Sample records for watershed management study

  1. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study


    Bewket, W.


    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were condu...

  2. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo


    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  3. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies. (United States)

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy


    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. PMID:26023957

  4. Watershed Management-A case study of Satara Tanda Village

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    P. R. Thakare


    Full Text Available Water is the most critical component of life support system. India shares about 16% of the global population but it has only 4% of the water resources. The national water policy gives priority to drinking water followed by agriculture, industry and power. The single most important task before the country in the field of India’s water resource management is to pay special attention to rainwater conservation, especially which falls on our vast rain-fed lands but most of which flows away from it. The Marathwada region is declared the drought for this year by state government, to overcome the water scarcity watershed management is decided to do near the Sataratanda it is the outskirt region of Aurangabad city. The proposed site of watershed management structure bandhara is located on stream flowing near the Sataratanda village. The proposed bandhara is design for the conservation of water and recharging into the ground to raise the water table of this particular area for the benefits to villagers, fields & farmers. Since last few decades the demand for water had rapidly grown and with the increasing population would continue to rise in future. In Maharashtra, the assessment of ground water potential and scope for artificial recharge in the overdeveloped watershed is very crucial. The total cost of cement bandhara works about 9 lakhs thus the scheme is found economically feasible. The quantity of water store in the bandhara basin is 0.74 TCM.

  5. Integrated Approach for Prioritizing Watersheds for Management: A Study of Lidder Catchment of Kashmir Himalayas (United States)

    Malik, Mohammad Imran; Bhat, M. Sultan


    The Himalayan watersheds are susceptible to various forms of degradation due to their sensitive and fragile ecological disposition coupled with increasing anthropogenic disturbances. Owing to the paucity of appropriate technology and financial resources, the prioritization of watersheds has become an inevitable process for effective planning and management of natural resources. Lidder catchment constitutes a segment of the western Himalayas with an area of 1,159.38 km2. The study is based on integrated analysis of remote sensing, geographic information system, field study, and socioeconomic data. Multicriteria evaluation of geophysical, land-use and land-cover (LULC) change, and socioeconomic indicators is carried out to prioritize watersheds for natural resource conservation and management. Knowledge-based weights and ranks are normalized, and weighted linear combination technique is adopted to determine final priority value. The watersheds are classified into four priority zones (very high priority, high priority, medium priority, and low priority) on the basis of quartiles of the priority value, thus indicating their ecological status in terms of degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The correlation between priority ranks of individual indicators and integrated indicators is drawn. The results reveal that socioeconomic indicators are the most important drivers of LULC change and environmental degradation in the catchment. Moreover, the magnitude and intensity of anthropogenic impact is not uniform in different watersheds of Lidder catchment. Therefore, any conservation and management strategy must be formulated on the basis of watershed prioritization.

  6. Integrated approach for prioritizing watersheds for management: a study of lidder catchment of kashmir himalayas. (United States)

    Malik, Mohammad Imran; Bhat, M Sultan


    The Himalayan watersheds are susceptible to various forms of degradation due to their sensitive and fragile ecological disposition coupled with increasing anthropogenic disturbances. Owing to the paucity of appropriate technology and financial resources, the prioritization of watersheds has become an inevitable process for effective planning and management of natural resources. Lidder catchment constitutes a segment of the western Himalayas with an area of 1,159.38 km(2). The study is based on integrated analysis of remote sensing, geographic information system, field study, and socioeconomic data. Multicriteria evaluation of geophysical, land-use and land-cover (LULC) change, and socioeconomic indicators is carried out to prioritize watersheds for natural resource conservation and management. Knowledge-based weights and ranks are normalized, and weighted linear combination technique is adopted to determine final priority value. The watersheds are classified into four priority zones (very high priority, high priority, medium priority, and low priority) on the basis of quartiles of the priority value, thus indicating their ecological status in terms of degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The correlation between priority ranks of individual indicators and integrated indicators is drawn. The results reveal that socioeconomic indicators are the most important drivers of LULC change and environmental degradation in the catchment. Moreover, the magnitude and intensity of anthropogenic impact is not uniform in different watersheds of Lidder catchment. Therefore, any conservation and management strategy must be formulated on the basis of watershed prioritization. PMID:25267521

  7. Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study


    Yanli Zhang; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew McBroom; John DeGroote; Rebecca L Kauten; Paul K Barten


    In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI) approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning a...


