include studies involving multiple physically-based models of watersheds at catchment to regional scales, along with experimental studies and watershed observatories. The framework provides simplified accounting for planning, implementation, and tracking of management scenarios while providing capabilities to incorporate complex watershed phenomenon such as lag-times in nutrient response. The framework is being developed by the Chesapeake Bay Partnership for an assessment of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2017 and to develop management plans to meet water quality standards in the Bay waters.

  2. Changing approaches to mountain watersheds management in mainland South and Southeast Asia.

    Thapa, G B

    2001-05-01

    Mountain watersheds, comprising a substantial proportion of national territories of countries in mainland South and Southeast Asia, are biophysical and socioeconomic entities, regulating the hydrological cycle, sequestrating carbon dioxide, and providing natural resources for the benefit of people living in and outside the watersheds. A review of the literature reveals that watersheds are undergoing degradation at varying rates caused by a myriad of factors ranging from national policies to farmers' socioeconomic conditions. Many agencies--governmental and private--have tried to address the problem in selected watersheds. Against the backdrop of the many causes of degradation, this study examines the evolving approaches to watershed management and development. Until the early 1990s, watershed management planning and implementation followed a highly centralized approach focused on heavily subsidized structural measures of soil conservation, planned and implemented without any consultation with the mainstream development agencies and local people. Watershed management was either the sole responsibility of specially created line agencies or a project authority established by external donors. As a consequence, the initiatives could not be continued or contribute to effective conservation of watersheds. Cognizant of this, emphasis has been laid on integrated, participatory approaches since the early 1990s. Based on an evaluation of experiences in mainland South and Southeast Asia, this study finds not much change in the way that management plans are being prepared and executed. The emergence of a multitude of independent watershed management agencies, with their own organizational structures and objectives and planning and implementation systems has resulted in watershed management endeavors that have been in complete disarray. Consistent with the principle of sustainable development, a real integrated, participatory approach requires area-specific conservation programs that are well incorporated into integrated socioeconomic development plans prepared and implemented by local line agencies in cooperation with nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and concerned people. PMID:11334155

  3. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  4. Advancing the Guánica Bay (Puerto Rico) Watershed Management Plan

    Consideration of stakeholder values in watershed planning and management is a necessity, but sufficiently eliciting, understanding, and organizing those values can be daunting. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of formal decision analysis to integrate expert knowledge...

  5. Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2013-01-01

    Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred t...

  6. Effective Factors on Rural People’s Non-Participation of Mahabad’s Dam Catchment in Watershed Management Projects

    Soleiman Rasouliazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive-correlation study was to investigate effective factors on rural people’s non-participation of Mahabad’s dam catchment in Watershed Management Projects. The research instrument was structural questionnaire with close-ended questions, which its validity confirmed by panel of academic staff and reliability of questionnaire was confirmed. The target population of this study consisted of all householders who lived in Mahabad’s dam catchment (N=2458 out of them, according to Cochran's formula 175 people were selected by using cluster sampling in a simple randomization method (n=175. The descriptive results showed lack of financial ability for participating in watershed management, lack of awareness about watershed management efficiency, the longterm rate of return on the investment attracted in watershed management were the main variables related to rural people’s non participation in watershed management. By applying Factor Analysis Explanatory Technique, effective factors on rural people’s non-participation in watershed management were reduced to five factors namely weakness of agricultural extension services, getting watershed management out of governmental control, no achieving success to implement another rural projects by government, and no considering local individuals or organization by government. These five factors expressed 84% of the total variance of the non-participation people on Mahabad’s dam catchment in watershed management projects. Therefore points to these factors could solve the barriers of non-participation people on Mahabad’s dam catchment in watershed management projects.

  7. Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

    Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

  8. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities

    Cai, X.

    2011-12-01

    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been evidenced by 1) institutional innovation for integrated watershed management; 2) real-world management practices involving multidisciplinary expertise; 3) growing role of economics in systems analysis; 4) enhanced research programs such as the CHNS program and Water, Sustainability and Climate (WSC) program at the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Furthermore, recent scientific and technological developments are expected to accommodate integrated watershed system analysis approaches, such as: 1) increasing availability of distributed digital datasets especially from remote sensing products (e.g. digital watersheds); 2) distributed and semi-distributed watershed hydrologic modeling; 3) enhanced hydroclimatic monitoring and forecast; 4) identified evidences of vulnerability and threshold behavior of watersheds; and 5) continuing improvements in computational and optimization algorithms. Managing watersheds as CHNS will be critical for watershed sustainability, which ensures that human societies will benefit forever from the watershed through development of harmonious relationships between human and natural systems. This presentation will provide a review of the research opportunities that take advantage of the concept of CHNS and associated scientific, technological and institutional innovations/developments.

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Landslide and Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study in Karaj Watershed Management

    Rahman Sharifi; Ali Solgi; Mohsen Pourkermani

    2013-01-01

    This research shows a noticeable comparison between slide zones produced with the results using the Nilsen method with active tectonic hazard zonation map. A determination landform of geometry or morphometry factors is one of the best methods for study and evaluation active tectonics. The first image provided is a Dem maps from GIS software showing topography, geology and tectonic maps participant with field activities. The second image provided shows an active tectonic map also generated by...

  10. Bridging the gap between uncertainty analysis for complex watershed models and decision-making for watershed-scale water management

    Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.

    2013-12-01

    Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye Basin has a Gobi-oasis system typical of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis.

  11. BMP analysis system for watershed-based stormwater management.

    Zhen, Jenny; Shoemaker, Leslie; Riverson, John; Alvi, Khalid; Cheng, Mow-Soung

    2006-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) are measures for mitigating nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused mainly by stormwater runoff. Established urban and newly developing areas must develop cost effective means for restoring or minimizing impacts, and planning future growth. Prince George's County in Maryland, USA, a fast-growing region in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, has developed a number of tools to support analysis and decision making for stormwater management planning and design at the watershed level. These tools support watershed analysis, innovative BMPs, and optimization. Application of these tools can help achieve environmental goals and lead to significant cost savings. This project includes software development that utilizes GIS information and technology, integrates BMP processes simulation models, and applies system optimization techniques for BMP planning and selection. The system employs the ESRI ArcGIS as the platform, and provides GIS-based visualization and support for developing networks including sequences of land uses, BMPs, and stream reaches. The system also provides interfaces for BMP placement, BMP attribute data input, and decision optimization management. The system includes a stand-alone BMP simulation and evaluation module, which complements both research and regulatory nonpoint source control assessment efforts, and allows flexibility in the examining various BMP design alternatives. Process based simulation of BMPs provides a technique that is sensitive to local climate and rainfall patterns. The system incorporates a meta-heuristic optimization technique to find the most cost-effective BMP placement and implementation plan given a control target, or a fixed cost. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the Prince George's County system. The case study involves a highly urbanized area in the Anacostia River (a tributary to Potomac River) watershed southeast of Washington, DC. An innovative system of management practices is proposed to minimize runoff, improve water quality, and provide water reuse opportunities. Proposed management techniques include bioretention, green roof, and rooftop runoff collection (rain barrel) systems. The modeling system was used to identify the most cost-effective combinations of management practices to help minimize frequency and size of runoff events and resulting combined sewer overflows to the Anacostia River. PMID:16854811

  12. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Ashish Pathak; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2015-01-01

    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional ...

  13. Institutional Development to Build a Succesfull Local Collective Action in Forest Management from Arau Watershed Unit

    Nursidah Nursidah; Bramasto Nugroho; Dudung Darusman; Omo Rusdiana; Yuzirwan Rasyid

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to build institution model of sustainable forest management, through analysis of action arena, community attributes and forest management rules in Arau Watershed Unit Management Area.  To achieve sustainable forest management, recognition and incorporation of local institutions in forest policy formulation is very important because it had great potential for collective action and had characteristics of common pools resources sustainable management needed.  To achieve a suc...

  14. New trends in watershed management and protection

    I would like to present some new environmental technologies by shoving restoration projects that are currently being implemented in the eastern United States that require this co-operation for successful implementation. The environmental technologies that will be discussed include the use of existing or constructed wetlands to treat surface and groundwater impacted in contaminants from various sources. The main goal of these type projects are to provide a low-cost and effective treatment for existing pollution problems. Many of these projects are initiated by civic associations (or NGOs) that wanted to improve the state of environment in their area. Because everyone has the responsibility to a clean environment in which they live, NGOs, state government, business, and local citizens, and local citizens worked closely together to solve problems in their watersheds. These projects are only examples of what is being done in the United States. However, I would like also to discuss what projects exist in eastern Slovakia, and others that could be started in Slovakia that improve relationships between MGOs and the state and local governmental decision-making process, with the ultimate goal to improve water quality in the Danube watershed in the future. There are severe environmental technologies that can be applied to improve the water quality of rivers throughout the Danube watershed, such as treatment of wastewater using wetland vegetation, and treatment of acid-mine drainage. In April 1996, NGO People and Water in co-operation with the village governments of the Upper Torysa River watershed started the project Villages for the 3 rd millennium in the Carpathian Euro-Region. One of the main goals of this project is to introduce new environmental technologies in the rural communities of the Upper Torysa River area. Since people trust their eyes than their ears. It is important to initiate practical, pilot projects to convince citizens and governments that these low-cost, effective technologies are applicable in Slovakia and in Central and Eastern Europe. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Watershed Management Practices (WMPs Effect on Flood Characteristics

    Y. Nabipoor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence trend of floods in recent years shows that the most of Iran regions located in attacks of destructive floods and loss of life and property of flood damages is increasing. Watershed management practices (WMPs are one of the superior and appropriate solutions for flood hazards mitigation. The impact of WMPs can be investigated using different approaches. In this study, the direct impact of WMPs was investigated using quantitative evaluation of flood characteristics for two periods, pre and post periods of measures implementation. Therefore, daily hydrograph of investigated periods and the results of flood analyses including number of floods occurrence, flood frequency percent in the different months and seasons were determined in Hajighoshan and Tamar hydrometery stations. Also, the mean continuing, rise and subsidence time of floods and maximum peak discharge of observed floods were investigated. The research results showed that the occurrence trend of floods had relatively increased. The number of floods has increased in post periods of measures implementation in two hydrometery stations, while WMPs effect on all flood characteristics were positive, as the continuing time of floods has increased with 0.5%, rise and subsidence time of floods and maximum peak discharge of floods have decreased with 7.9%, 21.98% and 70%, respectively. Totally, if WMPs volume pre watershed area isn't low, WMPs effect on flood characteristics will be positive.

  16. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV, but not in the other three (NWMV. The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92% households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR = 0.39, had greater number of toilets (OR = 6.95, cultivated more variety of crops (OR = 2.61, had lower migration (OR = 0.59, higher number of girls continuing education (OR = 3.04 and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR = 3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively. Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.

  17. Can integrated watershed management contribute to improvement of public health? A cross-sectional study from hilly tribal villages in India.

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2015-03-01

    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV), but not in the other three (NWMV). The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92%) households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR=0.39), had greater number of toilets (OR=6.95), cultivated more variety of crops (OR=2.61), had lower migration (OR=0.59), higher number of girls continuing education (OR=3.04) and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR=3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively). Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health. PMID:25734794

  18. Economic Tools for Managing Nitrogen in Coastal Watersheds

    Watershed managers are interested in using economics to communicate the value of estuarine resources to the wider community, determine the most cost-effective means to reduce nitrogen pollution, and evaluate the benefits of taking action to improve coastal ecosystems. We spoke to...

  19. Perspectives on grizzly bear management in Banff National Park and the Bow River Watershed, Alberta: A Q methodology study

    Chamberlain, Emily Carter

    2006-01-01

    Conserving populations of large carnivores such as grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) requires not only biophysical research, but also an understanding of the values and beliefs of the people involved with and affected by carnivore management. I used Q methodology to examine views of stakeholders concerning grizzly bear management in the Banff-Bow Valley region of Alberta, Canada. In recent years, decision-making about bears in this region has been characterized by acrimonious disputes over scienti...

  20. Optimization Tool For Allocation Of Watershed Management Practices For Sediment And Nutrient Control

    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from nonpoint source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Herein...

  1. Linking Farmer, Forest and Watershed: Agricultural Systems and Natural Resources Management Along the Upper Njoro River, Kenya

    Krupnik, Timothy J.; Marion W. Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes subsistence farmers’ agricultural and natural resource management techniques and perceptions in the upper catchment of the River Njoro, Kenya and explores their implications for further research and action by watershed managers and policy makers. In East Africa and elsewhere in developing countries, small-scale poor farming households often form a critical group in the link between upland natural resource conditions and watershed services. A small-scale pilot study of a...

  2. Nitrogen management challenges in major watersheds of South America

    Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Pérez, Tibisay; Rasse, Rafael; Ometto, Jean Pierre H. B.; Siqueira Pacheco, Felipe; Rafaela Machado Lins, Silvia; Marquina, Sorena

    2015-06-01

    Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 μg L-1 and 275 μg L-1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 μg L-1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 μg L-1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha-1 yr-1) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region.

  3. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  4. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11% and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8%. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177%, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria. PMID:26614349

  5. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals of sustainable development on a regional scale.

  6. STUDY OF RUNOFF IN UNDA WATERSHED

    SATRIA WAHYU 0ETOM0

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When rain falls on the earth, it just does not sit there, it starts moving according to the laws of gravity. A portion of the precipitation seeps into the ground to replenish Earth's groundwater. Most of it flows downhill as runoff. Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion. The purpose and objective in this study are to estimate the conditions of land cover of Unda Watershed based on the results of image processing, to estimate the monthly average runoff and discharge in outlet of Unda Watershed from 1999 to 2003. The research location is in Unda Watershed. This watershed lies in Province of Bali which has wide 233.1 km2 (23.310 Ha (Balai Wilayah Sungai Bali-Penida. Administratively this watershed lies in 3 Regencies that are Karangasem, Klungkung and Bangli Regency. Mostly the region lies in the Karangasem Regency. In this research, the monthly rainfall data employed to generate the runoff process. Analyze of contour map from topography map obtained the watershed area, physical parameter of river and concentration time. In this research used monthly average rainf all data (from 1999 to 2003 from Pempatan, Besakih, Singarata, Sidemen, Klungkung, Telengan, Rain Gauge Station and Polygon Thiesen method employed to analyze the datas. Apart of rainfall, there are a number of site specific factors which have a direct bearing on the occurrence and volume of runoff, they are soil type, land cover and slope. The soil types in this research area are all Regosol, this soil mapping does not need to be overlayed in obtaining the land unit. Analyze of land cover was employed by Supervised Classification method. By image processing obtained land cover of Unda Watershed estimated consists of 38.129 km2 of forest area (16.357°Ai, 19.122 km2 of grassland area (8.203%, 100.991 km2 of farmland area (43.325%, 62-412 km2 of area housing (26.775%, 2.625 km2 of water area (1.126%, 4.046 km2 of cloud area (1.736%, 2.327 km2 cloud shadows (0.998% and 3-448 km2 of stone area (1.749%. The results of runoff by Nakayasu Unit Hydrograph and Melchior Method gives quite similar patterns. The Melchior method gives higher runoff values. This method estimates total runoff while Nakayasu Unit Hydrograph estimates runoff by dividing rainfall into hours. By Nakayasu Unit Hydrograph Method showed the average of monthly average runoff were 10.61 m3/s and 18.67 m3/s by Melchior Method. The different percentage between these methods was 59.71%. By summing runoff and the baseflow obtained river discharge and the average of river discharge in this thesis was 22.63 m3/s. Observed river discharge from Water Level Recorder (WLR Unda Dam was used in validation, the average of monthly average river discharge was 18.24 m3/s. The different percentage between these methods was 66.37%.

  7. DECENTRALIZED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: RETROFITTING HOMES, RESTORING WATERSHEDS

    Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and widespread stream ecosystem impairment. While centralized stormwater management can minimize large fluctuations in stream flows and flooding risk to urban areas, this approac...

  8. A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon

    Michael Maher; Jennifer Burke; David Jensen; Patricia Olson; Mindi B. Sheer; Aimee Fullerton; Yuko Caras; Ashley Steel, E; Paul McElhany

    2008-01-01

    Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, US...

  9. Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management

    Dejian Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.

  10. Science, Politics, and Watershed Management: Another Task for Hydrologists

    Wise, W. R.

    2002-05-01

    The lowest common denominator in hydrology should be "common" sense. The basic concepts that need to be addressed during watershed management are tractable by the general public when presented effectively. Of course the details should be left to the professionals. An uninformed public will feel disenfranchised when "experts" pummel it with technical content beyond its comfort level. To be effective, the hydrologic professional needs to be competent to perform the required analyses and prepared to win the trust of all concerned parties. In the adversarial roles played by developers and growth opponents, distrust reigns supreme. Usually this distrust is fed first and foremost by a lack of communication between the parties. In today's litigious environment, the results can be maddening. The author's experience in high profile hydrologic projects have infused him with the knowledge that effective communication is a critical lubricant to the watershed management process. It is the hydrologic community's duty to facilitate the policy makers' genuine education on watershed processes. The former must act now, if previous problems are not to be repeated.

  11. Comparison and Assessment of Success of Models in Watershed Simulation and Management

    Maisaa W. Shammout

    2014-01-01

    In Jordan, Zarqa River Basin (ZRB) has been taken as a case study for applying water management models because of its limited water resources and due to the fact that the basin is dwelling with about 52% of Jordans population. The surface water resources are mainly used for agriculture because they are mixed with treated water and cannot be used for domestic purposes. This paper aims to demonstrate the contributions of Models in watershed management that provide ind...

  12. Participatory integrated watershed management in the north-western highlands of Rwanda

    Kagabo, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was conducted in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of the north-western highlands of Rwanda, namely; Gataraga and Rwerere in the framework of “Agasozi ndatwa”  referred to as PIWM. "Ag...

  13. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  14. Forest use strategies in watershed management and restoration: application to three small mountain watersheds in Latin America

    Juan Ángel Mintegui Aguirre; José Carlos Robredo Sánchez; Carlos de Gonzalo Aranoa; Pablo Huelin Rueda; Jorge Fallas; Felipe Cisneros; Pedro Cisneros; Adriana Urciuolo; Rodolfo Iturraspe

    2014-01-01

    The effect of forests on flow and flood lamination decreases as the magnitude and intensity of torrential events and the watershed surface increase, thus resulting negligible when extreme events affect large catchments. However the effect of forests is advantageous in case of major events, which occur more often, and is particularly effective in soil erosion control. As a result, forests have been extensively used for watershed management and restoration, since they regulate water and sedimen...

  15. Disaster management for Nandira watershed district Angul (Orissa) India, using temporal Remote Sensing data and GIS.

    Gupta, P K; Singh, A P

    2005-05-01

    NALCO--the largest exporter of aluminium in India has a power plant of 720 MW capacity in Nandira watershed in Angul district of Orissa. The power plant utilises local coal to generate thermal power and disposes of large amount of ash which accumulates in slurry form at nearby two ash ponds. These ash ponds were breached on 31 December 2000, causing ash accumulation for entire regime of the Nandira river. An attempt has been made towards preparation of recovery and rehabilitation plan for NALCO using temporal Remote Sensing data and GIS. Indian remote sensing satellite data for pre-breach condition 12 December 2000, during breach event 31 December 2000 and post-breach condition 4 and 6 January 2001 has been digitally analysed for Nandira watershed. The satellite data of coarse spatial resolution provides the absence and presence of fresh sediment deposition along Nandira watershed and Brahmani river pertaining to pre-breach and post-breach conditions respectively on regional scales. The temporal comparison of fine resolution has clearly highlighted the aerial extent of damage caused by the disaster for entire watershed on local scales. The GIS has helped in demarcation of freshly accumulated ash at interval of 500 m along the river length as well as in delineation of maximum ash accumulation across the river width. The study has clearly demonstrated the use of temporal Remote Sensing data in conjunction with GIS for disaster management in terms of recovery and rehabilitation plan preparation of the Nandira watershed. PMID:15932001

  16. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  17. A watershed scale assessment of the impacts of suburban turf management on runoff water quality

    Bachman, M.; Inamdar, S. P.; Barton, S.; Duke, J.; Tallamy, D.; Bruck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steadily increasing rates of urbanization have raised concerns about the negative impacts of urban runoff on receiving surface water quality. These concerns have been further amplified by landscaping paradigms that encourage high-input, intensively-managed and mono-culture turf and lawn landscapes. We conducted a watershed-scale assessment of turf management practices on water quality vis-à-vis less-intensive management practices that preserve and enhance more diverse and native vegetation. The study treatments with existing/established vegetation and landscaping practices included turf, urban, forest, meadow, and a mixed site with a professional golf course. Stream water sampling was performed during baseflow and storm events. Highest nutrient (nitrate and total nitrogen) concentrations in runoff were observed for the mixed watershed draining the golf course. In contrast, nutrient concentrations in baseflow from the turf watershed were lower than expected and were comparable to those measured in the surrounding meadow and forest sites. Runoff losses from the turf site may have been minimal due to the optimal quality of management implemented. Total nitrogen concentrations from the turf site increased sharply during the first storms following fertilization, suggesting that despite optimal management there exists a risk for nutrient runoff following fertilization. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from the turf site were elevated and aromatic in content while the mixed watershed site yielded more labile DOM. Overall, this study suggests that turf lawns, when managed properly, pose minimal environmental risk to surrounding surface waters. Based on the results of this study, providing homeowners with increased information regarding best management practices for lawn maintenance may serve as a cost-efficient method for reducing suburban runoff pollution.

  18. Developing Water Quality Management Strategies At Different Watershed Scales Using System Dynamics Simulation

    Tangirala, A.; Teegavarapu, R.; Ormsbee, L.

    2003-12-01

    System Dynamics simulation is used for developing models to understand the fate and transport of pathogens at different watershed scales. The models are developed using an object-oriented modeling environment to simulate and analyze water quality management strategies for pathogen impaired streams. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of pathogen loads from each watershed to facilitate the budget allocations that have to be made in each watershed and also to understand the fate and transport of pathogens in impaired streams of each watershed. The models can be used to generate several management scenarios and evaluate several adaptive management alternatives that are designed to reduce further impairment. An object-oriented simulation environment, conceived on the principles of system dynamics (SD) is used for the development of the model. Two important generic building blocks, stocks and flows that are part of the simulation environment are used to model various elements that govern the water bodies and pollutant loadings. The modeling process consists of developing, stock-flow diagrams and finally carrying out computer simulations using difference equations to integrate stocks and flows. The model structure and behavior of the system is validated using dimensionality, replication and sensitivity tests; and calibration along with validation is carried out using appropriate model performance measures. Case study application of this concept is illustrated by developing simulation models for pathogen impaired streams in the three watersheds, North Fork, Upper Cumberland and Big Sandy in southeastern region of Kentucky, USA. Straight pipes and failing septic systems have been identified to be the major sources of pathogen impairment in these watersheds and therefore are key factors influencing management alternatives. Preliminary results suggest that the fate and transport process of pathogens in a river system and at a larger watershed scale can be simulated using simple object-oriented simulation models under data-sparse conditions. The model helps the user to separate policy questions from the data and provides the facility to generate "what-if" scenarios while keeping the modeling process transparent.

  19. Watershed Conservation and Groundwater Management: An Integrated Perspective

    Kaiser, B. A.

    2005-05-01

    US natural resource policy has explicitly acknowledged the hydrological connection between forest resources and water resources from the inception of the USDA Forest Service for the dual purpose of timber and watershed management,, but it is often overlooked in short run policy decisions. In Hawaii, these closely interconnected resources led to the establishment of the Ko`olau Mountains Conservation District in the early 1900s in order to improve water supplies. This early action on the part of the state has enabled today a healthy watershed. The health of the watershed, however, is now under threat from incremental ecosystem change, particularly in the form of invasive species (e.g. pigs (Sus scrofa) and weedy shrubs (Miconia calvescens)) that change the hydrological properties of the watershed to increase runoff and reduce aquifer recharge. Economic costs of reduced recharge in the face of rising water demand from a growing population are potentially large, with preliminary estimates suggesting the losses from reduced groundwater recharge in the Pearl Harbor aquifer have a present value of 1.4 to 2.6 billion dollars (Kaiser and Roumasset, 2002). To refine and improve these preliminary estimates we use spatial analysis of the water balance in the Ko`olaus to relate land use and land cover to recharge and we simultaneously explore the risk of degradation of the forest quality for recharge purposes through a survey of watershed experts. Using this information together with a dynamic model of water pricing as a function of aquifer recharge and use, we examine how much of an economic return (in present value) forest conservation expenditures may produce in the form of protecting aquifer recharge. In conjunction, we begin to examine additional integrated benefits of reducing runoff to near-shore resources by relating upland conservation to reef quality using monitoring data from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program. Kaiser and Roumasset (2002). "Valuation of Nature's Intermediate products: The Ko`olau Forest's Contribution to the Pearl Harbor Aquifer," Environment and Development Economics 7(4): 701-714.

  20. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-11-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been recognized as one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" from 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful, because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings on a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water yield increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation on both spatial scales. The impact magnitude caused by forest harvesting indicates that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yield in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of evapotranspiration (ET), with the lowest in old-growth natural coniferous forests (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils.) and the highest in coniferous plantations (e.g. Picea asperata Mast.) among major forest types in the study watershed. This suggests that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yield. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double the pressure on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. The findings can support designing management strategies for protection of watershed ecological functions in the context of future land cover and climate changes.

  1. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    X. Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been recognized as one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" from 2002 to 2008. This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful, because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level can help interpret the findings on a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water yield increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation on both spatial scales. The impact magnitude caused by forest harvesting indicates that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yield in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of evapotranspiration (ET, with the lowest in old-growth natural coniferous forests (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils. and the highest in coniferous plantations (e.g. Picea asperata Mast. among major forest types in the study watershed. This suggests that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yield. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double the pressure on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. The findings can support designing management strategies for protection of watershed ecological functions in the context of future land cover and climate changes.

  2. Comparing the monitoring and evaluation systems of watershed management related development projects in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Kainulainen, Aino

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource degradation is both a cause and a result of poverty in Ethiopia. Therefore it is important to include watershed management into efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity in the country. In order to see if different interventions are effective in restoring the degraded environment, it is important to have a functioning monitoring and evaluation system that includes natural resource degradation and other environmental factors. This study compares the monitoring and eval...

  3. Best Management Practices for sediment control in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion can lead to severe destruction of agricultural sustainability that affects not only productivity, but the entire ecosystem in the neighboring areas. Sediments transported together with the associated nutrients and chemicals can significantly impact downstream water bodies. Various conservation and management practices implemented individually or integrated together as a system can be used to reduce the negative impacts on agricultural watersheds from soil erosion. Hydrological models are useful tools for decision makers when selecting the most effective combination of management practices to reduce pollutant loads within a watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading management model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of diverse management and conservation practices that can control or reduce the impact of soil erosion processes and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A 506 km2 Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) located in Apulia, Southern Italy was used as a case study to evaluate the model and best management practices (BMPs) for sediment load control. A monitoring station located at the Ordona bridge has been instrumented to continuously monitor stream flow and suspended sediment loads. The station has been equipped with an ultrasound stage meter and a stage recorder to monitor stream flow. An infrared optic probe was used to measure suspended sediment concentrations (Gentile et al., 2010 ). The model was calibrated and validated in the Carapelle watershed on an event basis (Bisantino et al., 2013), and the validated model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment reduction. Various management practices were investigated including evaluating the impact on sediment load of: (1) converting all cropland areas into forest and grass covered conditions; (2) converting the highest eroding cropland areas to forest or grass covered conditions; and (3) utilizing a crop rotation of wheat and forage crops (Abdelwahab et al., 2014). Further evaluations include scenarios with additional improvements in the input data, in particular better reflecting the management operations within model input parameters used to represent the current conditions applied in the watershed, and the study of the efficiency of the model in predicting runoff and sediment loads at a monthly and annual scale using un-calibrated parameters. The effect of riparian buffers as a natural trap that reduce runoff and increase the in-situ sediment deposition are also investigated. Acknowledgements This work is carried out in the framework of the Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, "National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area" National Coordinator prof. Mario Lenzi (University of Padova). References Gentile F., Bisantino T., Corbino R., Milillo F., Romano G., Trisorio Liuzzi G. (2010) Monitoring and analysis of suspended sediment transport dynamics in the Carapelle torrent (southern Italy). Catena 80, 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.08.004. Bisantino T., Bingner R., Chouaib W., Gentile F., Trisorio Liuzzi G. (2013) Estimation of runoff, peak discharge and sediment load at the event scale in a medium-size Mediterranean watershed using the AnnAGNPS model. Land Degradation & Development, wileyonlinelibrary.com, doi: 10.1002/ldr.2213. Abdelwahab O.M.M., Bingner R.L., Milillo F., Gentile F. (2014) Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, vol. XLV:430, 125-136, doi: 10.4081/jae.2014.430.

  4. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

  5. Public participation in watershed management: International practices for inclusiveness

    Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)

    This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.

  6. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    Cui, X; Liu, S; Wei, X.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan ...

  7. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China

    Cui, X; Liu, S; Wei, X.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-T...

  8. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Md. Ibrahim Adham; Sharif Moniruzzaman Shirazi; Faridah Othman; Noorul Hassan Zardari; Zulkifli Yusop; Zubaidah Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Res...

  9. Forest use strategies in watershed management and restoration: application to three small mountain watersheds in Latin America

    Juan ngel Mintegui Aguirre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of forests on flow and flood lamination decreases as the magnitude and intensity of torrential events and the watershed surface increase, thus resulting negligible when extreme events affect large catchments. However the effect of forests is advantageous in case of major events, which occur more often, and is particularly effective in soil erosion control. As a result, forests have been extensively used for watershed management and restoration, since they regulate water and sediments cycles, preventing the degradation of catchments.

  10. Community implementation dynamics: Nutrient management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds

    Glenn Earl Sterner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying levels of governance. This paper examines the role of local engagement and the interaction between governance levels on the outcomes of nutrient management policy, a specific area of natural resource conservation and management. Presented are two case studies of the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds in the US. These case studies touch upon the themes of local citizen engagement and governance stakeholder interaction in changing nutrient management to improve water quality. An analysis of these cases leads to several key considerations for the creation and implementation of nutrient management and natural resource management more broadly, including the importance of: local citizen engagement, government brokering and cost sharing; and the need of all stakeholders to respect each other in the policy creation and implementation process.

  11. From Eutrophic to Mesotrophic: Modelling Watershed Management Scenarios to Change the Trophic Status of a Reservoir

    Marcos Mateus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torro reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torro reservoir is located in the Tmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive, the Torro reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  12. HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT AND WILDLIFE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Dheeraj Kumar Mishra, Rathore SS and Devendra Pandey*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In India, man-animal conflict is seen across the country in a variety of forms, including monkey menace in the urban areas, crop raiding by ungulates and wild pigs, depredation by elephants and cattle & human killing by tigers and leopards. Damage to agricultural crops and property, killing of livestock and human beings are some of the worst forms of man-animal conflict. One of the main challenges in and around any reserve forest area is to avoid or at least to minimize the incidences of man-animal conflict. An attempt has been made to analyze one of the main reasons (acute shortage of water in forest areas behind such conflicts and suggest remedial measures to minimize this menace by adopting appropriate watershed management techniques.

  13. Ecologically Significant Monitoring Strategies for Watershed Managers and Applied Ecohydrologists

    Buchanan, B. P.; Walter, T.

    2007-12-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in Southern Oregon is home to a unique and increasingly rare strain of redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii). Populations connected to perennial lake systems such as the Upper Klamath have evolved adfluvial life histories and may possess unique adaptations that underscore their importance as units of conservation. Anthropogenic disturbance including stream channelization, timber harvest, livestock grazing and irrigation diversion have resulted in a 41 percent reduction in the redband's historic habitat and the disappearance of 11 redband trout populations throughout Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. In an effort to actively conserve this sensitive subspecies, a stream creation project was undertaken with the goal of increasing viable spawning and rearing habitat in Crooked Creek, a tributary to Upper Klamath Lake. A combination of analogue, empirical and analytical techniques were employed in the design of the created channel morphology (i.e. channel planform, profile, and cross-section), the sizing of bed substrate and spawning gravels and the design of in-stream habitat and scour structures. The project, completed in the fall of 1996, was qualitatively judged a success (e.g. trout were observed actively spawning and young-of-the-year were collected during unsystematic surveys). Unfortunately, as is often the case in the stream enhancement/restoration field, funding and personnel time were lacking for the implementation of a robust post-construction monitoring plan. Thus, project success was ascertained through cursory analyses and anecdotal reports. An opportunity to implement a similar stream creation project in a nearby watershed has afforded us the chance to return to the project site and conduct a more comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the project's success. A discussion of the original design methods and a review of several state of the art monitoring strategies are provided to assist watershed managers and applied ecohydrologists in their efforts to adaptively manage and restore the structure and function of dynamic stream systems.

  14. Using causal loop diagrams for the initialization of stakeholder engagement in soil salinity management in agricultural watersheds in developing countries: a case study in the Rechna Doab watershed, Pakistan.

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Halbe, Johannes; Prasher, Shiv

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last twenty years, participatory modeling has increasingly been advocated as an integral component of integrated, adaptive, and collaborative water resources management. However, issues of high cost, time, and expertise are significant hurdles to the widespread adoption of participatory modeling in many developing countries. In this study, a step-wise method to initialize the involvement of key stakeholders in the development of qualitative system dynamics models (i.e. causal loop diagrams) is presented. The proposed approach is designed to overcome the challenges of low expertise, time and financial resources that have hampered previous participatory modeling efforts in developing countries. The methodological framework was applied in a case study of soil salinity management in the Rechna Doab region of Pakistan, with a focus on the application of qualitative modeling through stakeholder-built causal loop diagrams to address soil salinity problems in the basin. Individual causal loop diagrams were developed by key stakeholder groups, following which an overall group causal loop diagram of the entire system was built based on the individual causal loop diagrams to form a holistic qualitative model of the whole system. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach, based on using causal loop diagrams in initiating stakeholder involvement in the participatory model building process. In addition, the results point to social-economic aspects of soil salinity that have not been considered by other modeling studies to date. PMID:25681287

  15. COST-EFFECTIVE ALLOCATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...

  16. Watershed Management and Public Health: An Exploration of the Intersection of Two Fields as Reported in the Literature from 2000 to 2010

    Bunch, Martin J.; Parkes, Margot; Zubrycki, Karla; Venema, Henry; Hallstrom, Lars; Neudorffer, Cynthia; Berbés-Blázquez, Marta; Morrison, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Watersheds are settings for health and well-being that have a great deal to offer the public health community due to the correspondence between the spatial form of the watershed unit and the importance to health and well-being of water. However, managing watersheds for human health and well-being requires the ability to move beyond typical reductionist approaches toward more holistic methods. Health and well-being are emergent properties of inter-related social and biophysical processes. This paper characterizes points of connection and integration between watershed management and public health and tests a new conceptual model, the Watershed Governance Prism, to determine the prevalence in peer-reviewed literature of different perspectives relating to watersheds and public health. We conducted an initial search of academic databases for papers that addressed the interface between watershed management (or governance) and public health themes. We then generated a sample of these papers and undertook a collaborative analysis informed by the Watershed Governance Prism. Our analysis found that although these manuscripts dealt with a range of biophysical and social determinants of health, there was a tendency for social factors and health outcomes to be framed as context only for these studies, rather than form the core of the relationships being investigated. At least one cluster of papers emerged from this analysis that represented a cohesive perspective on watershed governance and health; "Perspective B" on the Watershed Governance Prism, "water governance for ecosystems and well-being," was dominant. Overall, the integration of watershed management/governance and public health is in its infancy.

