United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
Habitat type classification systems are reviewed for potential use in watershed management. Information on climate, soils, and vegetation related to the classifications are discussed. Possible cooperative applications of vegetation and habitat type classifications to watershed management are explored.
P. R. Thakare
Full Text Available Water is the most critical component of life support system. India shares about 16% of the global population but it has only 4% of the water resources. The national water policy gives priority to drinking water followed by agriculture, industry and power. The single most important task before the country in the field of India’s water resource management is to pay special attention to rainwater conservation, especially which falls on our vast rain-fed lands but most of which flows away from it. The Marathwada region is declared the drought for this year by state government, to overcome the water scarcity watershed management is decided to do near the Sataratanda it is the outskirt region of Aurangabad city. The proposed site of watershed management structure bandhara is located on stream flowing near the Sataratanda village. The proposed bandhara is design for the conservation of water and recharging into the ground to raise the water table of this particular area for the benefits to villagers, fields & farmers. Since last few decades the demand for water had rapidly grown and with the increasing population would continue to rise in future. In Maharashtra, the assessment of ground water potential and scope for artificial recharge in the overdeveloped watershed is very crucial. The total cost of cement bandhara works about 9 lakhs thus the scheme is found economically feasible. The quantity of water store in the bandhara basin is 0.74 TCM.
Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.
This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.
Kerr, John; Chung, Kimberly
Watershed projects play an increasingly important role in managing soil and water resources throughout the world. Research is needed to ensure that new projects draw upon lessons from their predecessors' experiences. However, the technical and social complexities of watershed projects make evaluation difficult. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods, which traditionally have been used separately, both have strengths and weaknesses. Combining them can make evaluation more effective, p...
The Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops, and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the risk management aspects of WWF research.One...
Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.
Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing
This paper discusses various aspects of an ecosystem approach to watershed restoration as illustrated by the Anacostia River Watershed Restoration initiative. This information was derived from a case study conducted as part of the Interagency Ecosystem Management Initiative (IEMI), an outgrowth of a recommendation in the National Performance Review. The purpose of this study was to identify components of the ecosystem approach used in the Anacostia initiative that may be useful to other ecosystem restoration and management initiatives in the future. Water quality and ecological conditions within the Anacostia River watershed have become degraded due to urban and suburban development and other activities in the watershed over the last two centuries. An intergovernmental partnership has been formed to cooperatively assess the specific problems in the basin and to direct and implement restoration efforts. The Anacostia initiative includes a number of cooperative efforts that cross political boundaries, and involves numerous states, local agencies, civic groups, and private individuals in addition to the Federal players. In contrast with some of the other case studies in the IEMI, the Anacostia restoration effort is primarily driven by state and local governments. There has, however, been Federal involvement in the restoration and use of Federal grants. In addition, the establishment of a forum for setting goals, priorities and resolving differences was viewed as essential. Closer relationships between planning and regulatory functions can help advance the restoration goals. Public participation, including education, outreach and involvement, is essential to viable ecosystem initiatives. Comprehensive planning and modeling must be balanced with continuous visible results in order to sustain administrative and public support for the initiative.
Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, Edwin A.
This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June 26, 1969 because of its great importance to human survival and environmental balance in the region. The Magat case demonstrates the important role that ‘champions’ like the local government unit (LGU) could play in managing the country’s watersheds. With the Nueva Viscaya pro...
Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia
Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530
Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...
The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the
Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong
Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.
Johnson, Nancy; Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Westermann, Olaf; Probst, Kirsten
Many watershed development projects around the world have performed poorly because they failed to take into account the needs, constraints, and practices of local people. Participatory watershed management—in which users help to define problems, set priorities, select technologies and policies, and monitor and evaluate impacts—is expected to improve performance. User participation in watershed management raises new questions for watershed research, including how to design appropriate mechanis...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...
Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.
"Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…
Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...
Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.
Davisson, M L
The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to
Water environmental planning and management has become essential for guiding the water pollution control activities.Past water pollution control activities have been site specific,with little thought on water quality standard reaching at the watershed scale.Based on the watershed approach,a seven-step methodological framework for water environmental planning and management was developed.The framework was applied to water environmental planning and management of the Lake Qilu watershed in Yunnan Province,China.Results show that the reduction amount of total nitrogen (TN) under the plan is 1,205 tons per year so that the target of environmental capacity can be reached in 2020.Compared with traditional methods,the framework has its prevalence and could be generalized to analogous watersheds.
A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...
Rola, Agnes C.; Suminguit, Vel J.; Sumbalan, Antonio T.
Local research in the Manupali watershed, with about 60% of its land area belonging to the upland municipality of Lantapan, Bukidnon, found that water quantity and quality declined due to soil erosion and domestic waste contamination. As population grows and agriculture becomes more integrated to the market, water deterioration is projected to worsen. Both economic and environmental sustainability then depend on the following management bodies: 1) the management of the Mt. Kitanglad range, th...
Watershed management is considered by scholars as well as practitioners across the world as the most appropriate approach to ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainability of all land based resources and for improving the living conditions of the people in uplands and low lands. More over watershed management technologies have proven to be effective for mitigating erosion on sloping land, stabilizing landscapes, providing clean water, stabilizing and improving agrarian production sy...
Alvarez, C.; McPhee, J.
In this work we compare hydric production between two micro-watersheds (surface area less than 10 hectares) covered with Nothofagus oblicua and Nothofagus alpina saplings. One of the watersheds was subject to management by thinning on 2002, and contains 23% less trees, which is equivalent to 33% less basal surface respect to the unmanaged control basin. It is expected that differences be solely related to land use differences given that both watersheds have similar geomorphology. Four years (April 2003 through Jun 2007) of hourly streamflow and precipitation data collected on each watershed are analyzed by separating base flow and direct runoff for specific storms selected to represent different conditions of initial soil moisture. Several hydrograph- separation algorithms are tested in order to increase the robustness of our conclusions. Variations in rainfall- runoff coefficients are analyzed in relation to differences in soil cover and antecedent moisture. Preliminary results show that managed watersheds produce more direct runoff, albeit subject to initial moisture conditions. On the other hand a greater fraction of precipitation becomes baseflow for natural forests. This has important implications for ecosystem hydrologic services valuation and management.
Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon
The issue of water scarcity highlights the importance of watershed management. A sound watershed management should make all water users share the incurred cost. This study analyzes the optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users. As a consumable, water should be allocated to different users the amounts in which their marginal utilities (Mus) or marginal products (MPs) of water are equal. The value of Mus or MPs equals the water price that the watershed manager charges. When water is simultaneously used as consumable and non-consumable, the watershed manager produces the quantity of water in which the sum of Mus and/or MPs for the two types of uses equals the marginal cost of water production. Each water user should share the portion of watershed management cost in the percentage that his MU or MP accounts for the sum of Mus and/or MPs. Thus, the price of consumable water does not equal the marginal cost of water production even if there is no public good.
Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time
The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the...
Francisco, Herminia A.; Salas, Jessica C.
The paper analyzed the presence or absence of elements needed to have an effective system of watershed management in the Maasin Watershed, Iloilo Province. IT concluded that: a) both the legal and institutional structures needed support watershed management effort are in place; b) there is evidence of a strong social capital existing in the upland and lowland communities; c) there is an adequate level of technical capital investment to sustainably manage the watershed; and d) there is suffici...
Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after
Said, A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Sehlke, G. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Stevens, D.K.; Sorensen, D.; Walker, W.; Hardy, T. [Civil and Environmental Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Glover, T. [Economics Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84321 (United States)
Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after
It is well known that agricultural activity has a considerable influence on hydrological processes such as run-off and its regime, erosion and sedimentation, transport of dissolved chemicals, etc. But the influence goes beyond hydrology. Water just plays the role of an agent or carrier in geoecosystems. That is why we have chosen the watershed as a natural territorial unit where the components are united by hydrological processes. The policy usually adopted for normal agricultural dev...
To interpret the effects of best management practices on water quality at a regional or large watershed scale likely response times at various scales must be known. Therefore, 4 small (<1 ha, 2.5 ac) watersheds, in rotational grazing studies at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) nea...
Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.
Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur
A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3
de Leon, Raymond F.
There has been a growing interest and support by many state and local programs to address aquatic resource protection and restoration at a watershed level. The desire by many programs to implement watershed management programs has become more than just a need, rather a necessity to ensure suitable water resources. However, many challenges arise when developing and sustaining watershed programs. One such challenge is that watershed programs are resource intensive. These programs require si...
Gorder, Joel Steven
While there are no federal mandates for states to establish watershed management frameworks, many states see the benefits of doing so and have established such approaches. The main advantage of statewide watershed management over traditional resource management is the cost effectiveness and the formation of integrated solutions to water quality problems. Statewide watershed frameworks provide a geographic focus and partnerships in order to develop comprehensive solutions...
R. S. Shikalgar
The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of thegeometry of the drainage basins and its network. Watershed prioritization on the basis of morphometric parametersis necessary in order to develop a sustainable watershed management plan. The present study aims to assess thelinear and shape morphometric parameters and prioritization of twenty three sub-watersheds of Yerala river basinfor soil resource management. Yerala river basin has an area ...
NAGLE; FAHEY; LASSOIE
reducing sedimentation. When sedimentation of reservoirs is the key issue, sediment budgets must focus especially on channel transport rates and sediment delivery from hillsides. Sediment budgets are especially critical for tropical areas where project funds and technical help are limited. Once sediment budgets are available, watershed managers will be able to direct erosion control programs towards locations where they will be most effective. KEY WORDS: Tropical watersheds; Sedimentation; Reservoirs; Erosion control PMID:10085377
Ancev, Tihomir; Stoecker, Arthur L.
Phosphorus pollution from excessive litter application causes eutorphication of lakes in the Eucha-Spavinaw watershed in eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. Consequent algal blooms impair the taste of municipal water supply drawn from the watershed. The paper shows how GIS data based biophysical modeling can be used to derive spatially optimal, least-cost allocation of management practices to reduce phosphorus runoff in the watershed. Transportation activities were added to the model so th...
Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,
Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.
Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.
Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.
Williams, T. M.; English, W.R.; Lipscomb, Donald J.; Nickel, Christopher S,
Global Information Systems, including the capacity of these systems to store and manipulate data, have found great utility in analyzing spatial information. The spatial information that is most useful to watershed managers includes accounting of land-use practices that both damage and enhance water quality in watersheds. The capacity of GIS to present data visually is very helpful when trying to educate those concerned with watershed management issues.
Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.
Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address
Application of remote sensing and GIS for effective determination of the quantitative description of drainage basin geometry for watershed management prioritization forms the theme of this paper. In the present study, each of the eight sub watersheds of Racherla watershed of Prakasam (District) Andhra Pradesh, have been studied in terms of the morphometric parameters -stream length, bifurcation ratio, length ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor area, perimeter, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and sediment yield index. The prioritization of the eight sub watersheds is carried out considering morphometry and sediment yield index. Using IRS IC satellite imagery, a computerized database is created availing ARC / INFO software. The initial drainage map prepared from the survey of India toposheets was later unified with satellite imagery. The prioritization of sub sheds based on morphometry compared with sediment yield prioritization and found nearly same for the study area. The information obtained from all the thematic map is integrated and action plan is suggested for land and water resources development on a sustainable basis. (author)
Ratha, Dwarikanath; Agrawal, V. P.
In the present study a deterministic quantitative model based on graph theory has been developed for the better development and management of watershed. Graph theory is an integrative systems approach to consider and model structural components of watershed management system along with the interrelationships between them concurrently and integratively. The factors responsible for the development of watershed system are identified. The degree of interaction between one subsystem with others are determined. The eigenvalue formulation is used to take care the inconsistencies arises due to inaccurate judgement in the degree of interaction between the subsystems. In this model the visual analysis is done to abstract the information using the directed graph or digraph. Then the matrix model is developed for computer processing. Variable permanent function in the form of multinomial represents the watershed system uniquely and completely by an index value. Different terms of the multinomial represent all possible subsystems of integrated watershed management system and thus different solutions for watershed management, leading to optimum solution. This index value is used to compare the suitability of the watershed with different alternatives available for its development. So the graph theory analysis presents a powerful tool to generate the optimum solutions for the decision maker for benefit of local people living in the watershed as well as the stakeholders. The proposed methodology is also demonstrated by a suitable example and is applied to the ecosystem and environment subsystem of the lake Qionghai watershed in China.
Javier, Jesus A.
While most government efforts are directed toward watershed conservation, its management has remained challenging and complex. This short article argues for reconsideration of existing policies and regulations. It also pushes for a long-term comprehensive national strategy to address several watershed management concerns.
Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential
Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo; Weber, Enrico
Water storing facilities in a watershed are very often operated independently one to another to meet specific operating objectives, with no information sharing among the operators. This uncoordinated approach might result in upstream-downstream disputes and conflicts among different water users, or inefficiencies in the watershed management, when looked at from the viewpoint of an ideal central decision-maker. In this study, we propose an approach in two steps to design coordination mechanisms at the watershed scale with the ultimate goal of enlarging the space for negotiated agreements between competing uses and improve the overall system efficiency. First, we compute the multi-objective centralized solution to assess the maximum potential benefits of a shift from a sector-by-sector to an ideal fully coordinated perspective. Then, we analyze the Pareto-optimal operating policies to gain insight into suitable strategies to foster cooperation or impose coordination among the involved agents. The approach is demonstrated on an Alpine watershed in Italy where a long lasting conflict exists between upstream hydropower production and downstream irrigation water users. Results show that a coordination mechanism can be designed that drive the current uncoordinated structure towards the performance of the ideal centralized operation.
Benham, B. L.; Yagow, G.; Chaubey, I.; Douglas-Mankin, K. R.
This article introduces a special collection of nine articles that address a wide range of topics all related to improving the application of watershed management planning. The articles are grouped into two broadly defined categories.. modeling applications, and monitoring and assessment. The modeling application articles focus on one of two widely used watershed-scale water quality modeling packages: HSPF or SWAT The HSPF article assesses the model's robustness when applied to watersheds acr...
Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.
Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred t...
Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive-correlation study was to investigate effective factors on rural people’s non-participation of Mahabad’s dam catchment in Watershed Management Projects. The research instrument was structural questionnaire with close-ended questions, which its validity confirmed by panel of academic staff and reliability of questionnaire was confirmed. The target population of this study consisted of all householders who lived in Mahabad’s dam catchment (N=2458 out of them, according to Cochran's formula 175 people were selected by using cluster sampling in a simple randomization method (n=175. The descriptive results showed lack of financial ability for participating in watershed management, lack of awareness about watershed management efficiency, the longterm rate of return on the investment attracted in watershed management were the main variables related to rural people’s non participation in watershed management. By applying Factor Analysis Explanatory Technique, effective factors on rural people’s non-participation in watershed management were reduced to five factors namely weakness of agricultural extension services, getting watershed management out of governmental control, no achieving success to implement another rural projects by government, and no considering local individuals or organization by government. These five factors expressed 84% of the total variance of the non-participation people on Mahabad’s dam catchment in watershed management projects. Therefore points to these factors could solve the barriers of non-participation people on Mahabad’s dam catchment in watershed management projects.
车越; 杨凯; 吕永鹏; 张宏伟; 吴健; 杨永川
The water supply system in Shanghai provides about 2.55×109 m3/a,of which more than 50% is derived from the Upper Huangpu River Watershed. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization,the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources is emphasized in Shanghai. This paper proposes an integrated watershed management (IWM) approach in the context of the current pressures and problems of source water protection at the Upper Huangpu River Watershed in Shanghai. Based on data sets of land use,water quality and regional development,multi-criteria analysis and system dynamics techniques were used to evaluate effectiveness and improve decision-making of source water protection at a watershed scale. Different scenarios for potential source water quality changing from 2008 to 2020 were predicted,based on a systematic analysis and system dynamics modeling,a watershed management approach integrating land use prioritization and stakeholder involvement was designed to conserve the source water quality. The integrated watershed management (IWM) approach may help local authorities better understand and address the complex source water system,and develop improved safe drinking water strategies to better balance urban expansion and source water protection.
Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon
Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.
Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been
Barnaud, Cécile; Trebuil, Guy; Dumrongrojwatthana, Pongchai; Marie, Jérôme
International audience Ethnic minorities living in the highlands of northern Thailand have long been accused of degrading the upper watersheds of the country's major basins. In the nineties, the government reinforced his environmental policies and further restricted their access to farm and forest resources. In the meanwhile, the policy framework also favoured decentralization and public participation. This contradiction resulted in an increasing number of conflicts over land-use between l...
Barnaud, Cecile; Trebuil, Guy; Dumrongrojwatthana, Pongchai; MARIE, Jerome
Ethnic minorities living in the highlands of northern Thailand have long been accused of degrading the upper watersheds of the country's major basins. In the nineties, the Thai government reinforced his environmental policies and further restricted their access to farm and forest resources. In the meanwhile, the policy framework also favoured decentralization and public participation. This contradiction resulted in an increasing number of conflicts over land-use between local communities and ...
Garduño Diaz, Philippe Youssef
Case studies on environmental governance are essential to improve comprehension on howto implement international agreements. This study focuses on seven social safeguards relevant toREDD+. The existence of these social safeguards is examined in Mexico’s watershed managementprogram in La Sierra Madre and La Costa of Chiapas. The watershed management program is anotherPayment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme similar to REDD+. Questionnaires and interviews wereused to conduct primary research...
Galvez, Jose A.
Experiences of the National Irrigation Administration in its reforestation of the Pantabangan and Magat watersheds are presented in this paper, as it identifies the basic requirements of a successful reforestation program for denuded areas. The problems encountered in the implementation of the Watershed Management and Erosion Control Projects as well as the factors that significantly affected the success or failure of the project are identified.
Pirani, Farshad Jalili; Mousavi, Seyed Alireza
Sustainability has always been considered as one of the main aspects of watershed management plans. In many developing countries, watershed management practices and planning are usually performed by integrating biophysical layers, and other existing layers which cannot be identified as geographic layers are ignored. We introduce an approach to consider some socioeconomic parameters which are important for watershed management decisions. Ganj basin in Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province was selected as the case study area, which includes three traditional sanctums: Ganj, Shiremard and Gerdabe Olya. Socioeconomic data including net agricultural income, net ranching income, population and household number, literacy rate, unemployment rate, population growth rate and active population were mapped within traditional sanctums and then were integrated into other biophysical layers. After overlaying and processing these data to determine management units, different quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted to achieve a practical framework for watershed management planning and relevant plans for homogeneous units were afterwards proposed. Comparing the results with current plans, the area of allocated lands to different proposed operations considering both qualitative and quantitative approaches were the same in many cases and there was a meaningful difference with current plans; e.g., 3820 ha of lands are currently managed under an enclosure plan, while qualitative and quantitative approaches in this study suggest 1388 and 1428 ha to be allocated to this operation type, respectively. Findings show that despite the ambiguities and complexities, different techniques could be adopted to incorporate socioeconomic conditions in watershed management plans. This introductory approach will help to enhance watershed management decisions with more attention to societal background and economic conditions, which will presumably motivate local communities to participate in
Jason Shaw Parker
Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.
Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.
Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye
Zhen, Jenny; Shoemaker, Leslie; Riverson, John; Alvi, Khalid; Cheng, Mow-Soung
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are measures for mitigating nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused mainly by stormwater runoff. Established urban and newly developing areas must develop cost effective means for restoring or minimizing impacts, and planning future growth. Prince George's County in Maryland, USA, a fast-growing region in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, has developed a number of tools to support analysis and decision making for stormwater management planning and design at the watershed level. These tools support watershed analysis, innovative BMPs, and optimization. Application of these tools can help achieve environmental goals and lead to significant cost savings. This project includes software development that utilizes GIS information and technology, integrates BMP processes simulation models, and applies system optimization techniques for BMP planning and selection. The system employs the ESRI ArcGIS as the platform, and provides GIS-based visualization and support for developing networks including sequences of land uses, BMPs, and stream reaches. The system also provides interfaces for BMP placement, BMP attribute data input, and decision optimization management. The system includes a stand-alone BMP simulation and evaluation module, which complements both research and regulatory nonpoint source control assessment efforts, and allows flexibility in the examining various BMP design alternatives. Process based simulation of BMPs provides a technique that is sensitive to local climate and rainfall patterns. The system incorporates a meta-heuristic optimization technique to find the most cost-effective BMP placement and implementation plan given a control target, or a fixed cost. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the Prince George's County system. The case study involves a highly urbanized area in the Anacostia River (a tributary to Potomac River) watershed southeast of Washington, DC. An innovative system of
The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...
Chou, T. Y.; Chen, M. H.; Lee, C. Y.
This study aims to focus on the application of information technology on the reservoir watershed management. For the civil and commercial water usage, reservoirs and its upstream plays a significant role due to water scarcity and inequality, especially in Taiwan. Due to the progress of information technology, apply it can improve the efficiency and accuracy of daily affairs significantly which already proved by previous researches. Taipei Water Resource District (TWRD) is selected as study area for this study, it is the first reservoir watershed which authorized as special protection district by urban planning act. This study has designed a framework of mobile application, which addressed three types of public affairs relate to watershed management, includes building management, illegal land-use investigation, and a dashboard of real time stream information. This mobile application integrated a dis-connected map and interactive interface to collect, record and calculate field information which helps the authority manage the public affairs more efficiency.
Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.
Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.
Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Ashish Pathak; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg; Tamhankar, Ashok J.
Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional ...
Nursidah Nursidah; Bramasto Nugroho; Dudung Darusman; Omo Rusdiana; Yuzirwan Rasyid
The study was aimed to build institution model of sustainable forest management, through analysis of action arena, community attributes and forest management rules in Arau Watershed Unit Management Area. To achieve sustainable forest management, recognition and incorporation of local institutions in forest policy formulation is very important because it had great potential for collective action and had characteristics of common pools resources sustainable management needed. To achieve a suc...
Mengistu, Kassa Tadele
This study investigates hydrological responses to changes in land use, land cover and management practices at Hare River watershed, Southern Rift Valley Lakes Basin, Ethiopia. It addresses methods that are required to better characterize impacts of land use and cover and climate change scenarios and understand the upstream-downstream linkages with respect to irrigation water allocation. Understanding how the changes in land use and cover influence streamflow and subsequently optimization of a...
I would like to present some new environmental technologies by shoving restoration projects that are currently being implemented in the eastern United States that require this co-operation for successful implementation. The environmental technologies that will be discussed include the use of existing or constructed wetlands to treat surface and groundwater impacted in contaminants from various sources. The main goal of these type projects are to provide a low-cost and effective treatment for existing pollution problems. Many of these projects are initiated by civic associations (or NGOs) that wanted to improve the state of environment in their area. Because everyone has the responsibility to a clean environment in which they live, NGOs, state government, business, and local citizens, and local citizens worked closely together to solve problems in their watersheds. These projects are only examples of what is being done in the United States. However, I would like also to discuss what projects exist in eastern Slovakia, and others that could be started in Slovakia that improve relationships between MGOs and the state and local governmental decision-making process, with the ultimate goal to improve water quality in the Danube watershed in the future. There are severe environmental technologies that can be applied to improve the water quality of rivers throughout the Danube watershed, such as treatment of wastewater using wetland vegetation, and treatment of acid-mine drainage. In April 1996, NGO People and Water in co-operation with the village governments of the Upper Torysa River watershed started the project Villages for the 3 rd millennium in the Carpathian Euro-Region. One of the main goals of this project is to introduce new environmental technologies in the rural communities of the Upper Torysa River area. Since people trust their eyes than their ears. It is important to initiate practical, pilot projects to convince citizens and governments that these low
Best management practices (BMPs) are perceived as being effective in reducing nutrient loads transported from non-point sources (NPS) to receiving water bodies. The objective of this study was to develop a modeling-optimization framework that can be used by watershed management p...
Sandeep S. Nerkar
Full Text Available Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV, but not in the other three (NWMV. The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92% households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR = 0.39, had greater number of toilets (OR = 6.95, cultivated more variety of crops (OR = 2.61, had lower migration (OR = 0.59, higher number of girls continuing education (OR = 3.04 and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR = 3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively. Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.
Nerkar, Sandeep S; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J
Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV), but not in the other three (NWMV). The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92%) households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR=0.39), had greater number of toilets (OR=6.95), cultivated more variety of crops (OR=2.61), had lower migration (OR=0.59), higher number of girls continuing education (OR=3.04) and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR=3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively). Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health. PMID:25734794
Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.
... Office of the Secretary Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity... Cooperative Watershed Management Program whose goals are to improve water quality and ecological resilience and to reduce conflicts over water by managing local watersheds through collaborative conservation....
Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Rodriguez, Luz Angela; Johnson, Nancy
Watersheds and irrigation systems have the characteristic of connecting people vertically by water flows. The location of users along these systems defines their role in the provision and appropriation of water which adds complexity to the potential for cooperation. Verticality thus imposes a challenge to collective action. This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted in four watersheds of Colombia (South America) and Kenya (East Africa) to study the role that location plays...
Watershed managers are interested in using economics to communicate the value of estuarine resources to the wider community, determine the most cost-effective means to reduce nitrogen pollution, and evaluate the benefits of taking action to improve coastal ecosystems. We spoke to...
Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon; Mariza Guimarães Prota; Tadeu Fabricio Malheiros
The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted ...