    The Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops, and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the risk management aspects of WWF research.One...



    Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,; Dr.Mrs.Sushma Shekhar Kulkarni


    In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have be...


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    Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,


    Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.

  11. Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia


    Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530

  12. Preliminary study on streamflow in forested and forest plantation experimental watersheds for water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the discharge in C3 runoff while the delayed flow runoff dominate the discharge in the C1. (Author)

  13. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  14. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management


    Zeyuan Qiu


    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  15. Community Participation in Watershed Management Programs


    Reza Bagherian; A. S. Bahaman; A. S. Asnarulkhadi; Shamsuddin Ahmad


    Problem statement: Several studies in other countries had shown the influence of socio demographic, knowledge, satisfaction and attitudinal factors in level of community participation in development programs. The question here is, whether these factors would also be effective on community participation in other countries? Determine the factors which are influence community participation in order to enhance their participation in Watershed Management Programs (WMP) in Iran. Approach: A cross s...

  16. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager" (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.


    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  17. Incorporating uncertainty in watershed management decision-making: A mercury TMDL case study (United States)

    Labiosa, W.; Leckie, J.; Shachter, R.; Freyberg, D.; Rytuba, J.


    Water quality impairment due to high mercury fish tissue concentrations and high mercury aqueous concentrations is a widespread problem in several sub-watersheds that are major sources of mercury to the San Francisco Bay. Several mercury Total Maximum Daily Load regulations are currently being developed to address this problem. Decisions about control strategies are being made despite very large uncertainties about current mercury loading behavior, relationships between total mercury loading and methyl mercury formation, and relationships between potential controls and mercury fish tissue levels. To deal with the issues of very large uncertainties, data limitations, knowledge gaps, and very limited State agency resources, this work proposes a decision analytical alternative for mercury TMDL decision support. The proposed probabilistic decision model is Bayesian in nature and is fully compatible with a "learning while doing" adaptive management approach. Strategy evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and information collection prioritization are examples of analyses that can be performed using this approach.

  18. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

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    John Kerr


    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  19. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L


    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated research questions. The goal of this research was to investigate whether scientific research tools were available that could provide evidence that links water quality and land type. In particular, could such tools be used on raw water at the treatment point rather than monitoring over a large geographic spanning a watershed. This report summarizes the utility of using isotopic tracers to better understand sources of non-point source pollution and their relation to industry standard water quality measurements. In this study we have found that much of the water quality data generated by utilities is under-interpreted in the context of understanding watershed processes. For example, the City of St. Louis depends solely on the Missouri River for drinking water, but due to large variability in discharge and runoff sources, they are faced with DOC concentrations that vary nearly a factor of three within a single season. The relationship between discharge and concentration has not been constrained. However, we found a linear correlation between the DOC concentration and the fractional amount of downstream discharge (derived from within the State of Missouri). This correlation relates directly to differences in land use and climate between the upstream and downstream portions of the river basin.

  20. Advancing the Guánica Bay (Puerto Rico) Watershed Management Plan (United States)

    Consideration of stakeholder values in watershed planning and management is a necessity, but sufficiently eliciting, understanding, and organizing those values can be daunting. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of formal decision analysis to integrate expert knowledge...

  1. Watershed Conservation Management Planning Using AGNPS (United States)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  2. Socioeconomic and policy research on watershed management in India: synthesis of past experiences and needs for future research


    PK Joshi; Vasudha Pangare; B Shiferaw; SP Wani; J Bouma; SCOTT, C.


    This book consists of the following chapters: Policy and institutional issues and concepts for watershed management; current policies and institutional arrangement for watershed management; watershed development programs and approaches; case studies and methods; analysis of selection case studies; lessons drawn for success of watershed development; knowledge gaps and areas for future research.


    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the...

  4. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  5. Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after appropriate modifications. (author)

  6. A review of watershed management experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3 appendices

  7. Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA)


    Mark Weaver; Jason Shaw Parker; Richard Moore


    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershe...