  17. Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation

    A. M. Sène

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

  18. Adaptation Technology: Benefits of Hydrological Services—Watershed Management in Semi-Arid Region of India

    Anupam Khajuria; Sayaka Yoshikawa; Shinjiro Kanae

    2014-01-01

    Watershed management consists of multifunctional activities to manage and address the increasing water resource problems. Ever increasing water demand and rapidly depleting water resources, it has become necessary to develop the adaptation options to recharge groundwater resources. A watershed is a special kind of Common Pool Resources (CPRs); an area is defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinating the use of natural resources by pu...

  19. Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management

    Dejian Zhang; Xingwei Chen; Huaxia Yao

    2015-01-01

    Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs) is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ), which is user friendly and supports q...

  20. RIVER AND WATERSHED PLANNING: THE SAN LUIS REY CASE STUDY

    The environmental management of our water resources requires the integration of science and politics, defining problems and solutions for physical resources within a social context. watershed planning is a term applied to the development of long-term strategies to reconcile a com...

  1. An integrated system dynamics model developed for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale.

    Liu, Hui; Benoit, Gaboury; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-05-15

    A reliable system simulation to relate socioeconomic development with water environment and to comprehensively represent a watershed's dynamic features is important. In this study, after identifying lake watershed system processes, we developed a system dynamics modeling framework for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale. Two reinforcing loops (Development and Investment Promotion) and three balancing loops (Pollution, Resource Consumption, and Pollution Control) were constituted. Based on this work, we constructed Stock and Flow Diagrams that embedded a pollutant load model and a lake water quality model into a socioeconomic system dynamics model. The Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China, which is the sixth largest and among the most severely polluted freshwater lakes in China, was employed as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Water quality parameters considered in the model included chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and three alternative management scenarios on spatial adjustment of industries and population (S1), wastewater treatment capacity construction (S2), and structural adjustment of agriculture (S3), were simulated to assess the effectiveness of certain policies in improving water quality. Results showed that S2 is most effective scenario, and the COD, TN, and TP concentrations in Caohai in 2030 are 52.5, 10.9, and 0.8mg/L, while those in Waihai are 9.6, 1.2, and 0.08mg/L, with sustained development in the watershed. Thus, the model can help support the decision making required in development and environmental protection strategies. PMID:25770958

  2. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity, quality and use of water resources could be evaluated and managed. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the research project "Hydromentor" funded by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the E.U. co-funded National Action "Cooperation".

  3. Evaluating watershed service availability under future management and climate change scenarios in the Pangani Basin

    Notter, Benedikt; Hurni, Hans; Wiesmann, Urs; Ngana, James O.

    Watershed services are the benefits people obtain from the flow of water through a watershed. While demand for such services is increasing in most parts of the world, supply is getting more insecure due to human impacts on ecosystems such as climate or land use change. Population and water management authorities therefore require information on the potential availability of watershed services in the future and the trade-offs involved. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model watershed service availability for future management and climate change scenarios in the East African Pangani Basin. In order to quantify actual “benefits”, SWAT2005 was slightly modified, calibrated and configured at the required spatial and temporal resolution so that simulated water resources and processes could be characterized based on their valuation by stakeholders and their accessibility. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate three management and three climate scenarios. The results show that by the year 2025, not primarily the physical availability of water, but access to water resources and efficiency of use represent the greatest challenges. Water to cover basic human needs is available at least 95% of time but must be made accessible to the population through investments in distribution infrastructure. Concerning the trade-off between agricultural use and hydropower production, there is virtually no potential for an increase in hydropower even if it is given priority. Agriculture will necessarily expand spatially as a result of population growth, and can even benefit from higher irrigation water availability per area unit, given improved irrigation efficiency and enforced regulation to ensure equitable distribution of available water. The decline in services from natural terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. charcoal, food), due to the expansion of agriculture, increases the vulnerability of residents who depend on such services mostly in times of drought. The expected impacts of climate change may contribute to an increase or decrease in watershed service availability, but are only marginal and much lower than management impacts up to the year 2025.

  4. GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments

    A. N. Rousseau

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

  5. GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management sample applications and current developments

    A. N. Rousseau

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudire River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i timber harvesting; (ii municipal clean water program; (iii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iv past land use evolution; (v possible future agricultural land use evolution under climate change, as well as (vi determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

  6. Field Scale Optimization for Long-Term Sustainability of Best Management Practices in Watersheds

    Samuels, A.; Babbar-Sebens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural and urban land use changes have led to disruption of natural hydrologic processes and impairment of streams and rivers. Multiple previous studies have evaluated Best Management Practices (BMPs) as means for restoring existing hydrologic conditions and reducing impairment of water resources. However, planning of these practices have relied on watershed scale hydrologic models for identifying locations and types of practices at scales much coarser than the actual field scale, where landowners have to plan, design and implement the practices. Field scale hydrologic modeling provides means for identifying relationships between BMP type, spatial location, and the interaction between BMPs at a finer farm/field scale that is usually more relevant to the decision maker (i.e. the landowner). This study focuses on development of a simulation-optimization approach for field-scale planning of BMPs in the School Branch stream system of Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana, USA. The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) tool is used as the field scale hydrologic model, and a multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to search for optimal alternatives. Multiple climate scenarios downscaled to the watershed-scale are used to test the long term performance of these alternatives and under extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness of these BMPs under multiple weather conditions are included within the simulation-optimization approach as a criteria/goal to assist landowners in identifying sustainable design of practices. The results from these scenarios will further enable efficient BMP planning for current and future usage.

  7. The magnitude of lost ecosystem structure and function in urban streams and the effectiveness of watershed-based management (Invited)

    Smucker, N. J.; Detenbeck, N. E.; Kuhn, A.

    2013-12-01

    Watershed development is a leading cause of stream impairment and increasingly threatens the availability, quality, and sustainability of freshwater resources. In a recent global meta-analysis, we found that measures of desirable ecological structure (e.g., algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities) and functions (e.g., metabolism, nutrient uptake, and denitrification) in streams with developed watersheds were only 23% and 34%, respectively, of those in minimally disturbed reference streams. As humans continue to alter watersheds in response to growing and migrating populations, characterizing ecological responses to watershed development and management practices is urgently needed to inform future development practices, decisions, and policy. In a study of streams in New England, we found that measures of macroinvertebrate and algal communities had threshold responses between 1-10% and 1-5% impervious cover, respectively. Macroinvertebrate communities had decreases in sensitive taxa and predators occurring from 1-3.5% and transitions in trophic and habitat guilds from 4-9% impervious cover. Sensitive algal taxa declined at 1%, followed by increases in tolerant taxa at 3%. Substantially altered algal communities persisted above 5% impervious cover and were dominated by motile taxa (sediment resistant) and those with high nutrient demands. Boosted regression tree analysis showed that sites with >65% and ideally >80% forest and wetland cover in near-stream buffers were associated with a 13-34% decrease in the effects of watershed impervious cover on algal communities. While this reduction is substantial, additional out-of-stream management efforts are needed to protect and restore stream ecosystems (e.g., created wetlands and stormwater ponds), but understanding their effectiveness is greatly limited by sparse ecological monitoring. Our meta-analysis found that restoration improved ecological structure and functions in streams by 48% and 14%, respectively, when compared to streams with developed watersheds and no management practices in place. However, ecosystem measures at restored sites were still only 53% of those in minimally disturbed reference streams. Some of our ongoing work further examines how watershed development and riparian condition affect stream ecosystem functions by altering the sources and delivery of nutrients and carbon. Our results can help inform management priorities and expectations, and they emphasize the importance of implementing mindful development and protective actions in a watershed context, especially in watersheds near impervious cover thresholds. Continued research on linked terrestrial-aquatic systems, improved BMP tracking, and ongoing monitoring will be essential to conserving and restoring the mechanisms that sustain valued ecological attributes and ecosystem services of streams.

  8. Realities of a Watershed Management Approach in the Philippines: A Framework for Case Analysis

    Contreras, Antonio P.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness and capacity by which society manages its watershed resources is mediated by different factors, namely: economic considerations?financial capital; technical and administrative capacity?intellectual capital; social governance capacity?social and institutional capital; and legal framework?political capital. The levels within which these factors can be analyzed include the macro-level, that is, the national level; and the micro-level that operates at watershed management unit. ...

  9. Effect of climate and land cover changes on watershed runoff: A multivariate assessment for storm water management

    Ekness, Paul; Randhir, Timothy O.

    2015-09-01

    Impact of climate change and land use on watershed runoff involves multiattribute ecohydrologic interactions. This information is critical to development of comprehensive storm water management policies. Watersheds in the continental United States have diverse temperatures and precipitation regimes and varying hydrogeomorphic features that influence runoff. This study investigates watershed-scale runoff using statistical modeling for storm water policy optimization. Multivariate statistical modeling show that vegetative activity, annual evaporation, precipitation, temperature, and soil moisture significantly influenced watershed runoff. Soil moisture has a strong influence on runoff with each percent increase causing 5% increase in runoff. Nonlinear modeling with quadratic and interaction effects shows a significant interaction between soil moisture and other climatic variables in influencing annual runoff patterns. Changes in climate affect ecohydrologic characters by altering available soil moisture, evaporation, precipitation patterns, and runoff. Optimization of green infrastructure design can be a successful management tool for runoff with an understanding that changes to multiple attributes in ecohydrologic variables affect runoff. Multi-attribute-based green infrastructure and incentive policies can result in comprehensive storm water policies that incorporate climatic and ecohydrologic conditions of watershed systems.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CALIBRATION METHODS OF NASHS RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL TO AMMAMEH WATERSHED, IRAN

    Vahid Nourani

    2008-01-01

    Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliab...

  11. Development of a Coupled Land Surface and Ground Water Model for use in Watershed Management

    Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, N. L.

    2003-12-01

    Management of surface water quality is often complicated by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Traditional Land-Surface Models (LSM) used for numerical weather prediction, climate projection, and as inputs to water management decision support systems, do not treat the lower boundary in a fully process-based fashion. LSMs have evolved from a leaky bucket to more sophisticated land surface water and energy budgets that typically have a so-called basement term to depict the bottom model layer exchange with deeper aquifers. Nevertheless, the LSM lower boundary is often assumed zero flux or the soil moisture content is set to a constant value; an approach that while mass conservative, ignores processes that can alter surface fluxes, runoff, and water quantity and quality. Conversely, models for saturated and unsaturated water flow, while addressing important features such as subsurface heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow, often have overly simplified upper boundary conditions that ignore soil heating, runoff, snow and root-zone uptake. In the present study, a state-of-the-art LSM (CLM2.0) and a variably-saturated groundwater model (ParFlow) have been coupled as a single column model. An initial set of simulations based on data from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) and synthetic data demonstrate the temporal dynamics of both of the coupled models. Changes in soil moisture and movement of the water table are used as indicators of conservation of mass between the two models. Sensitivity studies demonstrate the affect of precipitation, evapotransporation, radiation, subsurface geology and heterogeneity on predicted watershed flow. The coupled model will ultimately be used to assist in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs - a surface water quality standard) for a number of pollutants in an urban watershed in Southern California in the United States. Sensitivity studies demonstrating the effects of watershed flow in uncoupled and coupled modes will be presented.

  12. Integrated watershed management through consortium approach: team building for watershed consortium

    Sreenath Dixit; SP Wani

    2006-01-01

    DFID-funded Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) is currently supported by a consortium of several research and development institutions led by ICRISAT. This is one of the first systematic attempts of convergence of various agencies at watershed level. To develop a common vision of the goals of the project it is important that the partners of the consortium deliberate and discuss with each other and come to know of each other's strengths and limitations. A series of team buildin...

  13. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

  14. The Watershed and River Systems Management Program: Decision Support for Water- and Environmental-Resource Management

    Leavesley, G.; Markstrom, S.; Frevert, D.; Fulp, T.; Zagona, E.; Viger, R.

    2004-12-01

    Increasing demands for limited fresh-water supplies, and increasing complexity of water-management issues, present the water-resource manager with the difficult task of achieving an equitable balance of water allocation among a diverse group of water users. The Watershed and River System Management Program (WARSMP) is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) to develop and deploy a database-centered, decision-support system (DSS) to address these multi-objective, resource-management problems. The decision-support system couples the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS) with the BOR RiverWare tools using a shared relational database. MMS is an integrated system of computer software that provides a research and operational framework to support the development and integration of a wide variety of hydrologic and ecosystem models, and their application to water- and ecosystem-resource management. RiverWare is an object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework developed to provide tools for evaluating and applying water-allocation and management strategies. The modeling capabilities of MMS and Riverware include simulating watershed runoff, reservoir inflows, and the impacts of resource-management decisions on municipal, agricultural, and industrial water users, environmental concerns, power generation, and recreational interests. Forecasts of future climatic conditions are a key component in the application of MMS models to resource-management decisions. Forecast methods applied in MMS include a modified version of the National Weather Service's Extended Streamflow Prediction Program (ESP) and statistical downscaling from atmospheric models. The WARSMP DSS is currently operational in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado; Yakima River Basin, Washington; Rio Grande Basin in Colorado and New Mexico; and Truckee River Basin in California and Nevada.

  15. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  16. Potential Hydrological Responses, and Carbon and Nitrogen Pools of a Two Distinct Watersheds to Rainfall and Brush Management

    Ray, R. L.; Fares, A.; Awal, R.; Johnson, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Investigating the effects of brush management on hydrologic fluxes, in the parts of the Texas where brush is a dominant component of the landscape is essential for the State of Texas's water management strategy and planning. The main goal of this study is to test the performance of brush management as an effective approach for protecting soil quality (carbon and nitrogen pools), and water resources management and planning. Specifically, this work reports on the potential i) hydrological response and ii) carbon and nitrogen pools of two watersheds, one in Colorado River Basin (arid) and the second one in Neches River Basin (humid), to brush management (uniform thinning vs. clear cutting) simulated using Regional Hydro-ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) model and site specific input data. The selected watersheds have similar potential evapotranspiration level, but their average elevations are 600 m and 250 m for the arid and humid watersheds, respectively. Results are showing that light thinning alone may not be enough to significantly impact water yield and soil quality. They further indicate that the streamflow response to brush reduction is a non-linear positive response.

  17. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2003-01-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  18. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    N/A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  19. The participation of public institutions and private sector stakeholders to Devrekani Watershed management planning process

    Sevgi Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.

  20. China Watershed Management Project : Development of a Monitoring and Evaluation System, Final Report

    World Bank, (WB)

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this assignment was to develop a Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system for watershed management in the Loess Plateau area. The M&E system for the China Watershed Management Project (CWMP) has been developed on the base of the M&E system that has been implemented during the previous two phases of the World Bank Loess Plateau Project. The final report presents the main outcomes of this process. The major findings of the M&E systems review are summarized in the following chapte...

  1. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin

    Cui, X; Liu, S; Wei, X.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Pla...

  2. Oued Zeroud watershed management and Sidi Saad Dam protection

    The Government of Tunisia has decided to construct the Qued Zeroud Dam to protect Kairouan from flooding, to irrigate 4,080 ha, and to maintain the groundwater supply. To prevent silting of the dam 100,000 ha of the Qued Zeroud watershed will undergo a conservation programme. Terraces, waterways and drop structures will be constructed and forage and tree plantations will be developed using Atriplex and cactus. Cultural and grazing practices will be controlled. (author)

  3. Joint Application of Watershed Modeling Tools to Support the Management of Nutrient Loading to Chesapeake Bay

    Preston, S. D.; Brakebill, J. W.; Shenk, G. W.

    2001-12-01

    Two watershed modeling tools are currently being applied in the Chesapeake Bay watershed to support the management of nutrient loading to tidal waters. SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed by the United States Geological Survey to relate sources of nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) to stream loads throughout the 164,000 km2 watershed. In a separate effort, the Chesapeake Bay Program has developed a watershed model using the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) modeling framework. These two modeling approaches are quite different in structure. The SPARROW models are statistically based and are spatially explicit. In contrast, the HSPF model is deterministic and is temporally explicit. Both modeling efforts provide information about nutrient loading in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and their combined use is now being explored. SPARROW and HSPF provide different perspectives on nutrient loading that may be used as complementary information to support management decisions. SPARROW models provide a framework for utilizing data that are available in greater spatial detail than can be utilized by current versions of HSPF. SPARROW models also provide empirical information on those sources or watershed characteristics that best explain the spatial variation in nutrient loading. The HSPF model includes components that account for management actions and can be used to evaluate potential land-use or nutrient-management scenarios. Preliminary comparisons indicate that the models provide similar predictions of total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads and yields, particularly for drainage basins larger than 2,000 km2. Nutrient budgets for the two types of models also are similar, although there are some differences in the percentage of the budgets attributed to certain sources. The Chesapeake Bay Program is now evaluating the two modeling approaches for joint use in an allocation and targeting process that is being developed to guide nutrient management actions designed to achieve new tidal water-quality criteria. Nutrient-load allocations are being established for watersheds and jurisdictions through mass-balance principles using the HSPF model. The SPARROW models offer supplementary information that enhances the spatial scale of the targeting process. HSPF model units are approximately 2,000 km2 on average. SPARROW model units average approximately 120 km2 and nest within most HSPF model units, so that they can provide supplementary information on source locations and nutrient budgets for smaller streams.

  4. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin

    Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.

    2012-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of 3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural coniferous (Abies) forests being the lowest and the coniferous plantations (e.g. Spruce) being the highest among major forest types in the study watershed, suggesting that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yields. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double pressures on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. Implications of the findings are also discussed in the context of future land cover and climate changes.

  5. Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reach of Yangtze River Basin

    X. Cui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of $3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008. This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural coniferous (Abies forests being the lowest and the coniferous plantations (e.g. Spruce being the highest among major forest types in the study watershed, suggesting that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yields. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double pressures on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. Implications of the findings are also discussed in the context of future land cover and climate changes.

  6. WMOST: A tool for assessing cost-benefits of watershed management decisions affecting coastal resilience

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST v.1) was released by the US Environmental Protection Agency in December 2013 (http://www2.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/wmost-10-download-page). The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-domain screening tool th...

  7. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...

  8. Simulated Soil Water Content Effects On Plant Nitrogen Uptake and Export for Watershed Management

    In watershed nutrient management for water quality assessment, it is important to understand the critical pathways of nutrient cycles and nutrient transport processes from lands to the receiving water bodies. Soil moisture content influences plant nitrogen uptake significantly. This paper discussed...

  9. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

  10. Demarcation of Drainage Network for Watershed Management of Sangamner Tahsil Using Topographical and GIS Data: A Case Study of Sangamner Tahsil of Ahemadnagar District

    Ms Deshmukh Pragati P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is significant geographical resource, which need to micro level planning for the conservation. It is the fundamental need of all biotic community which is depending on the precipitation sources directly and River, lake, tank water sources circuitously. There is sensitive issue regarding water managements because of its need and availability. So the, variety of research techniques applied for the sustainable development of water resource. In most of region very less rainfall incidence, where need to conservation of water by the appropriate techniques for sustainable development. From the ancient time humans are using variety of techniques for preservation of water, which is now a day becomes a time consuming, resources wastage and less correctness. This traditional techniques replaced by advance GIS and RS techniques where obtain the precise accuracy, digital quality, fewer recourses.

  11. Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin

    Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

  12. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision and biodiversity conservation value were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation. The current delivery of hydrological services in the Vez watershed is higher at the high and low mountain sub-basins, with lower provision in the valley. The overall performance for water quantity and timing is better under the shrubland and the oak scenarios, when compared to the eucalyptus/pine scenario, which performs better for flood regulation and erosion control, especially in the low mountain sub-basin. However, this scenario is the one with more spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value, especially inside protected areas. Several strategies may be suggested for effective land use planning in the Vez watershed. Eucalyptus/pine is the scenario with the best results for flood regulation and soil erosion control, associated to the positive revenues from the pulp production industry. However, cautions should be taken regarding strategies for biodiversity conservation (preferably by favoring native oak species), as well as the potential increase in fire risk. This study highlights SWAT as an effective tool for modelling and mapping hydrological services generated at the watershed scale, therefore contributing to improve the options for land management.

  13. Turning conflict into collaboration in managing commons: A case of Rupa Lake Watershed, Nepal

    Pashupati Chaudhary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature on the commons has provided fascinating and intricate insights on how some local institutions have successfully managed to avoid a seemingly inevitable “tragedy of the commons” once popularized by Garrett Hardin. Primarily benefitting from the recent studies on the commonpool resources conducted by Elinor Ostrom and colleagues, polycentric selforganization and autonomy, rather than the direct state or market control over the commons, are often recognized as key features of the long enduring commons.However, these commons are quite diverse and the outcomes are often multiple and complex, accentuating the needs to differentiate among multiple commons outcomes. Furthermore, relatively under-reported are the cases where the degradation of common-pool resources are actually halted, and even restored. This study examines both the turbulent history of fishery mismanagement in Rupa Lake, Nepal and its reversal built around the participation, engagement and inclusiveness in the governance of its watershed. We find that Rupa Lake’s experience tells two stories. Reflecting Hardin’s dire forecast, the Rupa Lake watershed verged on collapse as population grew and seemingly selfish behaviorintensified under an open-access regime. But the users also found a way to rebound and reverse their course as they adopted a bottom-up approach to fishery management and established an innovative community institution, the ‘Rupa Lake Rehabilitation and Fishery Cooperative’, dedicated to the sustainable governance of the commons. This case highlights how one community at the threshold of ‘tragedy’ transformed itself by turning conflict into collaboration, which we hope contributes to the effort of better understanding multiple commons.

  14. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time series than should be about one century. The cores' analysis results show a succession of sedimentary layers that likely correspond to different flood deposits that succeeded on this site, and especially the datation of the cores shows that the selected area is a very important deposition area. This sedimentary study will help estimate the sediment dynamics to major estuaries, which is poorly known for most of the rivers of Maghreb. The reduction of the sediment supply to the sea is tipped as a major factor to be taken into account for a better understanding of the dynamics of coastal areas in the context of global climate change and sea level rise. Keywords: sediment core, Medjerda watershed, dam, hydrology, modeling, Tunisia

  15. Hydrologic-Hydraulic Modeling of Fluvial Sediment Transport During a Storm Event in a Highly Managed Watershed

    Bressan, F.; Mantilla, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement along the main stem of a watershed is strongly affected by the sediment supply and the channel morphology. Anthropogenic interventions tend to alter the hydraulic conveyance and consequently modify the sediment regime of the main stem. This connection between channel hydraulics and sediment transport is often overlooked in hydrologic models where simplified methods are used for flow and sediment routing. In this study, we adopt a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling approach to quantify the fluvial sediment transport along the main stem of a watershed during a storm event. The hydrologic model CUENCAS is implemented to estimate the sub-hourly hydrographs of the major tributaries of the watershed. The simulated hydrographs are used as boundary conditions for the depth-averaged two-dimensional hydraulic model FESMWS to simulate the propagation of the flood wave along the main stem. The corresponding sub-hourly, unsteady non-equilibrium sediment transport along the main stem is also simulated with FESWMS. This procedure is applied to a highly managed agricultural watershed of Iowa. The study site has a catchment area of 70 Km2 with soils that are silty clay loams. The land-use is mostly row crop, but in the past decade a large portion of the watershed was converted to native prairie. The main stem is a meandering stream with a length of 15 Km and ten major tributaries contribute to its flow. Several sections of the main stem have been heavily channelized and straightened since the 1930s. Different grain size distributions and sediment boundary conditions are investigated to discern the effects of land-use changes and channelization on the sediment regime along the main stem. The simulations are able to capture the typical hysteresis between flow and sediment transport. The results indicate that the in-stream sediment transport rate is in general higher in the channelized sections and depends, to a certain extent, on the degree of straightening.

  16. Micropollutants in urban watersheds : substance flow analysis as management tool

    Rossi, L.; Copin, P. J.; Barry, A. D.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Chèvre, N.

    2009-04-01

    Micropollutants released by cities into water are of increasing concern as they are suspected of inducing long-term effects on both aquatic organisms and humans (eg., hormonally active substances). Substances found in the urban water cycle have different sources in the urban area and different fates in this cycle. For example, the pollutants emitted from traffic, like copper or PAHs get to surface water during rain events often without any treatment. Pharmaceuticals resulting from human medical treatments get to surface water mainly through wastewater treatment plants, where they are only partly treated and eliminated. One other source of contamination in urban areas for these compounds are combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Once in the receiving waters (lakes, rivers, groundwater), these substances may re-enter the cycle through drinking water. It is therefore crucial to study the behaviour of micropollutants in the urban water cycle and to get flexible tools for urban water management. Substance flow analysis (SFA) has recently been proposed as instrument for water pollution management in urban water systems. This kind of analysis is an extension of material flow analysis (MFA) originally developed in the economic sector and later adapted to regional investigations. In this study, we propose to test the application of SFA for a large number of classes of micropollutants to evaluate its use for urban water management. We chose the city of Lausanne as case study since the receiving water of this city (Lake Geneva) is an important source of drinking water for the surrounding population. Moreover a profound system-knowledge and many data were available, both on the sewer system and the water quality. We focus our study on one heavy metal (copper) and four pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, carbamazepine and naproxen). Results conducted on copper reveals that around 1500 kg of copper enter the aquatic compartment yearly. This amount contributes to sediment enrichment, which may pose a long-term risk for the benthic organisms. The major sources (total of 73%) of copper in receiving surface water are roofs and contact lines of trolleybuses. Thus technical solutions have to be found to manage this specific source of contamination. Application of SFA approach to four pharmaceuticals reveals that CSOs represent an important source of contamination: Between 14% (carbamazepine) and 61% (ibuprofen) of the total annual loads of Lausanne city to the Lake are due to CSOs. These results will help in defining the best management strategy to limit Lake Geneva contamination. SFA is thus a promising tool for integrated urban water management.

  17. Data Management Solutions for Tracking Restoration Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Ravi, S. R.; Johnston, M.; Sweeney, J.

    2014-12-01

    The decline of the Chesapeake Bay estuarine ecosystem due to agricultural and industrial activities has been a great concern, where excess of dissolved nutrients combined with global climate change has lead to increased storm surges, habitat destruction, and low dissolved oxygen, reduced water clarity, and increased algal growth. In 2010 The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), which seeks to protect the Bay's living resources by reducing nutrient and sediment runoff to its waters, and sets pollution reduction targets for sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus across 64000 sq. miles watershed that includes parts of six states - Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia and the entire District of Columbia. The Chesapeake Bay Program and the US EPA have developed a number of tools to track the progress of restoration. In this study we describe data management solutions, which were used in the integration of data such as land use, nutrient applications, management practices, policies among the bay jurisdictions, and a summary of a suite of tools that were developed and are being used to collect, process, and report data at various spatial scales for tracking the progress made by the seven Bay jurisdictions in achieving reductions in nutrient and sediment runoff. The described integration strategy and data management solutions can be used in the development and application of similar regulatory local or regional scale environmental management tools.

  18. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  19. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  20. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  1. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation.

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide. PMID:26645078

  2. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  3. Scaling and management of fecal indicator bacteria in runoff from a coastal urban watershed in southern California.

    Reeves, Ryan L; Grant, Stanley B; Mrse, Robert D; Copil Oancea, Carmen M; Sanders, Brett F; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a series of field studies aimed at identifying the spatial distribution and flow forcing of fecal indicator bacteria in dry and wet weather runoff from the Talbert watershed, a highly urbanized coastal watershed in southern California. Runoff from this watershed drains through tidal channels to a popular public beach, Huntington State Beach, which has experienced chronic surf zone water quality problems over the past several years. During dry weather, concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria are highest in inland urban runoff, intermediate in tidal channels harboring variable mixtures of urban runoff and ocean water, and lowest in ocean water at the base of the watershed. This inland-to-coastal gradient is consistent with the hypothesis that urban runoff from the watershed contributes to coastal pollution. On a year round basis, the vast majority (>99%) of fecal indicator bacteria loading occurs during storm events when runoff diversions, the management approach of choice, are not operating. During storms, the load of fecal indicator bacteria in runoff follows a power law of the form L approximately Qn, where L is the loading rate (in units of fecal indicator bacteria per time), Q is the volumetric flow rate (in units of volume per time), and the exponent n ranges from 1 to 1.5. This power law and the observed range of exponent values are consistent with the predictions of a mathematical model that assumes fecal indicator bacteria in storm runoff originate from the erosion of contaminated sediments in drainage channels or storm sewers. The theoretical analysis, which is based on a conventional model for the shear-induced erosion of particles from land and channel-bed surfaces, predicts that the magnitude of the exponent n reflects the geometry of the stormwater conveyance system from which the pollution derives. This raises the possibility that the scaling properties of pollutants in stormwater runoff (i.e., the value of n) may harbor information about the origin of nonpoint source pollution. PMID:15180060

  4. Chlorothalonil and 2,4-D losses in surface water discharge from a managed turf watershed.

    King, K W; Balogh, J C

    2010-08-01

    Managed turf sites (golf courses) are the most intensively managed landscapes in the urban environment. Yet, long-term watershed scale studies documenting the environmental transport of agrichemicals applied to these systems are rare. The objective of this study was to quantify the surface discharge losses of two commonly applied pesticides (chlorothalonil and 2,4-D) resulting from prevailing practices on a managed golf course. Inflow and outflow discharge waters on a subarea of Northland Country Club located in Duluth, MN were measured for both quantity and quality from April through November from 2003 to 2008. The median chlorothalonil outflow concentration (0.58 microg L(-1)) was significantly greater (p acute toxicity levels (7.6 microg L(-1)) reported for rainbow trout. No 2,4-D concentrations exceeded any human or aquatic species published toxicity level; however, the maximum measured 2,4-D concentration (67.1 microg L(-1)), which rarely occurred, did approach the 70 microg L(-1) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for that compound. Losses of both pesticides were detectable throughout the annual sampling period. Mean annual chlorothalonil loading was 10.5 g ha(-1) or 0.3% of applied, while mean annual 2,4-D loading was 4.9 g ha(-1) or 0.5% of applied. The findings of this study provide quantifiable evidence of agrichemical transport resulting from typical turfgrass management and highlight the need for implementation of best management practices to combat the offsite transport of agrichemicals used in professional turf management. PMID:20526481

  5. MANAGING RISKS USING MEASUREMENTS OF STREAM COMMUNITY METABOLISM, NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT DYNAMICS AND GEOMORPHOLOGY IN THE LMR WATERSHED

    The goal of this project, and associated research, is to establish thresholds for ecological response to watershed disturbance and to develop tools and insights that will help us manage risks. Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can result in increased ris...

  6. A conjoint analysis of landholder preferences for reward-based land-management contracts in Kapingazi watershed, Eastern Mount Kenya.

    Balana, Bedru Babulo; Yatich, Thomas; Mkel, Miika

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable land-use decisions and agricultural practices have become the key drivers of deteriorating watershed services in developing countries. However, landholders may have little or no incentives to take these impacts into account in their decision-making process. In recent years, reward-based provision of environmental services has emerged as an important market-based incentive for motivating landholders to adopt environmentally friendly land-use changes and agricultural practices. In this regard, for instance, the Pro-Poor Rewards for Environmental Services in Africa (PRESA) project has emerged as a large network to support and facilitate reward mechanisms in Africa. However, in many African rural settings, little is known about landholder attitudes and preferences related to the alternative land-management schemes. Using locally identified sets of six key land-management attributes, this paper applies conjoint methods to evaluate landholder preferences towards alternative land-management schemes aimed at enhancing the provision of watershed services in the River Kapingazi catchment in central Kenya. Data were collected from primary sources through focus groups and a questionnaire based conjoint survey. Three conjoint models were used; a traditional conjoint ratings model, a binary logit model, and an ordered logit model. Results from the focus groups indicated that shortage of water for both domestic use and irrigation was perceived as the most acute environmental problem in the area. Deforestation, poor river bank management and agricultural practices were identified as the major causes of the problem. Results from conjoint models show that the three principal attributes influencing landholder's ratings and probability of adopting the proposed land management options were 'size of land area to be committed', 'length of contract period', and 'granting or prohibiting rights to harvest environmental products from the committed land'. Thus, these attributes should be the focal points in designing land-management contract for watershed services in the study area. PMID:21700382

  7. Winning the Water Wars: Toward a Watershed-based Approach to Watershed Resources Management: A Policy Agenda for Local Government Units

    Contreras, Antonio P.

    2004-01-01

    The following are offered as guiding principles in the involvement of LGUs in water resources management. ? For LGUs to adopt an integrated, holistic approach in addressing the inherently interrelated issues of water supply planning and operation, demand management, pollution control, and watershed and ground water protection. ? For LGUs to manage water not only as a social good but also more importantly as an economic good. As such, water becomes a commodity that is assessed for its scarcity...

  8. Winning the Water Wars: Toward a Watershed-based Approach to Watershed Resources Management: A Policy Agenda for Local Government Units

    Contreras, Antonio P.

    2004-01-01

    The following are offered as guiding principles in the involvement of LGUs in water resources management. • For LGUs to adopt an integrated, holistic approach in addressing the inherently interrelated issues of water supply planning and operation, demand management, pollution control, and watershed and ground water protection. • For LGUs to manage water not only as a social good but also more importantly as an economic good. As such, water becomes a commodity that is assessed for its scarcity...

  9. Small watershed management as a tool of flood risk prevention

    Jakubinsky, J.; Bacova, R.; Svobodova, E.; Kubicek, P.; Herber, V.