Yoon Lee; Taeyeon Yoon; Farhed Shah
A dynamic optimization framework is used to analyze integrated watershed management and suggest appropriate policies. Soil conservation, reservoir level sediment release, downstream water allocation and water quality are subject to control. Application of the model to the Aswan Dam watershed illustrates the need for international cooperation to manage shared watersheds.
This Undergraduate Honors Thesis focuses on how different factors affect the success of a watershed management project and lessons learned from projects in the Andean Region. LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)
Brauman, K. A.; Ponette-González, A. G.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Farley, K. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Young, K. R.; Curran, L. M.
Payments for Watershed Services (PWS), Water Funds, and other payment schemes intended to increase the delivery of hydrologic ecosystem services have great potential for ensuring water resources for downstream beneficiaries while improving livelihoods for upstream residents. However, it is often ambiguous which land-management options should be promoted to enhance watershed service delivery. In many watershed investment programs, specific land covers are promoted as proxies for water service delivery. This approach is based on assumed relationships between land cover and water service outcomes. When land cover does not sufficiently describe ecosystem characteristics that affect water flow, however, desired water services may not be delivered. The use of land cover proxies is especially problematic for watershed investments in the tropics, where many projects are located, because these proxies rely on generalizations about landscape hydrology established for temperate zones. Based on an extensive review of hydrologic fluxes in the high-elevation tropics, we argue that direct management of hydrologic fluxes is a good design for achieving quantifiable results. We use case studies from sites in the Caribbean and Latin American tropics to illustrate how designers of watershed payment projects can manage hydrologic fluxes. To do so, projects must explicitly articulate the water service of interest based on the specific social setting. Projects must also explicitly account for the particulars of the geographic setting. Finally, outcomes must be assessed relative to water services delivered under an alternative land use or land cover scenario.
Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
Ongoing debate over water resource management and land degradation suggests a need for efficient sustainable land management mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous econometric and hydrological models have been developed to assess the effects of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) investments. However, these models fail to address the trade-offs faced by rural farmers in maintaining such structures. This study combines household surv...
Krupnik, Timothy J.; Jenkins, Marion W.
This paper describes subsistence farmers’ agricultural and natural resource management techniques and perceptions in the upper catchment of the River Njoro, Kenya and explores their implications for further research and action by watershed managers and policy makers. In East Africa and elsewhere in developing countries, small-scale poor farming households often form a critical group in the link between upland natural resource conditions and watershed services. A small-scale pilot study of a...
Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 μg L−1 and 275 μg L−1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 μg L−1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 μg L−1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha−1 yr−1) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region. (letter)
Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Pérez, Tibisay; Rasse, Rafael; Ometto, Jean Pierre H. B.; Siqueira Pacheco, Felipe; Rafaela Machado Lins, Silvia; Marquina, Sorena
Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 μg L-1 and 275 μg L-1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 μg L-1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 μg L-1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha-1 yr-1) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region.
Kimball, Keith R.; Middlebrooks, E. Joe
What Quality Management in Utah Mountain Streams: Several years of thorough monitoring of water quality parameters in Little Cottonwood Creek in Salt Lake County, Utah, measured the natural levels of the major water constituents, spotted significant (largely nonpoint) pollution sources, identified the pollutants deserving primary attention, and suggested the approaches to land and water management for pollution co...
Sha, Jian; Liu, Min; Wang, Dong; Swaney, Dennis P; Wang, Yuqiu
Models and related analytical methods are critical tools for use in modern watershed management. A modeling approach for quantifying the source apportionment of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and associated tools for examining the sensitivity and uncertainty of the model estimates were assessed for the Sha He River (SHR) watershed in China. The Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) was used to infer the primary sources of DN in the SHR watershed. This model is based on the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) and the Net Anthropogenic Nutrient Input (NANI) framework, modified to improve the characterization of subsurface hydrology and septic system loads. Hydrochemical processes of the SHR watershed, including streamflow, DN load fluxes, and corresponding DN concentration responses, were simulated following calibrations against observations of streamflow and DN fluxes. Uncertainty analyses were conducted with a Monte Carlo analysis to vary model parameters for assessing the associated variations in model outputs. The model performed accurately at the watershed scale and provided estimates of monthly streamflows and nutrient loads as well as DN source apportionments. The simulations identified the dominant contribution of agricultural land use and significant monthly variations. These results provide valuable support for science-based watershed management decisions and indicate the utility of ReNuMa for such applications. PMID:23603774
The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals
Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and widespread stream ecosystem impairment. While centralized stormwater management can minimize large fluctuations in stream flows and flooding risk to urban areas, this approac...
Mohammad Sadegh Amiri; Parham Jabbarzadeh
Zangelanlo watershed is located in Northeast of Iran, 28 km of Southeast of Daregaz between 37º13´ to 37º27´ north latitude and 59º8´ to 59º35´ east longitude. The surface area of the region is approximately 2482 ha. This area is mountainous with mean annual precipitation of about 412.7 mm. The mean maximum temperature is 20.8ºC in August and minimum temperature is -9ºC in January. The flora of the area was studied and life forms and chorotypes of the plants were identified. In this research,...
Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.
This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was conducted in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of the north-western highlands of Rwanda, namely; Gataraga and Rwerere in the framework of “Agasozi ndatwa” referred to as PIWM. "Ag...
King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.
Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.
Md. Ibrahim Adham
Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.
Shixiong HU; Zhaoyin WANG; Gang WANG; Xiaoying LIU
The Three Gorges Project is one of the largest hydro-projects in the world and has drawn many debates inside China and abroad.The major concern is that sediment load from the river basin may eventually fail the functions of the project for flood control and power generation.To reduce sedimentation in the reservoir,watershed management has been adopted.However,there is limited information regarding the effectiveness of various control measures such as terracing and afforestation on a watershed scale.The Jialing River,a main tributary of the Yangtze River,contributes approximately 25% of the total sediment load in the main river but only represents 8% of the whole basin area.There have been various land use patterns and extensive human activities for thousands of years in the Jialing River watershed.Based on analysis of the major factors affecting erosion in the Jialing River watershed,the main watershed management strategies (afforestation,farming and engineering practice) are illustrated,and their effects on the reduction of sediment and runoff are studied in detail.The sediment budget of the watershed shows that 1/3 of the sediment yield is trapped by the erosion control measures (afforestation and farming) on the slope,1/3 is trapped by the reservoirs,ponds and dams within the watershed,and only about 1/3 is transported into the Yangtze River,which will affect the Three Gorges Project.
Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.
As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic
Sean J. Zeiger
Full Text Available Impacts of urban land use can include increased stormwater runoff temperature (Tw leading to receiving water quality impairment. There is therefore a need to target and mitigate sources of thermal pollution in urban areas. However, complex relationships between urban development, stormwater runoff and stream water heating processes are poorly understood. A nested-scale experimental watershed study design was used to investigate stormwater runoff temperature impacts to receiving waters in a representative mixed-use urbanizing watershed of the central US. Daily maximum Tw exceeded 35.0 °C (threshold for potential mortality of warm-water biota at an urban monitoring site for a total of five days during the study period (2011–2013. Sudden increases of more than 1.0 °C within a 15 min time interval of Tw following summer thunderstorms were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p < 0.01 to cumulative percent urban land use (r2 = 0.98; n = 29. Differences in mean Tw between monitoring sites were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p = 0.02 to urban land use practices, stream distance and increasing discharge. The effects of the 2012 Midwest USA drought and land use on Tw were also observed with maximum Tw 4.0 °C higher at an urban monitoring site relative to a rural site for 10.5 h. The current work provides quantitative evidence of acute increases in Tw related to urban land use. Results better inform land managers wishing to create management strategies designed to preserve suitable thermal stream habitats in urbanizing watersheds.
Kaiser, B. A.
US natural resource policy has explicitly acknowledged the hydrological connection between forest resources and water resources from the inception of the USDA Forest Service for the dual purpose of timber and watershed management,, but it is often overlooked in short run policy decisions. In Hawaii, these closely interconnected resources led to the establishment of the Ko`olau Mountains Conservation District in the early 1900s in order to improve water supplies. This early action on the part of the state has enabled today a healthy watershed. The health of the watershed, however, is now under threat from incremental ecosystem change, particularly in the form of invasive species (e.g. pigs (Sus scrofa) and weedy shrubs (Miconia calvescens)) that change the hydrological properties of the watershed to increase runoff and reduce aquifer recharge. Economic costs of reduced recharge in the face of rising water demand from a growing population are potentially large, with preliminary estimates suggesting the losses from reduced groundwater recharge in the Pearl Harbor aquifer have a present value of 1.4 to 2.6 billion dollars (Kaiser and Roumasset, 2002). To refine and improve these preliminary estimates we use spatial analysis of the water balance in the Ko`olaus to relate land use and land cover to recharge and we simultaneously explore the risk of degradation of the forest quality for recharge purposes through a survey of watershed experts. Using this information together with a dynamic model of water pricing as a function of aquifer recharge and use, we examine how much of an economic return (in present value) forest conservation expenditures may produce in the form of protecting aquifer recharge. In conjunction, we begin to examine additional integrated benefits of reducing runoff to near-shore resources by relating upland conservation to reef quality using monitoring data from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program. Kaiser and Roumasset (2002
evapotranspiration (ET, with the lowest in old-growth natural coniferous forests (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils. and the highest in coniferous plantations (e.g. Picea asperata Mast. among major forest types in the study watershed. This suggests that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yield. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double the pressure on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. The findings can support designing management strategies for protection of watershed ecological functions in the context of future land cover and climate changes.
Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.
the lowest in old-growth natural coniferous forests (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils.) and the highest in coniferous plantations (e.g. Picea asperata Mast.) among major forest types in the study watershed. This suggests that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yield. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double the pressure on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. The findings can support designing management strategies for protection of watershed ecological functions in the context of future land cover and climate changes.
Rosen, A.E.; Olson, R.J.; Gruendling, G.K.; Bogucki, D.J.; Malanchuk, J.L.; Durfee, R.C.; Turner, R.S.; Adams, K.B.; Wilson, D.L.; Coleman, P.R.
The Adirondack Watershed Data Base (AWDB) provides a means to test hypotheses concerning the relative importance of various watershed attributes that may contribute to increased acidification of Adirondack surface waters. The AWDB is a valuable resource for the study of other ecological phenomena. The AWDB consists of digital watershed boundaries and digital geographic data, stored within a geographic information system, and watershed/lake attribute data stored in a data management system (SAS) for 463 Adirondack headwater lakes. Attributes include watershed morphology, physiography, bedrock, soils, land cover, wetlands, disturbances (e.g., cabins, fire, and logging), beaver activity, precipitation, and atmospheric deposition. Over 600 variables are available for each watershed. These data can be combined with water chemistry data and fish community status for regional-scale examinations of watershed attributes that may account for variability and change in water chemistry and fish populations in the Adirondacks. This report describes the design of the AWDB, documents sources and history of the data; defines the format of the AWDB contents; and characterizes the data using summary statistics, frequency bar charts, and other graphics. In addition, it provides information necessary for researchers using the data base on their own computer systems. 37 refs., 42 figs., 4 tabs.
Full Text Available This paper aims to present some solutions for automatic delineation of a watershed. In order to find this study’s applicability in the geographical reality, we decided that the river whose watershed will be delineated to be Oltet river. Automatic delineation of the Olteţ watershed was carried out comparatively, using two softwares, ArcGIS Desktop 9.3 andQuantum GIS 1.7.0 Wroclaw, and it based on a SRTM digital elevation model of 90 m. After using GIS techniques, there have resulted two maps showing the boundary of theOlteţ watershed. By overlapping the resulted maps, obtained with ArcGIS and QGIS, we found some small differences generated by the different way of working of each softwareinvolved in this study. We have also calculated a circularity coefficient for the Oltet watershed and the value obtained supports its elongated form and all the implication of it.
Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco
Soil erosion can lead to severe destruction of agricultural sustainability that affects not only productivity, but the entire ecosystem in the neighboring areas. Sediments transported together with the associated nutrients and chemicals can significantly impact downstream water bodies. Various conservation and management practices implemented individually or integrated together as a system can be used to reduce the negative impacts on agricultural watersheds from soil erosion. Hydrological models are useful tools for decision makers when selecting the most effective combination of management practices to reduce pollutant loads within a watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading management model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of diverse management and conservation practices that can control or reduce the impact of soil erosion processes and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A 506 km2 Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) located in Apulia, Southern Italy was used as a case study to evaluate the model and best management practices (BMPs) for sediment load control. A monitoring station located at the Ordona bridge has been instrumented to continuously monitor stream flow and suspended sediment loads. The station has been equipped with an ultrasound stage meter and a stage recorder to monitor stream flow. An infrared optic probe was used to measure suspended sediment concentrations (Gentile et al., 2010 ). The model was calibrated and validated in the Carapelle watershed on an event basis (Bisantino et al., 2013), and the validated model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment reduction. Various management practices were investigated including evaluating the impact on sediment load of: (1) converting all cropland areas into forest and grass covered conditions; (2) converting the highest eroding cropland areas to forest or grass covered conditions; and (3
Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.
facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.
Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)
This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.
Spatial data and geographic information systems (GIS) are playing an increasingly important role in watershed science and management, particularly in the face of increasing climate uncertainty and demand for water resources. Concomitantly, scientists and managers are presented wi...
Yeo, I.; Islam, A.; Huang, C.
Forests are efficient sinks and reservoirs of terrestrial carbons. They can relieve or amplify the adverse impacts of global warming and climate variability and hence, managing forests has been the most important sustainable strategy to mitigate climatic impacts. However, forest management often involves a large scale landscape transformation of land use and cover, and brings significant changes on water resources to the local community. This study is to evaluate the impacts of forest management and disturbance on water quality and quanity in the Homochitto watershed (Mississippi), where forest management and disturbance have occurred on a large scale over long time scales. Using a watershed simulation model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a long term water monitoring data from USGS and US EPA, we will investigate how the spatial heterogeneity of land use, vegetation cover, topography, and climate affect water cycles (e.g., soil water content, water yields), and water quality (e.g., nutrients and sediments) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Historic chronologies of forest disturbance maps will be generated with a number of satellite-based measurements (such as Landsat, MODIS, and aerial photographs), Geospatial datasets (including MS Gap Analysis Project (GAP), National Land Cover Database (NLCD)), field measurements from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) database, and historic records on forest land management in the region, characterizing the human induced changes in the forest landscape. This study will provide valuable information to better understand the hydrologic feedbacks to changing forests and climate system.
Cui, X; Liu, S; Wei, X.
Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan ...
Cui, X; Liu, S; Wei, X.
Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-T...
Md. Ibrahim Adham; Sharif Moniruzzaman Shirazi; Faridah Othman; Noorul Hassan Zardari; Zulkifli Yusop; Zubaidah Ismail
The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Res...
Fock, Achim; Cao, Wendao
China is considered one of the most seriously eroded countries in the world. The many causes of this degradation can be divided into natural, human-induced and root causes. The consequences of watershed degradation are severe and reach even beyond the country’s boundaries. Addressing this issue requires a sustainable participatory and integrated watershed management approach. The Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Projects, implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources and...
Devarajulu, Suresh Kumar
The present paper analysed the people’s participation, collective action and farm household behaviour in micro watersheds. Peoples participation in different stages of watershed implementation indicate that farm households show inclination towards participation in planning and project formulation, attending meetings, training and exposure visits when the programme is on-going. Households participation in watershed management is found to influence by household level, supra household level fact...
Juan Ángel Mintegui Aguirre
Full Text Available The effect of forests on flow and flood lamination decreases as the magnitude and intensity of torrential events and the watershed surface increase, thus resulting negligible when extreme events affect large catchments. However the effect of forests is advantageous in case of major events, which occur more often, and is particularly effective in soil erosion control. As a result, forests have been extensively used for watershed management and restoration, since they regulate water and sediments cycles, preventing the degradation of catchments.
Mateus, Marcos; Almeida, Carina; Brito, David; Neves, Ramiro
Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive), the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:24625620
Mohammad Sadegh Amiri
Full Text Available Zangelanlo watershed is located in Northeast of Iran, 28 km of Southeast of Daregaz between 37º13´ to 37º27´ north latitude and 59º8´ to 59º35´ east longitude. The surface area of the region is approximately 2482 ha. This area is mountainous with mean annual precipitation of about 412.7 mm. The mean maximum temperature is 20.8ºC in August and minimum temperature is -9ºC in January. The flora of the area was studied and life forms and chorotypes of the plants were identified. In this research, 64 families, 238 genera and 286 species were identified among which 8 species were endemic to Iran. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 40 genera and 51 species and the largest genus was Astragalus of Fabaceae with 7 species. Hemicryptophytes, therophytes and cryptophytes were the most frequent life forms 114 species (39.87%, 89 species (31.12% and 44 species (15.38%, respectively. High percentage of Hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. Irano – Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 146 species (51.05%.
Dheeraj Kumar Mishra, Rathore SS and Devendra Pandey*
Full Text Available In India, man-animal conflict is seen across the country in a variety of forms, including monkey menace in the urban areas, crop raiding by ungulates and wild pigs, depredation by elephants and cattle & human killing by tigers and leopards. Damage to agricultural crops and property, killing of livestock and human beings are some of the worst forms of man-animal conflict. One of the main challenges in and around any reserve forest area is to avoid or at least to minimize the incidences of man-animal conflict. An attempt has been made to analyze one of the main reasons (acute shortage of water in forest areas behind such conflicts and suggest remedial measures to minimize this menace by adopting appropriate watershed management techniques.
In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. This study was built on a conceptual framework for looking at SedInConnect model, topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs and climate change in an integrated way to pave the way for more integrated policy making. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. This framework can provide a region with an effective tool to inform a broad range of watershed planning activities within a region. Regional planners, decision-makers, etc. can utilize this tool to identify the most vulnerable points in a watershed and along roads to plan for interventions and actions to alter impacts of high flows and other extreme weather events on roads construction. The application of the model over a large scale can give a realistic spatial characterization of sediment connectivity for the optimal management of debris flow to road structures. The ability of the model to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.
Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...
The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of management and conservation practices that can control the impact of erosion and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) in Apulia...
This paper examines local soil knowledge and management in the Manupali watershed in the Philippines. The study focuses on soil erosion and its control. Research methods used in the study include ethnosemantic elicitations on soils and focus group discussions. In addition, in-depth work was conducte
Beck, Scott M.; McHale, Melissa R.; Hess, George R.
Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m2) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.
Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas
Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity
Notter, Benedikt; Hurni, Hans; Wiesmann, Urs; Ngana, James O.
Watershed services are the benefits people obtain from the flow of water through a watershed. While demand for such services is increasing in most parts of the world, supply is getting more insecure due to human impacts on ecosystems such as climate or land use change. Population and water management authorities therefore require information on the potential availability of watershed services in the future and the trade-offs involved. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model watershed service availability for future management and climate change scenarios in the East African Pangani Basin. In order to quantify actual “benefits”, SWAT2005 was slightly modified, calibrated and configured at the required spatial and temporal resolution so that simulated water resources and processes could be characterized based on their valuation by stakeholders and their accessibility. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate three management and three climate scenarios. The results show that by the year 2025, not primarily the physical availability of water, but access to water resources and efficiency of use represent the greatest challenges. Water to cover basic human needs is available at least 95% of time but must be made accessible to the population through investments in distribution infrastructure. Concerning the trade-off between agricultural use and hydropower production, there is virtually no potential for an increase in hydropower even if it is given priority. Agriculture will necessarily expand spatially as a result of population growth, and can even benefit from higher irrigation water availability per area unit, given improved irrigation efficiency and enforced regulation to ensure equitable distribution of available water. The decline in services from natural terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. charcoal, food), due to the expansion of agriculture, increases the vulnerability of residents who depend on such services mostly in times
Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.
This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.
Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng
The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. PMID:27091048
Quilbé, R.; Rousseau, A. N.
Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS). GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution) on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada). They include impact assessments of: (i) municipal clean water program; (ii) agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii) past and future land use changes, as well as (iv) determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.
A. N. Rousseau
Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.
A. N. Rousseau
Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i timber harvesting; (ii municipal clean water program; (iii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iv past land use evolution; (v possible future agricultural land use evolution under climate change, as well as (vi determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.
Smucker, N. J.; Detenbeck, N. E.; Kuhn, A.
Watershed development is a leading cause of stream impairment and increasingly threatens the availability, quality, and sustainability of freshwater resources. In a recent global meta-analysis, we found that measures of desirable ecological structure (e.g., algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities) and functions (e.g., metabolism, nutrient uptake, and denitrification) in streams with developed watersheds were only 23% and 34%, respectively, of those in minimally disturbed reference streams. As humans continue to alter watersheds in response to growing and migrating populations, characterizing ecological responses to watershed development and management practices is urgently needed to inform future development practices, decisions, and policy. In a study of streams in New England, we found that measures of macroinvertebrate and algal communities had threshold responses between 1-10% and 1-5% impervious cover, respectively. Macroinvertebrate communities had decreases in sensitive taxa and predators occurring from 1-3.5% and transitions in trophic and habitat guilds from 4-9% impervious cover. Sensitive algal taxa declined at 1%, followed by increases in tolerant taxa at 3%. Substantially altered algal communities persisted above 5% impervious cover and were dominated by motile taxa (sediment resistant) and those with high nutrient demands. Boosted regression tree analysis showed that sites with >65% and ideally >80% forest and wetland cover in near-stream buffers were associated with a 13-34% decrease in the effects of watershed impervious cover on algal communities. While this reduction is substantial, additional out-of-stream management efforts are needed to protect and restore stream ecosystems (e.g., created wetlands and stormwater ponds), but understanding their effectiveness is greatly limited by sparse ecological monitoring. Our meta-analysis found that restoration improved ecological structure and functions in streams by 48% and 14%, respectively, when
Nancy Johnson; James Garcia; Jorge E. Rubiano; Marcela Quintero; Ruben Dario Estrada; Esther Mwangi; Adriana Morena; Alexandra Peralta; Sara Granados
Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Result...
Krupnik, Timothy J.
This paper presents research-in-progress to understand small farmers’ soil and forestry management techniques in the Upper Catchment of the River Njoro (UCRN) in Kenya. This paper seeks to answer the following questions: How do farmers in the UCRN view and manage soil and forestry resources? What does this imply for development and conservation planners concerned with watershed and environmental services? The study blends social science approaches and biophysical assessment. Interviews were...
Managed turf accounts for approximately 17 million hectares of land in the U.S. and is the most intensively managed system in the urban landscape. The primary objective of this research effort was to assess the watershed scale hydrologic and surface water quality impact from a well managed golf cour...
To build the artificial forest ecoaystem is the major eco-economic development model in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir.It is very important to evaluate the benefits of those ecosystems.Emergy theories are very helpful for us to establish a science-based assessment framework.Emergy evatuation of the artificial forest ecosystems in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir is used to asses the relative values of several ecological hinctions (sometimes called ecosystem services)and main ecosystem storages(sometimes called natural capital).The main driving energtes,internal processes and storages are evaluated.The main functions,including transpiration,GPP and infiltration,are evaluated,which are 609em$/ha/yr,6,245em$/ha/yr and 340em$/ha/yr respectively.The total values of major environmental services are 4,683em$/ha/yr in the artificial forest ecosystem.The main storages of natural capital including live biomass,soil moisture,organic matter,underground water and landform are estimated,which are 112,028em$/ha,9em$/ha,40,718em$/ha,34em$/ha and 6,400.514em$/ha respectively.The largest value is landform,which accounts for97.7%of these calculated total emdollar values.The concept of replacement value is explored using the emergy values of both ecosystem services and natural capital.The total calculated replacement values are 302,160em$/ha.
This study analyzes transaction costs occurred in the existing set-up of upstream-downstream relations and reward mechanisms of the watershed services in Sumatra, Indonesia. The rewards are manifested through property right reforms in terms of "recognition" and "loss of fear of eviction" among local communities to utilize land within the "protection forest", such as implemented under the community-based forestry management (CBFM) policy. The study sites of Sumber Jaya watershed in Sumatra, In...
Ancev, Tihomir; Stoecker, Arthur L.; Daniel E. Storm
Phosphorus pollution from excessive litter application and municipal discharges causes eutorphication of lakes in the Eucha-Spavinaw watershed in eastern Oklahoma and western Arkansas. Consequent algae blooms impair the taste of drinking water supply drawn from the watershed and reduce the recreational values of the lakes. The paper shows how GIS data based biophysical modeling can be used to derive spatially optimal, least-cost allocation of agricultural management practices to be combined w...
Ohlson, Dan W; Serveiss, Victor B
Watershed management processes continue to call for more science and improved decision making that take into account the full range of stakeholder perspectives. Increasingly, the core principles of ecological risk assessment (i.e., the development and use of assessment endpoints and conceptual models, conducting exposure and effects analysis) are being incorporated and adapted in innovative ways to meet the call for more science. Similarly, innovative approaches to adapting decision analysis tools and methods for incorporating stakeholder concerns in complex natural resource management decisions are being increasingly applied. Here, we present an example of the integration of ecological risk assessment with decision analysis in the development of a watershed management plan for the Greater Vancouver Water District in British Columbia, Canada. Assessment endpoints were developed, ecological inventory data were collected, and watershed models were developed to characterize the existing and future condition of 3 watersheds in terms of the potential risks to water quality. Stressors to water quality include sedimentation processes (landslides, streambank erosion) and forest disturbance (wildfire, major insect or disease outbreak). Three landscape-level risk management alternatives were developed to reflect different degrees of management intervention. Each alternative was evaluated under different scenarios and analyzed by explicitly examining value-based trade-offs among water quality, environmental, financial, and social endpoints. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the integration of ecological risk assessment and decision analysis approaches can support decision makers in watershed management. PMID:17283600
Luo, Yuzhou; Zhang, Minghua
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. PMID:19616876
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.