  8. A bacia hidrográfica do Tietê/Jacaré: estudo de caso em pesquisa e gerenciamento / The Tietê/Jacaré watershed: a case study in research and management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Galizia, Tundisi; Takako, Matsumura-Tundisi; Daniela Cambeses, Pareschi; Anna Paula, Luzia; Paulo H., Von Haeling; Eduardo H., Frollini.

    Full Text Available A bacia do Tietê/Jacaré é uma das 22 Unidades de Gestão de Recursos Hídricos (Ugrhis) do Estado de São Paulo. Um estudo desenvolvido de 2005 a 2007 detalhou as principais características dessa bacia hidrográfica, os usos do solo, a cobertura vegetal, as fontes pontuais e não-pontuais de eutrofização [...] e contaminação e as vulnerabilidades da bacia, que conta com 34 municípios e uma população de 1.200.000 habitantes. A montagem de um banco de dados com as informações ecológicas, hidrológicas, climatológicas e econômicas possibilitou estabelecer um programa de planejamento e gestão baseado em vulnerabilidades da bacia hidrográfica, impactos das mudanças globais e futuras perspectivas para a gestão dos recursos hídricos. Um índice de qualidade da bacia hidrográfica foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de apoiar o planejamento de longo prazo e a gestão de águas superficiais e subterrâneas. Abstract in english The Tietê/Jacaré watershed is one of the units of management of water resources of São Paulo State. São Paulo State has 22 units of management of water resources. A study on the characteristics of the watershed and an evaluation of its environmental situation was carried out from 2005 to 2008. With [...] a population of 1.200.000 inhabitants distributed in 34 towns and an economic activity predominantly agribusiness and industrial activities, this watershed has an extensive hydrographic network, sufficient water resources and intense economic activity. The study considered soil uses; vegetation cover; water quality of rivers, reservoirs, underground waters, erosion processes, vulnerability of the aquatic biota to eutrophication and contamination. With the ecological, hydrological, ecological and economic data, a data bank was established and a management plan with scenarios, perspectives and integration of planning with future activities was developed. An index of watershed quality was developed as a basis for this planning and management activity.

  9. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

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    Sandeep S. Nerkar


    Full Text Available In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081. The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05 was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.



    R. S. Shikalgar


    The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of thegeometry of the drainage basins and its network. Watershed prioritization on the basis of morphometric parametersis necessary in order to develop a sustainable watershed management plan. The present study aims to assess thelinear and shape morphometric parameters and prioritization of twenty three sub-watersheds of Yerala river basinfor soil resource management. Yerala river basin has an area ...

  11. Apache leap watershed study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of rainfall once it reaches the ground surface is an important characterization parameter since precipitation is an important source term for flow of water through the subsurface. This study provides data sets which will allow estimates of the potential for infiltration, deep percolation, and recharge as the result of rainfall. 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Managing Watersheds with WMOST (Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool) (United States)

    EPA’s Green Infrastructure research program and EPA Region 1 recently released a new public-domain software application, WMOST, which supports community applications of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles (

  13. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.


    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  14. Sustainable Land Use and Water Management in Mountain Ecosystem - Case Study of a Watershed in the Indian Himalayas


    Mandal, Subrata


    The paper proposes to analyze the problem of choice of land use and technology for forest regeneration with minimum adverse impacts on the ecosystem. As the nature of the problem of such choice of land use and technology would depend upon the local characteristic of the ecosystem we propose to take up a case study through developing a model of analysis at the watershed level economies in the Himalayan mountains. The issue of choice, which is involved in the analysis of the particular case stu...

  15. The Shenandoah Watershed Study: 20 years of Catchment Hydrogeochemistry (United States)

    Galloway, J.