    2014-09-01

    According to the International Disaster Database (CRED 2009) frequency of extreme hydrological situations on a global scale is constantly increasing. The most typical example of a natural risk in Europe is flood - there is a decrease in the number of victims, but a significant increase in economic damage. A decrease in the number of victims is caused by the application of current hydrological management that focuses its attention primarily on large rivers and elimination of the damages caused by major flood situations. The growing economic losses, however, are a manifestation of the increasing intensity of floods on small watercourses, which are usually not sufficiently taken into account by the management approaches. The research of small streams should focus both on the study of the watercourse itself, especially its ecomorphological properties, and in particular on the possibility of flood control measures and their effectiveness. An important part of society's access to sustainable development is also the evolution of knowledge about the river landscape area, which is perceived as a significant component of global environmental security and resilience, thanks to its high compensatory potential for mitigation of environmental change. The findings discussed under this contribution are based on data obtained during implementation of the project "GeoRISK" (Geo-analysis of landscape level degradation and natural risks formation), which takes into account the above approaches applied in different case studies - catchments of small streams in different parts of the Czech Republic. Our findings offer an opportunity for practical application of field research knowledge in decision making processes within the national level of current water management.

  10. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CALIBRATION METHODS OF NASHS RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL TO AMMAMEH WATERSHED, IRAN

    Vahid Nourani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nashs model parameters.

  12. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    Yang, G.; Best, E. P.; Goodwin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants to receiving water bodies and enhance local and regional ecosystem services. Barriers for the implementation of CRAM include uncertainties related to the extent to which nutrients are removed by CRAM at various spatial and temporal scales, longevity, optimal placement of CRAM within the landscape, and implementation / operation / maintenance costs. We conducted a study aimed at the identification of optimal placement of CRAM in watersheds that reduces N loading to an environmentally sustainable level, at an acceptable, known, cost. For this study, we used a recently developed screening-level modeling approach, WQM-TMDL-N, running in the ArcGIS environment, to estimate nitrogen loading under current land use conditions (NLCD 2006). This model was equipped with a new option to explore the performances of placement of various CRAM types and areas to reduce nitrogen loading to a State-accepted Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) standard, with related annual average TN concentration, and a multi-objective algorithm optimizing load and cost. CRAM practices explored for implementation in rural area included buffer strips, nutrient management practices, and wetland restoration. We initially applied this modeling approach to the Tippecanoe River (TR) watershed (8-digit HUC), a headwater of the Wabash River (WR) watershed, where CRAM implementation in rural and urban areas is being planned and implemented at various spatial scales. Consequences of future land use are explored using a 2050 land use/land cover map forecasted by the Land Transformation Model. The WR watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state's 92 counties and supports predominantly agricultural land use. Because the WR accounts for over 40% of the nutrient loads of the Ohio River and significantly contributes to the anoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), reduction in TN loading of the WR are expected to directly benefit downstream ecosystem services, including fisheries in the GOM. This modeling approach can be used in support of sustainable integrated watershed management planning.

  13. Legacy Phosphorus in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Restoration and Management of Wetlands and Aquatic Systems

    Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.

  14. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections essential for sound land use planning.

  15. A decentralized optimization algorithm for multiagent system-based watershed management

    Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Cai, Ximing; Stipanović, DušAn M.

    2009-08-01

    A watershed can be simulated as a multiagent system (MAS) composed of spatially distributed land and water users (agents) within a common defined environment. The watershed system is characterized by distributed decision processes at the agent level with a coordination mechanism organizing the interactions among individual decision processes at the system level. This paper presents a decentralized (distributed) optimization method known as constraint-based reasoning, which allows individual agents in an MAS to optimize their behaviors over various alternatives. The method incorporates the optimization of all agents' objectives through an interaction scheme, in which the ith agent optimizes its objective with a selected priority for collaboration and forwards the solution and consequences to all agents that interact with it. Agents are allowed to determine how important their own objectives are in comparison with the constraints, using a local interest factor (βi). A large βi value indicates a selfish agent who puts high priority on its own benefit and ignores collaboration requirements. This bottom-up problem-solving approach mimics real-world watershed management problems better than conventional "top-down" optimization methods in which it is assumed that individual agents will completely comply with any recommendations that the coordinator makes. The method is applied to a steady state hypothetical watershed with three off-stream human agents, one in-stream human agent (reservoir), and two ecological agents.

  16. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

    Xinyi Xu; Lingling Bin; Chengzhong Pan; Aizhong Ding; Desheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and env...

  17. Fostering Incentive-Based Policies and Partnerships for Integrated Watershed Management in the Southeast Asian Uplands

    Andreas Neef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to identify the major factors associated with some of the failures and successes of integrated watershed management policies and projects with a particular emphasis on the uplands of mainland Southeast Asia. It argues that many policy measures have been misguided by failing to acknowledge the multi-dimensional facets of sustainable watershed management and putting too much emphasis on command-and-control approaches to resource management and one-size-fits-all conservation models. Attempts to introduce soil and water conservation measures, for instance, have largely failed because they concentrated merely on the technical feasibility and potential ecological effects, while neglecting economic viability and socio-cultural acceptance. The production of agricultural commodities, on the other hand, has mostly been market-driven and often induced boom and bust cycles that compromised the ecological and social dimensions of sustainability. Purely community-based approaches to watershed management, on their part, have often failed to address issues of elite capture and competing interests within and between heterogeneous uplands communities. Drawing on a review of recent experience and on lessons from initiatives in a long-term collaborative research program in Thailand (The Uplands Program aimed at bridging the various dimensions of sustainability in the Southeast Asian uplands, this paper discusses how a socially, institutionally and ecologically sustainable mix of agricultural production, ecosystem services and rural livelihood opportunities can be achieved through incentive-based policies and multi-stakeholder partnerships that attempt to overcome the (perceived antagonism between conservation and development in upland watersheds of Southeast Asia.

  18. Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia

    Kebede Wolka Wolancho

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

  19. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic problems caused by dams in Ethiopia and elsewhere. Dams are planned from a top-down perspective in Ethiopia, some people are relocated against their will, haphazard land-use changes can occur, and s...

  20. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

  1. The Trail Inventory of Morris Watershed Management District [Cycle 1

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Morris Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  3. Watershed Boundaries, Watershed, Published in Not Provided, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, NC Emergency Management.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  4. A system method for the assessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in mountain watershed areas: the case of the "Giffre" watershed (France).

    Charnay, Bérengère

    2011-07-01

    In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions. PMID:21547433

  5. FARMERS’ MOTIVATIONS FOR ADOPTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE GOODWATER CREEK EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate farm operator opinions relative to soil and water conservation practices in the Goodwater Creek Watershed in Central Missouri. This study reveals the outcome of structured interviews conducted with 25 farm operators within the Conservation Effects Assessment...

  6. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster.

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily

    2016-03-01

    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950mm and a mean erosivity of 6789MJmmha(-1)h(-1)year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20tha(-1)year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6tha(-1)year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7tha(-1)year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2tha(-1)year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9tha(-1)year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water using farm ponds and percolation tanks. This methodology can be adopted for estimating the soil loss from similar ungauged watersheds with deficient data and for planning suitable soil and water conservation interventions for the sustainable management of the watersheds. PMID:26846293

  7. Methods for Environmental Management Research at Landscape and Watershed Scales

    Agriculture is as much as ever and perhaps more so today a landscape enterprise. And as we move into an era in which ecosystem services from agriculture are tabulated, valued, and judged by society, landscape involvement and management will become ever more important. The majority of the non-comm...

  8. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  9. Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    Ossama M. M. Abdelwahab

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Annualised Agricultural Non-point Source model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different management practices to control the soil erosion and sediment load in the Carapelle watershed, a Mediterranean medium-size watershed (506 km2 located in Apulia, Southern Italy. The model was previously calibrated and validated using five years of runoff and sediment load data measured at a monitoring station located at Ordona - Ponte dei Sauri Bridge. A total of 36 events were used to estimate the performance of the model during the period 2007-2011. The model performed well in predicting runoff, as the high values of the coefficients of efficiency and determination during the validation process showed. The peak flows predictions were satisfactory especially for the high flow events; the prediction capability of sediment load was good, even if a slight over-estimation was observed. Simulations of alternative management practices show that converting the most eroding cropland cells (13.5% of the catchment area to no tillage would reduce soil erosion by 30%, while converting them to grass or forest would reduce soil erosion by 36.5% in both cases. A crop rotation of wheat and a forage crop can also provide an effective way for soil erosion control as it reduces erosion by 69%. Those results can provide a good comparative analysis for conservation planners to choose the best scenarios to be adopted in the watershed to achieve goals in terms of soil conservation and water quality.

  10. iWHAM- Integrated water, health and agriculture management : public health implications of integrated watershed management in a tribal area

    Nerkar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water scarcity remains a major hurdle in the overall development of tribal people living on hilly terrain, and it is one of the major reasons for their various health problems. Integrated watershed management (IWM) aims to increase water availability and to enhance socio-economic development in such areas. There is a lack of information on the implications of IWM on various aspects of public health, especially in hilly tribal areas. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was t...

  11. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz; José Eloi Guimarães Campos; Getulio Teixeira Batista; Tatiana Diniz Gonçalves; Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2007-01-01

    This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate sc...

  12. Why watershed-based water management makes sense

    Francisco, H. (ed.)

    2002-01-01

    The alarming increase in the scarcity of water in various parts of the world has focused global attention on the need for a stronger and more appropriate water resource management solution. With about 166 million people in 18 countries suffering from water scarcity and about 270 million in 11 countries having "water stresses" conditions (World Bank 2002), it becomes imperative for nations to come up with more focused and direct measures that would address and stem this resource scarcity.

  13. On the development of a coupled land surface and ground water model for use in watershed management

    Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, N. L.

    2003-04-01

    Management of surface water quality is often complicated by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Traditional Land-Surface Models (LSM) used for numerical weather prediction, climate projection, and as inputs to water management decision support systems, do not treat the lower boundary in a fully process-based fashion. LSMs have evolved from a leaky bucket to more sophisticated land surface water and energy budgets that typically have a so-called basement term to depict the bottom model layer exchange with deeper aquifers. Nevertheless, the LSM lower boundary is often assumed zero flux or the soil moisture content is set to a constant value; an approach that while mass conservative, ignores processes that can alter surface fluxes, runoff, and water quantity and quality. Conversely, models for saturated and unsaturated water flow, while addressing important features such as subsurface heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow, often have overly simplified upper boundary conditions that ignore soil heating, runoff, snow and root-zone uptake. In the present study, a state-of-the-art LSM (CLM2.0) and a variably-saturated groundwater model (ParFlow) have been coupled as a single column model. An initial set of simulations based on data from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) and synthetic data demonstrate the temporal dynamics of both of the coupled models. Changes in soil moisture and movement of the water table are used as indicators of conservation of mass between the two models. Sensitivity studies demonstrate the affect of precipitation, evapotranspiration, radiation, subsurface geology and heterogeneity on predicted watershed flow. Studies demonstrating the effects of watershed flow in uncoupled and coupled modes will be presented. The coupled model will ultimately be used to assist in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs- a surface water quality standard) for a number of pollutants in an urban watershed in Southern California in the United States.

  14. Minnesota Watersheds

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  15. A GIS based watershed information system for water resources management and planning in semi-arid areas

    Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of this work is the development of an Information System which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of water management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making in semi-arid areas. An integrated modeling system has been developed and applied to evaluate the sustainability of water resources management strategies in Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The modeling system, developed in the framework of "HYDROMENTOR" research project, is based on a GIS modelling approach which uses remote sensing data and includes coupled models for the simulation of surface water and groundwater resources, the operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and the estimation of water demands at several spatial scales. Lake Karla basin was the region where the system was tested but the methodology may be the basis for future analysis elsewhere. Τwo (2) base and three (3) management scenarios were investigated. In total, eight (8) water management scenarios were evaluated: i) Base scenario without operation of the reservoir and the designed Lake Karla district irrigation network (actual situation) • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation ii) Base scenario including the operation of the reservoir and the Lake Karla district irrigation network • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation The results show that, under the existing water resources management, the water deficit of Lake Karla watershed is very large. However, the operation of the reservoir and the cooperative Lake Karla district irrigation network coupled with water demand management measures, like reduction of water distribution system losses and alteration of irrigation methods, could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the research project "Hydromentor" funded by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the E.U. co-funded National Action "Cooperation"

  16. Oral histories as a baseline of landscape restoration – co-management and watershed knowledge in Jukajoki river

    Tero Mustonen

    2013-01-01

    This article explores local oral histories and selected communal written texts and their role in the severely damaged watershed of Jukajoki [and adjacent lake Jukajärvi watershed] located in Kontiolahti and Joensuu municipalities, North Karelia, Finland. All in all 35 narratives were collected 2010−2012. Four narratives have been presented in this paper as an example of the materials. Empirical materials have been analysed by using a framework of both Integrated Ecosystem Management and co-ma...

  17. Q-BIC3 - A Québec-Bavarian international collaboration for adapting regional watershed management to climate change

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Adapting to the impacts of climate change is certainly one of the major challenges in water resources management over the next decades. Adaptation to climate change risks is most crucial in this domain, since projected increase in mean air temperature in combination with an expected increase in the temporal variability of precipitation patterns will contribute to pressure on current water availability, allocation and management practices. The latter often involve the utilization of valuable infrastructure, such as dams, reservoirs and water intakes, for which adaptation options must by developed over long-term and often dynamic planning horizons. Research to establish novel methodologies for improved adaptation to climate change is thus very important and only beginning to emerge in regional watershed management. The presented project Q-BIC³, funded by the Bavarian Minstry for the Environment and the Québec Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation, aims to develop and apply a newly designed spectrum of tools to support the improved assessment of adaptation options to climate change in regional watershed management. It addresses in particular selected study sites in Québec and Bavaria. The following key issues have been prioritized within Q-BIC³: i) The definition of potential adaptation options in the context of climate change for pre-targeted water management key issues using a subsequent and logical chain of modelling tools (climate, hydrological and water management modeling tools) ii) The definition of an approach that accounts for hydrological projection uncertainties in the search for potential adaptation options in the context of climate change iii) The investigation of the required complexity in hydrological models to estimate climate change impacts and to develop specific adaptation options for Québec and Bavaria watersheds. iv) The development and prototyping of a regionally transferable and modular modelling system for integrated watershed management under climate change conditions. The study sites under investigation, namely the Haut-Saint Francois and Gatineau watersheds in Québec and the Isar and Regnitz catchments in Bavaria, are under heavy anthropogenic use. Intense dam and reservoir operations and even water transfer systems are in place to satisfy multi-purpose demands on available water resources. These are imposing extreme modifications to the natural flow regimes. In the first phase of the project, climatic forcing, stemming from an ensemble of selected GCM and RCM runs, is applied to a variety of hydrological models with different complexity. The derived projections of future hydrological conditions serve to investigate, whether current operation rules and/or existing infrastructure needs to be adapted to a changing environment. First findings demonstrate the large uncertainties associated to the model chain outputs, but also indicate that related adaptation is indispensable to meet the challenges of the rapidly changing man-environment systems.

  18. Sediment Transport and Control of Keelung River - From Watershed Management Aspect

    Wang, K.-L.; Ho, C.-C.; Lin, J.-Y.; Tsao, H.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Keelung River flows through mountainous area across New Taipei City and Taipei City. The total length is more than 60km. The average rainfall in this watershed ranges from 2000 mm to 5000 mm (1971~2011). Landslide and erosion occurred with heavy rainfall and typhoon events, which is 3~4 in average per year. Flooding occurred in Hsichih area with heavy rainfall and high tide. In order to control flooding, three major engineering control projects were held before 1998 to 2005. The engineering control methods including reshape of river line, normal embankment and ecological embankment, and a new constructed flow path in order to let overflow flood passes through tunnel to another watershed directly to the sea. The section profile of river depth was measured every year since 1960s. This data provides high quality for sediment transportation. Remote sensed data was adopted to digitize land use condition along the river to discuss temporal existence of flood lands, landslides, and green coverage, which including trees and grass lands. The discussion of erosion-deposition relationship in each convergence of river, major engineering treatments is discussed in this research. Moreover, the contribution of land usage change, green coverage and landslide to sediment is discussed and hopefully can provide suggestions to engineering control method and watershed management.

  19. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  20. Quantifying suspended sediment flux in a mixed-land-use urbanizing watershed using a nested-scale study design.

    Zeiger, Sean; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    Suspended sediment (SS) remains the most pervasive water quality problem globally and yet, despite progress, SS process understanding remains relatively poor in watersheds with mixed-land-use practices. The main objective of the current work was to investigate relationships between suspended sediment and land use types at multiple spatial scales (n=5) using four years of suspended sediment data collected in a representative urbanized mixed-land-use (forest, agriculture, urban) watershed. Water samples were analyzed for SS using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design (n=836 samples×5 gauging sites). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc multiple comparison tests were used to test for significant differences (CI=95%, pprecipitation/drought) were observed during the study period. Annual maximum SS concentrations exceeded 2387.6 mg/L. Median SS concentrations decreased by 60% from the agricultural headwaters to the rural/urban interface, and increased by 98% as urban land use increased. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed significant relationships between SS, annual total precipitation (positive correlate), forested land use (negative correlate), agricultural land use (negative correlate), and urban land use (negative correlate). Estimated annual SS yields ranged from 16.1 to 313.0 t km(-2) year(-1) mainly due to differences in annual total precipitation. Results highlight the need for additional studies, and point to the need for improved best management practices designed to reduce anthropogenic SS loading in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519591

  1. SWAT ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ATRAZINE LOSS IN THE GOOD WATER CREEK EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED.

    The Goodwater Creek Watershed is a subwatershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed, an ARS-CEAP benchmark watershed in Northeast Missouri. This 7,250-ha watershed was selected for initial modeling because of its smaller size and the large hydrologic and climatologic dataset available. A SWAT model of ...

  2. Community-based shared values as a 'Heart-ware' driver for integrated watershed management: Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective

    Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the case for using "community-based shared values" as a potential driver for the "Heartware" aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.

  3. The impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle and on the water resource management of the Peribonka watershed

    This study evaluated the impacts of climate change on the water resource management in the Peribonka watershed by comparing the hydropower production of 3 power houses with the reliability and vulnerability associated with two climate change scenarios. The Peribonka catchment area was described along with scenarios of climate change for the watershed over a time horizon up to 2080. Synthetic time series for each scenario were then produced with a stochastic weather generator and were introduced in the HSAMI hydrological model in order to simulate future hydrological cycles. The reservoir system simulation model ResSim showed that the hydroelectric power plant Passes-Dangereuses, will experience either an increase in the annual hydroelectric production of 8 per cent or a reduction of 20 per cent, depending on the scenario considered. The simulation showed that the reliability of upstream reservoirs, namely Lakes Manouane and Peribonka, could decrease while their vulnerability could increase. This paper described the procedure used to develop the climatic change scenarios, the stages of hydrological modeling and the modeling of the hydrological cycle. The impacts of the climatic change scenarios on the flows were also presented along with a short discussion of recommendations to be considered for the next stages of the project. Subsequent stages of this water management project will relate specifically to the quantification of partial and total uncertainties associated with general circulation models, methods of reduction of scale and the applied hydrological models. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  4. Soil and nutrient retention in winter-flooded ricefields with implications for watershed management

    Manley, S.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Rodrigue, P.B.; Dewey, J.C.; Schoenholtz, S.H.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of water resources to support aquatic life and human needs depends, in part, on reducing nonpoint source pollution amid contemporary agricultural practices. Winter retention of shallow water on rice and other agricultural fields is an accepted management practice for wildlife conservation; however, soil and water conservation benefits are not well documented. We evaluated the ability of four post-harvest ricefield treatment combinations (stubble-flooded, stubble-open, disked-flooded and disked-open) to abate nonpoint source exports into watersheds of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Total suspended solid exports were 1,121 kg ha-1 (1,000 lb ac-1) from disked-open fields where rice stubble was disked after harvest and fields were allowed to drain, compared with 35 kg ha-1 (31 lb ac-1) from stubble-flooded fields where stubble was left standing after harvest and fields captured rainfall from November 1 to March 1. Estimates of total suspended solid exports from ricefields based on Landsat imagery and USDA crop data are 0.43 and 0.40 Mg km-2 day-1 in the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille watersheds, respectively. Estimated reductions in total suspended solid exports from ricefields into the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille water-sheds range from 26% to 64% under hypothetical scenarios in which 65% to 100% of the rice production area is managed to capture winter rainfall. Winter ricefield management reduced nonpoint source export by decreasing concentrations of solids and nutrients in, and reducing runoff volume from, ricefields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

  5. Handling Water through Irrigation Watershed Management for Coping with Stream Pollution Dilution in Phetchaburi River, Thailand

    Soulivanh Vorovong; Kasem Chunkao; Surat Baulert

    2014-01-01

    The research was aimed to find means how to handle water at Phetchaburi diversion dam for coping with stream pollution in Phetchaburi River through irrigation watershed management. There eight sampling points for collecting water samples since the year of 2002 to 2013 for analyzing water quality in relation to release water flow in consecutive velocity of 22.4, 100, and 377m3/s in order to obtain the better diluted stream water. Accordance with the same trends of water quality indicators, thi...

  6. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  7. Physical characterization of a watershed through GIS: a study in the Schmidt stream, Brazil.

    Reis, D R; Plangg, R; Tundisi, J G; Quevedo, D M

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment.This article aims to achieve a physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed (Sinos river basin) identifying elements such as land use and occupation, soil science, geology, climatology, extent and location of watershed, among others, so as to serve as the basis for a tool that helps in the integrated environmental management of watersheds. By applying geographic information system - GIS to the process of obtaining maps of land use and occupation, pedologicaland geological, and using climatological data from the Campo Bom meteorological station, field visit, review of literature and journals, and publicly available data, the physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed was performed, with a view to the integrated environmental management of this watershed. Out of the total area of the Schmidt stream watershed (23.92 km(2)), in terms of geology, it was observed that 23.7% consist of colluvial deposits, 22.6% consist of grass facies, and 53.7% consist of Botucatu formation. Major soil types of the watershed: 97.4% Argisols and only 2.6% Planosols. Land use and occupation is characterized by wetland (0.5%), Native Forest (12.83%), Native Forest + Rural Anthropic + Secondary Vegetation + Forestry (43.81%), Urban Anthropic/Urban Area (39.85%), and also Urban Anthropic/Expansion areas (3.01%). Mean annual rainfall is 1337 mm, maximum temperatures range from 10.5°C to 41.6°C and minimum temperatures range from -1.80°C and 26°C, weak winds, occasionally over 5 m/s. Conducting an environmental assessment in this watershed is essential for environmental and land management. However, these assessments are not conducted in all watersheds and, when they are, their frequency is not sufficiency to allow for continuous monitoring, in order to model and predict scenarios, with a view to adopt medium and long-term measures for environmental protection. PMID:26628241

  8. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    Dhruvesh P Patel; Prashant K Srivastava; Manika Gupta; Naresh Nandhakumar

    2015-02-01

    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  9. Modeling effectiveness of management practices for flood mitigation using GIS spatial analysis functions in Upper Cilliwung watershed

    Darma Tarigan, Suria

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is caused by excessive rainfall flowing downstream as cumulative surface runoff. Flooding event is a result of complex interaction of natural system components such as rainfall events, land use, soil, topography and channel characteristics. Modeling flooding event as a result of interaction of those components is a central theme in watershed management. The model is usually used to test performance of various management practices in flood mitigation. There are various types of management practices for flood mitigation including vegetative and structural management practices. Existing hydrological model such as SWAT and HEC-HMS models have limitation to accommodate discrete management practices such as infiltration well, small farm reservoir, silt pits in its analysis due to the lumped structure of these models. Aim of this research is to use raster spatial analysis functions of Geo-Information System (RGIS-HM) to model flooding event in Ciliwung watershed and to simulate impact of discrete management practices on surface runoff reduction. The model was validated using flooding data event of Ciliwung watershed on 29 January 2004. The hourly hydrograph data and rainfall data were available during period of model validation. The model validation provided good result with Nash-Suthcliff efficiency of 0.8. We also compared the RGIS-HM with Netlogo Hydrological Model (NL-HM). The RGIS-HM has similar capability with NL-HM in simulating discrete management practices in watershed scale.

  10. Streamflow Modeling in a Highly Managed Mountainous Glacier Watershed Using SWAT: The Upper Rhone River Watershed Case in Switzerland

    Rahman, Kazi; Maringanti, Chetan; Beniston, Martin; Widmer, Florian; Abbaspour, Karim; Lehmann, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Stream flow simulation is often challenging in mountainous watersheds because of irregular topography and complex hydrological processes. Rates of change in precipitation and temperature with respect to elevation often limit the ability to reproduce stream runoff by hydrological models. Anthropogenic influence, such as water transfers in high altitude hydropower reservoirs increases the difficulty in modeling since the natural flow regime is altered by long term storage of water in the reserv...

  11. Adapting regional watershed management to climate change in Bavaria and Qubec

    Ludwig, Ralf; Muerth, Markus; Schmid, Josef; Jobst, Andreas; Caya, Daniel; Gauvin St-Denis, Blaise; Chaumont, Diane; Velazquez, Juan-Alberto; Turcotte, Richard; Ricard, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The international research project QBic3 (Quebec-Bavarian Collaboration on Climate Change) aims at investigating the potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology of regional scale catchments in Southern Quebec (Canada) and Bavaria (Germany). For this purpose, a hydro-meteorological modeling chain has been established, applying climatic forcing from both dynamical and statistical climate model data to an ensemble of hydrological models of varying complexity. The selection of input data, process descriptions and scenarios allows for the inter-comparison of the uncertainty ranges on selected runoff indicators; a methodology to display the relative importance of each source of uncertainty is developed and results for past runoff (1971-2000) and potential future changes (2041-2070) are obtained. Finally, the impact of hydrological changes on the operational management of dams, reservoirs and transfer systems is investigated and shown for the Bavarian case studies, namely the potential change in i) hydro-power production for the Upper Isar watershed and ii) low flow augmentation and water transfer rates at the Donau-Main transfer system in Central Franconia. Two overall findings will be presented and discussed in detail: a) the climate change response of selected hydrological indicators, especially those related to low flows, is strongly affected by the choice of the hydrological model. It can be shown that an assessment of the changes in the hydrological cycle is best represented by a complex physically based hydrological model, computationally less demanding models (usually simple, lumped and conceptual) can give a significant level of trust for selected indicators. b) the major differences in the projected climate forcing stemming from the ensemble of dynamic climate models (GCM/RCM) versus the statistical-stochastical WETTREG2010 approach. While the dynamic ensemble reveals a moderate modification of the hydrological processes in the investigated catchments, the WETTREG2010 driven runs show a severe detraction for all water operations, mainly related to a strong decline in projected precipitation in all seasons (except winter).

  12. Putting watershed restoration in context: alternative future scenarios influence management outcomes.

    Fullerton, A H; Steel, E A; Caras, Y; Sheer, M; Olson, P; Kaje, J

    2009-01-01

    Predicting effects of habitat restoration is an important step for recovery of imperiled anadromous salmonid populations. Habitat above three major hydropower dams in the Lewis River watershed, southwestern Washington, USA, will soon become accessible to anadromous fish. We used multiple models to estimate habitat conditions above dams and fish population responses. Additionally, we used scenario planning to predict how habitat and fish will respond to potential future trends in land use due to human population growth and riparian conservation policies. Finally, we developed a hypothetical management strategy (i.e., a set of prioritized restoration projects in specific locations within the watershed) as an example of how a fixed amount of restoration funds might be spent to enhance the success of reintroducing fish above dams. We then compared predicted outcomes from this new strategy to those of six previously modeled strategies. We estimated how the choice of the best management strategy might differ among alternative future scenarios. Results suggest that dam passage will provide access to large amounts of high-quality habitat that will benefit fish populations. Moreover, conservation of existing riparian areas, if implemented, has the potential to improve conditions to a much greater extent than restoration strategies examined, despite expected urban growth. We found that the relative performance of management strategies shifted when fish were allowed to migrate above dams, but less so among alternative futures examined. We discuss how predicted outcomes from these seven hypothetical management strategies could be used for developing an on-the-ground strategy to address a real management situation. PMID:19323185

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model.

    Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A

    2015-04-01

    The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m3/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445 kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871 kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales. PMID:25553544

  14. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    Aflizar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop. Using a kriging method in Surfer tool program, have been developed data base from topographic map, Landsat TM image, climatic data and soil psychochemical properties. Using these data, the Universal Soil Loss Equation was used for spatial map of soil erosion 3D and proposed a 3D agro-ecological land use planning for sustainable land management in Sumani watershed. A 3D Agro-ecological land use planning was planned under which the land use type would not cause more than tolerable soil erosion (TER and would be economically feasible. The study revealed that the annual average soil erosion from Sumani watershed was approximately 76.70 Mg ha-1yr-1 in 2011 where more than 100 Mg ha-1yr-1 was found on the cultivated sloping lands at agricultural field, which constitutes large portion of soil erosion in the watershed. Modification of land use with high CP values to one with lower CP values such as erosion control practices by reforestation, combination of mixed garden+beef+chicken (MBC, terrace (TBC or contour cropping+beef+chicken (CBC and sawah+buffalo+chicken (SBC could reduce soil erosion rate by 83.2%, from 76.70 to 12.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with an increase in total profit from agricultural production of about 9.2% in whole Sumani watershed.

  15. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health. PMID:26734840

  16. Impact of conservationpractices on soil quality indicators: case study in the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed, Oklahoma

    While there has been controversy amongst researchers about the concepts and terminology of soil quality, there is agreement that management has critical effects on soils and that soils can either move toward or away from a condition that is favorable for the defined use of that soil. Within watershe...

  17. Best Management Practices in the CEAP Goodwater Creek Watershed: What, Where, Why, and How Much?

    Continuation of conservation funding may depend upon demonstration that past funded projects have contributed to improvement of water quality or reduction of pollutant loadings from agricultural sources. In the Goodwater Creek watershed, a 7,250 ha sub-watershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed in N...

  18. Sustainable forest management: a challenging task in the siran watershed of district Mansehra in the NWFP of Pakistan

    Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure has led to unsustainable forest management during the past three decades in the study area. Strategic analysis of the system indicates that lack of national conservation based forest management has further aggravated the problem. Moreover, SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis show that the internal weaknesses and external threats outweigh the internal strengths and external opportunities of the Forest Department. Based on these analytical results, priority issues were evaluated in terms of their efficiency, social soundness, institutional acceptability and environmental sustainability. The proposed sustainable forest management options which fulfilled this criteria were the community based forest management, wood demand and supply management interventions, institutional restructuring and income generation opportunities using integrated forest management in the study area. (author)

  19. Watershed Data Management (WDM) Database for Salt Creek Streamflow Simulation, DuPage County, Illinois

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ishii, Audrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Department of Engineering, Stormwater Management Division, maintains a database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. The majority of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. This report describes a version of the WDM database that was quality-assured and quality-controlled annually to ensure the datasets were complete and accurate. This version of the WDM database contains data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, and is named SEP04.WDM. This report provides a record of time periods of poor data for each precipitation dataset and describes methods used to estimate the data for the periods when data were missing, flawed, or snowfall-affected. The precipitation dataset data-filling process was changed in 2001, and both processes are described. The other meteorologic and hydrologic datasets in the database are fully described in the annual U.S. Geological Survey Water Data Report for Illinois and, therefore, are described in less detail than the precipitation datasets in this report.

  20. Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

    Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

  1. Modeling Changes in Hydrology and Sedimentation for Forested Watersheds: an Approach for Land Managers

    Litschert, S. E.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrologic changes and sedimentation have long been recognized as critical concerns for forest management. Federal and state laws commonly require land managers to compare the cumulative effects of different forest management scenarios before management plans or policy changes can be implemented. Existing operational methods tend to be simple checklists, indices, or lumped models. Physically based, spatially explicit models are available but are not widely used because they are too data intensive, costly, and complex. Our goal is to find a middle ground by providing land managers with a suite of models that are easy-to-use, spatially and temporally explicit, and scientifically based. Delta-Q and FOREST (FORest Erosion Simulation Tools) are coupled models designed to meet these criteria. They calculate the hydrologic and sedimentary effects of roads, forest fires, and forest management using GIS. Delta-Q calculates annual changes in flow from a watershed using a simple linear recovery model. Required inputs are a GIS layer of forest management activities over time, the initial changes in flow, and the times to recovery for each activity. FOREST uses conceptual and empirical models to calculate sediment production and delivery from hillslopes and roads, and to route sediment through the stream network. Required inputs include sediment production and recovery coefficients, and GIS layers of fires, roads, streams, forest management, soils, and elevation. Online help files provide detailed instructions and summaries of published data to help users select coefficients. Model results include tables of annual changes in flow and sediment yield as well as GIS layers showing the spatial distribution of sediment production and delivery over the period being simulated. The models are now being finalized and will be validated against data from five different experimental forests across the U.S. Model results should be helpful for comparing different land management scenarios, recognizing key sediment sources, and identifying stream reaches susceptible to sedimentation or in need of restoration.

  2. USING HISTORICAL BIOLOGICAL DATA TO EVALUATE STATUS AND TRENDS IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED (OHIO, USA)

    Assessment of watershed ecological status and trends is challenging for managers who lack randomly or consistently sampled data, or monitoring programs developed from a watershed perspective. This study investigated analytical approaches for assessment of status and trends using ...

  3. Regional risk assessment of the Puyallup River Watershed and the evaluation of low impact development in meeting management goals.

    Hines, Eleanor E; Landis, Wayne G

    2014-04-01

    The Relative Risk Model (RRM) is a tool used to calculate and assess the likelihood of effects to endpoints when multiple stressors occur in complex ecological systems. In this study, a Bayesian network was used to calculate relative risk and estimate uncertainty (BN-RRM) in the Puyallup River Watershed. First, we calculated the risk of prespawn mortality of coho salmon. Second, we evaluated the effect of low impact development (LID) as a means to reduce risk. Prespawner mortality in coho salmon within the Puyallup watershed was the endpoint selected for this study. A conceptual model showing causal pathways between stressors and endpoints was created to show where linkages exist. A relative risk gradient was found throughout the watershed. The lowest risk was found in risk regions with the least urban development, and the greatest risk of prespawner mortality was found in the highly urbanized risk regions with the largest amounts of impervious surface. LID did reduce risk but only when implemented at high intensities within the urban watersheds. The structure of the BN-RRM also provides a framework for water quality- and quantity-related endpoints within this and other watersheds. The framework is also useful for evaluating different strategies for remediation or restoration activities. The adaptability of using BNs for a relative risk assessment provides opportunities for the model to be adapted for other watersheds in the Puget Sound and Salish Sea region. PMID:24288344

  4. USGS perspectives on an integrated approach to watershed and coastal management

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The writers discuss three critically important steps necessary for achieving the goal for improved integrated approaches on watershed and coastal protection and management. These steps involve modernization of monitoring networks, creation of common data and web services infrastructures, and development of modeling, assessment, and research tools. Long-term monitoring is needed for tracking the effectiveness approaches for controlling land-based sources of nutrients, contaminants, and invasive species. The integration of mapping and monitoring with conceptual and mathematical models, and multidisciplinary assessments is important in making well-informed decisions. Moreover, a better integrated data network is essential for mapping, statistical, and modeling applications, and timely dissemination of data and information products to a broad community of users.