Beck, Scott M; McHale, Melissa R; Hess, George R
Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m(2)) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds. PMID:27094440
Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Versteeg, R.
A software platform is being developed for data management and assimilation [DMA] as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Genomes to Watershed Sustainable Systems Science Focus Area 2.0. The DMA components and capabilities are driven by the project science priorities and the development is based on agile development techniques. The goal of the DMA software platform is to enable users to integrate and synthesize diverse and disparate field, laboratory, and simulation datasets, including geological, geochemical, geophysical, microbiological, hydrological, and meteorological data across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The DMA objectives are (a) developing an integrated interface to the datasets, (b) storing field monitoring data, laboratory analytical results of water and sediments samples collected into a database, (c) providing automated QA/QC analysis of data and (d) working with data providers to modify high-priority field and laboratory data collection and reporting procedures as needed. The first three objectives are driven by user needs, while the last objective is driven by data management needs. The project needs and priorities are reassessed regularly with the users. After each user session we identify development priorities to match the identified user priorities. For instance, data QA/QC and collection activities have focused on the data and products needed for on-going scientific analyses (e.g. water level and geochemistry). We have also developed, tested and released a broker and portal that integrates diverse datasets from two different databases used for curation of project data. The development of the user interface was based on a user-centered design process involving several user interviews and constant interaction with data providers. The initial version focuses on the most requested feature - i.e. finding the data needed for analyses through an intuitive interface. Once the data is found, the user can immediately plot and download data
Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton
The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.
Alrajhi, Muhamad; Khan, Mudasir; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla
Despite of valuable efforts from working groups and research organizations towards flood hazard reduction through its program, still minimal diminution from these hazards has been realized. This is mainly due to the fact that with rapid increase in population and urbanization coupled with climate change, flood hazards are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Therefore there is a need to understand and access flood hazards and develop means to deal with it through proper preparations, and preventive measures. To achieve this aim, Geographical Information System (GIS), geospatial and hydrological models were used as tools to tackle with influence of flash floods in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to existence of large valleys (Wadis) which is a matter of great concern. In this research paper, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of different resolution (30m, 20m,10m and 5m) have been used, which have proven to be valuable tool for the topographic parameterization of hydrological models which are the basis for any flood modelling process. The DEM was used as input for performing spatial analysis and obtaining derivative products and delineate watershed characteristics of the study area using ArcGIS desktop and its Arc Hydro extension tools to check comparability of different elevation models for flood Zonation mapping. The derived drainage patterns have been overlaid over aerial imagery of study area, to check influence of greater amount of precipitation which can turn into massive destructions. The flow accumulation maps derived provide zones of highest accumulation and possible flow directions. This approach provide simplified means of predicting extent of inundation during flood events for emergency action especially for large areas because of large coverage area of the remotely sensed data.
Savage, Jeff; Ribaudo, Marc
We use data from the ERS-NASS ARMS surveys to compare the use of best management practices on poultry and livestock farms inside the watershed and outside the watershed. Animal operations within the Chesapeake Bay States were found to be adopting some important manure management practices at a greater rate than operations outside the watershed. Adoption was taking place before the implementation of the TMDL, indicating that farmers may have been acting in response to building public pressure ...
Ray, R. L.; Fares, A.; Awal, R.; Johnson, A. B.
Investigating the effects of brush management on hydrologic fluxes, in the parts of the Texas where brush is a dominant component of the landscape is essential for the State of Texas's water management strategy and planning. The main goal of this study is to test the performance of brush management as an effective approach for protecting soil quality (carbon and nitrogen pools), and water resources management and planning. Specifically, this work reports on the potential i) hydrological response and ii) carbon and nitrogen pools of two watersheds, one in Colorado River Basin (arid) and the second one in Neches River Basin (humid), to brush management (uniform thinning vs. clear cutting) simulated using Regional Hydro-ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) model and site specific input data. The selected watersheds have similar potential evapotranspiration level, but their average elevations are 600 m and 250 m for the arid and humid watersheds, respectively. Results are showing that light thinning alone may not be enough to significantly impact water yield and soil quality. They further indicate that the streamflow response to brush reduction is a non-linear positive response.
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program
The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.
Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.
Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng
Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a
Cui, X; Liu, S; Wei, X.
Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Pla...
The Government of Tunisia has decided to construct the Qued Zeroud Dam to protect Kairouan from flooding, to irrigate 4,080 ha, and to maintain the groundwater supply. To prevent silting of the dam 100,000 ha of the Qued Zeroud watershed will undergo a conservation programme. Terraces, waterways and drop structures will be constructed and forage and tree plantations will be developed using Atriplex and cactus. Cultural and grazing practices will be controlled. (author)
Bartley, Rebecca; Bainbridge, Zoe T; Lewis, Stephen E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Wilkinson, Scott N; Brodie, Jon E; Silburn, D Mark
Modification of terrestrial sediment fluxes can result in increased sedimentation and turbidity in receiving waters, with detrimental impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Preventing anthropogenic sediment reaching coral reefs requires a better understanding of the specific characteristics, sources and processes generating the anthropogenic sediment, so that effective watershed management strategies can be implemented. Here, we review and synthesise research on measured runoff, sediment erosion and sediment delivery from watersheds to near-shore marine areas, with a strong focus on the Burdekin watershed in the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. We first investigate the characteristics of sediment that pose the greatest risk to coral reef ecosystems. Next we track this sediment back from the marine system into the watershed to determine the storage zones, source areas and processes responsible for sediment generation and run-off. The review determined that only a small proportion of the sediment that has been eroded from the watershed makes it to the mid and outer reefs. The sediment transported >1 km offshore is generally the clay to fine silt (sediment fractions (sediments is still under investigation; however, the Bowen, Upper Burdekin and Lower Burdekin sub-watersheds appear to be the dominant source of the clay and fine silt fractions. Sub-surface erosion is the dominant process responsible for the fine sediment exported from these watersheds in recent times, although further work on the particle size of this material is required. Maintaining average minimum ground cover >75% will likely be required to reduce runoff and prevent sub-soil erosion; however, it is not known whether ground cover management alone will reduce sediment supply to ecologically acceptable levels. PMID:24121565
Locating farmer-based knowledge and vested interests in natural resource management: the interface of ethnopedology, land tenure and gender in soil erosion management in the Manupali watershed, Philippines
Abstract This paper examines local soil knowledge and management in the Manupali watershed in the Philippines. The study focuses on soil erosion and its control. Research methods used in the study include ethnosemantic elicitations on soils and focus group discussions. In addition, in-depth work was conducted with 48 farmers holding 154 parcels at different elevations/locations in the watershed. The on-parcel research consisted of farmer classifications of the soil, topography, and erosion st...
Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of $3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008. This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET
Cui, X.; Liu, S.; Wei, X.
Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River Basin plays a strategic role in environmental protection and economic and social wellbeing for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze Basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently-completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" with funding of 3.5 million USD in 2002 to 2008). This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level) can help interpret the findings at a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation at both spatial scales. The impact magnitudes caused by forest harvesting indicate that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yields in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of ET with old-growth natural
ZAMFIR Andreea; Daniel SIMULESCU
This paper aims to present some solutions for automatic delineation of a watershed. In order to find this study’s applicability in the geographical reality, we decided that the river whose watershed will be delineated to be Oltet river. Automatic delineation of the Olteţ watershed was carried out comparatively, using two softwares, ArcGIS Desktop 9.3 andQuantum GIS 1.7.0 Wroclaw, and it based on a SRTM digital elevation model of 90 m. After using GIS techniques, there have resulted two maps s...
Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles
Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081
Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.
Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic p
... Information Executive Order 13508, Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration, dated May 12, 2009 (74 FR 23099... 24, 2010 (75 FR 91294, March 24). This final guidance incorporates revisions resulting from public... AGENCY Guidance for Federal Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed AGENCY:...
Childs, Allen B.
This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is
Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João
Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision
Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...
RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.
Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.
Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.
Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.
King, K W; Balogh, J C
Managed turf sites (golf courses) are the most intensively managed landscapes in the urban environment. Yet, long-term watershed scale studies documenting the environmental transport of agrichemicals applied to these systems are rare. The objective of this study was to quantify the surface discharge losses of two commonly applied pesticides (chlorothalonil and 2,4-D) resulting from prevailing practices on a managed golf course. Inflow and outflow discharge waters on a subarea of Northland Country Club located in Duluth, MN were measured for both quantity and quality from April through November from 2003 to 2008. The median chlorothalonil outflow concentration (0.58 microg L(-1)) was significantly greater (p acute toxicity levels (7.6 microg L(-1)) reported for rainbow trout. No 2,4-D concentrations exceeded any human or aquatic species published toxicity level; however, the maximum measured 2,4-D concentration (67.1 microg L(-1)), which rarely occurred, did approach the 70 microg L(-1) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for that compound. Losses of both pesticides were detectable throughout the annual sampling period. Mean annual chlorothalonil loading was 10.5 g ha(-1) or 0.3% of applied, while mean annual 2,4-D loading was 4.9 g ha(-1) or 0.5% of applied. The findings of this study provide quantifiable evidence of agrichemical transport resulting from typical turfgrass management and highlight the need for implementation of best management practices to combat the offsite transport of agrichemicals used in professional turf management. PMID:20526481
The goal of this project, and associated research, is to establish thresholds for ecological response to watershed disturbance and to develop tools and insights that will help us manage risks. Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can result in increased ris...
Conservation planning tools that consider all sources of erosion, sheet and rill, gully, and channels, is critical to developing an effective watershed management plan that considers the integrated effect of all practices on the watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source polluta...
Fadim YAVUZ OZDEMIR; TâˆšÂºzin BAYCAN-LEVENT
Community-based watershed management has become more predominant as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory approaches to water resources management. Locally based planning at the watershed scale is seen as an operative way to enhance long-term water resources management and environmental sustainability. Large-scale (regional) ecological systems can be most effectively regulated by small-scale (local) social organizations. Consequently motivating local people to actively par...
Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.
Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.
Jakubinsky, J.; Bacova, R.; Svobodova, E.; Kubicek, P.; Herber, V.
According to the International Disaster Database (CRED 2009) frequency of extreme hydrological situations on a global scale is constantly increasing. The most typical example of a natural risk in Europe is flood - there is a decrease in the number of victims, but a significant increase in economic damage. A decrease in the number of victims is caused by the application of current hydrological management that focuses its attention primarily on large rivers and elimination of the damages caused by major flood situations. The growing economic losses, however, are a manifestation of the increasing intensity of floods on small watercourses, which are usually not sufficiently taken into account by the management approaches. The research of small streams should focus both on the study of the watercourse itself, especially its ecomorphological properties, and in particular on the possibility of flood control measures and their effectiveness. An important part of society's access to sustainable development is also the evolution of knowledge about the river landscape area, which is perceived as a significant component of global environmental security and resilience, thanks to its high compensatory potential for mitigation of environmental change. The findings discussed under this contribution are based on data obtained during implementation of the project "GeoRISK" (Geo-analysis of landscape level degradation and natural risks formation), which takes into account the above approaches applied in different case studies - catchments of small streams in different parts of the Czech Republic. Our findings offer an opportunity for practical application of field research knowledge in decision making processes within the national level of current water management.
Hélio Nóbile Diniz
Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.
Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nash’s model parameters.
Cronin, Amanda; Ostergren, David M.
This research focuses on two elements of contemporary American Indian natural resource management. First, the authors explore the capacity of tribes to manage natural resources, including the merging of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with Western science. Second, they analyze tribal management in the context of local and regional…
Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Ahmad, Nafees H. M.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob; Burton, David; Madani, Ali
Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower leaching ( P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.
Yang, G.; Best, E. P.; Goodwin, S.
Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants to receiving water bodies and enhance local and regional ecosystem services. Barriers for the implementation of CRAM include uncertainties related to the extent to which nutrients are removed by CRAM at various spatial and temporal scales, longevity, optimal placement of CRAM within the landscape, and implementation / operation / maintenance costs. We conducted a study aimed at the identification of optimal placement of CRAM in watersheds that reduces N loading to an environmentally sustainable level, at an acceptable, known, cost. For this study, we used a recently developed screening-level modeling approach, WQM-TMDL-N, running in the ArcGIS environment, to estimate nitrogen loading under current land use conditions (NLCD 2006). This model was equipped with a new option to explore the performances of placement of various CRAM types and areas to reduce nitrogen loading to a State-accepted Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) standard, with related annual average TN concentration, and a multi-objective algorithm optimizing load and cost. CRAM practices explored for implementation in rural area included buffer strips, nutrient management practices, and wetland restoration. We initially applied this modeling approach to the Tippecanoe River (TR) watershed (8-digit HUC), a headwater of the Wabash River (WR) watershed, where CRAM implementation in rural and urban areas is being planned and implemented at various spatial scales. Consequences of future land use are explored using a 2050 land use/land cover map forecasted by the Land Transformation Model. The WR watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state's 92 counties and supports predominantly agricultural land use. Because the WR accounts for over 40% of the nutrient loads of the Ohio River and
Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.
Azab, A. M.
The intensive uses of limited water resources, the growing population rates and the various increasing human activities put high and continuous stresses on these resources. Major problems affecting the water quality of rivers, streams and lakes may arise from inadequately treated sewage, poor land use practices, inadequate controls on the discharges of industrial waste waters, uncontrolled poor agricultural practices, excessive use of fertilizers, and a lack of integrated watershed management...
Xinyi Xu; Lingling Bin; Chengzhong Pan; Aizhong Ding; Desheng Chen
Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and env...
Contreras, Antonio P.
In Balian, the presence of indigenous institutions borne by a well entrenched and historically rooted and highly developed sociopolitical arrangement has enabled the local community to effectively link their governance and production activities to the watershed resource, despite opposition from some local political interests. The core of this is the Samahan ng Balian para sa Pagpapauwi ng Tubig, Inc. (SBPTI), a barangay based people’s organization formed in 1926 with the goal of managing the ...
Swallow, Brent M.; Garrity, Dennis P.; van Noordwijk, Meine
Research and policy on property rights, collective action and watershed management requires good understanding of ecological and socio-political processes at different social-spatial scales. On-farm soil erosion is a plot or farm-level problem that can be mitigated through more secure property rights for individual farmers, while the sedimentation of streams and deterioration of water quality are larger-scale problems that may require more effective collective action and / or more secure prop...
Full Text Available This paper attempts to identify the major factors associated with some of the failures and successes of integrated watershed management policies and projects with a particular emphasis on the uplands of mainland Southeast Asia. It argues that many policy measures have been misguided by failing to acknowledge the multi-dimensional facets of sustainable watershed management and putting too much emphasis on command-and-control approaches to resource management and one-size-fits-all conservation models. Attempts to introduce soil and water conservation measures, for instance, have largely failed because they concentrated merely on the technical feasibility and potential ecological effects, while neglecting economic viability and socio-cultural acceptance. The production of agricultural commodities, on the other hand, has mostly been market-driven and often induced boom and bust cycles that compromised the ecological and social dimensions of sustainability. Purely community-based approaches to watershed management, on their part, have often failed to address issues of elite capture and competing interests within and between heterogeneous uplands communities. Drawing on a review of recent experience and on lessons from initiatives in a long-term collaborative research program in Thailand (The Uplands Program aimed at bridging the various dimensions of sustainability in the Southeast Asian uplands, this paper discusses how a socially, institutionally and ecologically sustainable mix of agricultural production, ecosystem services and rural livelihood opportunities can be achieved through incentive-based policies and multi-stakeholder partnerships that attempt to overcome the (perceived antagonism between conservation and development in upland watersheds of Southeast Asia.
Raquel Maria de Oliveira
Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.
The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...
Lyman, Samson E.
This study uses case study and qualitative content analysis methodologies to answer the question: What is the relationship between Washington State's k-12 science education standards and the environmental sustainability needs of the Palouse River Watershed? After defining the Palouse Watershed's attributes, the author presents a land use history…
Keisman, J.; Sekellick, A.; Blomquist, J.; Devereux, O. H.; Hively, W. D.; Johnston, M.; Moyer, D.; Sweeney, J.
Chesapeake Bay is a eutrophic ecosystem with periodic hypoxia and anoxia, algal blooms, diminished submerged aquatic vegetation, and degraded stocks of marine life. Knowledge of the effectiveness of actions taken across the watershed to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the bay (i.e. "best management practices" or BMPs) is essential to its restoration. While nutrient inputs from point sources (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and other industrial and municipal operations) are tracked, inputs from nonpoint sources, including atmospheric deposition, farms, lawns, septic systems, and stormwater, are difficult to measure. Estimating reductions in nonpoint source inputs attributable to BMPs requires compilation and comparison of data on water quality, climate, land use, point source discharges, and BMP implementation. To explore the relation of changes in nonpoint source inputs and BMP implementation to changes in water quality, a subset of small watersheds (those containing at least 10 years of water quality monitoring data) within the Chesapeake Watershed were selected for study. For these watersheds, data were compiled on geomorphology, demographics, land use, point source discharges, atmospheric deposition, and agricultural practices such as livestock populations, crop acres, and manure and fertilizer application. In addition, data on BMP implementation for 1985-2012 were provided by the Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A spatially referenced nonlinear regression model (SPARROW) provided estimates attributing N and P loads associated with receiving waters to different nutrient sources. A recently developed multiple regression technique ("Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge and Season" or WRTDS) provided an enhanced understanding of long-term trends in N and P loads and concentrations. A suite of deterministic models developed by the CBPO was used to estimate expected
The purpose of this work was to evaluate farm operator opinions relative to soil and water conservation practices in the Goodwater Creek Watershed in Central Missouri. This study reveals the outcome of structured interviews conducted with 25 farm operators within the Conservation Effects Assessment...
In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions. PMID:21547433
Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily
The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water
Agriculture is as much as ever and perhaps more so today a landscape enterprise. And as we move into an era in which ecosystem services from agriculture are tabulated, valued, and judged by society, landscape involvement and management will become ever more important. The majority of the non-comm...
Ossama M. M. Abdelwahab
Full Text Available The Annualised Agricultural Non-point Source model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different management practices to control the soil erosion and sediment load in the Carapelle watershed, a Mediterranean medium-size watershed (506 km2 located in Apulia, Southern Italy. The model was previously calibrated and validated using five years of runoff and sediment load data measured at a monitoring station located at Ordona - Ponte dei Sauri Bridge. A total of 36 events were used to estimate the performance of the model during the period 2007-2011. The model performed well in predicting runoff, as the high values of the coefficients of efficiency and determination during the validation process showed. The peak flows predictions were satisfactory especially for the high flow events; the prediction capability of sediment load was good, even if a slight over-estimation was observed. Simulations of alternative management practices show that converting the most eroding cropland cells (13.5% of the catchment area to no tillage would reduce soil erosion by 30%, while converting them to grass or forest would reduce soil erosion by 36.5% in both cases. A crop rotation of wheat and a forage crop can also provide an effective way for soil erosion control as it reduces erosion by 69%. Those results can provide a good comparative analysis for conservation planners to choose the best scenarios to be adopted in the watershed to achieve goals in terms of soil conservation and water quality.
Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.
The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.
Denise Gallo Pizella
Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.
Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul
Transfer of dissolved phosphorus (P) in runoff water via streams is regulated mainly by both stream sediment P adsorption and precipitation processes. The adsorption capacity of stream sediments acting as a P sink was a great benefit to preserving water quality in downstream lakes in the past, as it minimized the effects of surplus P loading from watershed streams. However, with long-term continued P loading the capacity of the sediments to store P has diminished, and eventually converted stream sediments from P sinks to sources of dissolved P. This accumulation of 'legacy P' in stream sediments has become the major source of dissolved P and risk to downstream water quality. Agricultural best management practices (BMP) for P typically attempt to minimize the transfer of P from farmland. However, because of the limitation in sediment P adsorption capacity, adoption of BMPs, such as reduction of external P loading, may not result in an immediate improvement in water quality. The goal of the research is to chemically characterize the P forms contributing to legacy P in stream sediments located in the watershed connecting to Cook's Bay, one of three basins of Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. This watershed receives the largest amount of external P loading and has the highest rate of sediment build-up, both of which are attributed to agriculture. Water samples were collected monthly at six study sites from October 2015 for analysis of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total P, dissolved reactive P, particulate P, total N, NH4-N, NO3-N, TOC and other elements including Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, S, Na, K and Zn. Sediment core samples were collected in November 2015 and will continue to be collected in March, July and October 2016. Various forms of P in five vertical sections were characterized by sequential fractionation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. Pore water, sediment texture and clay identification were performed. The concentration of total P in water samples
Background: Water scarcity remains a major hurdle in the overall development of tribal people living on hilly terrain, and it is one of the major reasons for their various health problems. Integrated watershed management (IWM) aims to increase water availability and to enhance socio-economic development in such areas. There is a lack of information on the implications of IWM on various aspects of public health, especially in hilly tribal areas. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was t...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...
Riedel, Mark S.
The Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, USFS Southern Research Station, worked with state and local agencies and various organizations to provide guidance and tools to reduce sedimentation and facilitate restoration of the 1900km2 Conasauga River watershed in northern Georgia and southern Tennessee. The Conasauga River has the most diverse aquatic ecosystem of any river in the region and is currently being considered for designation as a Federal wild and scenic river. The watershed is encircled an...
The alarming increase in the scarcity of water in various parts of the world has focused global attention on the need for a stronger and more appropriate water resource management solution. With about 166 million people in 18 countries suffering from water scarcity and about 270 million in 11 countries having "water stresses" conditions (World Bank 2002), it becomes imperative for nations to come up with more focused and direct measures that would address and stem this resource scarcity.
Full Text Available Control of non-point source (NPS water pollution remains elusive in the United States (US. Many US water-bodies which have been primarily impacted by NPS pollution have not achieved water quality goals set by Clean Water Act. Technological advances have been made since 1972, yet many water resources fail to meet water quality standards. Common Pool Resources Theory is considered to understand the human dimension of NPS pollution by exploring anthropogenic activities superimposed upon dynamic ecosystems. In the final analysis, priority management zones (PMZs for best management practice (BMP implementation must have buy-in from land managers. TWAIM is an iterative systems thinking approach to planning, collecting landscape and land use information and communicating systems understanding to stakeholders. Hydrologic pathways that link the physical, chemical and biological characteristics influence processes occurring in a watershed which drive stream health and ecological function. With better systems understanding and application by technical specialists, there is potential for improved stakeholder interaction and dialogue which could then enable better land use decisions. Issues of pollutant origin, transport, storage and hydraulic residence must be defined and communicated effectively to land managers within a watershed context to observe trends in water quality change. The TWAIM concept provides a logical framework for locally-led assessment and a means to communicate ecohydrologic systems understanding over time to the key land managers such that PMZs can be defined for BMP implementation.
Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas
The overall objective of this work is the development of an Information System which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of water management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making in semi-arid areas. An integrated modeling system has been developed and applied to evaluate the sustainability of water resources management strategies in Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The modeling system, developed in the framework of "HYDROMENTOR" research project, is based on a GIS modelling approach which uses remote sensing data and includes coupled models for the simulation of surface water and groundwater resources, the operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and the estimation of water demands at several spatial scales. Lake Karla basin was the region where the system was tested but the methodology may be the basis for future analysis elsewhere. Τwo (2) base and three (3) management scenarios were investigated. In total, eight (8) water management scenarios were evaluated: i) Base scenario without operation of the reservoir and the designed Lake Karla district irrigation network (actual situation) • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation ii) Base scenario including the operation of the reservoir and the Lake Karla district irrigation network • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation The results show that, under the existing water resources management, the water deficit of Lake Karla watershed is very large. However, the operation of the reservoir and the cooperative Lake Karla district irrigation network coupled with water demand management measures, like reduction of water distribution system losses and alteration of irrigation methods, could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area. Acknowledgements: This study
Kenge, James Gunya
Attention to participatory watershed management is increasing across the developing world as soil erosion continues to degrade agricultural land; reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure are clogged with sediment. The realization of the importance of watersheds is crucial for sustainable utilization especially in developing countries where rural livelihoods and economies are highly dependant on the exploitation of natural resources. The Lake Victoria basin is characterized by high population ...
Islahuddin, Muhammad; Sukrainingtyas, Adiska L. A.; Kusuma, M. Syahril B.; Soewono, Edy
Deriving unit hydrograph is very important in analyzing watershed's hydrologic response of a rainfall event. In most cases, hourly measures of stream flow data needed in deriving unit hydrograph are not always available. Hence, one needs to develop methods for deriving unit hydrograph for ungagged watershed. Methods that have evolved are based on theoretical or empirical formulas relating hydrograph peak discharge and timing to watershed characteristics. These are usually referred to Synthetic Unit Hydrograph. In this paper, a gamma probability density function and its variant are used as mathematical approximations of a unit hydrograph for Citarum Watershed. The model is adjusted with real field condition by translation and scaling. Optimal parameters are determined by using Particle Swarm Optimization method with weighted objective function. With these models, a synthetic unit hydrograph can be developed and hydrologic parameters can be well predicted.