    The Shenandoah Watershed Study (SWAS) is a cooperative program between the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia and the National Park Service. The scientific objective of the SWAS program is to improve understanding of processes and factors that govern hydrobiogeochemical conditions in forested watersheds of the Shenandoah National Park (SNP), VA, and the central Appalachian Mountain region. The SWAS program was initiated in 1979, with the establishment of water quality monitoring on two streams. The current SWAS network involves 14 primary study watersheds, in which a combination of discharge gauging, quarterly and weekly water quality sampling, and episodic storm-flow sampling take place. In addition, a number of extensive water quality surveys, fish population surveys, soil surveys, vegetation surveys, and plot-scale manipulations have been conducted in the SWAS watersheds in support of basic research in watershed science. The SWAS program is presently coordinated with the Virginia Trout Stream Sensitivity Study (VTSSS), which extends the watershed-based research to an additional 51 native brook trout streams located on public lands throughout western Virginia. During the past two decades the SWAS program has developed a uniquely comprehensive watershed database for SNP resource managers, while making major contributions to scientific understanding of surface water acidification and the biogeochemistry of forested mountain watersheds. The SWAS program is characterized by long-term continuity of sampling, a wide range of temporal resolution, and the availability of data from multiple watersheds within the landscape. These attributes enable both detection of long-term trends in response to chronic anthropogenic influences (e.g., acidic deposition) and interpretation of transient natural disturbances (e.g., pest outbreaks, fire, etc.). The spatial redundancy of the network provides insight into the regional homogeneity of observed changes and understanding of landscape controls (especially geologic setting) on watershed processes. This poster will present an overview of the critical findings of this 20-year research program.

  16. A digraph permanent approach to evaluation and analysis of integrated watershed management system (United States)

    Ratha, Dwarikanath; Agrawal, V. P.


    In the present study a deterministic quantitative model based on graph theory has been developed for the better development and management of watershed. Graph theory is an integrative systems approach to consider and model structural components of watershed management system along with the interrelationships between them concurrently and integratively. The factors responsible for the development of watershed system are identified. The degree of interaction between one subsystem with others are determined. The eigenvalue formulation is used to take care the inconsistencies arises due to inaccurate judgement in the degree of interaction between the subsystems. In this model the visual analysis is done to abstract the information using the directed graph or digraph. Then the matrix model is developed for computer processing. Variable permanent function in the form of multinomial represents the watershed system uniquely and completely by an index value. Different terms of the multinomial represent all possible subsystems of integrated watershed management system and thus different solutions for watershed management, leading to optimum solution. This index value is used to compare the suitability of the watershed with different alternatives available for its development. So the graph theory analysis presents a powerful tool to generate the optimum solutions for the decision maker for benefit of local people living in the watershed as well as the stakeholders. The proposed methodology is also demonstrated by a suitable example and is applied to the ecosystem and environment subsystem of the lake Qionghai watershed in China.

  17. Geomorphometry through remote sensing and GIS for watershed management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of remote sensing and GIS for effective determination of the quantitative description of drainage basin geometry for watershed management prioritization forms the theme of this paper. In the present study, each of the eight sub watersheds of Racherla watershed of Prakasam (District) Andhra Pradesh, have been studied in terms of the morphometric parameters -stream length, bifurcation ratio, length ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor area, perimeter, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and sediment yield index. The prioritization of the eight sub watersheds is carried out considering morphometry and sediment yield index. Using IRS IC satellite imagery, a computerized database is created availing ARC / INFO software. The initial drainage map prepared from the survey of India toposheets was later unified with satellite imagery. The prioritization of sub sheds based on morphometry compared with sediment yield prioritization and found nearly same for the study area. The information obtained from all the thematic map is integrated and action plan is suggested for land and water resources development on a sustainable basis. (author)

  18. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.


    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address challenging resource management issues in industry, government and nongovernmental agencies. Current research and analysis tools were developed to manage meteorological, climatological, and land and water resource data efficiently at high resolution in space and time. The deliverable for this work is a Whitebox-GENESYS open-source resource management capacity with routines for GIS based watershed management including water in agriculture and food production. We are adding urban water management routines through GENESYS in 2013-15 with an engineering PhD candidate. Both Whitebox-GAT and GENESYS are already well-established tools. The proposed research will combine these products to create an open-source geomatics based water resource management tool that is revolutionary in both capacity and availability to a wide array of Canadian and global users

  19. US EPA’s Watershed Management Research Activities (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are prim...


    The U.S. EPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating technologies and methods required to manage risks to public health, property and the environment from wet weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily aimed a...