  5. Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures

    Benjamin J. Koch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Excess nitrogen (N is a primary driver of freshwater and coastal eutrophication globally, and urban stormwater is a rapidly growing source of N pollution. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs are used widely to remove excess N from runoff in urban and suburban areas, and are expected to perform under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Yet the capacity of BMPs to retain excess N varies; and both the variation and the drivers thereof are largely unknown, hindering the ability of water resource managers to meet water quality targets in a cost-effective way. Here, we use structured expert judgment (SEJ, a performance-weighted method of expert elicitation, to quantify the uncertainty in BMP performance under a range of site-specific environmental conditions and to estimate the extent to which key environmental factors influence variation in BMP performance. We hypothesized that rain event frequency and magnitude, BMP type and size, and physiographic province would significantly influence the experts estimates of N retention by BMPs common to suburban Piedmont and Coastal Plain watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Expert knowledge indicated wide uncertainty in BMP performance, with N removal efficiencies ranging from 40%. Experts believed that the amount of rain was the primary identifiable source of variability in BMP efficiency, which is relevant given climate projections of more frequent heavy rain events in the mid-Atlantic. To assess the extent to which those projected changes might alter N export from suburban BMPs and watersheds, we combined downscaled estimates of rainfall with distributions of N loads for different-sized rain events derived from our elicitation. The model predicted higher and more variable N loads under a projected future climate regime, suggesting that current BMP regulations for reducing nutrients may be inadequate in the future.

  6. Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia

    Kebede Wolka Wolancho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide sediment to critical water bodies. Nutrients and chemicals from cropland and urban sewage are transported into the water systems. Many reservoirs which have been established for hydroelectric power, urban water supply and irrigation accumulate an alarmingly higher level of sediment than expected. Koka, Angereb, Legedadi, Gilgel Gibe I and other reservoirs are threatened by this accelerated sedimentation. Consequences of reservoir sedimentation include the loss of storage capacity and its subsequent effects. These effects include water supply shortages for human consumption, irrigation and hydropower; increased hydro-equipment maintenance and repair; a decline in water quality; the cost of removing sediment; blockage of navigational waters and loss of recreation opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are modified by increased deposition of sediments and adsorbed or dissolved nutrients and chemicals, which commonly causes eutrophication which in turn negatively influences habitats of fish and other organisms. Some of the techniques suggested to reduce reservoir sediment concentration are technically less feasible as it requires design considerations during construction (which is difficult to implement for the existing dams. Removal of sediment is also economically demanding. Among the approaches and techniques proposed and implemented, integrated participatory watershed management is strongly recommended to reduce sediment inflow in sustainable pattern.

  7. Climate Change, Glaciers, and Water Management in the Rio Santa Watershed, Peru

    Purkey, D. R.; Escobar, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent decades have witnessed the dramatic decline in the spatial extent of tropical glaciers in the Andes Mountains. In the Rio Santa watershed of Peru, which lies on the western slope of the Cordillera Blanca, the glaciated area has declined from 507 km2 in 1970 to 387 km2 in 1999. The continual evolution of seasonal patterns of glacier accumulation and ablation have been held up as early sign of the impacts of global climate change on terrestrial hydrology. For water managers in the Andes, the cause of the recent glacier retreat is of less importance than the profound implications continued retreat will have on future hydrologic regimes in systems that are managed to meet multiple objectives, including domestic water supplies, irrigation and hydropower production, which provides over 70% of electricity demands in Peru. This research describes our efforts introduce a glacier evolution module, based on a degree-time formulation, into a water resources systems simulation tool. The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute, includes a dynamic integration of routines to simulate the terrestrial components of the hydrologic cycle and routines to allocate available water supplies to meet water demands. With the addition of a glacier routine, WEAP was applied to the Rio Santa and used to evaluate potential climate change impacts on glacier evolution and hydropower production in this important Peruvian watershed over 30 and 100 year planning horizons. Under a dry scenario glaciated areas in the Cordillera Blanca decreases by an additional 47% up to 2036, posing contraints on hydropower production during low flow periods.

  8. Evaluation of effective management plan for an agricultural watershed using AVSWAT model, remote sensing and GIS

    Pandey, V. K.; Panda, S. N.; Pandey, Ashish; Sudhakar, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, an effort has been made to identify the critical sub-watersheds for the development of best management plan for a small watershed of Eastern India using a hydrological model, namely, AVSWAT2000. A total of 180 combinations of various management treatments including crops (rice, maize ground nut and soybean), tillage (zero, conservation, field cultivator, mould board plough and conventional practices) and fertilizer levels (existing half of recommended and recommended) have been evaluated. The investigation reveled that rice cannot be replaced by other crops such as groundnut, maize, mungbean, sorghum and soybean since comparatively these crops resulted in higher sediment yield. The tillage practices with disk plough have been found to have more impact on sediment yield and nutrient losses than conventional tillage practices for the existing level of fertilizer. Sediment yield decreased in the case of zero tillage, conservation tillage, field cultivator, moldboard plough, and conservation tillage as compare to conventional tillage. Lowest NO3-N loss was observed in zero tillage in all the fertilizer treatments, whereas field cultivator, moldboard plough and disk plough resulted in increase of NO3-N loss. As compared to conventional tillage, the losses of soluble phosphorus were increased in moldboard plough. The losses of organic nitrogen were also increased as fertilizer dose increased. After zero tillage the conservation tillage preformed better in all the fertilizer treatments as per loss of organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus is concerned. It can be concluded that the sediment yield was found to be the highest in the case of disk plough followed by moldboard plough, field cultivator, conventional tillage, field cultivator and least in zero tillage practices. The nutrient losses were found to be in different order with tillage practices, resulted highest in disk plough tillage practices. In view of sediment yield and nutrient losses, the conservation tillage practice was found to be the best as the sediment yield is less than the average soil loss whereas nutrient loss is within the permissible limit.

  9. Parcelling out the Watershed: The Recurring Consequences of Organising Columbia River Management within a Basin-Based Territory

    Eve Vogel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a 75-year history of North America’s Columbia river to answer the question: what difference does a river basin territory actually make? Advocates reason that river basins and watersheds are natural and holistic water management spaces, and can avoid the fragmentations and conflicts endemic to water management within traditional political territories. However, on the Columbia, this reasoning has not played out in practice. Instead, basin management has been shaped by challenges from and negotiations with more traditional jurisdictional spaces and political districts. The recurring result has been 'parcelling out the watershed': coordinating river management to produce a few spreadable benefits, and distributing these benefits, as well as other responsibilities and policy-making influence, to jurisdictional parts and political districts. To provide generous spreadable benefits, river management has unevenly emphasised hydropower, resulting in considerable environmental losses. However, benefits have been widely spread and shared – and over time challengers have forced management to diversify. Thus a river basin territory over time produced patterns of both positive and negative environmental, social, economic, and democratic outcomes. To improve the outcomes of watershed-based water management, we need more interactive and longer-term models attentive to dynamic politics and geographies.

  10. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

    Surendra Kumar Chandniha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and environment aspects of water resources. However it is difficult to bring all these indicators on a single platform. In this study, a watershed sustainability index (WSI which integrates the hydrology, environment, life and policy (HELP has been suggested for Piperiya watershed in Chhattisgarh state of India. This watershed has an area of about 2400km2 and is part of Hasdeo river basin which is located in Koriya district of Chhattisgarh. Further, the majority of population in the area is tribal and illiterate. Providing safe and adequate water to the masses is a challenge in this area. The District has numerous hill ranges with rocky geological formation having steep slope. The district faces an acute water shortage for drinking as well as irrigation. Further, the area has number of coal mines and coal washing plants, which contaminate the surface water as well as groundwater. Thus, the availability of safe and fresh water is quite limited. It has been noticed that the WSI for this watershed is about 0.60, which is moderate level of sustainability. In order to improve the water sustainability in this watershed, a watershed management framework and its utilizationhas been elaborated.

  11. Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Beria Leimona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.

  12. Sustainable Water Resources Management in a Complex Watershed Under Climate Change Scenarios

    Schuster, J. P.; McPhee, J.

    2007-05-01

    The Aconcagua River Basin in central Chile supplies water for over one million people, high-return agriculture, mining and hydropower industries. The Aconcagua river basin has Mediterranean/semi-arid climate, its hydrologic regime varies along its path from snow- to a rainfall-dominated, and significant stream-aquifer interaction is observed throughout the river path. A complex water market operates in the Aconcagua River Basin, where private owners hold surface and subsurface water rights independently of land ownership and/or intended use. The above yield integrated watershed management critical for the sustainability of basin operations, moreover under conditions of significant precipitation interannual variability and uncertain future climatic scenarios. In this work we propose an integrated hydrologic-operational model for the Aconcagua River in order to evaluate sustainable management scenarios under conditions of climatic uncertainty. The modeling software WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) serves as the platform for decision support, allowing the assessment of diverse scenarios of water use development and hydrologic conditions. The hydrologic component of the adopted model utilizes conceptual functions for describing the relations between different hydrologic variables. The management component relies on economic valuation for characterizing the space of efficient operational policies.

  13. Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed

    Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

  14. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  15. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring 222Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for 222Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rnq, the 222Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rnq to the measured 222Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach

  16. Exploring readiness for the adoption of new molecular water quality tests: Insights from interviews with policy makers, laboratory managers and watershed managers.

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of molecular-based water quality tests has been limited despite their advantage over traditional culture-based tests. A better understanding of the factors affecting adoption of these tests is needed for effective implementation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to analyze interviews with policy makers, watershed managers and laboratory managers in British Columbia (BC), Canada about their perceptions of molecular water tests currently under development in order to assess readiness for adoption and identify factors that may impact implementation. Many of the CFIR constructs were addressed by study participants, thus confirming their validity in the water-testing context. Other constructs were not mentioned, which suggests that awareness about these constructs need to be increased to ensure that they are incorporated into implementation strategies. In general, there was much enthusiasm for the new tests, which were seen to provide valuable information that could enable improved management of watersheds and treatment of source water. However, prior to adopting the tests, stakeholders would require evidence supporting the tests' validity and reliability, would need to assess the complexity of introducing the tests into laboratories and water sampling processes, and would require support interpreting the test results. Even if all the aforementioned issues are satisfactorily addressed, the tests may not be adopted unless regulations and policies were changed to allow the use of these test results to inform decision making. The results support that implementation of new technologies, such as these water quality tests, need to address potential barriers that could hinder uptake despite the advantages of the new product. PMID:26826358

  17. Identification and prioritization of critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed using SWAT model

    Asghar Besalatpour; M. Ali Hajabbasi; Shamsolah Ayoubi; Ahmad Jalalian

    2012-01-01

    A few areas in a large watershed might be more critical and responsible for high amount of runoff and soil losses. For an effective and efficient implementation of watershed management practices, identification of these critical areas is vital. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2009) to identify and prioritize the critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed with imprecise and uncertain data (Bazoft watershed, southwestern Iran). Three different SWAT mo...

  18. Watershed sediment measurement and sediment transport modeling techniques: Case study to quantify the impact of converting cropland to forested stream buffers on soil loss and water quality at the watershed scale

    Watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) have been widely used to simulate watershed hydrologic processes and the effect of management, such as agroforestry, on soil and water resources. In order to use model outputs for tasks ranging from aiding policy decision making to r...

  19. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

    Xinyi Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

  20. Dam N1 safety review and hydro-technical study of the Trent River watershed

    Dumas, Annie; Shallhorn, Mike [AECOM Canada Ltd., (Canada); Roy, Andre [Parks Canada Agency, (Canada); Beland, Jacques [Public Works and Government Services Canada, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Parks Canada Agency (PCA) manages most of the dams located in Canada's National Parks and National Historic Sites. The PCA is responsible for the safe management of all dams it operates. A new PCA dam safety directive applicable to all dams operated or located on PCA property was established in 2009. The 131 dams on the Trent-Severn Waterway in Ontario were covered by this directive. This paper presented the dam safety review carried out by AECOM as a part of the planning and design for major rehabilitation works on Dam N1 in Trenton. The hydrotechnical study of the 12,400 km2 Trent River Watershed is reported. Flood analyses were performed using a statistical approach to estimate peak flood flows for various return periods. A deterministic approach using streamflow synthesis and reservoir routing-USACE (SSARR) evaluated the spring and summer-fall scenarios of probable maximum flood. A comparison between both approaches for determining the PMF was presented.

  1. Preface to the Special Issue on "Watershed Management and Impacts of Climate Change in Hydrology"

    Gour-Tsyh Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although practice of hydrology can be traced back to as early as 5000 to 6000 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt and China, the study of hydrology emerged as a discipline in the 17th century when Pierre Perrault, Edmé Mariotte and Edmond Halley conducted their experimental work on the hydrologic cycle. For quite a long period, hydrological education and research programs were offered primarily as an engineering discipline in universities in the United States and many East Asian countries. With our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of spatial and temporal distributions of water over large watersheds, and even the globe, and the capabilities of computer modeling of complicated hydrological processes, the study of hydrology has now extended to and interacted with meteorology, geophysics, environmental science, and mathematical statistics, and has established its own right as a branch of geoscience.

  2. Valuing Soft Components in Agricultural Water Management Interventions in Meso-Scale Watersheds: A Review and Synthesis

    Jennie Barron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2 is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

  3. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  4. Managing a Watershed Monitoring Project with Innovative Data Telemetry and Communications Software

    In collaboration with Clermont County, the U.S. EPA is developing watershed-wide load and transport models to better understand environmental stressors in stream flow and the structure and function of stream ecosystems in the tributaries of the Lower East Fork River. Watershed se...

  5. A Pilot Study of Watershed Flow Using Stable Water Isotopes in Support of the Development of the Lamprey River Watershed (Southeast New Hampshire) as a Hydrologic Observatory

    Frades, M.; Davis, J.; Bryce, J.; McDowell, W. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Lamprey River Watershed provides a suite of ecologic, geographic, geologic, and cultural characteristics that together provide an excellent opportunity to establish a convenient, unique, instructive, and informative natural laboratory. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire are establishing the Lamprey River Watershed, located in the seacoast region of New Hampshire, as a long term hydrologic observatory, where the instrumentation, data, and results from multi-disciplinary studies can be integrated to achieve greater understanding of the hydrologic system as a whole.One component of this proposed research is the establishment of a long term record of water isotope data. The results of a 1.5-year pilot study of stable water isotopes in the Headwaters of the Lamprey River Watershed (HLRW) are the focus of this presentation. In order to better understand groundwater flowpaths and residence times within the HLRW, we used stable water isotopes as natural tracers. For the period of June 2006 through October 2007, over 200 total water samples of groundwater, surface water, precipitation, and infiltration were collected and analyzed for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Based on analysis of isotopic and hydrometric data, the groundwater system is interpreted to be comprised of three distinct but interconnected reservoirs: a shallow groundwater reservoir which does not directly contribute to stream flow at the watershed outlet and has a mean residence time greater than 9 years; a near-surface groundwater reservoir, which is fed by the shallow system, flows through surface water bodies and wetlands with a mean residence time of approximately 1.5 months, and is the primary source of baseflow in the stream network; and a deep groundwater reservoir. The findings have significant implications for the interpretation of biogeochemical mass balance models of the Lamprey River Watershed and ongoing strontium isotope and trace element tracer studies. In a broader sense the results also advance the development of the Lamprey River Watershed as a long term hydrologic observatory.

  6. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014 to 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  7. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: Belt transect surveys of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from 2014 to 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  8. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania

    Tania MIHAIESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern part of Romania. A distinct characteristic of this watershed is the presence of lakeunits (natural and artificial. Natural lakes and ponds are a polarizing element, which provides identity for the landscapein Fizes watershed, concentrates the majority of settlements in their close vicinity and also represent a support ofeconomical activities development, from agriculture to tourism.The objective of the present work is to discuss the major ion chemistry of the main lakes from Fizes watershed.Chemical classification also throws light on the concentration of various predominant cations, anions and theirinterrelationships. Water lake samples were collected from 11 sampling points covering the area during the years 2007and 2008 and were analyzed for physical-chemical characters. The system of lake units present distinctive physicalchemicalcharacteristics, influenced by local natural conditions, main factors being climate, morphometriccharacteristics of lakes, vegetation by shadowing, factors which together with biological conditions and anthropicinfluences shape the quality conditions of the lake waters. Climatic, hydrological and substrate conditions are reflectedin the resulting water quality. The lakes located in the upper part of the watershed can be included in the bicarbonateclass, while lakes located in the lower part are closer to sulphate waters.

  9. Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7

    SP Wani; HP Singh; TK Sreedevi; P. Pathak; TJ Rego; Shiferaw, B.; SR Iyer

    2006-01-01

    This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change i...

  10. A Validation Study of SWAT in an Urbanizing Multiuse Watershed in the Central U.S

    Scollan, D. P.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed-scale distributed hydrologic/water quality (H/WQ) models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are increasingly important tools for land managers. They are powerful prediction tools, and are also useful to assess and develop Best Management Practices (BMP) and estimates of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A major impediment to successful calibration and validation of H/WQ models is a general lack of distributed monitoring data including discharge, sediment yield and climate data. The current study evaluates SWAT model simulations of water and sediment yield using publically available meteorological and USGS flow data versus simulations developed using comprehensive data sets from a nested network of five hydroclimate stations collecting continuous discharge, sediment and climate data. This work is taking place in the Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW, 230.8 km2) located in central Missouri. Elevation ranges from 170 m at the outlet to 287 m at the headwaters. Landuse in the upper HCW consists of rural pasture and wooded areas, while the lower HCW contains the city of Columbia. Soils in the upper HCW are characterized as loamy till with a well developed clay pan, and in the lower HCW as thin cherty clay and silty to sandy clay. The transitional climate of Missouri includes influences from winter dominant continental polar air masses, and summer prevalent maritime and continental tropical air masses. Average annual temperature and precipitation are 12.8 C and 1016 mm, respectively. A USGS streamflow gauge (contributing area 179.5 km2) has been operating from 1966-1981, 1986-1991, and 03/2007 to the present. SWAT model inputs were configured for the HCW using ArcSWAT with six subcatchments corresponding to the contributing areas of each of the five gauge sites and the watershed outlet. Using 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) landuse and State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) soils data, the model was parameterized for 26 hydrologic response units. The model was forced with measured climate data from the publically available University of Missouri Sanborn Field meteorological station for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 21, 2008. Simulated discharge was compared to measured discharge at the USGS gauge from March 8, 2007 to December 21, 2008. The simulation yielded R2 values of 0.87 and 0.31 and Nash-Sutcliffe values of 0.81 and 0.29 for monthly and daily flow, respectively. Peak daily flow was 221.2 m3/s and 131.8 m3/s for measured and simulated discharge, respectively. Visual analysis of simulated hydrographs show consistent overestimation of baseflow and leading edge hydrograph discontinuities. Future work will compare current modeling results with model runs developed using data from the distributed hydroclimate station network. Model performance across the continuum of land use, from the forested to urban portion of HCW, will be quantified. This work will supply Central U.S. land managers with improved understanding and tools (i.e. models) for future landuse and development scenarios.

  11. Assessment of soil erosion using RUSLE and GIS: a case study of the Maotiao River watershed, Guizhou Province, China

    Yue-Qing, Xu; Jian, Peng; Xiao-Mei, Shao

    2009-02-01

    Due to the existence of fragile karst geo-ecological environments, such as environments with extremely poor soil cover, low soil-forming velocity, and fragmentized terrain and physiognomy, as well as inappropriate and intensive land use, soil erosion is a serious problem in Guizhou Province, which is located in the centre of the karst areas of southwestern China; evaluation of soil loss and spatial distribution for conservation planning is urgently needed. This study integrated the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) with a GIS to assess soil loss and identify risk erosion areas in the Maotiao River watershed of Guizhou. Current land use/cover and management practices were evaluated to determine their effects on average annual soil loss and future soil conservation practices were discussed. Data used to generate the RUSLE factors included a Landsat Thematic Mapper image (land cover), digitized topographic and soil maps, and precipitation data. The results of the study compare well with the other studies and local data, and provide useful information for decision makers and planners to take appropriate land management measures in the area. It thus indicates the RUSLE-GIS model is a useful tool for evaluating and mapping soil erosion quantitatively and spatially at a larger watershed scale in Guizhou.

  12. High-resolution maps of forest-urban watersheds present an opportunity for ecologists and managers

    Dense populations of people and abundant impervious surfaces contribute to poor water quality and increased flooding in forest-urban watersheds. Green infrastructure mitigates these effects, but precisely quantifying benefits is difficult because most land cover maps rely on coar...

  13. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  14. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  15. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of the water resource leads to a degradation of the water quality of the aquifer basically being reflected by an increase in sulfates, sodium and chloride. Combining the results with the hydrologic data and modeling it was possible outline high impact zones with steep water level drops of up to 15 m and high water quality deterioration as well as low impact zones with shallow water level fluctuation less tan on meter and stable water quality. These results will finally lead to a proposal how to guide the Guadalupe watershed towards a sustainable management of the aquifer.

  16. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2Watershed, India

    Anil M Pophare; Bhushan R Lamsoge; Yashwant B Katpatal; Vijay P Nawale

    2014-10-01

    The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977–2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 S/cm per year. During 2007–2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.

  17. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:26959039

  18. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India.

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:26959039

  19. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes.

  20. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  1. Planning of water resources management and pollution control for Heshui River watershed, China: A full credibility-constrained programming approach.

    Zhang, Y M; Huang, G; Lu, H W; He, Li

    2015-08-15

    A key issue facing integrated water resources management and water pollution control is to address the vague parametric information. A full credibility-based chance-constrained programming (FCCP) method is thus developed by introducing the new concept of credibility into the modeling framework. FCCP can deal with fuzzy parameters appearing concurrently in the objective and both sides of the constraints of the model, but also provide a credibility level indicating how much confidence one can believe the optimal modeling solutions. The method is applied to Heshui River watershed in the south-central China for demonstration. Results from the case study showed that groundwater would make up for the water shortage in terms of the shrinking surface water and rising water demand, and the optimized total pumpage of groundwater from both alluvial and karst aquifers would exceed 90% of its maximum allowable levels when credibility level is higher than or equal to 0.9. It is also indicated that an increase in credibility level would induce a reduction in cost for surface water acquisition, a rise in cost from groundwater withdrawal, and negligible variation in cost for water pollution control. PMID:25897733

  2. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  3. Empirical streamflow simulation for water resource management in data-scarce seasonal watersheds

    Shortridge, J. E.; Guikema, S. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, certain methods for empirical rainfall-runoff modeling have seen extensive development and been proposed as a useful complement to physical hydrologic models, particularly in basins where data to support process-based models is limited. However, the majority of research has focused on a small number of methods, such as artificial neural networks, despite the development of multiple other approaches for non-parametric regression in recent years. Furthermore, this work has generally evaluated model performance based on predictive accuracy alone, while not considering broader objectives such as model interpretability and uncertainty that are important if such methods are to be used for planning and management decisions. In this paper, we use multiple regression and machine-learning approaches to simulate monthly streamflow in five highly-seasonal rivers in the highlands of Ethiopia and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure and bias, model interpretability, and uncertainty when faced with extreme climate conditions. While the relative predictive performance of models differed across basins, data-driven approaches were able to achieve reduced errors when compared to physical models developed for the region. Methods such as random forests and generalized additive models may have advantages in terms of visualization and interpretation of model structure, which can be useful in providing insights into physical watershed function. However, the uncertainty associated with model predictions under climate change should be carefully evaluated, since certain models (especially generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines) became highly variable when faced with high temperatures.

  4. Empirical streamflow simulation for water resource management in data-scarce seasonal watersheds

    J. E. Shortridge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, certain methods for empirical rainfall–runoff modeling have seen extensive development and been proposed as a useful complement to physical hydrologic models, particularly in basins where data to support process-based models is limited. However, the majority of research has focused on a small number of methods, such as artificial neural networks, despite the development of multiple other approaches for non-parametric regression in recent years. Furthermore, this work has generally evaluated model performance based on predictive accuracy alone, while not considering broader objectives such as model interpretability and uncertainty that are important if such methods are to be used for planning and management decisions. In this paper, we use multiple regression and machine-learning approaches to simulate monthly streamflow in five highly-seasonal rivers in the highlands of Ethiopia and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure and bias, model interpretability, and uncertainty when faced with extreme climate conditions. While the relative predictive performance of models differed across basins, data-driven approaches were able to achieve reduced errors when compared to physical models developed for the region. Methods such as random forests and generalized additive models may have advantages in terms of visualization and interpretation of model structure, which can be useful in providing insights into physical watershed function. However, the uncertainty associated with model predictions under climate change should be carefully evaluated, since certain models (especially generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines became highly variable when faced with high temperatures.

  5. Study of the relationship between runoff, rainfall and evaporation watershed in the southern zone of the Mediterranean (case of Algeria)

    Water resources in Algeria are not distributed evenly inspace and time that engenders enormous difficulties for their mobilization. Water shortage is becoming a major problem. A number of regions already suffers from water deficiency and the others will soon follow. To solve this problem, the construction of new dams becomes indispensable. Through the hydrological studies and the exploitation of future dams, the evaluation of wateryield in sites of these structures is indispensable. At present, the calculation of the interannual runoff in absence of data for the not gauged watercourse is determined from empirical formulae established especially for the climatic and geographical conditions of Algeria. Unfortunately, all these formulas do not provide accurate results.Watersheds which were used in the study represent almost the entire surface of Northern Algeria whose number is 106 basins.The objective of the present study is to establish working tools, allowing the planners and the managers to determine the value of the interannual runoff of watershed for the climatic conditions of Algeria without going through the empirical formulae often used in the absence of measurable dataand leading to absurd errors.The calculation parameters for interannual runoff from the proposed model are standard meteorological data (air temperature, humidity and pluviometry), always available and periodically broadcastedby meteorological services and hydrology of Algeria. Runoff values calculated by the model are close to the values of measured runoff.The difference between them didnot exceed 15 to 20%. (author)

  6. A framework model for investigating the export of phosphorus to surface waters in forested watersheds: Implications to management.

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-12-01

    The present study was developed in four sub-basins of rivers Cvado and Douro, located in the North of mainland Portugal. The goal was to identify main stressors as well as driving and attenuating processes responsible for the presence of phosphorus in masses of surface water in those catchments. To accomplish the goal, the basins were selected where a quality station was present at the outlet, the forest occupation was greater than 75% and the phosphorus concentrations have repeatedly exceeded the threshold for the good ecological status in the period 2000-2006. Further, in two basins the quality station was installed in a lotic (free-flow water) environment whereas in the other two was placed in a lentic (dammed water) environment. The ArcMap GIS-based software package was used for the spatial analysis of stressors and processes. The yields of phosphorus vary widely across the studied basins, from 0.2-30 kgha(-1)yr(-1). The results point to post-fire soil erosion and hardwood clear cuttings as leading factors of phosphorus exports across the watersheds, with precipitation intensity being the key variable of erosion. However, yields can be attenuated by sediment deposition along the pathway from burned or managed areas to water masses. The observed high yields and concentrations of phosphorus in surface water encompass serious implications for water resources management in the basins, amplified in the lentic cases by potential release of phosphorus from lake sediments especially during the summer season. Therefore, a number of measures were proposed as regards wildfire combat, reduction of phosphorus exports after tree cuts, attenuation of soil erosion and improvement of riparian buffers, all with the purpose of preventing phosphorus concentrations to go beyond the regulatory good ecological status. PMID:26225737

  7. Investigation of Check Dam`s Effects on Channel Morphology (Case Study: Chehel Cheshme Watershed)

    K. Solaimani; E. Omidvar; A. Kelarestaghi

    2008-01-01

    This research is focused on morphologic changes of channels resulted from establishing check dam construction in Chehel cheshme watershed located at Fars Province. In this study, five channels with check dams were selected through the study area. Then some morphologic parameters of channels such as width/depth ratio, the maximum depth and cross section area along the channel on which check dam were constructed had been measured. These measurements were made on 6 cross section areas in 1...

  8. Trend Change Study of Climate Variables in Xin’anjiang-Fuchunjiang Watershed, China

    Muhammad Zaman; Guohua Fang; Kashif Mehmood; Muhammad Saifullah

    2015-01-01

    This study emphasizes the precipitation and the maximum and minimum temperature trend and presents the results of study in temporal and spatial scales, after performing statistical analysis of the Xin’anjiang-Fuchunjiang watershed. Statistical Mann Kendall and Theil Sen techniques were used to determine the trend and its magnitude, respectively, and for determining the start and abrupt change in the trend, Sequential Mann Kendall test has been performed. Furthermore, statistical tests were pe...

  9. Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelanica watershed

    Risti? Ratko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbias hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the lands capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and the more frequent appearance of torrential floods and bed-load deposits on downstream sections. Environmental degradation creates economicsocial problems within local societies which is often followed by depopulation. Restoring watersheds to their optimal hydrologic state would reduce flood discharge and by increasing groundwater recharge would increase both low-flow and average discharges in springs and streams. Best management practices could be developed through the application of specific combinations of biotechnical, technical and administrative measures, and by using the concept of ?natural reservoirs?. The design of such practices is explored through a case study of the watershed of the river Jelanica, southeastern Serbia. Realization of these planned restoration works should help decrease the annual yields of erosive material by 44.1% and the specific annual transport of sediment through hydrographic network by 43.6%. Representative value of the coefficient of erosion will be reduced from Z=0.555 to Z=0.379. The value of maximal discharge Qmax-AMCIII (1%=54.17 m3s-1, before restoration, is decreased to Qmax-AMCIII (1%=41.22 m3s-1 after restoration, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of land use changes. Administrative measures are applied through ?Plans for announcement of erosive regions and protection from torrential floods in the territory of Leskovac municipality?.

  10. Evaluation of Periodical Changes in Plant Biodiversity Indices- A Case Study of Zanjanroud Watershed, Iran

    Nooshin Mardani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of relationships between plant communities and environmental factors is among the most important, complex issues associated with management of natural resources and environment. Land use changes, soil degradation and erosion, loss of soil-water balance and over exploitation of plant resources have led to drastic changes in plant biodiversity. In the present study, one of the important components of biodiversity (alpha diversity index was investigated at local scale. For this purpose, the most important environmental factors affecting the natural growth and distribution of plant communities in Zanjanroud Watershed were initially investigated. Accordingly, satellite images, statistics and GIS maps of the study area were applied to analyze the impact of the environmental factors on biodiversity indices. Accordingly, SPSS software was used to investigate correlations among the studied variables. The obtained results indicated that there is a statistically significant regression between the data on species diversity indices as well as uniformity in the study area during the research periods. As the findings suggest, based on Shannon Index, the species diversity has been declined from 3.12 to 2.73 with a statistically significant difference of 5% during the investigated period of 23 years. Likewise, Pielou's uniformity index has been decreased from 0.92 to 0.82 with a statistically significant difference of 5% and based on Menhinick Index; the species richness has been declined from 0.21 to 0.16. Among the reasons affecting the deterioration can be pointed to land use changes from pristine areas to farmlands, overexploitation of rangeland areas and some environmental characteristics including climate change especially precipitation changes in the research period.

  11. Impact of non-livelihood-based land management on land resources: the case of upland watersheds in Uporoto Mountains, South West Tanzania.

    Mwanukuzi, Phillip K

    2011-01-01

    Various land management strategies are used to prevent land degradation and keep land productive. Often land management strategies applied in certain areas focus on the context of the physical environment but are incompatible with the social environment where they are applied. As a result, such strategies are ignored by land users and land degradation becomes difficult to control. This study observes the impacts of land management in the upland watersheds of the Uporoto Mountains in South West Tanzania. In spite of various land management practices used in the area, 38% of the studied area experienced soil fertility loss, 30% gully erosion, 23% soil loss, 6% biodiversity loss and drying up of river sources. Land management methods that were accepted and adopted were those contributing to immediate livelihood needs. These methods did not control land resource degradation, but increased crop output per unit of land and required little labour. Effective methods of controlling land degradation were abandoned or ignored because they did not satisfy immediate livelihood needs. This paper concludes that Integrating poor people's needs would transform non-livelihood-based land management methods to livelihood-based ones. Different ways of transforming these land management methods are presented and discussed. PMID:21560271

  12. GIS-Based Model to Assess Erosion Sensitivity in Northern Morocco. Laou Watershed Case Study

    Roberto Passalacqua; M. Matouk; Abdelkrim El Arrim; Lamiae Khali Issa; Ahmed Raissouni

    2012-01-01

    This application on the Laou watershed represents the first part of study results that concerns the development of a model for mapping soil susceptibility at a regional scale in northern Morocco using spatial databases and geographic information systems (GIS). The model uses qualitative decision rules and hierarchical organization of data represented by different thematic maps. Those laters are derived from input erosion parameters which are coded according to their sensitivity to water erosi...

  13. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mulholland, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  14. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081. The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05 was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  15. Estudo da bacia hidrogrfica da barragem "Monjolinho" A study of the earth dam "monjolinho" watershed

    G. B. Barreto

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudam a bacia hidrogrfica da barragem "Monjolinho". notadamente a velocidade de assoreamento. So descritas as caractersticas fsicas da bacia, baseadas no levantamento planialtimtrico da rea. Descrevem tambm, o tipo de solo e a cobertura vegetal encontrados no local, bem como as alteraes ocorridas na bacia de inundao e no talude de montante do atrro, aps perodo de 7 anos de funcionamento do aude.In this paper the authors present the study of the "Monjolinho" earth dam watershed with particular reference of its silting problem. The physical characteristics of the watershed, based on a plane - altimetric survey, are presented. A description of the soil type, vegetative cover, as well as of the changes that took place in the reservoir flood and in the upstream side slope after 7 years of use is given.

  16. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    We used a gradient (divided into impervious cover categories), spatially-balanced, random design (1) to sample streams along an impervious cover gradient in a large coastal watershed, (2) to characterize relationships between water chemistry and land cover, and (3) to document di...

  17. 76 FR 68499 - Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement

    2011-11-04

    ... groups to encourage diverse stakeholders to work together to address their local watershed needs. Through this program, we provide Federal leadership and assistance on; Efficient use of water; Integrating... crops, growing cities and communities, energy production, and the environment--the need for...