Lee, Yoon; Yoon, Taeyeon; Shah, Farhed A.
This paper presents an optimal control model of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam. Management efforts focus on upstream soil conservation, reservoir-level sediment removal, and downstream damage control from water pollution. Increased soil conservation potentially benefits farmers and also has the external benefit of reducing sediment accumulation in the reservoir. Sediment is released downstream of the reservoir using the hydrosuction sediment removal system (HSRS). This sediment release extends reservoir life and provides nutrients to downstream farmers who then use less fertilizer. Also included in the functions of the dam manager are the provision of water to downstream farms, the control of instream flow to mitigate downstream damages from water pollution, and the use of water treatment to meet quality standards for water supplied directly from the reservoir to residential users. An illustrative application of the model to Lake Aswan, located between Egypt and Sudan, indicates substantial benefits from far-sighted behavior and cooperation across all agents. Moving from the baseline case that reflects the status quo to the socially optimal solution increases watershed net present value by more than $500 billion. Other scenarios with varying types of collaboration among the agents are also explored. Interestingly, while decisions with respect to soil conservation do impact the welfare of upstream farmers, the benefits to reservoir management and agriculture in Egypt are modest compared to benefits Egypt gets from improved control of instream flow. Also, subject to technical limits, increasing reservoir life through practice of HSRS is economically desirable.
Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu
This paper explores the case for using "community-based shared values" as a potential driver for the "Heartware" aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.
This study evaluated the impacts of climate change on the water resource management in the Peribonka watershed by comparing the hydropower production of 3 power houses with the reliability and vulnerability associated with two climate change scenarios. The Peribonka catchment area was described along with scenarios of climate change for the watershed over a time horizon up to 2080. Synthetic time series for each scenario were then produced with a stochastic weather generator and were introduced in the HSAMI hydrological model in order to simulate future hydrological cycles. The reservoir system simulation model ResSim showed that the hydroelectric power plant Passes-Dangereuses, will experience either an increase in the annual hydroelectric production of 8 per cent or a reduction of 20 per cent, depending on the scenario considered. The simulation showed that the reliability of upstream reservoirs, namely Lakes Manouane and Peribonka, could decrease while their vulnerability could increase. This paper described the procedure used to develop the climatic change scenarios, the stages of hydrological modeling and the modeling of the hydrological cycle. The impacts of the climatic change scenarios on the flows were also presented along with a short discussion of recommendations to be considered for the next stages of the project. Subsequent stages of this water management project will relate specifically to the quantification of partial and total uncertainties associated with general circulation models, methods of reduction of scale and the applied hydrological models. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs
Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.
Chen, L.; Zhong, Y.; Wei, G; Shen, Z.
The identification of priority management areas (PMAs) is essential for the control of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, especially for a large-scale watershed. However, previous studies have typically focused on small-scale catchments adjacent to specific assessment points; thus, the interactions between multiple river points remain poorly understood. In this study, a multiple-assessment-point PMA (MAP-PMA) framework was proposed by integrating the upstream sources and the ...
Zulfiia Sakbaeva; Veronica Acosta-Martínez; Jennifer Moore-Kucera; Wayne Hudnall; Karabaev Nuridin
Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of chemical (soil organic matter (SOM), pH and total N (TN)), physical (soil texture), and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P, and S cycling) characteristics for nine profiles from the Kukart watershed of Jalal-Abad region in Kyrgyzstan. These profiles represent different soil orders (Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Mollisols) and land uses (cultivated, nut-fr...
Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat
Dhruvesh P Patel; Prashant K Srivastava; Manika Gupta; Naresh Nandhakumar
Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.
Reis, D R; Plangg, R; Tundisi, J G; Quevedo, D M
Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment.This article aims to achieve a physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed (Sinos river basin) identifying elements such as land use and occupation, soil science, geology, climatology, extent and location of watershed, among others, so as to serve as the basis for a tool that helps in the integrated environmental management of watersheds. By applying geographic information system - GIS to the process of obtaining maps of land use and occupation, pedologicaland geological, and using climatological data from the Campo Bom meteorological station, field visit, review of literature and journals, and publicly available data, the physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed was performed, with a view to the integrated environmental management of this watershed. Out of the total area of the Schmidt stream watershed (23.92 km(2)), in terms of geology, it was observed that 23.7% consist of colluvial deposits, 22.6% consist of grass facies, and 53.7% consist of Botucatu formation. Major soil types of the watershed: 97.4% Argisols and only 2.6% Planosols. Land use and occupation is characterized by wetland (0.5%), Native Forest (12
Lim Suan, Medel P.
Dealing with various topics such as watershed classification, computer simulation and modeling and computer application in watershed research, this paper assembles and summarizes technologies that are currently being used or have potential for application in the Philippines. This is in the hope of helping watershed managers, planners and researchers.
Darma Tarigan, Suria
Flooding is caused by excessive rainfall flowing downstream as cumulative surface runoff. Flooding event is a result of complex interaction of natural system components such as rainfall events, land use, soil, topography and channel characteristics. Modeling flooding event as a result of interaction of those components is a central theme in watershed management. The model is usually used to test performance of various management practices in flood mitigation. There are various types of management practices for flood mitigation including vegetative and structural management practices. Existing hydrological model such as SWAT and HEC-HMS models have limitation to accommodate discrete management practices such as infiltration well, small farm reservoir, silt pits in its analysis due to the lumped structure of these models. Aim of this research is to use raster spatial analysis functions of Geo-Information System (RGIS-HM) to model flooding event in Ciliwung watershed and to simulate impact of discrete management practices on surface runoff reduction. The model was validated using flooding data event of Ciliwung watershed on 29 January 2004. The hourly hydrograph data and rainfall data were available during period of model validation. The model validation provided good result with Nash-Suthcliff efficiency of 0.8. We also compared the RGIS-HM with Netlogo Hydrological Model (NL-HM). The RGIS-HM has similar capability with NL-HM in simulating discrete management practices in watershed scale.
Fry, T. J.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Higgins, C. P.
Urbanization presents challenging water resource problems for communities worldwide. The hydromodifications associated with urbanization results in increased runoff rates and volumes and increased peak flows which can lead to increased erosion and stream destabilization, decreased evapotranspiration, decreased ground water recharge, increases in pollutant loading, and localized anthropogenic climate change or Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater management is shifting from a drainage-efficiency focus to a natural systems focus. The natural system focus, referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), or Green Infrastructure, uses best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts caused by urbanization hydromodification. Currently there are two modeling approaches used to evaluate BMPs in urban watersheds, conceptually-based coarse resolution hydrologic models and high-resolution physically-based models. Conceptual urban hydrology-hydraulic models typically are used to determine peak flow hydrographs within a watershed based on uniform rainfall, the basins size, shape, and percent of impervious land cover. Physically-based hydrologic models simulate integrated surface and subsurface water flow. Here, we use high-resolution physically based hydrologic models of the urban hydrologic cycle with explicit inclusion of the built environment. We compare the inclusion and exclusion of LID features to evaluate the parameterizations used to model these components in more conceptually based models. Differences in response are discussed and a road map is put forth for improving LID representation in commonly used urban water models.
Full Text Available This article explores local oral histories and selected communal written texts and their role in the severely damaged watershed of Jukajoki [and adjacent lake Jukajärvi watershed] located in Kontiolahti and Joensuu municipalities, North Karelia, Finland. All in all 35 narratives were collected 2010−2012. Four narratives have been presented in this paper as an example of the materials. Empirical materials have been analysed by using a framework of both Integrated Ecosystem Management and co-management. Three readings of the river Jukajoki and the adjacent watershed emerged from the materials – Sámi times, Savo-Karelian times and times of damages, or the industrial age of the river. Local knowledge, including optic histories, provided information about pre-industrial fisheries, fish ecology and behaviour and bird habitats. Lastly, special oral histories of keepers of the local tradition provided narratives which are consistent with inquiries from other parts of Finland, non-Euclidian readings of time and space and hint at what the Indigenous scholars have proposed as an intimate interconnection between nature and human societies extending beyond notions of social-ecological systems. Empirical oral histories also conceptualize collaborative governance with a formal role of local ecological knowledge as a future management option for the Jukajoki watershed. Watershed restoration and associated baseline information benefits greatly from the oral histories recorded with people who still remember pre-industrial and pre-war ecosystems and their qualities.
[Objective] The aim was to study the climate changes of Yanhe watershed during 1974-2004. [Method] The monthly temperature and precipitation during 1974-2004 in seven representative stations in Yanhe watershed were chosen. By dint of climate statistics analysis method, accumulated anomaly and signal/noise ratio method, the regional temperature and precipitation changes in recent 31 years were expounded and its changes features and the year having climate mutation were found out. [Result] The climate changes...
Walker, S; Mostaghimi, S.
Metadata only record This chapter discusses the application of adaptive watershed management strategies and their importance to maintaining water supply. The watershed, which is an area of land that drains to a particular point or outlet, can be any size and is physically governed by topography. Thoroughly understanding these physical properties is essential to formulating an effective management plan for a watershed. In turn, proper management can improve and maintain soil quality and wat...
Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz
Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health. PMID:26734840
Beasley Lake watershed in the Mississippi Delta is a 915 ha intensively cultivated watershed (49-78% in row crop production) that was monitored for the herbicide metolachlor from 1998-2009. As part of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), the watershed was assessed for the effecti...
Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure
Croll, E. D.; Enright, R.
An understanding of conjunctive use between surface and ground water is essential to resource management both for sustained public use and watershed conservation practices. The Furnace Brook watershed in Marshfield, Massachusetts supplies a coastal community of 25,132 residents with nearly 50% of the town water supply. As with many other coastal communities, development pressure has increased creating a growing demand for freshwater extraction. It has been observed, however, that portions of the stream and Furnace Pond disappear entirely. This has created a conflict between protection of the designated wetland areas and meeting public pressure for water resources, even within what is traditionally viewed as a humid region. Questions have arisen as to whether the town water extraction is influencing this losing behavior by excessively lowering water-table elevations and potentially endangering the health of the stream. This study set out to initially characterize these behaviors and identify possible influences of anthropogenic and natural sources acting upon the watershed including stream flow obstructions, water extraction, and geologic conditions. The initial characterization was conducted utilizing simple, low-cost and minimally intrusive methods as outlined by Lee and Cherry (1978), Rosenberry and LaBaugh (2008) and others during a six week period. Five monitoring stations were established along a 3.0 mile reach of the basin consisting of mini-piezometers, seepage meters, survey elevation base-lines, and utilizing a Marsh-McBirney flow velocity meter. At each station stream discharge, seepage flux rates and hydraulic gradients were determined to develop trends of stream behavior. This methodology had the benefit of demonstrating the efficacy of an intrinsically low-expense, minimally intrusive initial approach to characterizing interactions between surface and ground water resources. The data was correlated with town pumping information, previous geologic
Evans, Elizabeth M; Lee, David R.; Boisvert, Richard N.
The objective of this paper is to address the problems of inefficiency and inequity in water allocation in the El Angel watershed, located in Ecuador's Sierra region. Water is captured in a high-altitude region of the watershed and distributed downstream to producers in four elevation-defined zones via a system of canals. Upstream and downstream producers face radically different conditions with respect to climate and terrain. A mathematical programming model was created to study the conseque...
The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST v.1) was released by the US Environmental Protection Agency in December 2013(http://www2.epa.gov/exposure-assessment-models/wmost-10-download-page). The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-domain screening toolthat ...
Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.
The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…
Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Lee, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Huang, Meng-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Ching
hazard mitigation program operated by local government and reservoir watershed management in southern Taiwan. Keywords: large scale landslide, disaster prevention, hazard mitigation, watershed management
Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua
Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the
Val, Jonatan; Chinarro, David; Pino, María Rosa; Navarro, Enrique
Global change is transforming freshwater ecosystems, mainly through changes in basin flow dynamics. This study assessed how the combination of climate change and human management of river flow impacts metabolism of the Ebro River (the largest river basin in Spain, 86,100km(2)), assessed as gross primary production-GPP-and ecosystem respiration-ER. In order to investigate the influence of global change on freshwater ecosystems, an analysis of trends and frequencies from 25 sampling sites of the Ebro river basin was conducted. For this purpose, we examined the effect of anthropogenic flow control on river metabolism with a Granger causality study; simultaneously, took into account the effects of climate change, a period of extraordinary drought (largest in past 140years). We identified periods of sudden flow changes resulting from both human management and global climate effects. From 1998 to 2012, the Ebro River basin was trending toward a more autotrophic condition indicated by P/R ratio. Particularly, the results show that floods that occurred after long periods of low flows had a dramatic impact on the respiration (i.e., mineralization) capacity of the river. This approach allowed for a detailed characterization of the relationships between river metabolism and drought impacts at the watershed level. These findings may allow for a better understanding of the ecological impacts provoked by flow management, thus contributing to maintain the health of freshwater communities and ecosystem services that rely on their integrity. PMID:27392332
Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.