  1. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu


    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  2. Watershed Conservation, Groundwater Management, and Adaptation to Climate Change (United States)

    Roumasset, J.; Burnett, K.; Wada, C.


    Sustainability science is transdisciplinary, organizing research to deliver meaningful and practical contributions to critical issues of resource management. As yet, however, sustainability science has not been integrated with the policy sciences. We provide a step towards integration by providing an integrated model of optimal groundwater management and investment in watershed conservation. The joint optimization problem is solved under alternative forecasts of the changing rainfall distribution for the Koolau Watershed in Oahu, Hawaii. Optimal groundwater management is solved using a simplified one-dimensional model of the groundwater aquifer for analytical tractability. For a constant aquifer recharge, the model solves for the optimal trajectories of water extraction up to the desalination steady state and an incentive compatible pricing scheme. The Koolau Watershed is currently being degraded, however, by invasive plants such as Miconia calvescens and feral animals, especially wild pigs. Runoff and erosion have increased and groundwater recharge is at risk. The Koolau Partnership, a coalition of private owners, the State Department of Land and Natural Resources have proposed a $5 million (present value) conservation plan that promises to halt further losses of recharge. We compare this to the enhanced present value of the aquifer, showing the benefits are an order of magnitude greater than the costs. If conservation is done in the absence of efficient groundwater management, however, more than 40% of the potential benefits would be wasted by under-pricing and overconsumption. We require an estimate of the rainfall-generating distribution and how that distribution is changing over time. We obtain these from statistical downsizing of IPCC climate models. Despite the finding that global warming will increase precipitation for most of the world, the opposite is forecast for Hawaii. A University of Hawaii study finds that the most likely precipitation scenario is a 5-10% reduction in wet season mean precipitation and a 5% increase during the dry season by the end of the 21st century. These trends will be used to condition the time series analysis through Bayesian updating. The resulting distributions, conditioned for seasonality and long-run climate change, will be used to recursively simulate daily rainfalls, thereby allowing for serial correlation and forming a basis for the watershed model to recursively determine components of the water balance equation. The methodology will allow us to generate different sequences of rainfall from the estimated distribution and the corresponding recharge functions. These in turn are used as the basis of optimizing groundwater management under both the watershed conservation program and no conservation. We calculate how much adaptation via joint optimization of watershed conservation and groundwater management decreases the damages from declining precipitation. Inasmuch as groundwater scarcity increases with the forecasted climate change, even under optimal groundwater management, the value of watershed conservation also increases.


    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  4. Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

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    Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon


    Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

  5. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities (United States)

    Cai, X.


    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been evidenced by 1) institutional innovation for integrated watershed management; 2) real-world management practices involving multidisciplinary expertise; 3) growing role of economics in systems analysis; 4) enhanced research programs such as the CHNS program and Water, Sustainability and Climate (WSC) program at the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Furthermore, recent scientific and technological developments are expected to accommodate integrated watershed system analysis approaches, such as: 1) increasing availability of distributed digital datasets especially from remote sensing products (e.g. digital watersheds); 2) distributed and semi-distributed watershed hydrologic modeling; 3) enhanced hydroclimatic monitoring and forecast; 4) identified evidences of vulnerability and threshold behavior of watersheds; and 5) continuing improvements in computational and optimization algorithms. Managing watersheds as CHNS will be critical for watershed sustainability, which ensures that human societies will benefit forever from the watershed through development of harmonious relationships between human and natural systems. This presentation will provide a review of the research opportunities that take advantage of the concept of CHNS and associated scientific, technological and institutional innovations/developments.

  6. Cost Benefit Analysis of Participatory Natural Resource Management: A study of watershed development initiative in Indian village


    Sahu, Santosh


    Following the Hanumanth Rao committee report Government of India initiated Watershed Development Programmes (WDPs) to improve and sustain productivity of the semiarid regions of the country at higher level. The aim of such initiatives are also to fulfill the needs of rural communities for food, fuel, fodder, and timber as majority of rural people are depending on the natural resource for their livelihood. WDPs are being given importance in the development plans for India and by donor agencie...