  18. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a sustainable and decentralized stormwater management plan and redaction of performance standards at the watershed scale. The method applied in this paper toggles the decentralized stormwater approach from a common experimental point of view to an oriented problem-solution point of view.

  19. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  20. Watersheds in disordered media

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  1. Differences in Net Ecosystem Exchange for an intensely managed watershed using a lumped, regional model and a mechanistic, hillslope-scale model

    Wilson, C. G.; Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Stanier, C. O.; Jamroensan, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and its components Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) and Ecosystem Respiration (RESP), were compared from a lumped, regional model and a mechanistic, hillslope-scale model to determine if the effects of land management on the carbon cycle are captured by larger-scale biosphere models that determine CO2 sources and sinks. WRF-VPRM (Weather Research & Forecasting - Vegetation Photosynthesis & Respiration Model) is a regional-scale model that uses simulated downward shortwave radiation and surface temperatures, along with satellite-derived land cover indices and eddy flux tower-derived parameters to estimate biosphere CO2 fluxes with empirical equations. The DAYCENT biogeochemical model coupled with the Watershed Erosion Prediction Project model (WEPP), which simulates changes in soil carbon stocks due to different land management and the resulting enhanced erosion, can also quantify biosphere CO2 fluxes. Both models (i.e., WRF-VPRM and WEPP-DAYCENT) were used to quantify GEE, RESP, and NEE for the summer of 2008 in the IML-CZO Clear Creek watershed of the U.S. Midwest to examine the role of land management heterogeneity in CO2 exchanges between the biosphere and atmosphere. Comparing average daily GEE rates from WRF-VPRM (-11.0 5.2 g C/m2/d) with WEPP-DAYCENT average values weighted per land use area in the watershed (-10.2 1.5 g C/m2/d) showed no significant differences (t-test; p=0.08). In contrast, daily RESP values were different between the two models. Daily respiration rates were relatively constant for WRF-VPRM (6.0 0.8 g C/m2/d), while WEPP-DAYCENT values for each management practice were significantly greater (7.2 1.8 g C/m2/d; t-test, peffects of land management and net erosion/deposition on total SOC stocks and tillage impacts on respiration by increasing decomposition from the breaking of soil aggregates and enhanced mineralization. In WRF-VPRM, respiration is calculated with a regression equation based on air temperature. As a result, comparison of average daily NEE rates from WRF-VPRM (-5.0 5.3 g C/m2/d) with WEPP-DAYCENT average weighted values (-3.0 1.8 g C/m2/d) also showed significant differences (t-test; p<0.001).

  2. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  3. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    N/A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with the applicable terms and conditions identified in the ESA Consultation Biological Opinion (BO) and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Essential Fish Habitat Consultation, for BPA's Habitat Improvement Program (HIP), the Tapteal Bend Restoration Project meets the requirements of consistency and no further consultation is required. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. In complying with the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, BPA contracted with the Cultural Resources Protection Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) for cultural resource survey work. Shawn Steinmetz prepared a report (December 15, 2002) concluding that there were only two isolated finds in the project area. BPA and the Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation have concurred with the conclusions and recommendations set out in the report and the determination that no historic properties will be affected by the current project as proposed (January 31, 2003). It was recommended that a cultural resource monitor be present during ground disturbing activities. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Tapteal Bend Restoration project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals.

  4. Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Hsu, S. M.; Wen, H. Y.; Chen, N C; Hsu, S. Y.; Chi, S Y

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and...

  5. Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study

    Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Ryu, Hodon; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel; Huertas, Evelyn; Toranzos, Gary A; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n = 534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo (RGA) watershed were collected mostly on a weekly basis (54 sampling events) during 13 months. DNA extracts from water samples were used in PCR assays to determine the occurrence of fecal bacteria (Bacteroidales, Clostridium coccoides, and enterococci) and ...

  6. Runoff simulation using distributed hydrological modeling approach, remote sensing and GIS techniques: A case study from an Indian agricultural watershed

    Chowdary, V. M.; Desai, V. R.; Gupta, M.; Jeyaram, A.; Murthy, Y. V. N. K.

    2012-07-01

    Distributed hydrological modeling has the capability of simulating distributed watershed basin processes, by dividing a heterogeneous and complex land surface divided into computational elements such as Hydrologic Response Units (HRU), grid cell or sub watersheds. The present study was taken up to simulate spatial hydrological processes from a case study area of Kansavati watershed in Purulia district of West Bengal, India having diverse geographical features using distributed hydrological modelling approach. In the present study, overland flow in terms of direct runoff from storm rainfall was computed using USDA Soil Conservation Services (SCS) curve number technique and subsequently it served as input to channel routing model. For channel flow routing, Muskingum-Cunge flood routing technique was used, specifically to route surface runoff from the different sub watershed outlet points to the outlet point of the watershed. Model parameters were derived for each grid cell either from remote sensing data or conventional maps under GIS environment. For distributed approach, validation show reasonable fit between the simulated and measured data and CMR value in all the cases is negative and ranges from -0.1 to - 0.3. Further, this study investigates the effect of cell size on runoff simulation for different grid cell sizes of 23, 46, 92, 184, 368, 736, 1472 m resolution. The difference between simulated and observed runoff values increases with the increase of grid size beyond 184 m more prominently. Further, this model can be used to evaluate futuristic water availability scenarios for an agricultural watershed in eastern India.

  7. The Imbalance between Nature and Management: Jurisdictional Evaluation of Headwaters in a Mountain Watershed (Invited)

    Caruso, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    In mountain ecoregions of the semi-arid western U.S., there is an imbalance between science and policy for jurisdictional determinations of aquatic resource as ';waters of the US' that can be protected under Clean Water Act Section 404 (permitting discharge of dredged and fill materials into wetlands and other waters). This leads to continued degradation of surface waters due to the imbalance of key biophysical and societal/regulatory components; the imbalance of water across these drier landscapes, and the imbalance between the critical ecological services provided by these headwater areas and the increasing impacts from urbanization and energy development in previously undeveloped areas. This study analysed headwater streams in a mountain watershed in southwestern Colorado and developed a classification scheme and hydrological connectivity index to demonstrate jurisdictional evaluation at a watershed scale. The National Hydrography Dataset and USGS program StreamStats were used with field observations to classify flow duration and stream order used for Level 1 and 2 classification. Kruskall Wallis tests and discriminant analysis were used to evaluate differences among Level 1 and 2 classes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to develop Level 3 classes based on stream length, distance to the nearest downstream traditional navigable water (TNW), and the ratio of mean annual flow from the source stream to the TNW. Three primary metrics were used for HCI development: Avg Q/AQ, or the average streamflow metric as a proportion of the metric for the TNW, distance from the stream to the TNW, and slope to the TNW. Additional metrics were also analyzed including stream length, elevation, channel slope and type, and riparian zone types. Perennial waters constitute over a third of all streams (the highest order of which is 4th order), 64% of all reaches are intermittent or ephemeral, and almost half are ephemeral 1st order (E1). The perennial and intermittent streams are classified as jurisdictional relatively permanent waters (RPWs). All ephemeral reaches are non-RPWs and would require significant nexus evaluation to determine jurisdiction. The main stream contributes 20% of the average annual flow to the TNW, and 5% of the total to the river can come from E1 streams. There were significant differences in most metrics among Level 2 classes. There was a large range of HCI values, with 48% ephemeral streams that are not RPWs requiring a significant nexus evaluation to determine jurisdiction. Perennial streams, ponds and intermittent streams that are jurisdictional RPWs had HCI values >1. Mean values differed among stream duration and order classes. Many ephemeral streams may be non-jurisdictional and unprotected under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The flow index (QI) component constituted the greatest proportion of the HCI for perennial streams, was sensitive to the Q metrics used, and was greatest for high flows. Ephemeral streams are only connected to the TNW Streams in one ephemeral Level 3 class with HCI values from 0.75-0.94 are farthest from the TNW but contribute the greatest proportion of flow and may have significant nexus with the river.

  8. Project management case studies

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  9. Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia

    Aflizar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate Rainfall erosivity (R factor. As many as101 sampling sites were used to investigate soil erodibility (K-factor with physico-chemical laboratory analysis. Digital elevation model (DEMof Sumani Watershed was used to calculate slope length and Steepness (LS-factor. Landsat TM imagery and field survey were used to determine crop management (C-factor and conservation practices (P-factor. Calculating soilloss and map of USLE factor were determined by Kriging method in Surfer 9. Sumani Watershed had erosion hazard in criteria as: severe to extreme severe (26.23%, moderate (24.59% and very low to low (49.18%. Annual average soil loss for Sumani watershed was 76.70 Mg ha-1 y-1 in 2011. Upland area was designated as having a severe toextreme severe erosion hazard compared to lowland which was designated as having very less to moderate. On the other land, soil eroded from upland were deposited in lowland. These results were verified by comparing one years sediment yield observation on the outlet of the watershed. Land use (C-factor, rainfall erosivity (R- factor, soil erodibility (K-factor, slope length and steepness (LS-factor were dominant factors that affected soil erosion. Traditional soil conservation practices were applied by farmer for a long time such as terrace in Sawah. The USLE model in Surfer was used to identify specific regions susceptible to soil erosion by water and was also applied to identify suitable sites to conduct soil conservation planning in Sumani Watershed.

  10. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Indrajeet Chaubey; Gitau, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP) effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little ...

  11. Land management, erosion problems and soil and water conservation in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia

    Bezuayehu, T.; Sterk, G.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of soil erosion processes, attitude towards rational use of resources and institutional support affect the capability of farmers to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. This research was conducted to determine soil erosion problems and the factors that affect the adoption ofSWC measures in Finchaa watershed, western Ethiopia. A total of 50 farmers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and two group discussions were held with 20 farm...

  12. The Estimating of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Using Regional Flood Analysis and Geomorphologic Parameters (Case Study: Kanisavaran and Marenj Watersheds, Kurdistan

    A. Shirzadi1*, K. Chapi1 and P. Fathi2

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of flood hydrograph is of necessities in hydrological studies such as flood mitigation projects. This estimation in un-gauged watersheds is usually taken place using geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. The objective of this research is to estimate synthetic unit hydrograph using regional flood frequency analysis and geomorphological parameters of watersheds. 1-hour and 2-hour hydrographs of two watersheds, Kanisavaran and Maranj Watersheds, were generated using maximum discharge data based on regional flood frequency analysis. Estimated hydrographs were compared with observed data and the efficiency of the model was evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, absolute and bias errors. The results showed that multiple regression models give more acceptable results among others for the computation of synthetic unit hydrograph (higher coefficient of determination. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.98 for 1-hour hydrograph while it was 0.93 for the 2-hour hydrograph. The absolute error in 1-hour hydrograph and 2-hour hydrograph was 0.13 and 1.2, respectively. The bias error was close to zero for both hydrographs, indicating that the proposed model is efficient. The model may be used for estimation of synthetic unit hydrograph in similar un-gauged watersheds.

  13. Watershed Restoration Project

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  14. Quantifying the Fecal Coliform Loads in Urban Watersheds by Hydrologic/Hydraulic Modeling: Case Study of the Beauport River Watershed in Quebec

    Amélie Thériault

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-step method for the identification of the main sources of fecal coliforms (FC in urban waters and for the analysis of remedial actions is proposed. The method is based on (1 The statistical analysis of the relationship between rainfall and FC concentrations in urban rivers; (2 The simulation of hydrology and hydraulics; and (3 Scenario analysis. The proposed method was applied to the Beauport River watershed, in Canada, covering an area of 28.7 km2. FC loads and concentrations in the river, during and following rainfall events, were computed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM hydrological/hydraulic simulation model combined with event mean concentrations. It was found that combined sewer overflows (CSOs are the main FC sources, and that FC from stormwater runoff could still impair recreational activities in the Beauport River even if retention tanks were built to contain CSOs. Thus, intervention measures should be applied in order to reduce the concentration of FC in stormwater outfalls. The proposed method could be applied to water quality components other than FC, provided that they are present in stormwater runoff and/or CSOs, and that the time of concentration of the watershed is significantly lower than their persistence in urban waters.

  15. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP): a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru)

    Condom, T.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D.; Pouget, J. C.; Suarez, W.; Ramos, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Zapata, M.; Gomez, J.; Vergara, W.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i) adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii) quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii) estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi) reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i), a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and simulated river flow at 16 control points in the Rio Santa watershed. At the global scale of the watershed, the glacier retreat is correctly simulated for the period 1970/1999 with a calculated retreat equals to -23% when the observed retreat is of -24%. Having established that the model can respond to these scientific objectives, the ultimate goal of the study was to demonstrate how this integrated modelling system can be used as a decision support tool to assist in planning water management adaptation to climate change. This sort of integrated assessment is required to adapt water resources management in the Andes to a~range of future climatic conditions, improving the resilience of developing Andean economies such Peru's in the face of a major drive of global change.

  16. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP: a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru

    T. Condom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP, the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i, a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and simulated river flow at 16 control points in the Rio Santa watershed. At the global scale of the watershed, the glacier retreat is correctly simulated for the period 1970/1999 with a calculated retreat equals to −23% when the observed retreat is of −24%. Having established that the model can respond to these scientific objectives, the ultimate goal of the study was to demonstrate how this integrated modelling system can be used as a decision support tool to assist in planning water management adaptation to climate change. This sort of integrated assessment is required to adapt water resources management in the Andes to a~range of future climatic conditions, improving the resilience of developing Andean economies such Peru's in the face of a major drive of global change.

  17. NITROGEN EXPORT FROM FORESTED AND AGRICULTURAL WATERSHEDS OF SOUTHERN CHILE EXPORTACION DE NITROGENO EN CUENCAS BOSCOSAS Y AGRICOLAS EN EL SUR DE CHILE

    Carlos E. Oyarzún; Anton Huber

    2003-01-01

    Measuring nutrients fluxes in watersheds with different landuse is important for evaluating the effects of conversion of native forests to agricultural land, and for establishing guidelines for land management. Nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes were studied over a 12-month period in four watersheds in the Lake Rupanco basin in the Andean Cordillera and four watersheds located in the Lake Huillinco basin in the Coastal Cordillera of southern Chile. Two watersheds in either lake basins wer...

  18. Watershed Data Management (WDM) database for Salt Creek streamflow simulation, DuPage County, Illinois, water years 2005-11

    Bera, Maitreyee

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Stormwater Management Division, maintains a USGS database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. Most of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. An earlier report describes in detail the WDM database development including the processing of data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, in SEP04.WDM database. SEP04.WDM is updated with the appended data from October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2011, water years 200511 and renamed as SEP11.WDM. This report details the processing of meteorologic and hydrologic data in SEP11.WDM. This report provides a record of snow affected periods and the data used to fill missing-record periods for each precipitation site during water years 200511. The meteorologic data filling methods are described in detail in Over and others (2010), and an update is provided in this report.

  19. Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil: a case study

    Souza Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil. Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrological cycle (March/98-February/99. The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

  20. SEAMONSTER: A wireless Sensor Web prototype applied to studying glaciated watersheds (Invited)

    Heavner, M.; Fatland, D. R.; Hood, E. W.; Connor, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The SouthEast Alaska MOnitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education and Research (SEAMONSTER) Sensor Web is operating in partially glaciated watersheds on the margin of the Juneau Ice Field. Data from distributed, heterogeneous sensors with irregular sampling rates is integrated in a PostGIS (PostgreSQL with GIS extensions) database. Data discovery, data browsing, the sensor web operation and management, and education and publication are facilitated by the integration of the PostGIS database and Geoserver to deliver dynamically generated geospatial output. This presentation will focus on the technology developed to operate the SEAMONSTER sensor web and lessons learned regarding sensing the data using networking both internal and external to the sensor web. We will present examples of data fusion, modeling and reanalysis of the data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards, and present future plans to enhance the testbed nature and capabilities of the SEAMONSTER Sensor Web.

  1. MULTI-YEAR CHANGE IN WATER QUALITY FROM SMALL, SINGLE USE PASTURE WATERSHEDS

    Several small (<1 ha) watersheds were used in rotational grazing studies at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed near Coshocton, OH to study the impacts of management on water quality and the length of time for the impacts to be observed. Surface runoff was sampled on an event basis and sub...

  2. The assessment of land use change impact on watersheds runoff using SWAT: case study of Urmia Lake in Iran

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, long counted among the world's largest saltwater lakes, contains only 5% of the amount of water it did just 20 years ago. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. It has been believed that land use changes in Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important factors in shrinkage of Urmia Lake in recent decades. Transforming the traditional agricultural practices (i.e., wheat) to the more water consuming practices (i.e., apple orchards) is one of the most important reasons increased agricultural water consumption in the watershed. In this study we assessed the effect of the land use changes of watershed in hydrological runoff processing in the Nazloo chai watershed, one of the most important river basins of the Urmia Lake basin. Actually the rapid and at the same time unreasonable transformations of land use in farm lands of Urmia lake sub basins, extremely has been raised the amount of blue water (surface or groundwater) consumption in watershed which leads to dramatic decrement of watershed runoff amounts. One of the most unfavorable consequences of land use change was changing the blue and green (rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) water usage patterns in watershed, in addition to water use increment. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), one of the most important and reliable models which was used to model the rainfall runoff, has been used in current study. The land use maps were extracted from Landsat images archives for the most severe turning points in respect of land use change in the recent 30 years. After calibrating the model, several land use patterns of historical data were used in the model to produce the runoff. The results showed the strong relation between land use change and runoff reduction in the Lake Urmia basin.

  3. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Rajamanickam, G. Victor; Kumaravel, P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes - low, very low, uncertain, high and very high - 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  4. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha; G Victor Rajamanickam; P Kumaravel

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes – low, very low, uncertain, high and very high − 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  5. Influence of Land Management and Hydrology on Urea Fate and Transport Within a Coastal Plain Watershed Dominated by Intensive Poultry Agriculture

    Gustafson, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R.; May, E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing nutrient loads delivered from the landscape to coastal ecosystems has widely been recognized as a major contributor to coastal eutrophication and as a driver of the escalation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and septic waste, and is gaining recognition as a preferred nutrient for the development of toxic HABs. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining the Delmarva Peninsula and in the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the key factors that influence urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters. Here, in attempt to address the need to better understand urea behavior, we investigated land management and hydrologic controls on urea loss, both spatially and temporally, in the Manokin River. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (300 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Monthly synoptic sampling during baseflow conditions was conducted throughout the watershed in order to represent the variety of potential point and non-point sources of urea. Sampling was also conducted during stormflow conditions using time-weighted automated (SIGMA) samplers at select sites within the watershed. Temporal baseflow trends illustrate higher average urea concentrations through the summer months (0.61 ?M L-1) and generally lower (0.35 ?M L-1) concentrations during the winter months. Spatial trends show higher average baseflow urea concentrations in the agricultural ditches and headwaters (0.93?M L-1) with decreasing concentrations moving downstream (0.37 ?M L-1). Stormflow was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations typically increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations (0.27 ?M L-1) during storms, with peaks in urea concentration generally following peaks in discharge. Results from this study will be used to determine whether there is a link between urea delivery from the Manokin River and harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay as well as to guide the development of best management practices to control urea loss from agricultural activities.

  6. Scaling Relations for Watersheds

    Fehr, E; Arajo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    We study the morphology of watersheds in two and three dimensional systems subjected to different degrees of spatial correlations. The response of these objects to small, local perturbations is also investigated with extensive numerical simulations. We find the fractal dimension of the watersheds to generally decrease with the Hurst exponent, which quantifies the degree of spatial correlations. Moreover, in two dimensions, our results match the range of fractal dimensions $1.10 \\leq d_f \\leq 1.15$ observed for natural landscapes. We report that the watershed is strongly affected by local perturbations. For perturbed two and three dimensional systems, we observe a power-law scaling behavior for the distribution of areas (volumes) enclosed by the original and the displaced watershed, and for the distribution of distances between outlets. Finite-size effects are analyzed and the resulting scaling exponents are shown to depend significantly on the Hurst exponent. The intrinsic relation between watershed and invas...

  7. Watershed Charachterization And Prioritization Of Tulasi Subwatershed: A Geospatial Approach

    V.S.PAWAR-PATIL; SAGAR P.MALI

    2013-01-01

    It is proficiently important to conserve the limited and precarious natural resources vis land, water and soil which should be categorically studied at watershed level. Due to improper land, soil and water management practices, land and water resources getting degraded and eroded, water getting polluted. In this regard present study is profoundly concerned to characterization and prioritization of Tulasi sub watershed which is small tributary of Bhogavati River in mega Panchganga river basin ...

  8. Locating farmer-based knowledge and vested interests in natural resource management: the interface of ethnopedology, land tenure and gender in soil erosion management in the Manupali watershed, Philippines

    Price Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines local soil knowledge and management in the Manupali watershed in the Philippines. The study focuses on soil erosion and its control. Research methods used in the study include ethnosemantic elicitations on soils and focus group discussions. In addition, in-depth work was conducted with 48 farmers holding 154 parcels at different elevations/locations in the watershed. The on-parcel research consisted of farmer classifications of the soil, topography, and erosion status of their parcels. Soil samples were also taken and examined. Farming households were also examined with regard to erosion control activities conducted by age and sex. Erosion management was examined in relation to tenure of the parcel, which emerged as a salient aspect among focus group members and was evidenced by the actual control measures taken on farmed parcels. The results show that the major constraint in soil erosion management is not local knowledge as much as it is the tenure arrangements which allow "temporary owners" (those working rented or mortgaged parcels to manage the parcels as they see fit. Most of these temporary owners are not willing to invest in erosion control measures other than water diversion ditches. Parcel owners, in contrast, do invest in longer term erosion control measures on the parcels they actually work. The findings of this paper illustrate that linking local knowledge and practices is often not sufficient in and of itself for addressing questions of sound environmental management. While local knowledge serves farmers generally well, there are some limitations. Importantly, the pressures in the contemporary world of markets and cash can undermine what they know as the right thing to do for the environment.

  9. Development of Optimal Water-Resources Management Strategies for Kaidu-Kongque Watershed under Multiple Uncertainties

    Zhou, Y.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G. H.; Huang, Y

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an interval-stochastic fractile optimization (ISFO) model is advanced for developing optimal water-resources management strategies under multiple uncertainties. The ISFO model can not only handle uncertainties presented in terms of probability distributions and intervals with possibility distribution boundary, but also quantify subjective information (i.e., expected system benefit preference and risk-averse attitude) from different decision makers. The ISFO model is then applie...

  10. Hydrological characterization of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    P Pathak

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive Summary Water is one of the most critical resource and constraint in the semi-arid tropics (SAT. To minimize land degradation and sustain crop productivity in the SAT, management and efficient utilization of rainwater is important. Watershed-based resource utilization involves the optimum use of the area’sprecipitation for the improvement and stabilization of agriculture on the watershed through better water, soil, and crop management. More effective utilization of water for the production of crops canbe facilitated by one or more of the following means: (i in situ conservation of moisture; (ii proper drainage, collection, storage, and re-utilization of runoff; and (iii groundwater recovery from wells. For the proper development, conservation, and management of land and water resources, accurate information on surface and groundwater hydrology is crucial. Under the Asian Development Bank(ADB-supported project on integrated watershed management we studied the hydrological behavior of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam. From the five benchmarkwatersheds, the information on topography, rainfall, runoff, groundwater, and other relevant data were collected and analyzed.The hydrological data from the five benchmark watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam clearly show the effectiveness of improved watershed technologies in reducing runoff volume and peakrunoff rate. The highest runoff volume of 433 mm (51% of seasonal rainfall was recorded from the Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, while the lowest runoff volume of 55 mm (7% of seasonal rainfall wasrecorded from the Adarsha watershed in Kothapally, India. The highest peak runoff rate of 0.235 m3 s-1ha-1 was recorded from the untreated watershed at Kothapally. Between the treated and untreatedwatersheds the maximum difference in runoff volume was recorded at Lalatora watershed in India(290 mm in untreated compared to 55 mm in treated watershed. Among the three locations in India, the highest runoff was recorded at Lalatora watershed followed by Ringnodia and Kothapally watersheds. The groundwater observations from the three sites in India, clearly show the effectiveness of the improved watershed technologies in increasing the groundwater recharge therebyimproving the availability of water for agricultural and other uses. Throughout the season the groundwater levels in the treated areas were significantly higher compared to the groundwater levelsin the untreated areas. In terms of prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge, the Tad Fa watershed inThailand has the highest potential followed by Lalatora watershed in India. The prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge at Ringnodia and Adarsha watersheds in India aremoderate. The region-specific hydrological data reported in this publication will be useful in the planning, design, development, and management of land and water resources in the target regions.

  11. Perceiving Patagonia: An Assessment of Social Values and Perspectives Regarding Watershed Ecosystem Services and Management in Southern South America

    Zagarola, Jean-Paul A.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Veteto, James R.

    2014-04-01

    Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management.

  12. RIVER SEDIMENT MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS (CASE STUDY KARAJ WATERSHED

    M. Shafaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  13. River Sediment Monitoring Using Remote Sensing and GIS (case Study Karaj Watershed)

    Shafaie, M.; Ghodosi, H.; Mostofi, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  14. The experimental watersheds in Slovenia

    Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

  15. Participatory Scenario Planning for the Cienega Watershed: Embracing Uncertainty in Public Lands Management in the U.S. Southwest

    Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Land managers and communities struggle to sustain natural landscapes and the benefits they provide--especially in an era of rapid and unpredictable changes being driven by shifts in climate and other drivers that are largely outside the control of local managers and residents. The Cienega Watershed Partnership (CWP) is a long-standing multi-agency partnership involved in managing lands and resources over about 700,000 acres in southeast Arizona, surrounding the Bureau of Land Management's Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. The region forms a vital wildlife corridor connecting the diverse ecosystems of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and grasslands with the Sierra Madrean and Rocky Mountain forests and woodlands. The CWP has long-standing forums and relationships for considering complex issues and novel approaches for management, including practical implementation of adaptive management, development of monitoring programs and protocols, and the use of nested objectives to adjust management targets. However, current plans have objectives and strategies based on what is known or likely to become known about natural and socio-cultural systems; they do not incorporate uncertainties related to rapid changes in climate or have well developed feedback mechanisms for routinely reconsidering climate information. Since 2011, more than 50 individuals from over 20 federal and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and private landowners have participated in scenario planning for the Cienega Watershed. Scenario planning is an important tool for (1) managing risks in the face of high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity; (2) integrating quantitative climate projections, trend and impact assessments, and local expertise to develop qualitative scenario narratives that can inform decisions even by simply provoking insights; and (3) engaging jurisdictions having different missions, objectives, and planning processes. Participants are helping to extend and refine participatory scenario planning methods from the development of regional qualitative narratives to (1) development of scenario narratives that are relevant at the local management level, (2) creation and evaluation of portfolios of management options that can accommodate changes in management objectives, connect to formal agency planning processes, and that can be adjusted as the future evolves, and (3) explicit identification of the data and information that link qualitative narratives to quantitative scenario and adaptation assessments, which can be used to drive the timing and implementation of activities within the adaptation portfolios, and to prioritize monitoring and research activities to resolve near-term uncertainties. Project tasks are structured around four resource teams that focus on their specific management concerns (Montane, Riparian, Upland and Cultural), but that come together periodically to consider interaction and conflict among their scenarios or prospective adaptation. Participants are finding that embracing uncertainty enables them to approach climate change with a sense of empowerment rather than a sense of reacting to crises, and they appreciate the methods and opportunities for thinking differently and crossing boundaries that the scenario planning exercises provide.

  16. Potential and limitations of Payments for Environmental Services (PES as a means to manage watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia

    Alana George

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on two case studies conducted at local sites in Northern Thailand and Lao PDR, the objectives of this paper are (i to assess whether conditions for the establishment of PES at the watershed level exist in the uplands of mainland SE Asia and (ii to examine and discuss limitations that are likely to impinge on direct transfer of the PES concept as well as the institutional adaptations and support that are required for the successful implementation of PES markets in this regional context. The study's main findings are that: (i acceptance of PES principles and constraints are directly related to stakeholders' perception of their land rights irrespective of their actual rights; (ii willingness to pay (WTP is very low among local stakeholders, making any PES market unlikely to emerge without external support; (iii the classical scheme for watershed services hardly applies in its original form because environmental service (ES providers and buyers are generally the same people; (iv where potential ES buyers feel that ES providers are better-off or wealthier than them, they do not have any WTP for ES; (v good governance, including a strong liaising at various levels between people and the authorities is a strong prerequisite for the successful establishment of PES markets, even without direct government funding

  17. Implementation of BMP Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change and Land Use Change in a Pasture-Dominated Watershed

    Tao Huang; Yu-Pin Lin; Nien-Ming Hong; Indrajeet Chaubey; Li-Chi Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs) can reduce non-point source (NPS) pollutants from various land use activities. Watershed models are generally used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMP performance in improving water quality as the basis for watershed management recommendations. This study evaluates 171 management practice combinations that incorporate nutrient management, vegetated filter strips (VFS) and grazing management for their performances in improving water qua...

  18. Managing Managerialism in Management Studies

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The paper addresses the dominance of an instrumental or “managerialist” conception of rationality within management. Many critics have made clear that this conception of rationality is reductionist, but the critique often dismisses rationality altogether as the failed project of the Enlightenment...

  19. Water management in a complex hydrological basin: application of WEAP to the Lake Kinneret watershed (Briefing 2.3)

    Sivan, Illya; Salingar, Yigal; Rimmer, Alon; Sade, Rotem

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability of fresh water ecosystems and human activities in Mediterranean watersheds under future climate change can be supported with integrated hydrological modeling. The Lake Kinneret Watershed (LKW) is divided between the three countries, Israel, Lebanon, and Syria and incorporates four different hydrogeological units (Mt. Hermon in the north, the Golan Heights in the east, the eastern Galilee Mountains in the west, and the Hula Valley in the central part of the watershed). We simula...

  20. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin. PMID:24292872

  1. Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Khul Gad Micro Watershed of Kumoun Himalaya

    Suman Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Women in the marginal areas of Uttarakhand have always played and continue to play a significant role in managing and operating most of the household and agricultural activities. They are the main subsistence provider in the hills and considered the backbone of hill agriculture. Their lives are intrinsically related to land, water, forest, which are the main components and integral parts of an eco-system. An adverse effect on any one of these components disturbs the other compo- nents due to strong linkages and interrelationship with each other and creates havoc on the life of people, especially women in the region. However, in recent years, environmental degradation, poor resource management and increased migration of men to the plains have deteriorated the livelihood options and added more workload to women of the region. The sufferings of the com- munities in these hilly areas are gradually increasing and their standard of living is declining be- cause they have been neglected at both policy and practice levels by the government. The nexus between women, environment degradation and poverty are poorly understood and rarely treated in an integrated way. Therefore, the key objective of the present paper is to analyse the work par- ticipation of women operating at different sub-systems, impact of environmental degradation and role of women in sustaining the traditional agro-ecosystem in Khul Gad micro-watershed of Ku- moun Himalaya.

  2. Field Studies of Streamflow Generation Using Natural and Injected Tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Genereux, D.

    1992-01-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate [Rn]{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and {sup 222}Rn volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of [Rn]{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach. The method was first applied to a 34 m stream reach at Bickford during baseflow; results suggested that {ge} 70% of the lateral inflow could be considered vadose zone water (water which had been in a saturated zone for less than a few days), and the remainder ''soil groundwater'' or ''saturated zone water'' (which had a longer residence time in a soil saturated zone). The method was then applied to two stream reaches on the West Fork of Walker Branch over a wide range of flow conditions; four springs were also investigated. It was found that springwater and inflow to the stream could be viewed as a mixture of water from three end members: the two defined at Bickford (vadose zone water and soil groundwater) and a third (bedrock groundwater) to account for the movement of water through fractured dolomite bedrock. Calcium was used as a second naturally-occurring tracer to distinguish bedrock groundwater from the other two end members. The behavior indicated by the three-end-member mixing model (e.g., increased importance of the two soil end members with increasing flow, and the differences between the stream reaches and among some of the springs) were consistent with a wide variety of environmental observations, including temperature and flow variations at springs, water table responses, the general lack of saturated zones on hillslopes and even near the stream in some places, and the importance of water movement through bedrock.

  3. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY

    The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

  4. Watershed versus in-lake alkalinity generation: A comparison of rates using input-output studies

    Shaffer, P.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Eshleman, K.N.; Church, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    As a means of assessing the relative contributions of watershed (terrestrial) and in-lake processes to overall lake/watershed alkalinity budgets, alkalinity production rates for watersheds and low-alkalinity lakes were compiled from the literature and compared. Analysis of data indicates that for low-alkalinity systems, areal alkalinity production rates for watersheds and lakes are approximately equal. The relationship suggests that watershed area to lake area ratio can be used as a convenient estimator of the relative importance of watershed and in-lake sources of alkalinity for drainage lake systems. For precipitation-dominated seepage lakes and other systems where hydrology limits soil-water contact, hydrologic flow paths and residence times can be of overriding importance in determining alkalinity sources. For regions dominated by drainage lakes with high watershed area to lake area ratios (such as the Northeastern U.S.), however, alkalinity budgets are dominated by watershed processes. Omission of in-lake alkalinity consideration for most lakes in such regions would have little impact on computed alkalinity budgets or on predicted response to changes in acidic-deposition loadings.

  5. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquifeŕs reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering uncertainties in supply (climate change), demand (market variations), and measurement (risk definition). Applied to the Copaipó case study, this methodology proposes the solution of a 30% demand decrease within the agricultural sector through urban wastewater recycling and increased irrigation efficiency.

  6. Characterizing a Century of Climate and Hydrological Variability of a Mediterranean and Mountainous Watersheds: the Durance River Case-Study

    Mathevet, T.; Kuentz, A.; Gailhard, J.; Andreassian, V.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the understanding of mountain watersheds hydrological variability is a great scientific issue, for both researchers and water resources managers, such as Electricite de France (Energy and Hydropower Company). The past and current context of climate variability enhances the interest on this topic, since multi-purposes water resources management is highly sensitive to this variability. The Durance River watershed (14000 km2), situated in the French Alps, is a good example of the complexity of this issue. It is characterized by a variety of hydrological processes (from snowy to Mediterranean regimes) and a wide range of anthropogenic influences (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, tourism and water supply), mixing potential causes of changes in its hydrological regimes. As water related stakes are numerous in this watershed, improving knowledge on the hydrological variability of the Durance River appears to be essential. In this presentation, we would like to focus on a methodology we developed to build long-term historical hydrometeorological time-series, based on atmospheric reanalysis (20CR : 20th Century Reanalysis) and historical local observations. This methodology allowed us to generate precipitation, air temperature and streamflow time-series at a daily time-step for a sample of 22 watersheds, for the 1883-2010 period. These long-term streamflow reconstructions have been validated thanks to historical searches that allowed to bring to light ten long historical series of daily streamflows, beginning on the early 20th century. Reconstructions appear to have rather good statistical properties, with good correlation (greater than 0.8) and limited mean and variance bias (less than 5%). Then, these long-term hydrometeorological time-series allowed us to characterize the past variability in terms of available water resources, droughts or hydrological regime. These analyses help water resources managers to better know the range of hydrological variabilities, which are usually greatly underestimated with classical available time-series (less than 50 years).