The writers discuss three critically important steps necessary for achieving the goal for improved integrated approaches on watershed and coastal protection and management. These steps involve modernization of monitoring networks, creation of common data and web services infrastructures, and development of modeling, assessment, and research tools. Long-term monitoring is needed for tracking the effectiveness approaches for controlling land-based sources of nutrients, contaminants, and invasive species. The integration of mapping and monitoring with conceptual and mathematical models, and multidisciplinary assessments is important in making well-informed decisions. Moreover, a better integrated data network is essential for mapping, statistical, and modeling applications, and timely dissemination of data and information products to a broad community of users.
Full Text Available This article examines a 75-year history of North America’s Columbia river to answer the question: what difference does a river basin territory actually make? Advocates reason that river basins and watersheds are natural and holistic water management spaces, and can avoid the fragmentations and conflicts endemic to water management within traditional political territories. However, on the Columbia, this reasoning has not played out in practice. Instead, basin management has been shaped by challenges from and negotiations with more traditional jurisdictional spaces and political districts. The recurring result has been 'parcelling out the watershed': coordinating river management to produce a few spreadable benefits, and distributing these benefits, as well as other responsibilities and policy-making influence, to jurisdictional parts and political districts. To provide generous spreadable benefits, river management has unevenly emphasised hydropower, resulting in considerable environmental losses. However, benefits have been widely spread and shared – and over time challengers have forced management to diversify. Thus a river basin territory over time produced patterns of both positive and negative environmental, social, economic, and democratic outcomes. To improve the outcomes of watershed-based water management, we need more interactive and longer-term models attentive to dynamic politics and geographies.
Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.
Li, Sheng; Elliott, Jane A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; Yarotski, James; Lobb, David A; Flaten, Don N
Most beneficial management practices (BMPs) recommended for reducing nutrient losses from agricultural land have been established and tested in temperate and humid regions. Previous studies on the effects of these BMPs in cold-climate regions, especially at the small watershed scale, are rare. In this study, runoff and water quality were monitored from 1999 to 2008 at the outlets of two subwatersheds in the South Tobacco Creek watershed in Manitoba, Canada. Five BMPs-a holding pond below a beef cattle overwintering feedlot, riparian zone and grassed waterway management, grazing restriction, perennial forage conversion, and nutrient management-were implemented in one of these two subwatersheds beginning in 2005. We determined that >80% of the N and P in runoff at the outlets of the two subwatersheds were lost in dissolved forms, ≈ 50% during snowmelt events and ≈ 33% during rainfall events. When all snowmelt- and rainfall-induced runoff events were considered, the five BMPs collectively decreased total N (TN) and total P (TP) exports in runoff at the treatment subwatershed outlet by 41 and 38%, respectively. The corresponding reductions in flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) were 43% for TN and 32% for TP. In most cases, similar reductions in exports and FWMCs were measured for both dissolved and particulate forms of N and P, and during both rainfall and snowmelt-induced runoff events. Indirect assessment suggests that retention of nutrients in the holding pond could account for as much as 63 and 57%, respectively, of the BMP-induced reductions in TN and TP exports at the treatment subwatershed outlet. The nutrient management BMP was estimated to have reduced N and P inputs on land by 36 and 59%, respectively, in part due to the lower rates of nutrient application to fields converted from annual crop to perennial forage. Overall, even though the proportional contributions of individual BMPs were not directly measured in this study, the collective reduction
Shiferaw, Bekele A.; Bantilan, Ma Cynthia S.; Wani, Suhas; Sreedevi, T.K.; Rao, G.D. Nageswara
Spatial and temporal attributes of watersheds and associated market failures require institutional arrangements for coordinating use and management of natural resources. Effective collective action (CA) for watershed management has the potential to provide multiple economic and environmental benefits - tangible and non-tangible - to rural communities. This allows smallholder farmers to jointly invest in management practices that provide collective benefits to community members. The functions ...
Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)
The Lake Manassas Watershed is a 189 km2 basin located in the Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, DC. Lake Manassas is a major waterbody in the watershed and serves as a drinking water source for the City of Manassas. Lake Manassas is experiencing eutrophication due to nutrient loads associated with agricultural activities and urban development in its drainage areas. Two watershed model applications using HSPF, and one receiving water quality model application using CE-QUAL-W2, were link...
Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring 222Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for 222Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rnq, the 222Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rnq to the measured 222Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach
Full Text Available Surveys of soil properties related to soil functioning for many regions of Kyrgyzstan are limited. This study established ranges of chemical (soil organic matter (SOM, pH and total N (TN, physical (soil texture, and biochemical (six enzyme activities of C, N, P, and S cycling characteristics for nine profiles from the Kukart watershed of Jalal-Abad region in Kyrgyzstan. These profiles represent different soil orders (Inceptisols, Alfisols, and Mollisols and land uses (cultivated, nut-fruit forests, and pasture. The Sierozem (Inceptisols soils had the highest pH and contained the lowest SOM and TN contents compared to the Brown, Black-brown, and Meadow-steppe soils (Alfisols and Mollisols. Enzymatic activities within surface horizons (0–18 cm typically decreased in the following order: forest > pasture > cultivated. Enzyme activity trends due to land use were present regardless of elevation, climate, and soil types although subtle differences among soil types within land use were observed. The significant reductions in measured soil enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S nutrient transformations under cultivation compared to pasture and forest ecosystems and lower values under Inceptisols can serve as soil quality indicators for land use decisions in the watershed.
Asghar Besalatpour; M. Ali Hajabbasi; Shamsolah Ayoubi; Ahmad Jalalian
A few areas in a large watershed might be more critical and responsible for high amount of runoff and soil losses. For an effective and efficient implementation of watershed management practices, identification of these critical areas is vital. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2009) to identify and prioritize the critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed with imprecise and uncertain data (Bazoft watershed, southwestern Iran). Three different SWAT mo...
Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.
To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...
Full Text Available Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2 is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.
Roy, Allison H.; Wenger, Seth J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Ladson, Anthony R.; Shuster, William D.; Thurston, Hale W.; Brown, Rebekah R.
In urban and suburban areas, stormwater runoff is a primary stressor on surface waters. Conventional urban stormwater drainage systems often route runoff directly to streams and rivers, thus exacerbating pollutant inputs and hydrologic disturbance, and resulting in the degradation of ecosystem structure and function. Decentralized stormwater management tools, such as low impact development (LID) or water sensitive urban design (WSUD), may offer a more sustainable solution to stormwater management if implemented at a watershed scale. These tools are designed to pond, infiltrate, and harvest water at the source, encouraging evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, and re-use of stormwater. While there are numerous demonstrations of WSUD practices, there are few examples of widespread implementation at a watershed scale with the explicit objective of protecting or restoring a receiving stream. This article identifies seven major impediments to sustainable urban stormwater management: (1) uncertainties in performance and cost, (2) insufficient engineering standards and guidelines, (3) fragmented responsibilities, (4) lack of institutional capacity, (5) lack of legislative mandate, (6) lack of funding and effective market incentives, and (7) resistance to change. By comparing experiences from Australia and the United States, two developed countries with existing conventional stormwater infrastructure and escalating stream ecosystem degradation, we highlight challenges facing sustainable urban stormwater management and offer several examples of successful, regional WSUD implementation. We conclude by identifying solutions to each of the seven impediments that, when employed separately or in combination, should encourage widespread implementation of WSUD with watershed-based goals to protect human health and safety, and stream ecosystems.
Chunjuan; ZHANG; Xueying; HE
Taking the waterhead area of the middle line project for diverting water from the south to the north,Hanjiang watershed in Shiquan, as an example,ecological remediation of the small watershed was studied from aspects of necessity,practicability,plans and aims. The ecological restoration for soil and water conservation in Hanjiang River basin can not only control soil erosion and effectively protect water resources to provide clean water for people living in the lower reaches of Hanjiang mainstream,but also increase farmers’ income and protect environment, which is both typical and exemplary.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...
SP Wani; HP Singh; TK Sreedevi; P. Pathak; TJ Rego; Shiferaw, B.; SR Iyer
This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change i...
Yue-Qing, Xu; Jian, Peng; Xiao-Mei, Shao
Due to the existence of fragile karst geo-ecological environments, such as environments with extremely poor soil cover, low soil-forming velocity, and fragmentized terrain and physiognomy, as well as inappropriate and intensive land use, soil erosion is a serious problem in Guizhou Province, which is located in the centre of the karst areas of southwestern China; evaluation of soil loss and spatial distribution for conservation planning is urgently needed. This study integrated the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) with a GIS to assess soil loss and identify risk erosion areas in the Maotiao River watershed of Guizhou. Current land use/cover and management practices were evaluated to determine their effects on average annual soil loss and future soil conservation practices were discussed. Data used to generate the RUSLE factors included a Landsat Thematic Mapper image (land cover), digitized topographic and soil maps, and precipitation data. The results of the study compare well with the other studies and local data, and provide useful information for decision makers and planners to take appropriate land management measures in the area. It thus indicates the RUSLE-GIS model is a useful tool for evaluating and mapping soil erosion quantitatively and spatially at a larger watershed scale in Guizhou.
Metadata only record "Iloilo city government had great interest in preserving the main source of water for the city and the Maasin municipality wanted support to manage the watershed reserve. Degradation of the watershed is seen as the cause of increasing water scarcity and frequent floods. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...
Seema, H.M.; Chandrakanth, Mysore G.; Nagaraj, N.
In this study, economic impact of water harvesting and groundwater recharging was analyzed in the context of Sujala watershed equity and efficiency in the distribution of benefits in Chitradurga district, Karnataka. Field data for 2004-05 (drought year) and 2005-06 (normal year) from 30 sample farmers in Sujala watershed form the data base for the study. Another sample of 30 farmers from Non-Sujala (or DPAP) watershed, and 30 from outside watershed area form the control. Farmers were further ...
Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.
Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of
Anil M Pophare; Bhushan R Lamsoge; Yashwant B Katpatal; Vijay P Nawale
The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977–2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 S/cm per year. During 2007–2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.
Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Williams, C.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.
Biogeochemical processes reflecting interaction of vegetation and hydrology govern long-term export of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon over successional time scales. While management concepts of watershed "recovery" from disturbance back towards pre-disturbance conditions are often considered over much shorter timescales, few studies have directly explored watershed biogeochemical responses to disturbance long enough to directly document the longer-term trajectory of responses to severe land disturbance on nitrogen export. The objectives of this study were to document both the initial magnitude and patterns of longer-term recovery of stream nitrogen after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire over nine years in front ranges of the Rocky Mountains in south-west Alberta, Canada. The study was conducted in seven instrumented catchments (4-14 km2), including burned, burned and salvage logged, and unburned (reference) conditions since 2004. Total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations and area-normalized yields were greater and more variable in burned and post-fire salvage logged catchments when compared with unburned catchments. Large initial increases in stream TN and NO3- production 1-3 years after both wildfire and post-fire salvage logging declined strongly to levels similar to, or below that of unburned watersheds 4-6 years after the fire, and continued to decline (although more slowly) 7-9 years after the wildfire. Post-fire salvage logging produced lower impacts on TN and NO3- in streams and these effects declined even more rapidly compared to the effects of wildfire alone. These changes closely corresponded to the early trajectory of establishment and rapid juvenile growth of post-fire regenerating forest vegetation in both catchment groups. While the concept of hydrologic recovery from disturbance is both a practical and meaningful concept for integrated landscape management for protection of forest water resources, the benchmark for
Sandeep S. Nerkar
Full Text Available Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes.
Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:26959039
加强流域管理立法是改善流域环境的一个重要途径，流域管理立法应当坚持可持续性原则、协调性原则、整体性原则、时效性原则。我国现行流域管理立法具有分散性、多层次性和应急性等特征。完善流域立法应当提高立法层次，加强协商机制和公众参与，解决区际协议的效力，及时废改旧法，创制统一的流域管理基本法，加强流域管理专门立法。%It is an important way to improve the watershed environment by strengthening the watershed management legislation, which should adhere to the principles of sustainability, coordination, integrity and timeliness. Current watershed management legislation has dispersion, multi--level quality, emergency response and other features. The improvement of the watershed legislation should improve the legislative level, strengthen the consultation mechanism and public participation, address the effectiveness of the inter--district agreement, and timely abolish the old law, and create a unified basic watershed management law, and strengthen the specific watershed management legislation.