  7. Bridging the gap between uncertainty analysis for complex watershed models and decision-making for watershed-scale water management (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.


    Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye Basin has a Gobi-oasis system typical of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis.



    B. M. Golrang; F. S. Lai; Rostami, M.; M. N. Khamurudin; Kamziah Abd Kudus; M Mashayekhi; R. Bagherian


    Recent studies in many countries had display the influence of many factors including: Satisfaction, Knowledge, Demographic and Attitudinal variables in level of people participation. The main question here is, whether these factors would also be effective on people participation in Iran? The purpose of this research was to investigate communication factors influencing attitudes of farmers’ application of Watershed Management Operations (WMO) in the Kushk-Abad watershed in Khorassan Raza...

  9. Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.


    Vyavahare, Nilesh


    The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...

  10. Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA

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    Mark Weaver


    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  11. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India


    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg , Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J.


    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional st...

  12. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study


    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Khedkar, Smita U; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg


    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observationa...


    Controlling Wet Weather Flow (WWF)pollution is one of the top cleanup priority areas for the USEPA. The Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB)of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Water Supply and Water Resources Division is responsible for EPA's WWF research. U...

  14. Identifying non-point source priority management areas in watersheds with multiple functional zones. (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyao; Zhong, Yucen; Huang, Qin; Chen, Lei


    The concept of water functional zones promotes the comprehensive supervision and scientificoversight of non-point source (NPS) pollution at the watershed scale. Therefore,understanding the spatial distributions and temporal trends in watershed priority managementareas (PMAs) is important in the study and efficient management of NPS pollution.However, no comprehensive studies of PMAs have been conducted to protect waterquality effectively in watersheds with multiple water functional zones. In this study, a newframework is presented that quantifies the perturbations of multiple spatial assessmentunits to the quality of nearby water bodies in various water functional zones. This innovativeapproach, which combines the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statisticalanalysis, was applied to characterize multiple-level PMAs with a case study of theDaning River watershed in China. Based on the results, the advantage of this new frameworkis better suited to downstream areas, particularly in dry periods and severely pollutedwatersheds. This paper reinforces the view that the concept of zoning should be takenseriously in the framework of PMAs targeting. From the aspect of watershed management,these new PMAs can offer an optimal strategy for locating comprehensive and costeffectivemanagement practices at the watershed scale, particularly in large watershedsor long river systems. PMID:25462762

  15. Spatial optimization of watershed management practices for nitrogen load reduction using a modeling-optimization framework (United States)

    Best management practices (BMPs) are perceived as being effective in reducing nutrient loads transported from non-point sources (NPS) to receiving water bodies. The objective of this study was to develop a modeling-optimization framework that can be used by watershed management p...

  16. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar


    Full Text Available Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV, but not in the other three (NWMV. The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92% households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR = 0.39, had greater number of toilets (OR = 6.95, cultivated more variety of crops (OR = 2.61, had lower migration (OR = 0.59, higher number of girls continuing education (OR = 3.04 and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR = 3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively. Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.

  17. Can integrated watershed management contribute to improvement of public health? A cross-sectional study from hilly tribal villages in India. (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J


    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV), but not in the other three (NWMV). The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92%) households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR=0.39), had greater number of toilets (OR=6.95), cultivated more variety of crops (OR=2.61), had lower migration (OR=0.59), higher number of girls continuing education (OR=3.04) and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR=3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively). Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health. PMID:25734794


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  19. Perspectives on grizzly bear management in Banff National Park and the Bow River Watershed, Alberta: A Q methodology study


    Chamberlain, Emily Carter


    Conserving populations of large carnivores such as grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) requires not only biophysical research, but also an understanding of the values and beliefs of the people involved with and affected by carnivore management. I used Q methodology to examine views of stakeholders concerning grizzly bear management in the Banff-Bow Valley region of Alberta, Canada. In recent years, decision-making about bears in this region has been characterized by acrimonious disputes over scienti...

  20. Manage Hydrologic Fluxes Instead of Land Cover in Watershed Services Projects (United States)

    Brauman, K. A.; Ponette-González, A. G.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Farley, K. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Young, K. R.; Curran, L. M.