  7. 77 FR 71404 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Flood Risk Management Study...

    2012-11-30

    ... Proposed Flood Risk Management Study for the Blanchard River Watershed Including Communities of Findlay and... preparing the EIS. The EIS will consider Federal actions associated with the proposed Flood Risk Management... measures to improve flood risk management, navigation, water quality, recreation, and fish and...

  8. Debris flow run off simulation and verification ‒ case study of Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan

    M.-L. Lin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 typhoon Herb struck the central Taiwan area, causing severe debris flow in many subwatersheds of the Chen-You-Lan river watershed. More severe cases of debris flow occurred following Chi-Chi earthquake, 1999. In order to identify the potentially affected area and its severity, the ability to simulate the flow route of debris is desirable. In this research numerical simulation of debris flow deposition process had been carried out using FLO-2D adopting Chui-Sue river watershed as the study area. Sensitivity study of parameters used in the numerical model was conducted and adjustments were made empirically. The micro-geomorphic database of Chui-Sue river watershed was generated and analyzed to understand the terrain variations caused by the debris flow. Based on the micro-geomorphic analysis, the debris deposition in the Chui-Sue river watershed in the downstream area, and the position and volume of debris deposition were determined. The simulated results appeared to agree fairly well with the results of micro-geomorphic study of the area when not affected by other inflow rivers, and the trends of debris distribution in the study area appeared to be fairly consistent.

  9. Endangered ecosystem conservation: a 30-year lesson from the evolution of saline-alkali soil management in Manasi river watershed, China

    Previous studies on saline-alkali soil management mostly followed an instrumental 'prediction and control' approach dominated by technical end-of-pipe solutions. However, those 'integrated' instrumental solutions frequently perished due to the growing social and economic uncertainties in financial support, legal insurance, expertise service and other factors. This investigation summarizes the 30-year period of saline-alkali soil management - the social and economic and ecological (SEE) management innovation - its adoption, diffusion, adaptation and transformation in Manasi River watershed of northern Xinjiang. This area was experiencing three distinct SEE management stages from pure instrumental desalination techniques to integrated desalination technique system following the SEE supporting system. The results of GIS analysis (Fragatats 3.3) and historical documents provide data evidence for above three transition stages. The total area of saline and alkali land was increased by 32.7%, 47.6% during the first two decades but decreased by 11.9% in the recent decade. The numbers of saline land patches were 116, 129 and 121 in 1989, 2000 and 2007 respectively, a similar trend to the changes of total area. However, both perimeter-area fractal dimension (PAFD) and splitting index (SI) continued to increase, with values of 1.265, 1.272 and 1.279 for PAFD and 259.29, 269.68, 272.92 for SI in 1989, 2000 and 2007, respectively. It suggests that saline and alkaline land distribution had been fragmented, and sequestrated into salt micro-catchments within whole oasis ecosystems. This case is largely associated with effective adoption of integrated engineering and biological desalination programs as a result of local SEE saline-alkali soil management innovation. (author)

  10. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014-06-24 to 2015-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0138585)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  11. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: Belt transect surveys of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from 2014-06-29 to 2015-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0137092)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  12. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Surveys (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the Presidents Executive Order 13508Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information. (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better manage data resources, work more efficiently with partners, and facilitate holistic watershed science. It is now the goal of the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies to implement an enhanced and all-encompassing approach to data management. This report discusses preliminary efforts to implement a physical data management system for program data that is not replicated nationally through other USGS databases.

  13. Potential for Hybrid Poplar Riparian Buffers to Provide Ecosystem Services in Three Watersheds with Contrasting Agricultural Land Use

    Julien Fortier; Benoit Truax; Daniel Gagnon; France Lambert

    2016-01-01

    In temperate agricultural watersheds, the rehabilitation of tree vegetation in degraded riparian zones can provide many ecosystem services. This study evaluated ecosystem service provision potential following the conversion of non-managed herbaceous buffers to hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) buffers in three watersheds (555–771 km2) of southern Québec (Canada), with contrasting agricultural land uses. To extrapolate services at the watershed level, total stream length where hybrid poplars could ...

  14. Interdecadal trends of sediment discharge in mountain watersheds in Japan

    Koi, Takashi; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2010-05-01

    After sediment production, such as by a landslide, some sediment immediately discharges from the basin outlet. However, part of the sediment remains in the basin, to be removed and re-deposited by subsequent rainfall and flooding before finally being discharged. Such sediment dynamics occur at various timescales, depending on the frequency and magnitude of sediment production and the various agents of sediment transport. Thus, interdecadal trends of sediment discharge differ by watershed. Understanding sediment dynamics over longer timescales is important for studies of geomorphological processes and for basin management. This study examined factors associated with interdecadal sediment discharge by comparing two mountain watersheds in Japan. The study sites were the Nakagawagawa watershed (39 km2) in the Kanto district, where widespread landslides were induced by a catastrophic earthquake (M 7.9) in 1923, and the Dogawa watershed (81 km2) in the Kyushu district, where heavy rainfall events (continuous rainfall of over 1000 mm) have repeatedly triggered landslides. Long-term reservoir sedimentation data were available for both watersheds, covering 25 years in the Nakagawagawa watershed and 53 years in the Dogawa watershed. Although both watersheds had high sediment yield (103 m3km-2year-1 order) for their decadal averages, the interdecadal time series showed different waveform trends. The waveform of the Nakagawagawa watershed was nearly constant over 25 years. The waveform of the Dogawa watershed showed interdecadal fluctuation over 50 years. These waveforms were distinguished according to the difference between maximum and minimum sediment yields of the N-year moving average. Annual sediment discharges roughly corresponded with the rainfall magnitude, yet rainfall was not a main factor controlling interdecadal variability of sediment discharge. These sediment dynamics can be discussed from the perspective of temporarily stored sediment. In the Nakagawagawa watershed, the abundant temporarily stored sediment produced by earthquake-triggered landslides was discharged with rainfall and, consequently, high sediment discharges continued for a long time. On the other hand, in the Dogawa watershed, high sediment discharges were concentrated only after landslide occurrences; in other periods sediment discharge was moderate, regardless of rainfall magnitude. When temporarily stored sediment abounded in the watershed, high sediment yields corresponded with rainfall events. In contrast, when temporarily stored sediment was not abundant, sediment yield was moderate, regardless of rainfall magnitude. Hence, the interdecadal variability of sediment discharge was dictated not only by rainfall but also by the amount of temporarily stored sediment. This study shows that temporarily stored sediment was closely associated with sediment dynamics on the interdecadal timescale and that waveforms of sediment discharge reflect fluctuation of the temporarily stored sediment.

  15. Estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the Redrock Creek watershed using AnnAGNPS and GIS.

    Tsou, Ming-Shu; Zhan, Xiao-Yong

    2004-01-01

    Sediment has been identified as a significant threat to water quality and channel clogging that in turn may lead to river flooding. With the increasing awareness of the impairment from sediment to water bodies in a watershed, identifying the locations of the major sediment sources and reducing the sediment through management practices will be important for an effective watershed management. The annualized agricultural non-point source pollution(AnnAGNPS) model and newly developed GIS interface for it were applied in a small agricultural watershed, Redrock Creek watershed, Kansas, in this pilot study for exploring the effectiveness of using this model as a management tool. The calibrated model appropriately simulated monthly runoff and sediment yield through the practices in this study and potentially suggested the ways of sediment reduction through evaluating the changes of land use and field operation in the model for the purpose of watershed management. PMID:15559830

  16. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation methods, and discount rates applied. Further guidance on representing uncertainty and applying uncertain results in decisionmaking would benefit both tool developers and those offices in using ecosystem services to compare management tradeoffs. Decisionmakers and Bureau of Land Management managers at the State-, district-, and field-office level would also benefit from continuing model improvements, training, and guidance on tool use that can be provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of the Interior. Tradeoffs were identified in the level of effort needed to parameterize and run tools and the amount and quality of information they provide to the decision process. We found the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, Ecosystem Services Review, and United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Centre Ecosystem Services Toolkit to be immediately feasible for application by the Bureau of Land Management, given proper guidance on their use. It is also feasible for the Bureau of Land Management to use the InVEST model, but in early 2012 the process of parameterizing the model required resources and expertise that are unlikely to be available in most Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Application of past primary valuation is feasible, but developing new primary-valuation studies is too time consuming for regular application. Value transfer approaches (aside from the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit) are best applied carefully on the basis of guidelines described in this report, to reduce transfer error. The ARIES model can provide useful information in regions modeled in the past (Arizona, California, Colorado, and Washington), but it lacks some features that will improve its usability, such as a generalized model that could be applied anywhere in the United States. Eleven other tools described in this report could become useful as the tools more fully develop, in high-profile cases for which additional resources are available for tool application or in case-study regions where place-specific models have already been developed. To improve the value of these tools in decisionmaking, we suggest scientific needs that agencies such as U.S. Geological Survey can help meet—for instance, development and support of data archives. Such archives could greatly reduce resource needs and improve the reliability and consistency of results. Given the rapid state of evolution in the field, periodic follow-up studies on ecosystem services tools would help to ensure that the Bureau of Land Management and other public land management agencies are kept up to date on new tools and features that bring ecosystem services closer to readiness for use in regular decisionmaking.

  17. Using critical source areas for targeting cost-effective best management practices to mitigate phosphorus and sediment transfer at the watershed scale

    Strauss, Peter; Leone, Antonio; Ripa, Maria; Turpin, Nadine; Lescot, Jean-Marie; Laplana, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The impact of implementing different best management practices (BMPs) at the small watershed scale were examined for the Petzenkirchen catchment in Austria and Lake Vico in Italy, in terms of data needs, hydrological processes, tools and models involved. Identification of critical source areas for targeting soil and phosphorus losses turned out to be crucial for correct allocation of BMPs. Comparison of environmental effectiveness and costs, both calculated using various modelling approaches,...

  18. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Ashok J. Tamhankar; Eva Johansson; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are ...

  19. A model to study the grain size components of the sediment deposited in aeolian-fluvial interplay erosion watershed

    Zhang, Xiang; Li, Zhanbin; Li, Peng; Cheng, Shengdong; Zhang, Yang; Tang, Shanshan; Wang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian-fluvial interplay erosion areas with complex dynamics and physical sources are the main suppliers of coarse sediment in the Yellow River. Understanding the composition, distribution, and sources of deposited sediments in such areas is of great importance for the control of sediment transport in rivers. In this paper, a typical aeolian-fluvial interplay erosion watershed - the Dongliu Gully - was studied and the frequency distribution curves of sediments deposited in the stream channel were fitted using the Weibull function. Sources of deposited sediment in the stream channel were analyzed based on the law of the conservation of matter. Results showed that the hilly zone accounted for 78% of deposited sediments, which were dominated by material with a median grain size (d50) of 0.093 mm, and the desert zone accounted for 22% of deposited sediments, which were dominated by material with a d50 of 0.01 mm. Wind erosion dynamics accounted for 72% of deposited sediments, while water erosion dynamics accounted for only 28%. This research provides a theoretical basis for the control and management of rivers with high sediment content.

  20. Criteria for evaluating sediment quality. Case study: sub-watershed of Espirito Santo Stream, affluent of the Sao Francisco river

    'Sediment Quality Values Guidelines' (SQVG) have been used for evaluating ecological risk associated with the sediment contamination for benthic organisms. The main objective of this work was to develop methodologies and to collect data that allowed the application of SQVG for the following metals: Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The location chosen for the case study was the sub-watershed of the Espirito Santo Stream, which is part of the Unit Planning and Hydrologic Resources Management- UPGRH SF4, of the Sao Francisco river watershed, located in the area of the city of Tres Marias. The life in the sub-watershed is significantly affected by the installation of a waste dam that controls effluents coming from the zinc-ore beneficiation plant. Our studies addressed the biogeochemical characterization of the sediments of those environments through the determination of the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), the study of the partitioning of metals is among the total sediments and interstitial waters, and the determination of the fraction of metals is associated with AVS in the total sediments. The data obtained were analyzed in association with those related to the analysis of the structure of the benthic community and eco-toxicity tests. The studies also included analysis of the physico-chemical variables and concentration of metals is in the samples of the surface water; mineralogical and granulometric analyses, quantity of organic matter and concentration of inorganic contaminants in the samples of sediments. High levels of electrical conductivity and total solids diluted were found in one surface water sample site. The results of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) showed that the chemical elements predominant in the samples were Ti, Al, V, Mn and Fe. The results of the total metal analysis in sediment samples showed that only one point located in the Lavagem stream, situated immediately downstream the dam and before flowing into the Espirito Santo stream, presented concentration values of the evaluated metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) above those of the 'background' value. The TEL limits ('Threshold Effect Level') and PEL ('Probable Effect Level') were not exceeded in any of the sampling campaigns. The Guidelines Interstitial Water Toxic Units (IWTU), established by the USEPA, was violated for all samples. The application of SQVG, based on the equilibrium partition theory, showed that metals are controlled by the sulfide-phase present in sediments. This indicates that the metals presented in the sediments may have low bio-availability. The results of the evaluation of the benthic community structure indicated a possible influence of the waste dam in the Lavagem stream and in the Espirito Santo stream, downstream the confluence with the Lavagem stream. The results of eco-toxicity tests showed that contaminated sediment can cause only chronic effects. (author)

  1. Effects of stormwater management and stream restoration on watershed nitrogen retention

    Restoring urban infrastructure and managing the nitrogen cycle represent emerging challenges for urban water quality. We investigated whether stormwater control measures (SCMs), a form of green infrastructure, integrated into restored and degraded urban stream networks can influ...

  2. Using multiple-criteria decision-making techniques for eco-environmental vulnerability assessment: a case study on the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, Taiwan.

    Huang, Pi-Hui; Tsai, Jing-Shyan; Lin, Wen-Tzu

    2010-09-01

    The Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, located in the area of the upstream Da-Chia River in central Taiwan, is famous for slopeland agriculture and the land-locked salmon. Improper agricultural activities have caused apparent ecosystem vulnerability and sensitivity. In this study, a system that combined three watershed-based environmental indicators with multiple-criteria decision-making techniques, the Analytical Hierarchy Process, and the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations was developed to assess eco-environmental vulnerability. The composite evaluation index system was set up including sediment, runoff, and nutrient factors. Supported by geographic information system and K-means clustering and taking the subwatershed as the evaluation unit, the vulnerability is classified into four levels: potential, low, moderate, and high. The evaluated results show that 8.82% of subwatersheds (six subwatersheds) are in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones. These subwatersheds represent vertical-belt distribution, mainly concentrated in the right side of the studied area and near the riparian zone along the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream. The exploited farmland in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones is about 142.21 ha, occupying 75.38% of the total farmland in the studied watershed. These seriously vulnerable zones that have caused degradation in the quality of the eco-environment should be treated with more best management practices for eco-environmental rehabilitation. Additionally, the proposed model can effectively evaluate the eco-environmental vulnerability grade for reference in policy planning and ecological restoration in this area. PMID:19629735

  3. Watershed District

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  4. Case study of a dynamically reconfigurable architecture implementing a watershed segmentation

    Akil, Mohamed

    2002-03-01

    In this paper an implementation of a watershed algorithm on dynamically reconfigurable architecture is proposed. The hardware architecture dedicated to this algorithm consists of implementing the following transforms: labeled maker image processing, numerical rebuilding, geodesic distance function, and markers propagation. We show that the fast reprogrammability of the FPGA allows the sequential execution of these different stages, which compute watershed segmentation on a low cost hardware architecture.

  5. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2004-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  6. Reply to comment on “Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures” by Koch et al. (Elem Sci Anth 3:000063, July 2015

    Benjamin J. Koch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reply to a comment on our recent structured expert judgment analysis of stormwater nitrogen retention in suburban watersheds. Low relief, permeable soils, a dynamic stream channel, and subsurface flows characterize many lowland Coastal Plain watersheds. These features result in unique catchment hydrology, limit the precision of streamflow measurements, and challenge the assumptions for calculating runoff from rainfall and catchment area. We reiterate that the paucity of high-resolution nitrogen loading data for Chesapeake Bay watersheds warrants greater investment in long-term empirical studies of suburban watershed nutrient budgets for this region.

  7. The Magnitude of Lost Ecosystem Structure and Function in Urban Streams and the Effectiveness of Watershed-Based Management

    Watershed development is a leading cause of stream impairment and increasingly threatens the availability, quality, and sustainability of freshwater resources. In a recent global meta-analysis, we found that measures of desirable ecological structure (e.g., algal, macroinvertebra...

  8. REMOTE SENSING, VISUALIZATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    The integration of satellite and airborne remote sensing, scientific visualization and decision support tools is discussed within the context of management techniques for minimizing the non-point source pollution load of inland waterways and the sustainability of food crop produc...

  9. Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis.

    Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Conrads, Paul A; Feaster, Toby D; Davis, Gary M; Benedict, Stephen T; Bradley, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling. PMID:23703873

  10. Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis

    Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Davis, Gary M.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling.

  11. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be accomplished in a virtual environment. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management

    Chi-Feng Chen; Ming-Yang Sheng; Chia-Ling Chang; Shyh-Fang Kang; Jen-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Low impact development (LID) is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN) to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited rel...

  13. Investigation of Check Dam`s Effects on Channel Morphology (Case Study: Chehel Cheshme Watershed

    K. Solaimani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on morphologic changes of channels resulted from establishing check dam construction in Chehel cheshme watershed located at Fars Province. In this study, five channels with check dams were selected through the study area. Then some morphologic parameters of channels such as width/depth ratio, the maximum depth and cross section area along the channel on which check dam were constructed had been measured. These measurements were made on 6 cross section areas in 10, 50 and 90% distances from check dams at upstream and downstream. The above mentioned parameters were calculated using calculating and graphic soft wares. Then, some analytical methods were used to estimate and compare the average digital numbers of calculated parameters through different channels. The results showed that check dams have definitely influenced on width/depth ratios at their upstream and downstream. These influences are associated with higher width/depth ratios at upstream and lower width/depth ratio at downstream. Furthermore, the maximum depth of channels had significant influenced by check dams. As for cross section areas, no significant difference existed between cross sections through total channels and check dams.

  14. Investigation of check dam's effects on channel morphology (case study: Chehel cheshme watershed).

    Solaimani, K; Omidvar, E; Kelarestaghi, A

    2008-09-01

    This research is focused on morphologic changes of channels resulted from establishing check dam construction in Chehel cheshme watershed located at Fars Province. In this study, five channels with check dams were selected through the study area. Then some morphologic parameters of channels such as width/depth ratio, the maximum depth and cross section area along the channel on which check dam were constructed had been measured. These measurements were made on 6 cross section areas in 10, 50 and 90% distances from check dams at upstream and downstream. The above mentioned parameters were calculated using calculating and graphic soft wares. Then, some analytical methods were used to estimate and compare the average digital numbers of calculated parameters through different channels. The results showed that check dams have definitely influenced on width/depth ratios at their upstream and downstream. These influences are associated with higher width/depth ratios at upstream and lower width/depth ratio at downstream. Furthermore, the maximum depth of channels had significant influenced by check dams. As for cross section areas, no significant difference existed between cross sections through total channels and check dams. PMID:19266921

  15. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  16. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the course of 2009-2010, student teams carried out two independent research projects focused on the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The first investigated the threat of invasive species to forests in Maryland. The second investigated the detection of winter cover crops throughout the watershed from satellite data.

  17. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-01-01

    The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on...

  18. Channel enlargement in semiarid suburbanizing watersheds: A southern California case study

    Hawley, R. J.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2013-07-01

    Semiarid channels exhibit an extreme sensitivity to upstream urban development, particularly in unconfined valleys with unprotected grades. For example, one of our study streams in southern California has increased its cross-sectional area by nearly 14-fold relative to its pre-developed channel form in a watershed that has been only lightly developed (10.4% imperviousness). Multivariate regression models of cross-sectional channel enlargement at 61 sites were highly dependent on the ratio of post- to pre-urban sediment-transport capacity over cumulative duration simulations of 25 yrs (Lr), which explained nearly 60% of the variance. The proximity of a channel hard point such as bedrock or artificial grade control was also significant, indicating that channel enlargement increased moving upstream from grade control. The enlargement models point to the importance of balancing the post-developed sediment transport to the pre-developed setting over an entire range of flows rather than a single flow in order to reduce the risk of adverse channel responses to hydromodification. The need for controlling a wide range of flows was underscored by logistic-regression analyses that indicated a high risk of instability in systems with Lr > 1, especially for fine-grained systems (i.e., d50 < 16 mm).

  19. Soil, environmental, and watershed measurements in support of carbon cycling studies in northwestern Mississippi

    Huntington, T.G.; Harden, J.W.; Dabney, S.M.; Marion, D.A.; Alonso, C.; Sharpe, J.M.; Fries, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements including soil respiration, soil moisture, soil temperature, and carbon export in suspended sediments from small watersheds were recorded at several field sites in northwestern Mississippi in support of hillslope process studies associated with the U.S. Geological Survey's Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP). These measurements were made to provide information about carbon cycling in agricultural and forest ecosystems to understand the potential role of erosion and deposition in the sequestration of soil organic carbon in upland soils. The question of whether soil erosion and burial constitutes an important net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide is one hypothesis that the MBCP is evaluating to better understand carbon cycling and climate change. This report contains discussion of methods used and presents data for the period December 1996 through March 1998. Included in the report are ancillary data provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research on rainfall, runoff, sediment yield, forest biomass and grain yield. Together with the data collected by the USGS these data permit the construction of carbon budgets and the calibration of models of soil organic matter dynamics and sediment transport and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established cooperative agreements with the USDA and USFS to facilitate collaborative research at research sites in northwestern Mississippi.

  20. Lithological and Geological Impacts on Gully Erosion (Case Study: Seif Abad Watershed, Lorestan

    SH. Yousofvand

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility and gully erosion and their expansion occur under geological formation and soil characteristics. This study aims to find the rate of soil and formation effects on gully erosion in Seifabad watershed. To that end, aerial and field work were used together to determine the rate & expansion of 17 gullies in 12 years' period from 1997 to 2009. The soils were sampled for each gully in 50% interval distance with 0-30 cm horizontal surfaces and >30 cm depth. Some factors were estimated from the soil such as EC, PH, Silt, Clay, Sand & limeston percentages. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14 through non-parametric tests such as Kruskal-Wallis & Mann-Whitney. Spearman coefficient was used to investigate the relation between volume of gully & litological factors. The results showed a positive correlation at 1% level for the PH with the gully erodibility in surface soil, but for the depth of soil this relation belonged to the silt percentage, and sand showed a negative relation at 5%level with the volume of the gully sediments. Finally, there was no statistical relationship between geological formation and the sediment yield in gullies.

  1. Landscape processes, effects and the consequences of migration in their management at the Jatún Mayu watershed (Bolivia)

    Penna, Ivanna; Jaquet, Stephanie; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Kaenzig, Raoul; Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Liniger, Hanspeter; Machaca, Angelica; Cuba, Edgar; Boillat, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Bolivia has a large rural population, mostly composed of subsistence farmers that face natural and anthropogenic driven processes affecting their livelihoods. In order to establish sustainable management strategies, it is important to understand the factors governing landscape changes. This work explores the geomorphic imprint and effects of natural and anthropogenic driven processes on three mountain communities undergoing de-population in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Based on satellite image interpretation, field work and household surveys, we have identified gullies and landslides as main active processes, causing land losses, affecting inter-communal roads, etc. While landslides are mostly occurring in the middle and lower section of the basin, gullies are especially affecting the upper part (especially the southern slope). Our analysis indicated that in the middle and lower part of the basin, landslides are developing in response to the Jatún Mayu incision (slopes reach a critical angle and slope failures increase). However in the upper part, where no river down-cutting is taking place, preliminary analysis indicates that past and present human interventions (over-grazing, agriculture, road construction, etc.) play a key role on driving land degradation toward the formation of gullies. Based on the comparison of high resolution images from 2004 and 2009, we determined an agricultural land loss rate of 8452 m2/year, mostly in the form of landslides. One single event swept away 0.03 km2 of agricultural lands (~13 parcels), approximately 87% of an average household property. People's main concerns are hail, frost and droughts because they cause an "immediate" loss on family incomes, but the impacts caused by landslides and gullies are not disregarded by the communities and the government. Communities are organized to set up and maintain key infrastructure such as irrigation canals and roads. They also intend to develop protective measures against erosion like check dams based on tyres filled with rocks. In addition, organizations supported by government and institutions from abroad have built dams, reforested some slopes, and raised local capacities to improve soil conservation measures e.g. through slow-forming terraces. However, rural-to-urban migration could be affecting the management of processes leading to land degradation. Around 77% of the 22 households surveyed have at least one migrant family member (permanent, seasonal or double residence migrant). Labour force is reduced and because of de-population, two of the three schools in the area have closed. In spite of the support that communities receive, our findings indicate that high population mobility is affecting land management practices and the capacity of communities to cope with land degradation processes.

  2. Watershed Charachterization And Prioritization Of Tulasi Subwatershed: A Geospatial Approach

    V.S.PAWAR-PATIL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proficiently important to conserve the limited and precarious natural resources vis land, water and soil which should be categorically studied at watershed level. Due to improper land, soil and water management practices, land and water resources getting degraded and eroded, water getting polluted. In this regard present study is profoundly concerned to characterization and prioritization of Tulasi sub watershed which is small tributary of Bhogavati River in mega Panchganga river basin of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. The prioritization of this small watershed has been carried out on the basis of morphometric analysis for land reclamation and soil erosion prevention. Database has been prepared in ArcGIS 9.3 desktop application, ARCSWAT extension tool for sub-watershed demarcation and other analysis carried out for certain significant areal, linear morphometric parameters vis stream length, stream frequency, bifurcation ratio, Length of overland flow, perimeter of basin, drainage density etc. have been assessed. Cartosat data used for preparation DEM and delineation of watershed. Above said parameters obtained by using Arc Gis ver.9.3 software and appropriate weightage assigned to them in order to assess the priority of sub watershed. The result reveals that, sub-basin TB-2, TB-3 and TB-4 has comes under the high risk for soil erosion and need to give a high priority for land conservation practices. These studies are significant for soil erosion prevention and surface rainwater harvesting.

  3. Sr isotopic characteristics in two small watersheds draining silicate and carbonate rocks: implication for studies on seawater Sr isotopic evolution

    Wu, W. H.; Zheng, H. B.; Cao, J. H.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-02-01

    We systematically investigated the Sr isotopic characteristics of a small silicate watershed, the Xishui River a tributary of the Yangtze River, and a small carbonate watershed, the Guijiang River a tributary of the Pearl River. The results show that the two rivers have uncommon Sr isotopic characteristics compared with most small watersheds. Specifically, the silicate watershed (Xishui River) has relatively high Sr concentrations (0.468 to 1.70 μmol L-1 in summer and 1.30 to 3.17 μmol L-1 in winter, respectively) and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708686 to 0.709148 in summer and 0.708515 to 0.709305 in winter). The carbonate watershed (Guijiang River) has low Sr concentrations (0.124 to 1.098 μmol L-1) and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.710558 to 0.724605). As the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Xishui River are lower than those in seawater, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater will decrease after the river water is transported to the oceans. Previous studies have also shown that some basaltic watersheds with extremely high chemical weathering rates reduced the seawater Sr isotope ratios. In other words, river catchments with high silicate weathering rates do not certainly transport highly radiogenic Sr into oceans. Therefore, the use of the variations in the seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratio to indicate the continental silicate weathering intensity may be questionable. In the Guijiang River catchment, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of carbonate rocks and other sources (rainwater, domestic and industrial waste water, and agricultural fertilizer) are lower than 0.71. In comparison, some non-carbonate components, such as sand rocks, mud rocks, and shales, have relatively high Sr isotopic compositions. Moreover, granites accounted for only 5% of the drainage area have extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratios with an average of greater than 0.8. Therefore, a few silicate components in carbonate rocks obviously increase the Sr isotopic compositions of the river water.

  4. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

    Surendra Kumar Chandniha; M. L Kansal; G. Anvesh

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and en...

  5. Modeling increased riverine nitrogen export: Source tracking and integrated watershed-coast management.

    Yu, Dan; Yan, Weijin; Chen, Nengwang; Peng, Benrong; Hong, Huasheng; Zhuo, Guihua

    2015-12-30

    The global NEWS model was calibrated and then used to quantify the long term trend of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from two tributaries of Jiulong River (SE China). Anthropogenic N inputs contributed 61-92% of river DIN yield which increased from 337 in 1980s to 1662kgNkm(-2)yr(-1) in 2000s for the North River, and from 653 to 3097kgNkm(-2)yr(-1) for the West River. North River and West River contributed 55% and 45% respectively of DIN loading to the estuary. Rapid development and poor management driven by national policies were responsible for increasing riverine N export. Scenario analysis and source tracking suggest that reductions of anthropogenic N inputs of at least 30% in the North River (emphasis on fertilizer and manure) and 50% in the West River (emphasis on fertilizer) could significantly improve water quality and mitigate eutrophication in both river and coastal waters. PMID:26517942

  6. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture representative hydrological conditions in both the sample watershed case and an initial test case that utilized base data from a watershed with minimal land disturbance. Results from this study provide valuable insight into the effects of water use through a variety of climactic conditions and provide potential strategies for policy makers, regulators, and stakeholders to strengthen adaptive capacity to achieve sustainable water use within coastal watersheds.

  7. Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    S. M. Hsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

  8. Evaluation of an operational streamflow forecasting system driven by ensemble precipitation forecasts : a case study for the Gatineau watershed

    Boucher, M.-A.; Perreault, L.; Tremblay, D.; Gaudet, J.; Minville, M.; Anctil, F.

    2009-04-01

    Among the various sources of uncertainty for hydrological forecasts, the uncertainty linked to meteorological inputs prevail. Precipitation is particularly difficult to forecast and observed values are often poor representation of the true precipitation field. In order to account for the uncertainty related to precipitation data, it can be interesting to produce ensemble streamflow forecasts by feeding a hydrological model with ensemble precipitation forecasts issued by atmospheric models. In this study, we use ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive Hydrotel, a distributed hydrological model. We concentrate on the Gatineau watershed, which serves as an experimental watershed for Hydro-Qubec, the major hydropower producer in Quebec. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate that ensemble precipitation forecasts can improve streamflow forecasting for the watershed of interest. The ensemble precipitation forecasts were produced by Environnement Canada from march first of 2002 to december 31st of 2003. They were obtained using two atmospheric models, SEF (8 members plus the control deterministic forecast) and GEM (8 members). The corresponding deterministic precipitation forecast issued by SEF model is also used with Hydrotel in order to compare ensemble streamflow forecasts with their deterministic counterparts. The quality of the precipitation forecasts is first assessed, using the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the logarithmic score, rank histograms and reliability diagrams. The performance of the corresponding streamflow forecasts obtained at the end of the process is also evaluated using the same quality assessment tools.

  9. NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies

    Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

    The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

  10. Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.

    Swift, Ralph

    1995-11-01

    Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project

    N/A

    2004-07-29

    This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

  12. Development of Watershed Evaluation Index for Water Resources Considering Climate Change

    Lee, K. S.; Oh, J.; Lee, S.; Chung, E.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development is the center of issue between economic development and environmental protection. Water resources development and management is a main part of the issue. With this, integrated watershed management (IWM) which considers flood, drought and water quality control together is needed for watershed management. The Green house effect has been increased by the carbon based and thoughtless development, and climate change caused by global warming will affect all human activities. Accordingly, this study developed watershed evaluation index for water resources to assess water resources of watershed considering flood, drought, water quality control, and climate change and then applied results to actual watershed. This study consists of mainly 2 parts. The first is development of watershed evaluation index to analyze water resources vulnerability considering flood, drought, water quality, and climate change. Watershed evaluation index for water resources consists of flood indicator with climate change, drought indicator with climate change, and water quality indicator with climate change. There are two frameworks to make indices. One is a cause-effect chain framework and the other is a theme framework. Watershed evaluation index for water resources has been developed using DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Impact-Response) framework by EEA (European Environment Agency) that can explain interactions between socio-economic and water resources. The second is applying the index to study watershed. Three kinds of date sets are needed to apply the index. These are socio-economic data, meteorological and hydrologic data, and GCM (General Circulation Model) as a future climate change scenario. In this study, the North Han River watershed was selected as a study area. The socio-economic data set was collected using municipal statistics. The meteorological and hydrologic data, especially flow and water quality (BOD, DO et al.) data has been simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). In this study, using CGCM (Canadian Global Coupled Model) 3 simulation results based on Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) A1B and A2 scenario of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled by using the Statistical DownScaling Method (SDSM) model. From this study, the water resources in North Han River watershed except North Korea area have been assessed using watershed evaluation index. The index, developed in this study, can be used to estimate the potential risks of watershed for sustainable IWM planning procedures.

  13. Efficiency of distributed flood mitigation measures at watershed scale

    Chennu, S.; Grsillon, J.M.; Faure, J.B.; E. Leblois; Poulard, C.; Dartus, D.

    2008-01-01

    Flood management has to undergo changes in order to meet the present societal needs. At watershed scale, zones of human activities are found dispersed and logically any protection measure needs to be oriented for the entire area. Retention of excess flow volume locally and consequent discharge into the watercourse is a good management plan for a holistic protection. Structural mitigation measures such as dry dams are undertaken for such dispersed retention management in this study. Dry dams a...

  14. Runoff processes and small watersheds

    Full text: Small watersheds are a fundamental landscape unit for quantifying inputs and outputs of water, sediment and nutrients. Small watersheds have been used historically for defining runoff processes and flood response to storm precipitation. Early conceptualizations of runoff production during the International Hydrological Decade in the 1960s focused on the importance and movement of event water as overland flow to the stream channel. Use of mass balance mixing models using stable isotope tracers in the 1970s and 1980s directly challenged early ideas of where water goes when it rains, residence time of catchment waters and flow paths of subsurface runoff towards the stream. These data showed that the majority of water in the stream during a precipitation event was water that existed in the watershed prior to the event. While credible physical mechanisms of old water mobilization have only been defined in the past decade, stable isotope tracer approaches are now mature enough to offer new potential for informing new model structures of how small watersheds work. Isotope tracer data in small watersheds and mass balance separations also represent new ways of validating and calibrating watershed models. This presentation will chronicle the use of isotope tracers in small watersheds and provide examples of how these data can be used in models of runoff processes and for providing valuable input for water resource management at larger basin scales. (author)

  15. Runoff processes and small watershed

    Full text: Small watersheds are a fundamental landscape unit for quantifying inputs and outputs of water, sediment and nutrients. Small watersheds have been used historically for defining runoff processes and flood response to storm precipitation. Early conceptualizations of runoff production during the International Hydrological Decade in the 1960s focused on the importance and movement of event water as overland flow to the stream channel. Use of mass balance mixing models using stable isotope tracers in the 1970s and 1980s directly challenged early ideas of where water goes when it rains, residence time of catchment waters and flow paths of subsurface runoff towards the stream. These data showed that the majority of water in the stream during a precipitation event was water that existed in the watershed prior to the event. While credible physical mechanisms of old water mobilization have only been defined in the past decade, stable isotope tracer approaches are now mature enough to offer new potential for informing new model structures of how small watersheds work. Isotope tracer data in small watersheds and mass balance separations also represent new ways of validating and calibrating watershed models. This presentation will chronicle the use of isotope tracers in small watersheds and provide examples of how these data can be used in models of runoff processes and for providing valuable input for water resource management at larger basin scales. (author)

  16. Using Backcast Land-Use Change and Groundwater Travel-Time Models to Generate Land-Use Legacy Maps for Watershed Management

    Jonah M. Duckles; Anthony D. Kendall; Deepak K. Ray; Bryan Pijanowski; David W. Hyndman

    2007-01-01

    We couple two spatial-temporal models, a backcast land-use change model and a groundwater flow model, to develop what we call land-use legacy maps. We quantify how a land-use legacy map, created from maps of past land use and groundwater travel times, differs from a current land-use map. We show how these map differences can affect land-use planning and watershed management decisions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Our approach demonstrates that land-use legacy maps...

  17. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar

    2015-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  18. Integrated assessment of groundwater protection using Agricultural Best Management Practices: a nitrogen case study

    Feichtinger, F.; Strauss, P.; Lescot, J.M.; Kaljonen, M.; Hofmacher, G.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated study was carried out in a small Austrian watershed to assess the environmental, economic and acceptability aspects of implementing certain Best Management Practices (BMPs) for nitrogen management. The environmental impact on groundwater pollution by nitrogen was assessed for various BMPs funded by the Austrian programme for environmentally sustainable agriculture (ÖPUL), by calculating both the amount of leakage and its nitrate concentration using hydrological modelling. Costs ...

  19. Development and application of a comprehensive simulation model to evaluate impacts of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater: The case of Wet Walnut Creek Watershed, Kansas, USA

    Ramireddygari, S.R.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Perkins, S.P.; Govindaraju, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive modeling study of surface and groundwater systems, including stream-aquifer interactions, for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed in west-central Kansas. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater levels, which in turn affect availability of water for the Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Refuge Management area. The surface-water flow model, POTYLDR, and the groundwater flow model, MODFLOW, were combined into an integrated, watershed-scale, continuous simulation model. Major revisions and enhancements were made to the POTYLDR and MODFLOW models for simulating the detailed hydrologic budget for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed. The computer simulation model was calibrated and verified using historical streamflow records (at Albert and Nekoma gaging stations), reported irrigation water use, observed water-level elevations in watershed structure pools, and groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer system. To assess the impact of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater levels, a number of hypothetical management scenarios were simulated under various operational criteria for watershed structures and different annual limits on water use for irrigation. A standard 'base case' was defined to allow comparative analysis of the results of different scenarios. The simulated streamflows showed that watershed structures decrease both streamflows and groundwater levels in the watershed. The amount of water used for irrigation has a substantial effect on the total simulated streamflow and groundwater levels, indicating that irrigation is a major budget item for managing water resources in the watershed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.This paper presents the results of a comprehensive modeling study of surface and groundwater systems, including stream-aquifer interactions, for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed in west-central Kansas. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater levels, which in turn affect availability of water for the Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Refuge Management area. The surface-water flow model, POTYLDR, and the groundwater flow model, MODFLOW, were combined into an integrated, watershed-scale, continuous simulation model. Major revisions and enhancements were made to the POTYLDR and MODFLOW models for simulating the detailed hydrologic budget for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed. The computer simulation model was calibrated and verified using historical streamflow records (at Albert and Nekoma gaging stations), reported irrigation water use, observed water-level elevations in watershed structure pools, and groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer system. To assess the impact of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater levels, a number of hypothetical management scenarios were simulated under various operational criteria for watershed structures and different annual limits on water use for irrigation. A standard `base case' was defined to allow comparative analysis of the results of different scenarios. The simulated streamflows showed that watershed structures decrease both streamflows and groundwater levels in the watershed. The amount of water used for irrigation has a substantial effect on the total simulated streamflow and groundwater levels, indicating that irrigation is a major budget item for managing water resources in the watershed.A comprehensive simulation model that combines the surface water flow model POTYLDR and the groundwater flow model MODFLOW was used to study the impacts of watershed structures (e.g., dams) and irrigation water use (including stream-aquifer interactions) on streamflow and groundwater. The model was revised, enhanced, calibrated, and verified, then applied to evaluate the hydrologic budget for Wet Wal

  20. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication—A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r2 was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality. PMID:26712772

  1. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication-A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality. PMID:26712772

  2. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  3. Relationships among environmental factors influencing soil erosion using GIS (Khiav Chay Watershed, Ardabil Province)

    Maryam Barmaki; Ebrahim Pazira; Abazar Esmali

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of natural resources is soil erosion. Effective land management to prevent soil loss requires prediction for large areas. Usually, empirical relations are used for investigating soil erosion in watershed areas. The case study is took place in Khiav Chay Watershed, Ardabil Province. In the current study, environmental factors, influence in water erosion of the area, investigated in four categories, including topographic, soil & ground, vegetation and human facto...

  4. Consideration of Experimental Approaches in the Physical and Biological Sciences in Designing Long-Term Watershed Studies in Forested Landscapes

    Stallard, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of biological processes in controlling weathering, erosion, stream-water composition, soil formation, and overall landscape development is generally accepted. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Project in eastern Puerto Rico and Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Panama Canal Watershed Experiment (PCWE) are landscape-scale studies based in the humid tropics where the warm temperatures, moist conditions, and luxuriant vegetation promote especially rapid biological and chemical processes - photosynthesis, respiration, decay, and chemical weathering. In both studies features of small-watershed, large-watershed, and landscape-scale-biology experiments are blended to satisfy the research needs of the physical and biological sciences. The WEBB Project has successfully synthesized its first fifteen years of data, and has addressed the influence of land cover, geologic, topographic, and hydrologic variability, including huge storms on a wide range of hydrologic, physical, and biogeochemical processes. The ongoing PCWE should provide a similar synthesis of a moderate-sized humid tropical watershed. The PCWE and the Agua Salud Project (ASP) within the PCWE are now addressing the role of land cover (mature forests, pasture, invasive-grass dominated, secondary succession, native species plantation, and teak) at scales ranging from small watersheds to the whole Panama Canal watershed. Biologists have participated in the experimental design at both watershed scales, and small (0.1 ha) to large (50 ha) forest-dynamic plots have a central role in interfacing between physical scientists and biologists. In these plots, repeated, high-resolution mapping of all woody plants greater than 1-cm diameter provides a description of population changes through time presumably reflecting individual life histories, interactions with other organisms and the influence of landscape processes and climate, thereby bridging the research needs and conceptual scales of hydrologists and biogeochemists with those of biologists. Both experiments are embedded in larger data-collection networks: the WEBB within the hydrological and meteorological monitoring programs of the USGS and other federal agencies, and the PCWE in the long-term monitoring conducted by the Panama Canal Authority (ACP), its antecedents, and STRI. Examination of landscape-scale processes in a changing world requires the development of detailed landscape-scale data sets, including a formulation of reference states that can act as surrogate experimental controls. For example, the concept of a landscape steady state provides a convenient reference in which present-day observations can be interpreted. Extreme hydrological states must also be described, and both WEBB and PCWE have successfully examined the role of droughts and large storms and their impact on geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and biology. These experiments also have provided platforms for research endeavors never contemplated in the original objectives, a testament to the importance of developing approaches that consider the needs of physical and biological sciences.

  5. Downscaling Future Climate Projections to the Watershed Scale: A North San Francisco Bay Case Study

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We do...

  6. The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA

    Zhang, H. L.; Y. J. Wang; Wang, Y. Q.; D.X. Li; Wang, X.K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage-IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the obse...

  7. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP): a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru)

    Condom, T.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D.; J. C. Pouget; Suarez, W.; Ramos, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Zapata, M; Gomez, J.; Vergara, W.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper d...

  8. The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, US

    H. L. Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the observed data. The strategy is implemented in Clear Creek Watershed (CCW, which is located in the upper Mississippi River basin. Results show that most of the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to the basin partition scheme and that the relative relevance of physical processes, described by the model, change depending on watershed subdivision. In particular, our results show that parameters derived from different model implementations attribute losses in the system to completely different physical phenomena without a notable effect on the model's performance. Our work adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that automatically calibrated parameters in hydrological models can lead to an incorrect prescription of the internal dynamics of runoff production and transport. Furthermore, it demonstrates that model implementation adds a new dimension to the problem of non-uniqueness in hydrological models.

  9. Tracking fluorescent dissolved organic matter in multistage rivers using EEM-PARAFAC analysis: implications of the secondary tributary remediation for watershed management.

    Nie, Zeyu; Wu, Xiaodong; Huang, Haomin; Fang, Xiaomin; Xu, Chen; Wu, Jianyu; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Profound understanding of behaviors of organic matter from sources to multistage rivers assists watershed management for improving water quality of river networks in rural areas. Ninety-one water samples were collected from the three orders of receiving rivers in a typical combined polluted subcatchment (diffuse agricultural pollutants and domestic sewage) located in China. Then, the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) information for these samples was determined by the excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Consequently, two typical humic-like (C1 and C2) and other two protein-like (C3 and C4) components were separated. Their fluorescence peaks were located at λ ex/em = 255(360)/455, 60 %). Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that, except for the autochthonous produced C4, the allochthonous components (C1 and C2) had the same terrestrial origins, but C3 might possess the separate anthropogenic and biological sources. Moreover, the spatial heterogeneity of contamination levels was noticeable in multistage rivers, and the allochthonous FDOM was gradually homogenized along the migration directions. Interestingly, the average content of the first three PARAFAC components in secondary tributaries and source pollutants had significantly higher levels than that in subsequent receiving rivers, thus suggesting that the supervision and remediation for secondary tributaries would play a prominent role in watershed management works. PMID:26805924

  10. Doctoral Women: Managing Emotions, Managing Doctoral Studies

    Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant

  11. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results showed that using Toutin's Model, enabling Wallis filter and specifying high DEM detail, along with restricting the holes filling option gave the best position accuracy and the least number of failure values. This is mainly due to the ruggedness of the studying area. Comparing GPS heights with the extract DEM showed a Minimum and a maximum error of (-11.9 m, 10.56 m), Mean error (1.32 m) and RMSE of (4.7 m). While extracting the drainage lines showed 80 to 90 % of coincidence of the upper water heads and an order of less than one pixel for the main river course and mountainous road intersection.

  12. Virtual Sensors in a Web 2.0 Digital Watershed

    Liu, Y.; Hill, D. J.; Marini, L.; Kooper, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Myers, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The lack of rainfall data in many watersheds is one of the major barriers for modeling and studying many environmental and hydrological processes and supporting decision making. There are just not enough rain gages on the ground. To overcome this data scarcity issue, a Web 2.0 digital watershed is developed at NCSA(National Center for Supercomputing Applications), where users can point-and-click on a web-based google map interface and create new precipitation virtual sensors at any location within the same coverage region as a NEXRAD station. A set of scientific workflows are implemented to perform spatial, temporal and thematic transformations to the near-real-time NEXRAD Level II data. Such workflows can be triggered by the users' actions and generate either rainfall rate or rainfall accumulation streaming data at a user-specified time interval. We will discuss some underlying components of this digital watershed, which consists of a semantic content management middleware, a semantically enhanced streaming data toolkit, virtual sensor management functionality, and RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web service that can trigger the workflow execution. Such loosely coupled architecture presents a generic framework for constructing a Web 2.0 style digital watershed. An implementation of this architecture at the Upper Illinois Rive Basin will be presented. We will also discuss the implications of the virtual sensor concept for the broad environmental observatory community and how such concept will help us move towards a participatory digital watershed.

  13. Rapid Assessment of Logging-Associated Sediment-Delivery Pathways in an Intensively-Managed Forested Watershed in the Southern Cascades, Northern California

    Coe, D. B.; Wopat, M. A.; Lindsay, D.; Stanish, S.; Boone, M.; Beck, B.; Wyman, A.; Bull, J.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for water-quality impacts in intensively-managed forested watersheds depends partly upon the frequency of overland flow paths linking logging-related hillslope sediment sources to the channel network, as well as the volume of sediment delivered along these flow paths. In response to public concerns over perceived water-quality impacts from clearcut timber harvesting, the Battle Creek Task Force, composed of subject-matter experts from 4 different state agencies, performed a rapid assessment for visible evidence of sediment delivery pathways from multiple logging-associated features in the upper Battle Creek watershed - an area underlain predominantly by Holocene- and Late Pleistocene-aged volcanic rock types, with highly permeable soils, and relatively few streams. Logging-associated features were selected for assessment based on erosion potential and proximity to stream channels. Identified sediment-delivery pathways were then characterized by dominant erosion process and the relative magnitude of sediment delivery (i.e., low, moderate, and high) was estimated. Approximately 26 km of stream buffers adjacent to 55 clearcut harvest units were assessed, and the single detected instance of sediment delivery was found to be of low magnitude and the result of illegal encroachment by logging equipment into a 5-m wide stream-adjacent equipment-limitation zone. The proportion of sampled sites delivering sediment was found to be highest for tractor-stream crossings, followed by road-stream crossings, stream-adjacent road segments, stream-adjacent landings, and clearcut harvest units, respectively. All 5 tractor-stream crossings delivered sediment, but were generally delivering a low magnitude of sediment derived from sheetwash and rilling. Road-stream crossings (n=39) and stream-adjacent road segments (n=24) delivered observable sediment 69 and 67 percent of the time, respectively. The highest magnitudes of sediment delivery from roads were associated with substandard design or maintenance practices (e.g., poor road drainage) and/or poor location (e.g., roads less than 15 m from a stream), but the magnitude of sediment delivery was generally low or unobservable where Best Management Practices (BMPs) had been implemented. Conceptually, water-quality impacts are limited by the low density of streams in the watershed, relatively low hillslope gradients, relatively high permeability of the soils, and the implementation of BMPs. Assessment results suggest that direct water-quality impacts from overland flow paths in these types of watersheds are best minimized by disconnecting flow paths linking roads to streams, and by implementing BMPs.

  14. Hydrologic Modeling of the Bouregreg Watershed (Morocco) Using GIS and SWAT Model

    Abdelhamid Fadil; Hassan Rhinane; Abdelhadi Kaoukaya; Youness Kharchaf; Omar Alami Bachir

    2011-01-01

    The study of water resources at watershed scale is widely adopted as approach to manage, assess and simulate these important natural resources. The development of remote sensing and GIS techniques has allowed the use of spatially and physically based hydrologic models to simulate as simply and realistically as possible the functioning of watershed systems. Indeed, the major constraint that has hindered the expansion use of these tools was the unavailability or scarcity of data especially in t...

  15. Application of a virtual watershed in academic education

    Horn, A. L.; Hrmann, G; N. Fohrer

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic models of watersheds often represent complex systems which are difficult to understand regarding to their structure and dynamics. Virtual watersheds, i.e. watersheds which exist only in the virtual reality of a computer system, are an approach to simplify access to this real-world complexity. In this study we present the virtual watershed KIELSHED-1, a 117 km2 v-shaped valley with grassland on a "Cambisol" soil type. Two weather scenarios are delivered with the watershed:...

  16. a Study on the Comprehensive Simulation of Nonpoint Source Pollution for Er-Hai Lake's Watershed in Dali of China

    Yang, K.; Xu, Q. L.; Ye, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Er-hai Lake lies in state of Dali of Yunnan Province in China, which is so important to the local people that they revere her as the Mother Lake. Unfortunately, she is threatened by the more serious pollution of water. And from the water quality assessment of Er-hai Lake over the years, it is indicated that the major water pollution source come from nonpoint source pollution. The argument is that what has formed the nonpoint source pollution? As we known, the land use and cover change of watershed called LUCC is deemed as the major reason for Non-point pollution of water. However, what has made the land use and cover changes? It is another important question we should give an answer for water pollution. Many evidences have given that the change of LUCC is more due to the human activities in watershed, especially those for agriculture production. Thereby, there is a chain process for water pollution formation in Er-hai Lake Watershed, which could be described like this: Human activities (more in agriculture) have changed LUCC, and LUCC leads non-point source pollution. As a result, in this paper, those have been discussed according to the driving mechanism of nonpoint source water pollution in Er-hai Lake, which include three explorations. The first is how to build a ABM-LUCC model by using Repast and GIS technology, and the second is the method and implementation for hydrological and water quality model by using SWAT model and GIS, as well as Remote Sensing technology. And establishing a platform for comprehensively simulating the whole process of water pollution by integrating GIS, ABM-LUCC models and hydrological models is the last work for this study.

  17. Evaluation of the Agro-EcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W)model for estimating nutrient dynamics on a midwest agricultural watershed

    In order to satisfy the requirements of Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Watershed Assessment Study (WAS) Objective 5 (develop and verify regional watershed models that quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices in major agricultural regions), a new watershed model dev...

  18. Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

    W. Sudjarit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a well prediction accuracy of agricultural watershed ecosystem depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of watershed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on watershed ecosystem main functions in terms of water and sediment yield. It was calibrated and validated for streamflow in the watershed to evaluate alternative management scenarios and estimate their effects on watershed functions. The goodness of the calibration results was assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2. Results indicated that the average annual rainfall and streamflow estimations were quite satisfactory. On a daily scale R2 was about 0.69 and a monthly scale was 0.97 which can be considered as acceptable. However, using for the case study of an intensive agricultural watershed ecosystem, it was shown that model versions are able to appropriately reproduce the water balance, nutrients balance, carbon balance, and energy balance. Crop yield, total streamflow and total suspended sediment (TSS losses calibration were performed using field survey information and data during 2008-2012. This study showed that SWAT model was able to apply for simulating and assessing streamflow, sediment, and nutrients successfully and can be used to study the effects of land use practices on water balance, nutrient balance, carbon balance and energy balance in the small scale of sub-watershed ecosystem as well.

  19. Coupled Dynamic Modeling to Assess Human Impact on Watershed Hydrology

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Bomblies, A.; Zia, A.

    2014-12-01

    Humans are intrinsic to the hydrologic system, both as agents of change and as beneficiaries of ecosystem services. This connection has been underappreciated in hydrology. We present a modeling linkage framework of an agent-based land use change model with a physical-based watershed model. The coupled model framework presented constitutes part of an integrated assessment model that is being developed to study human-ecosystem interaction in Missisquoi Bay, spanning Vermont and Québec, which is experiencing high concentrations of nutrients from the Missisquoi River watershed. The integrated assessment approach proposed is comprised of linking two simulation models: the Interactive Land-Use Transition Agent-Based Model (ILUTABM) and a physically based process model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM treats both landscape and landowners as agents and simulates annual land-use patterns resulting from landowners annual land-use decisions and Best Management Practices (BMPs) adaptations to landowners utilities, land productivity and perceived impacts of floods. The Missisquoi River at Swanton watershed RHESSys model (drainage area of 2,200 km2) driven by climate data was first calibrated to daily streamflows and water quality sensor data at the watershed outlet. Simulated land-use patterns were then processed to drive the calibrated RHESSys model to obtain streamflow nutrient loading realizations. Nutrients loading realizations are then examined and routed back to the ILUTAB model to obtain public polices needed to manage the Missisquoi watershed as well as the Lake Champlain in general. We infer that the applicability of this approach can be generalized to other similar watersheds. Index Terms: 0402: Agricultural systems; 1800: Hydrology; 1803: Anthropogenic effects; 1834 Human impacts; 6344: System operation and management; 6334: Regional Planning

  20. Stream corridors as indicators of watershed land use: A case study in Istanbul Corredores ribereños como indicadores de uso de suelo de una cuenca: un caso de estudio en Estambul

    Yusuf Serengil; Muhittin İnan; İbrahim Yurtseven; Ümit Kiliç; Betül Uygur

    2012-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems as components of stream corridors provide a range of regulating ecosystem services including water production. Water quality, a component of water production is a major concern in urbanized watersheds. Water quality monitoring has been a very common method of investigating watershed impairment particularly in case of human impacts but it is now clear that hydrologic and ecological parameters may support and improve monitoring studies substantially. In three major watershed...

  1. Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis – a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan

    T. Lahousse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

  2. Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis - a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan

    Lahousse, T.; Chang, K. T.; Lin, Y. H.

    2011-10-01

    We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis) landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR) of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

  3. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210ex. (author)

  4. TMDL for phosphorus and contributing factors in subtropical watersheds of southern China.

    Meng, Cen; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Meihui; Zhang, Manyi; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-08-01

    Water eutrophication, particularly that caused by phosphorus runoff, is of major concern in China due to the serious threats it poses to watershed environments. We investigated one forested and nine agricultural watersheds with areas of 9-5212 ha in a hilly region of Hunan Province in a subtropical region of southern China from 2010 to 2012 to study total phosphorus (TP) loads and contributing factors. The annual TP loads varied from 35.7 to 222.1 kg P km(-2) year(-1) among the different watersheds, with the rainy season of spring and summer accounting for 56.3-82.0% of TP loss. The highest total maximum daily load (TMDL, 0.5 kg P km(-2) day(-1)) and existing exported daily TP loads (DTPL, 1.8 kg P km(-2) day(-1)) were observed under high flow and moist flow conditions in the ten watersheds. However, the target daily reduction ratios for the DTPLs to reach the water quality standard of 0.05 mg P L(-1) varied little with flow condition in the stream but depended on the type of watershed, i.e., <50, <80, and 80-90% for forested, agricultural, and livestock-dominated watersheds, respectively. Gray relational analysis (GRA) suggested that livestock density was the most important factor for watershed TP load under various hydrologic conditions, while livestock density (LD), soil available phosphorous (SAP), cropland percentage, and mean shape index (SHMN) were notable factors for daily reduction rate (DRR) under high and moist flow conditions. Therefore, to protect the local watershed environments, watershed management approaches that include the regulation of livestock production are recommended as the most effective means of reducing P loads at the watershed scale in subtropical areas of southern China. PMID:26202816

  5. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1-3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14-15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  6. Watershed management planning for a pre-alpine river in Switzerland - River 'Kleine Emme' in Canton Lucerne

    A watershed planning system is presented which considers for the first time new European and Swiss guidelines and recommendations. The principles and procedures for integrated protection and sustainable use of water resources in a river basin are proposed. The existing survey data in water use, hydrology, water quality, biology, eco morphology and barriers preventing upstream migration are interpreted and evaluated. Based on a deficiency analysis, the need for action and measures as rehabilitation, restoration, construction of fish bypass and improvement of the water habitat are recommended in order to ensure the ecological function of the whole river system

  7. Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using Gis: A Case Study of Walayar Watershed, Parambikulam-Aliyar-Palar Basin, Tamilnadu, India

    K. Balathandayutham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Good groundwater quality is essential for crop yield, soil productivity and environmental protection. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes is determined by its geochemistry. Groundwater geochemistry explains links between chemical composition of groundwater and subsurface geological and non-geological pollutants. Subsurface rock formations control the composition of soil and hence that of water and vegetation. The ground water samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like Electrical Conductivity (EC, Hydrogen ion concentration (pH, Bicarbonate (HCO3-, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Sulphate (SO42-, Nitrate (NO3-, and Chloride (Cl-. Inverse distance weighted method of the Geographical Information Systems is used to prepare the distribution map of physio-chemical parameters of groundwater while overlay method is used to assess spatial, temporal changes and prepare groundwater quality zones of Walayar watershed in Parambikulam-Aliyar-Palar basin situated in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. The results of study show that the quality of groundwater varies both spatially and temporally in Walayar watershed. The groundwater samples in some of the wells showed deviation from water quality standards indicating groundwater contamination. Hence, proper care must be taken to avoid any contamination of groundwater and its quality be monitored periodically.

  8. Regional scale modeling of hillslope sediment delivery: a case study in the Ésera—Isábena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Alatorre, L. C.; Beguería, Santiago; García-Ruiz, José María

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2; centra...

  9. A study of remote sensing as applied to regional and small watersheds. Volume 2: Supporting technical details. [using computerized simulation models

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford Watershed Model, the Kentucky Watershed Model and OPSET program, and the NASA-IBM system for simulation and analysis of watersheds are described in terms of their applications to the study of remote sensing of water resources. Specific calibration processes and input and output parameters that are instrumental in the simulations are explained for the following kinds of data: (1) hourly precipitation data; (2) daily discharge data; (3) flood hydrographs; (4) temperature and evaporation data; and (5) snowmelt data arrays. The Sensitivity Analysis Task, which provides a method for evaluation of any of the separate simulation runs in the form of performance indices, is also reported. The method is defined and a summary of results is given which indicates the values obtained in the simulation runs performed for Town Creek, Alabama; Alamosa Creek, Colorado; and Pearl River, Louisiana. The results are shown in tabular and plot graph form. For Vol. 1, see N74-27813.

  10. Tcnicas avanzadas para la evaluacin de caudales ecolgicos en el ordenamiento sostenible de cuencas hidrogrficas / Advanced techniques for evaluating instream flows in sustainable watershed management

    Juan Manuel, Diez-Hernndez; Liliana, Burbano Burbano.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La potencialidad de las corrientes fluviales ha fascinado al hombre por su capacidad para satisfacer las demandas crecientes del recurso hdrico superficial a escala temporal y espacial. Actualmente la idea de que los caudales naturales de un ro deban reservarse para preservar el funcionamiento pr [...] stino del ecosistema resulta utpica, al menos en sociedades que progresan. Una ordenacin eficaz del recurso hdrico se caracteriza por ser racional y ecosistmica, con una gestin fundamentada en un rgimen de caudales ecolgicos (RCE) que compagina los usos del agua asegurando una condicin aceptable del ecosistema. Este trabajo analiza la problemtica de la regulacin de caudales y aborda la necesidad de fijar los RCE para salvaguardar la integridad ambiental. Se presentan los mtodos para calcular caudales ecolgicos y las pautas especificadas en la legislacin colombiana. Con la pretensin de estipular un procedimiento para determinar los RCE en Colombia, se resume la metodologa IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology), ampliamente utilizada en el mundo, y que consideramos aplicable en los sistemas fluviales locales. Finalmente, se concretan las pautas operativas bsicas de IFIM y el procedimiento que optimiza el balance entre el coste y la confiabilidad de un estudio convencional de caudales ecolgicos. Abstract in english Rivers potential for satisfying growing water demands has always fascinated human beings. The current idea that a rivers natural flow should be reserved to conserve pristine dynamics is a utopian ideal, at least in countries having established a certain level of progress. Effective watershed plann [...] ing is characterised by being rational and ecological, employing management based on instream flows (IF), combining water use and ensuring acceptable ecosystem conditions. This work addresses the environmental consequences of regulating rivers and focuses on the need to fix IFs to protect fluvial systems ecological integrity. The methods for calculating instream flows are presented as well as approaches provisionally specified in Colombias legislative framework. Instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM), which is widely used around the world, is summarised to provide a basis for developing a procedure for determining IFs in Colombia as it would seem applicable to local streams. IFIM basic operative rules are then summed up, as is the procedure optimising the balance between a conventional instream flow studys costs and reliability.

  11. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also have limited availability of effects-based data, an important consideration as expanding human activities impact water resources in less densely monitored regions.

  12. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  13. Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds

    Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

    2013-12-01

    Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

  14. Prediction of stream flow by utilizing artificial neural network in flood plain (Case study: Sepidroud watershed

    Alireza Mardookhpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For knowing the hydrological behavior and water management of Sepidroud River (North of Iran-Gilan the present study focused on stream flow forecasting with artificial neural network. Ten years (2000-2009 historical inflow data, observed from the Sepidroud River, were selected ; then 10 years inflow of the Sepidroud River have been forecasted by neural network. Finally, the results obtained from forecasted data compared with observed data. The results showed that neural network could predict stream flow with high precision and the maximum error between predicted and observed data was 3% approximately.

  15. Effects of best-management practices in Otter Creek in the Sheboygan River Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2002

    Corsi, Steven R.; Walker, John F.; Wang, Lizhu; Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources began a comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation-monitoring program in 1989 to assess the effectiveness of the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Program. Hydrologic, water-quality, habitat, and fish data were collected at Otter Creek from 1990 to 2002 with the pre-BMP (best-management practice) period ending in September 1993 and the post-BMP period beginning in October 1999. BMPs installed in this basin included streambank protection and fencing, stream crossings, grade stabilization, buffer strips, various barnyard-runoff controls, nutrient management, and a low degree of upland BMPs. Reductions between pre- and post-BMP periods were detected in median concentrations of base-flow samples for total suspended solids and BOD5 but not for total phosphorus or dissolved ammonia nitrogen; fecal coliform concentrations in base-flow samples increased over the study period.

  16. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    A. D. Jayakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  17. Community Capacity for Watershed Conservation: A Quantitative Assessment of Indicators and Core Dimensions

    Brinkman, Elliot; Seekamp, Erin; Davenport, Mae A.; Brehm, Joan M.

    2012-10-01

    Community capacity for watershed management has emerged as an important topic for the conservation of water resources. While much of the literature on community capacity has focused primarily on theory construction, there have been few efforts to quantitatively assess community capacity variables and constructs, particularly for watershed management and conservation. This study seeks to identify predictors of community capacity for watershed conservation in southwestern Illinois. A subwatershed-scale survey of residents from four communities located within the Lower Kaskaskia River watershed of southwestern Illinois was administered to measure three specific capacity variables: community empowerment, shared vision and collective action. Principal component analysis revealed key dimensions of each variable. Specifically, collective action was characterized by items relating to collaborative governance and social networks, community empowerment was characterized by items relating to community competency and a sense of responsibility and shared vision was characterized by items relating to perceptions of environmental threats, issues with development, environmental sense of place and quality of life. From the emerging factors, composite measures were calculated to determine the extent to which each variable contributed to community capacity. A stepwise regression revealed that community empowerment explained most of the variability in the composite measure of community capacity for watershed conservation. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of community capacity by quantifying the role of collective action, community empowerment and shared vision in community capacity, highlighting the need for multilevel interaction to address watershed issues.

  18. Watershed-scale assessment of oil palm cultivation impact on water quality and nutrient fluxes: a case study in Sumatra (Indonesia).

    Comte, Irina; Colin, François; Grünberger, Olivier; Whalen, Joann K; Harto Widodo, Rudi; Caliman, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    High fertilizer input is necessary to sustain high yields in oil palm agroecosystems, but it may endanger neighboring aquatic ecosystems when excess nutrients are transported to waterways. In this study, the hydrochemical dynamics of groundwater and streams under baseflow conditions were evaluated with bi-monthly measurements for 1 year on 16 watersheds. Hydrochemical measurements were related to the spatial distribution of soil and fertilization practices across a landscape of 100 km(2), dominated by oil palm cultivation, in Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The low nutrient concentrations recorded in streams throughout the landscape indicated that the mature oil palm plantations in this study did not contribute to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. This was ascribed to high nutrient uptake by oil palm, a rational fertilizer program, and dilution of nutrient concentrations due to heavy rainfall in the study area. Soil type controlled dissolved inorganic N and total P fluxes, with greater losses of N and P from loamy-sand uplands than loamy lowlands. Organic fertilization helped to reduce nutrient fluxes compared to mineral fertilizers. However, when K inputs exceeded the oil palm requirement threshold, high K export occurred during periods when groundwater had a short residence time. For higher nutrient use efficiency in the long term, the field-scale fertilizer management should be complemented with a landscape-scale strategy of fertilizer applications that accounts for soil variability. PMID:25843822

  19. Assessment and mapping of desertification sensitivity in an insular sahelian mountain region - case study of the Ribeira Seca Watershed, Cape Verde

    Tavares, J.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present the assessment and mapping of the environmental areas sensitive to desertification in an insular sahelian mountain region, in the catchment area of Ribeira Seca, island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Desertification is a threat for the global environment and it represents a serious ecological problem in Cape Verde. To fight both successfully, it requires an evaluation of its consequences and the building of cartography of the sensitivity for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The model MEDALUS was the basis for this study with the use of six indicators of quality: climate, soil, vegetation, management, water runoff and social. Several sub-indicators were assigned to each indicator with weights variable between 1 (low) and 2 (high) according to the DESIRE Project (WB2). The geometric mean of each of the six indicators of quality was employed to produce the map of environmental sensitivity areas to desertification. The results of this study show that more than 50% of the watershed present obvious evidence of becoming a desertification area. Key words: Cape Verde, desertification, indicators, MEDALUS model, DESIRE project.

  20. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of self-/peer-appraisal of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: ? We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. ? It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. ? The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. ? The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  1. Estudio de los procesos hidrolgicos de la cuenca del Ro Diguilln / Study of the hydrological processes of the Ro Diguilln watershed

    Ren, Ziga; Enrique, Muoz; Jos Luis, Arum.

    Full Text Available En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hdricos por parte de las actividades econmicas como tambin por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades econmicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la [...] disponibilidad de recursos con una planificacin y gestin adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorolgicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestin y planificacin de recursos hdricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrolgicos que predominan en la generacin de escorrenta y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrolgico sobre la cuenca del ro Diguilln. El modelo incorpora una conexin entre el agua superficial y el agua subterrnea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climtica producidos por el fenmeno El Nio Oscilacin del Sur. Abstract in english In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availabilit [...] y of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Ro Diguilln Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Nio Southern Oscillation.

  2. Development of a comprehensive watershed model applied to study stream yield under drought conditions

    Perkins, S.P.; Sophocleous, M.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a model code to simulate a watershed's hydrology and the hydraulic response of an interconnected stream-aquifer system, and applied the model code to the Lower Republican River Basin in Kansas. The model code links two well-known computer programs: MODFLOW (modular 3-D flow model), which simulates ground water flow and stream-aquifer interaction; and SWAT (soil water assessment tool), a soil water budget simulator for an agricultural watershed. SWAT represents a basin as a collection of subbasins in terms of soil, land use, and weather data, and simulates each subbasin on a daily basis to determine runoff, percolation, evaporation, irrigation, pond seepages and crop growth. Because SWAT applies a lumped hydrologic model to each subbasin, spatial heterogeneities with respect to factors such as soil type and land use are not resolved geographically, but can instead be represented statistically. For the Republican River Basin model, each combination of six soil types and three land uses, referred to as a hydrologic response unit (HRU), was simulated with a separate execution of SWAT. A spatially weighted average was then taken over these results for each hydrologic flux and time step by a separate program, SWBAVG. We wrote a package for MOD-FLOW to associate each subbasin with a subset of aquifer grid cells and stream reaches, and to distribute the hydrologic fluxes given for each subbasin by SWAT and SWBAVG over MODFLOW's stream-aquifer grid to represent tributary flow, surface and ground water diversions, ground water recharge, and evapotranspiration from ground water. The Lower Republican River Basin model was calibrated with respect to measured ground water levels, streamflow, and reported irrigation water use. The model was used to examine the relative contributions of stream yield components and the impact on stream yield and base flow of administrative measures to restrict irrigation water use during droughts. Model results indicate that tributary flow is the dominant component of stream yield and that reduction of irrigation water use produces a corresponding increase in base flow and stream yield. However, the increase in stream yield resulting from reduced water use does not appear to be of sufficient magnitude to restore minimum desirable streamflows.

  3. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  4. Scale effects on information theory-based measures applied to streamflow patterns in two rural watersheds

    Pan, Feng; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Guber, Andrey K.; McPherson, Brian J.; Hill, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryUnderstanding streamflow patterns in space and time is important for improving flood and drought forecasting, water resources management, and predictions of ecological changes. Objectives of this work include (a) to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of streamflow using information theory-based measures at two thoroughly-monitored agricultural watersheds located in different hydroclimatic zones with similar land use, and (b) to elucidate and quantify temporal and spatial scale effects on those measures. We selected two USDA experimental watersheds to serve as case study examples, including the Little River experimental watershed (LREW) in Tifton, Georgia and the Sleepers River experimental watershed (SREW) in North Danville, Vermont. Both watersheds possess several nested sub-watersheds and more than 30 years of continuous data records of precipitation and streamflow. Information content measures (metric entropy and mean information gain) and complexity measures (effective measure complexity and fluctuation complexity) were computed based on the binary encoding of 5-year streamflow and precipitation time series data. We quantified patterns of streamflow using probabilities of joint or sequential appearances of the binary symbol sequences. Results of our analysis illustrate that information content measures of streamflow time series are much smaller than those for precipitation data, and the streamflow data also exhibit higher complexity, suggesting that the watersheds effectively act as filters of the precipitation information that leads to the observed additional complexity in streamflow measures. Correlation coefficients between the information-theory-based measures and time intervals are close to 0.9, demonstrating the significance of temporal scale effects on streamflow patterns. Moderate spatial scale effects on streamflow patterns are observed with absolute values of correlation coefficients between the measures and sub-watershed area varying from 0.2 to 0.6 in the two watersheds. We conclude that temporal effects must be evaluated and accounted for when the information theory-based methods are used for performance evaluation and comparison of hydrological models.

  5. Hydrologic Response and Watershed Sensitivity to Climate Warming in California's Sierra Nevada

    Null, Sarah E.; Viers, Joshua H.; Mount, Jeffrey F.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2°, 4°, and 6°C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds. PMID:20368984

  6. Uncertainty based analysis of the impact of watershed phosphorus load on reservoir phosphorus concentration

    Karamouz, Mohammad; Taheriyoun, Masoud; Seyedabadi, Mohammadreza; Nazif, Sara

    2015-02-01

    In many regions of the world that depend on surface reservoirs as a source of water supply, eutrophication is a major water quality problem. Developing simulation models to evaluate the impact of watershed nutrient loads on the reservoir's water quality is an essential step in eutrophication management. In this regard, analysis of model uncertainty gives an opportunity to assess the reliability and the margin of safety of the model predictions for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) from the watershed nutrient load. In this study, a computational procedure has been proposed for the analysis of the model uncertainties in simulation of watershed phosphorous load and reservoir phosphorous concentration. Data from the Aharchai watershed which is located upstream of the Satarkhan reservoir in the northwestern part of Iran, is used as the study area to test the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) is utilized for assessment of watershed phosphorus load as the main agent resulting in the reservoir eutrophication in the region. The most effective parameters in model performance are identified by a global sensitivity analysis technique named modified Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) which can incorporate parameter interdependencies. The Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique is also applied to set up behavioral ranges of the parameters that are relevant to the actual observations. Finally, the cumulative weighted-likelihood distribution functions (CWLDF) are derived for outputs of the SWAT. They are used jointly for estimation of results uncertainty limits using the Copula method. To assess the effectiveness of applying Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the watershed, two scenarios of with and without BMPs application are tested. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed model in uncertainty estimation of watershed phosphorus load and reservoir phosphorus concentration as well as the effectiveness of BMPs in reducing P loads from the watershed.

  7. Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of a Semi-Distributed Model in a Semi-Arid Region, Case Study: Nishabour Watershed

    K. Davari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of conceptual hydrological models is an important issue in watersheds for researchers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The hydrological behaviors are complicated in such watersheds and their calibration is more difficult. In this article, the conceptual and semi-distributed SWAT model is used for a semi-arid Nishabour watershed with 9350 km2 area. Streamflow simulation is considered for 8 years. Nishabour watershed modeling led to 22 subbasins and 146 Hydrologic response units. SUfI2 approach is used for calibration and uncertainty analysis of watershed modeling. Results showed that calibration and validation of watershed model is not satisfactory, because of uncertainties in conceptual model such as dam structures, and land subsidence. Another reason is related to the complexity of hydrological system in arid regions which has simplified in hydrological models. Moreover, the complex behavior between runoff and subsurface flow in low depth of rainfall events usually effects in hydrological simulation results. Finally, it concluded that we cannot rely on conceptual hydrologic models with different sources of uncertainty without including them in hydrological modeling at arid and semi-arid watersheds.

  8. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada.

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui

    2016-04-01

    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary. PMID:26802348

  9. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

    Soni, Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is important for the quantification of the channel network and to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and structural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km2 with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 2.46 km/km2 which exhibits gentle to steep slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport capacities. The results from the morphometric assessment of the watershed are important in water resources evaluation and its management and for the selection of recharge structure in the area for future water management.

  10. Adopt Your Watershed

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  11. pyLIDEM: A Python-Based Tool to Delineate Coastal Watersheds Using LIDAR Data

    O'Banion, R.; Alameddine, I.; Gronewold, A.; Reckhow, K.

    2008-12-01

    Accurately identifying the boundary of a watershed is one of the most fundamental and important steps in any hydrological assessment. Representative applications include defining a study area, predicting overland flow, estimating groundwater infiltration, modeling pollutant accumulation and wash-off rates, and evaluating effectiveness of pollutant mitigation measures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, the most comprehensive water quality management program in the United States (US), is just one example of an application in which accurate and efficient watershed delineation tools play a critical role. For example, many impaired water bodies currently being addressed through the TMDL program drain small coastal watersheds with relatively flat terrain, making watershed delineation particularly challenging. Most of these TMDL studies use 30-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) that rarely capture all of the small elevation changes in coastal watersheds, leading to errors not only in watershed boundary delineation, but in subsequent model predictions (such as watershed runoff flow and pollutant deposition rate predictions) for which watershed attributes are key inputs. Manually delineating these low-relief coastal watersheds through the use of expert knowledge of local water flow patterns, often produces relatively accurate (and often more accurate) watershed boundaries as compared to the boundaries generated by the 30-meter DEMs. Yet, manual delineation is a costly and time consuming procedure that is often not opted for. There is a growing need, therefore, particularly to address the ongoing needs of the TMDL program (and similar environmental management programs), for software tools which can utilize high resolution topography data to more accurately delineate coastal watersheds. Here, we address this need by developing pyLIDEM (python LIdar DEM), a python-based tool which processes bare earth high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data, generates fine scale DEMs, and delineates watershed boundaries for a given pour point. Because LIDAR data are typically distributed in large sets of predefined tiles, our tool is capable of combining only the minimum number of bare earth LIDAR tiles required to delineate a watershed of interest. Our tool then processes the LIDAR data into Triangulated Irregular Networks, generates DEMs at user- specified cell sizes, and creates the required files needed to delineate watersheds within ArcGIS. To make pyLIDEM more accessible to the modeling community, we have bundled it within an ArcGIS toolbox, which also allows users to run it directly from an ArcGIS platform. We assess pyLIDEM functionality and accuracy by delineating several impaired small coastal watersheds in the Newport River Estuary in Eastern North Carolina using LIDAR data collected for the North Carolina Flood Mapping Program. We then compare the pyLIDAR-based watershed boundaries with those generated manually and with those generated using the 30-meter DEMs, and find that the pyLIDAR-based boundaries are more accurate than the 30-meter DEMs, and provide a significant time savings compared to manual delineation, particularly in cases where multiple watersheds need to be delineated for a single project.

  12. Estimating Nitrogen Loading in the Wabash River Subwatershed Using a GIS Schematic Processing Network in Support of Sustainable Watershed Management Planning

    The Wabash River is a tributary of the Ohio River. This river system consists of headwaters and small streams, medium river reaches in the upper Wabash watershed, and large river reaches in the lower Wabash watershed. A large part of the river system is situated in agricultural a...

  13. Nuclear materials management storage study

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  14. Nuclear materials management storage study

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  15. Management studies in medical education.

    Noor Ghani, S; Saimy, I

    2005-08-01

    In 1977, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the social target--the "Health For All" goal and in 1995, urged member states to "re-orientate medical education and medical practice for "Health For All" (resolution WHA 48.8). This led to World Health Organisation to enunciate the "5-star doctor" needing skills in healthcare management, quality assurance and health economics. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya introduced the New Integrated Curriculum (NIC) in 1995. The objective was aimed at producing a competent doctor with a holistic approach to the practice of medicine. This was to be achieved by having 3 strands of studies i.e. The Scientific Basis of Medicine (SBM), the Doctor, Patient, Health and Society (DPHS), and Personal and Professional Development (PPD) over the 5-year programme, split into 3 phases. Elements of the "5-star doctor" were introduced in strand 2--DPHS and strand 3--PPD. Management studies were introduced in the Personal and Professional Development (PPD) strand. This led to an instructional module--"Principles of Management in Health Care Services (PMGT)" comprising of the Management of Self, Resources and People and incorporating a three week field programme. Evaluation is undertaken at the end of the phase IIIA of the studies. This NIC approach will be able to produce a "5-star doctor", a team player, leader, communicator and an effective manager. PMID:16315627

  16. Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia

    Aflizar; Roni Afrizal; Tsugiyuki Masunaga

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D) in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate R...

  17. Movement and Habitat Use of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus Clarki Utah): A Case Study In the Temple Fork Watershed

    Lokteff, Ryan L.

    2014-01-01

    Movement patterns and habitat use of Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki utah) in tributaries of the Logan River watershed are greatly aected by habitat alterations created by North American Beaver (Castor canadensis). Evaluation of cutthroat trout habitat use in these watersheds is also complicated by biotic interactions with invasive brown trout (Salmo trutta) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). My objectives in this thesis were to 1.) Evaluate the passage of beaver dams by...

  18. Community Responses to Government Defunding of Watershed Projects: A Comparative Study in India and the USA

    Koontz, Tomas M.; Sen, Sucharita

    2013-03-01

    When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

  19. Trip report: pilot studies of factors linking watershed function and coastal ecosystem health in American Samoa

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2010-01-01

    Coral reef resources in the territory of American Samoa face significant problems from overfishing, non-point source pollution, global warming, and continuing population growth and development. The islands are still relatively isolated relative to other parts of the Pacific and have managed to avoid some of the more devastating invasive species that have reached other archipelagoes. As a result, there are opportunities for collaborative and integrative research and monitoring programs to help restore and maintain biodiversity and functioning natural ecosystem in the archipelago. We found that the 'Ridge to Reef' paradigm already exists in American Samoa, with a high degree of interagency cooperation and efficient use of limited resources already taking place in the Territory. USGS may be able to make contributions as a partner organization in the Coral Reef Advisory Group (CRAG) through deployment of sediment monitoring instrumentation to supplement stream monitoring by the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, by providing high resolution vegetation and land-use maps of main islands, by providing additional support to the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources and the National Park Service for monitoring of invasive species, by working with members of CRAG to initiate sediment transport studies on Samoan reefs, and by developing new projects on the effects of bacterial contamination and pollutants on coral reef physiology and demography.

  20. Comment on Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures by Koch et al. (Elem Sci Anth 3:000063, July 2015

    Christopher J. Walsh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I reassess a recent analysis of uncertainty in estimates of nitrogen export from stormwater control measures, using structured expert judgment, which concluded that nitrogen export from a watershed in the Piedmont physiographic province of the Chesapeake Bay basin was an order of magnitude greater than from a watershed in the adjacent the Coastal Plain province. Re-analysis of expert responses suggests that hydrographic measurement error is a likely large source of uncertainty in N export from one of the watersheds. Mass-balance estimates of impervious runoff into stormwater drainage systems suggest that nitrogen export from the Coastal Plain watershed is an order of magnitude larger than estimated. This analysis highlights the importance of stormwater drainage infrastructure in driving the hydrology of streams in urban catchments by quarantining impervious runoff from watershed soils.

  1. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  2. Land Use Scenarios and Optimization in a Watershed

    D. Nikkami; Shabani, M.; H. Ahmadi

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the optimized combination of land allocation to different land uses like rangeland, orchard, irrigated farming and dry farming for minimized soil erosion and maximized people`s net income in Kharestan watershed located in the Northwest of Eghlid, Fars province, Iran. A multi-objective Linear Programming (LP) model was applied in three different land use scenarios including existing land uses plus land management (Scenario 1), existing land...

  3. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

    R. J. Thayyen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is to augment stream runoff during the years of low summer discharge. This paper intends to highlight the importance of creating credible knowledge on the Himalayan cryospheric processes to develop a more representative global view on river flow response to cryospheric changes and locally sustainable water resources management strategies.

  4. Ultrametric watersheds: a bijection theorem for hierarchical edge-segmentation

    Najman, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study hierachical segmentation in the framework of edge-weighted graphs. We define ultrametric watersheds as topological watersheds null on the minima. We prove that there exists a bijection between the set of ultrametric watersheds and the set of hierarchical edgesegmentations. We end this paper by showing how the proposed framework allows to see constrained connectivity as a classical watershed-based morphological scheme, which provides an efficient algorithm to compute the whole hierarchy.

  5. Watershed inventory, Ravenna Training and Logistics Site, Ohio

    Ostheimer, Chad J.; Tertuliani, John S.

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG) conducts training activities on the lands it manages to fulfill its primary mission of maintaining combat readiness. One of the training areas OHARNG manages is the Ravenna Training and Logistics Site (RTLS). This facility is co-located with the Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant (RVAAP) in Portage and Trumbull Counties, Ohio. Training activities can subject watersheds to various effects. Although environmental effects from training activities cannot be completely avoided, OHARNG is actively seeking for ways to minimize such effects in accordance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the OHARNG, to inventory current conditions of the watersheds that drain the RTLS/RVAAP facility. As part of the inventory, a digital geographic database was developed.

  6. REVERSE AUCTION RESULTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF DECENTRALIZED RETROFIT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN A SMALL URBAN WATERSHED (CINCINNATI OH)

    Although urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens ...

  7. Outage management: A case study

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

  8. Sediment Budgets and Source Determinations Using Fallout Caesium-137 in a Semiarid Rangeland Watershed, Arizona, USA

    Analysis of soil redistribution patterns and sediment sources in semiarid and arid watersheds provides information for understanding watershed sediment budgets and for implementing management practices to improve rangeland conditions and reduce sediment loads in streams. The purpose of this research was to develop sediment budgets and to identify potential sediment sources using 137Caesium (137Cs) and other soil properties in a series of small semiarid subwatersheds on the USDA ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed near Tombstone, Arizona, USA. Soils were sampled in a grid pattern on two small subwatersheds and along transects associated with soils and geomorphology on six larger subwatersheds. Soil samples were analyzed for 137Cs and selected physical and chemical properties (i.e. bulk density, rocks, particle size, soil organic carbon). Suspended sediment samples collected at flume sites on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were also analyzed for the same properties. Sediment budgets measured using 137Cs inventories for a small shrub and a small grass subwatersheds found eroding areas in these watersheds were losing 5.6 and 3.2 t ha-1 a-1, respectively; however, a sediment budget for each of the small subwatersheds, including depositional areas, found net soil loss to be 4.3 t ha-1 a-1 from the shrub watershed and near zero t ha-1 a-1 from the grass subwatershed. The suspended sediments collected at the flumes of the larger subwatersheds were enriched in silt, clay, and 40K, but not for 137Cs. Using multivariate mixing models to determine sediment source indicated that the shrub dominated subwatersheds were contributing most of the suspended sediments measured at the outlet flume of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Both methodologies (sediment budgets and sediment source analyses) indicate that shrub dominated systems provide more suspended sediments to the stream systems. These studies also suggest that sediment yields measured at the outlet of a watershed may be a poor indicator of actual soil redistribution within a watershed. Using 137Cs provided useful information on soil redistribution within watersheds and sediment source areas for developing management strategies. Management of these semiarid rangelands must consider techniques that will protect grass dominated areas from shrub invasion. (author)

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within riparian buffers around each stream or river channel. Included in the overall watershed assessment are field habitat surveys and analyses of the physical and hydrological characteristics of primary chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and spawning habitat availability and use. This assessment is a significant step in a comprehensive program to ensure the survival and recovery of Columbia River chum salmon in its most productive system and builds on existing recovery planning efforts for these ESA-listed salmonids within the Grays River and the lower Columbia River. This assessment also provides a basis for the recovery of other fish species in the Grays River, including coho salmon, winter steelhead, coastal cutthroat trout, and Pacific lamprey.

  10. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within riparian buffers around each stream or river channel. Included in the overall watershed assessment are field habitat surveys and analyses of the physical and hydrological characteristics of primary chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and spawning habitat availability and use. This assessment is a significant step in a comprehensive program to ensure the survival and recovery of Columbia River chum salmon in its most productive system and builds on existing recovery planning efforts for these ESA-listed salmonids within the Grays River and the lower Columbia River. This assessment also provides a basis for the recovery of other fish species in the Grays River, including coho salmon, winter steelhead, coastal cutthroat trout, and Pacific lamprey.

  11. Tropical Forest Landscape Fragmentation in Batang Toru Watershed, North Sumatra

    Samsuri Samsuri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Timber-based forest management is now shifting to as broader scope including ecosystem-based management. Timber-oriented forest management frequently affects the fragmentation of forest landscape. This paper defines the degree of forest landscape fragmentation in Batang Toru watershed, North Sumatra through indentification of correlation between forest landscape fragmentation and driving factors including biophysical and anthropogenic factors. Identification structure, pattern, and fragmentation of forest landscape were performed using Landsat imageries acquired in 1989, 2001, and 2013. Forest and land cover classes were analyzed using FRAGSTAT 3.3 to generate landscape metrics. Fragmentation of forest landscape was identified using landscape metrics, i.e., area, patch density, number of patch, contiguity and proximity index.  The clumpiness index of landscape metrics describes the pattern of forest landscape, while the patch size proportions expressed structure of forest landscape.  This study found that forest landscapes located in downstream of the watershed show more fragmented than area in the upper stream, while the sub-watershed of Batang Toru Hilir is more clumped  than the others. This study concludes that (1 the forest landscape fragmentation tend to increase since 1989 to 2013; and (2 the degree of forest landscape fragmentation has close correlation with the distance to main road and river.Keywords: forest connectivity, ecosystem, deforestation, fragstat, fragmentation 

  12. Tropical Forest Landscape Fragmentation in Batang Toru Watershed, North Sumatra

    Samsuri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber-based forest management is now shifting to as broader scope including ecosystem-based management. Timber-oriented forest management frequently affects the fragmentation of forest landscape. This paper defines the degree of forest landscape fragmentation in Batang Toru watershed, North Sumatra through indentification of correlation between forest landscape fragmentation and driving factors including biophysical and anthropogenic factors. Identification structure, pattern, and fragmentation of forest landscape were performed using Landsat imageries acquired in 1989, 2001, and 2013. Forest and land cover classes were analyzed using FRAGSTAT 3.3 to generate landscape metrics. Fragmentation of forest landscape was identified using landscape metrics, i.e., area, patch density, number of patch, contiguity and proximity index. The clumpiness index of landscape metrics describes the pattern of forest landscape, while the patch size proportions expressed structure of forest landscape. This study found that forest landscapes located in downstream of the watershed show more fragmented than area in the upper stream, while the sub-watershed of Batang Toru Hilir is more clumped than the others. This study concludes that (1 the forest landscape fragmentation tend to increase since 1989 to 2013; and (2 the degree of forest landscape fragmentation has close correlation with the distance to main road and river.

  13. The impact of topographical characteristics and land use change on the quality of Umbaniun micro-watershed water resources, Meghalaya

    Phyllbor Rymbai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A watershed is a geohydrological unit draining at a common point. Such natural unit has evolved through rain water interaction with land mass, typically comprising arable land, non-arable land and natural drainage lines in rain-fed areas. Sustainable production depends on the health, vitality and purity of a particular environment in which land and water are important constituents. A pilot study was thus undertaken to study the geomorphology, land-use systems and their impact on water resource management on the Meghalaya Umbaniun micro-watershed. In this Micro-watershed (3951.18 ha, water body covers an area of 5.69ha (0.14%. The paper highlights the linkage between geomorphology, land use systems and its impact on quality of water resources on the Umbaniun Micro-Watershed, Meghalaya. Topographical and physical-chemical characteristics, such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and water temperature, were used as environmental degradation indicators

  14. Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method

    Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

  15. A Comparative Study of Ion Chemistry of Groundwater Samples of Typical Highland and Midland Sub-watersheds of the Manimala River Basin, Kerala, South India

    Vadakkepurakkal Balakrishnan Rekha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of the detailed study of the chemistry of ions present in the groundwater samples of Peruvanthanam and Valiyathodu sub-watersheds of the Manimala river basin are analysed using the AQUACHEM 4.0 software to understand general chemical characteristics and geochemical processes involved. The study reveals that cations, such as sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, and magnesium (Mg2+ and anions, such as bicarbonate (HCO3-, sulphate (SO42-, chloride (Cl-, nitrate (NO3- are present. Recognition methods such as (a Box and Whisker diagram (b Piper diagram (c Durov diagram (d Radial plot and (e Stiff diagram were prepared to delineate the seasonal variations in chemical constituents. The major ionic concentration of the groundwater samples of Peruvanthanam sub-watershed is Mg2+>Ca2+>HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->Na+>K+ and that of Valiyathodu is Mg2+>Ca2+>HCO3->Cl->NO3->SO42->Na+>K+. A critical analysis of Piper diagram reveals that in Peruvanthanam sub-watershed the pre monsoon groundwater samples belong to the zone of bicarbonates, chloride and sulphates, the monsoon season samples belong to the bicarbonate and chloride zone and the post monsoon samples belong to the zone of prevailing bicarbonates. In Valiyathodu sub-watershed, the pre monsoon and post monsoon samples have dominant bicarbonates, while the monsoon samples show predominance of both bicarbonates and chloride. Radial plots and Stiff diagrams for Peruvanthanam sub-watershed show that Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-- Cl- are the dominant water types during the pre monsoon season. Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl-- HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl--SO42- are dominant during the monsoon and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- are the dominant water types during the post monsoon season. In Valiyathodu sub-watershed during the pre monsoon - Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-, during the monsoonm - Mg2+-Ca2+- HCO3--Cl-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl-- HCO3- and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--Cl-, and during the post monsoon - Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--Cl- are the dominant water types.

  16. A Comparative Study of Ion Chemistry of Groundwater Samples of Typical Highland and Midland Sub-watersheds of the Manimala River Basin, Kerala, South India

    Vadakkepurakkal Balakrishnan Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the detailed study of the chemistry of ions present in the groundwater samples of Peruvanthanam and Valiyathodu sub-watersheds of the Manimala river basin are analysed using the AQUACHEM 4.0 software to understand general chemical characteristics and geochemical processes involved. The study reveals that cations, such as sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, and magnesium (Mg2+ and anions, such as bicarbonate (HCO3-, sulphate (SO42-, chloride (Cl-, nitrate (NO3- are present. Recognition methods such as (a Box and Whisker diagram (b Piper diagram (c Durov diagram (d Radial plot and (e Stiff diagram were prepared to delineate the seasonal variations in chemical constituents. The major ionic concentration of the groundwater samples of Peruvanthanam sub-watershed is Mg2+>Ca2+>HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->Na+>K+ and that of Valiyathodu is Mg2+>Ca2+>HCO3->Cl->NO3->SO42->Na+>K+. A critical analysis of Piper diagram reveals that in Peruvanthanam sub-watershed the pre monsoon groundwater samples belong to the zone of bicarbonates, chloride and sulphates, the monsoon season samples belong to the bicarbonate and chloride zone and the post monsoon samples belong to the zone of prevailing bicarbonates. In Valiyathodu sub-watershed, the pre monsoon and post monsoon samples have dominant bicarbonates, while the monsoon samples show predominance of both bicarbonates and chloride. Radial plots and Stiff diagrams for Peruvanthanam sub-watershed show that Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-- Cl- are the dominant water types during the pre monsoon season. Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl-- HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl--SO42- are dominant during the monsoon and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- are the dominant water types during the post monsoon season. In Valiyathodu sub-watershed during the pre monsoon - Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-, during the monsoonm - Mg2+-Ca2+- HCO3--Cl-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl-- HCO3- and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--Cl-, and during the post monsoon - Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--Cl- are the dominant water types. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.4037

  17. Practices, awareness and attitudes of Maranao farmers in three watershed barangays in Masiu, Lanao Del Sur, Philippines towards the protection and conservation of the Lake Lanao Watershed

    Gatocod M. Rascal; Rodolfo C. Aranico; Nimfa L. Bracamonte; Ruben F. Amparado Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The study determined the practices, awareness and attitudes of Maranao farmers in the LakeLanao Watershed in three watershed barangays namely: Gabar Sawer, Lanco Dimapatoy and Lacadun inMasiu, Lanao Del Sur, Philippines and their implications to the protection and conservation of Lake LanaoWatershed. The awareness and attitudes of the farmers are geared towards the conservation andprotection of the said watershed to serve the needs of the people living within the watershed. The sociodemograph...

  18. Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems

  19. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

  20. Hydrological response of a High-Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years: a case study of Bayelva watershed, Svalbard

    Nowak, Aga; Hodson, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Our study considers climate change and its influence upon the hydrology and water balance of the glacierized Bayelva watershed in Svalbard. We find that changes are most noticeable within the last 10 years, when winters have become warmer and wetter. The change is most significant during the shoulder months, especially September, when the transition from summer ablation to winter accumulation is taking place. Winter rainfalls, when extreme, produce ground icings and runoff outside the summer ...

  1. Case Study Report: REDD+ Pilot Project in Community Forests in Three Watersheds of Nepal

    Shanti Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is an international climate policy instrument that is expected to tap into the large mitigation potential for conservation and better management of the world’s forests through financial flows from developed to developing countries. This paper describes the results and lessons learned from a pioneering REDD+ pilot project in Nepal, which is based on a community forest management approach and which was implemented from 2009–2013 with support from NORAD’s Climate and Forest Initiative. The major focus of the project was to develop and demonstrate an innovative benefit-sharing mechanism for REDD+ incentives, as well as institutionally and socially inclusive approaches to local forest governance. The paper illustrates how community-based monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV and performance-based payments for forest management can be implemented. The lessons on REDD+ benefit sharing from this demonstration project could provide insights to other countries which are starting to engage in REDD+, in particular in South Asia.

  2. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  4. The potential for agricultural land use change to reduce flood risk in a large watershed

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on surface runoff are evident at local scales, but evidence for watershed-scale impacts is limited. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model to assess changes in downstream flood risks under different land uses for the large, ...

  5. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  6. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control: State of Technology Review Report

    This report documents initial efforts to identify innovative strategies for managing the effects of wet-weather flow in an urban setting. It served as a communication tool and a starting point for discussion with experts. As such, the document is a compilation of literature rev...

  7. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

  8. ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN GEOLOGYCAL STUDY OF SANJUL VILLAGE AT GP-08 WATERSHED

    Pathrikar Pramod B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The village of Sanjul facing a water scarcity problem in summer sessions hence this work can be carried out. The traditional use of remotely sensed image interpretation lies in the qualitative characterization of hydrogeological mapping units and the detection of specific features. Most applications pertain to crystalline basements. Basaltic trains more recent developments pertain to groundwater emergence in the discharge areas of groundwater flow systems using thermal and multispectral imagery, and to management of groundwater for the latter, spatial recharge patterns and contamination assessment will focus attention on defining the parameters of vegetation and terrain mapping units and on monitoring hydrogeological relevant surface features embedded in spatial groundwater models

  9. Knowledge Management System- A STUDY

    Nidhi Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Every organization and institute is facing the savior problem of generating the knowledge on the basis of their assets. Knowledge management is very indispensable for any organization. We discuss about the knowledge management through this paper. This paper provide an outline of knowledge management and how knowledge management is useful to improve the quality of the educational institute. With the help of knowledge management system we can manage any information. We can defin...

  10. Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China

    Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk.

  11. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area. PMID:25154685

  12. The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited)

    Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within smaller land units that have a clear catchment scale benefit. This will provide the evidence base for future policy which is of use to all location in the UK. Hence, the need to have suite of parameters that can be evaluated has given rise to specific experimental design. Fundamental to this is to use continuous telemetered sampling at as many location as possible, including field laboratories capable of measuring, Nitrate, Ammonia, Total Phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, suspended sediment and chlorophyll a. Standard hydro-metrological equipment is also fully telemetered. The goal is to allow all the data to be freely available to all end users via an internet data portal. The long term goal is to invite experts from many environmental and social sciences to work at the established research platform and ultimately give a better understanding of what a healthy catchment should be like. Being able to communicate this point to both local and national audiences will also be made and will link closely to the UK Virtual Observatory project funded by the NERC.

  13. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  14. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Applicability on Nutrients Loadings Prediction in Mountainous Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) Watershed, Utah.

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The application of watershed simulation models is indispensable when pollution is generated by a nonpoint source. These models should be able to simulate large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time. This study presents the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate, manage, and research the transport and fate of nutrients in (Subbasin HUC 16010204) Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed, Box elder County, Utah. Water quality problems arise primarily from high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations that were caused by increasing agricultural and farming activities and complex network of canals and ducts of varying sizes and carrying capacities that transport water (for farming and agriculture uses). Using the available input data (Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use/Land cover (LULC), soil map and weather and climate data for 20 years (1990-2010) to predict the water quantity and quality of the LBMR watershed using a spatially distributed model version of hydrological ArcSWAT model (ArcSWAT 2012.10_1.14). No previous studies have been found in the literature regarding an in-depth simulation study of the Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed to simulate stream flow and to quantify the associated movement of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment. It is expected that the model mainly will predict monthly mean total phosphorus (TP) concentration and loadings in a mountainous LBRM watershed (steep Wellsville mountain range with peak of (2,857 m)) having into consideration the snow and runoff variables affecting the prediction process. The simulated nutrient concentrations were properly consistent with observations based on the R2 and Nash- Sutcliffe fitness factors. Further, the model will be able to manage and assess the land application in that area with corresponding to proper BMPs regarding water quality management. Keywords: Water Quality Modeling; Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); Lower Bear-Malad River (LBMR); Mountainous watershed

  15. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  16. Platforms and Terraces : Bridging participation and GIS in joint-learning for watershed management with the Ifugaos of the Philippines

    Gonzalez, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    Complex multi-actor problem situations in natural resource management (NRM) need the convergence of different knowledge processes, first of all, in understanding and agreeing what the problem is before aspiring for joint-action. This is a joint-learning approach in NRM. Geographic information systems (GIS), with their integrative, analytic, and visualization capabilities, offer promising means to facilitate this approach. However, using GIS relies heavily on specialists that develop and inter...

  17. 2012 Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  18. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT

    Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

  19. Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.

    Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them. PMID:21853280

  20. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  1. Management by Values: A Case Study

    Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable manage...

  2. Modeling flood reduction effects of low impact development at a watershed scale.

    Ahiablame, Laurent; Shakya, Ranish

    2016-04-15

    Low impact development (LID) is a land development approach that seeks to mimic a site's pre-development hydrology. This study is a case study that assessed flood reduction capabilities of large-scale adoption of LID practices in an urban watershed in central Illinois using the Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). Two flood metrics based on runoff discharge were developed to determine action flood (43 m(3)/s) and major flood (95 m(3)/s). Four land use scenarios for urban growth were evaluated to determine the impacts of urbanization on runoff and flooding. Flood attenuation effects of porous pavement, rain barrel, and rain garden at various application levels were also evaluated as retrofitting technologies in the study watershed over a period of 30 years. Simulation results indicated that increase in urban land use from 50 to 94% between 1992 and 2030 increased average annual runoff and flood events by more than 30%, suggesting that urbanization without sound management would increase flood risks. The various implementation levels of the three LID practices resulted in 3-47% runoff reduction in the study watershed. Flood flow events that include action floods and major floods were also reduced by 0-40%, indicating that LID practices can be used to mitigate flood risk in urban watersheds. The study provides an insight into flood management with LID practices in existing urban areas. PMID:26878221

  3. Impacts of land use change scenarios on hydrology and land use patterns in the Wu-Tu watershed in Northern Taiwan

    Lin Yu-Pin; Hong Nien-Ming; Wu Pei-Jung; Wu Chen-Fa; Verburg, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Developing an approach for simulating and assessing land use changes and their effects on land use patterns and hydrological processes at the watershed level is essential in land use and water resource planning and management. This study provided a novel approach that combines a land use change model, landscape metrics and a watershed hydrological model with an analysis of impacts of future land use scenarios on land use pattern and hydrology. The proposed models were applied to assess the im...

  4. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  7. Peformance Evaluation of Checkdams Location across Some Streams in the Fine Sediment Retention (Case Study: Droudzan Watershed

    A. Hassanli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the simple methods for erosion control, flood mitigation and flood damage reduction in the streams is building the checkdams. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of checkdams, location across the streams in the retention of the fine sediments in Droudzan watershed in Southern Iran. For this purpose, a number of streams with many sta