    Payments for Watershed Services (PWS), Water Funds, and other payment schemes intended to increase the delivery of hydrologic ecosystem services have great potential for ensuring water resources for downstream beneficiaries while improving livelihoods for upstream residents. However, it is often ambiguous which land-management options should be promoted to enhance watershed service delivery. In many watershed investment programs, specific land covers are promoted as proxies for water service delivery. This approach is based on assumed relationships between land cover and water service outcomes. When land cover does not sufficiently describe ecosystem characteristics that affect water flow, however, desired water services may not be delivered. The use of land cover proxies is especially problematic for watershed investments in the tropics, where many projects are located, because these proxies rely on generalizations about landscape hydrology established for temperate zones. Based on an extensive review of hydrologic fluxes in the high-elevation tropics, we argue that direct management of hydrologic fluxes is a good design for achieving quantifiable results. We use case studies from sites in the Caribbean and Latin American tropics to illustrate how designers of watershed payment projects can manage hydrologic fluxes. To do so, projects must explicitly articulate the water service of interest based on the specific social setting. Projects must also explicitly account for the particulars of the geographic setting. Finally, outcomes must be assessed relative to water services delivered under an alternative land use or land cover scenario.

  1. A conceptual framework of agricultural land use planning with BMP for integrated watershed management. (United States)

    Qi, Honghai; Altinakar, Mustafa S


    Land use planning is an important element of the integrated watershed management approach. It not only influences the environmental processes such as soil and stream bed erosion, sediment and nutrient concentrations in streams, quality of surface and ground waters in a watershed, but also affects social and economic development in that region. Although its importance in achieving sustainable development has long been recognized, a land use planning methodology based on a systems approach involving realistic computational modeling and meta-heuristic optimization is still lacking in the current practice of integrated watershed management. The present study proposes a new approach which attempts to combine computational modeling of upland watershed processes, fluvial processes and modern heuristic optimization techniques to address the water-land use interrelationship in its full complexity. The best land use allocation is decided by a multi-objective function that minimizes sediment yields and nutrient concentrations as well as the total operation/implementation cost, while the water quality and the production benefits from agricultural exploitation are maximized. The proposed optimization strategy considers also the preferences of land owners. The runoff model AnnAGNPS (developed by USDA), and the channel network model CCHE1D (developed by NCCHE), are linked together to simulate sediment/pollutant transport process at watershed scale based on any assigned land use combination. The greedy randomized adaptive Tabu search heuristic is used to flip the land use options for finding an optimum combination of land use allocations. The approach is demonstrated by applying it to a demonstrative case study involving USDA Goodwin Creek experimental watershed located in northern Mississippi. The results show the improvement of the tradeoff between benefits and costs for the watershed, after implementing the proposed optimal land use planning. PMID:20863609

  2. Nitrogen management challenges in major watersheds of South America (United States)

    Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Pérez, Tibisay; Rasse, Rafael; Ometto, Jean Pierre H. B.; Siqueira Pacheco, Felipe; Rafaela Machado Lins, Silvia; Marquina, Sorena


    Urbanization and land use changes alter the nitrogen (N) cycle, with critical consequences for continental freshwater resources, coastal zones, and human health. Sewage and poor watershed management lead to impoverishment of inland water resources and degradation of coastal zones. Here we review the N contents of rivers of the three most important watersheds in South America: the Amazon, La Plata, and Orinoco basins. To evaluate potential impacts on coastal zones, we also present data on small- and medium-sized Venezuelan watersheds that drain into the Caribbean Sea and are impacted by anthropogenic activities. Median concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) were 325 ?g L-1 and 275 ?g L-1 in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, respectively, increasing to nearly 850 ?g L-1 in La Plata Basin rivers and 2000 ?g L-1 in small northern Venezuelan watersheds. The median TDN yield of Amazon Basin rivers (approximately 4 kg ha-1 yr-1) was larger than TDN yields of undisturbed rivers of the La Plata and Orinoco basins; however, TDN yields of polluted rivers were much higher than those of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers. Organic matter loads from natural and anthropogenic sources in rivers of South America strongly influence the N dynamics of this region.

  3. Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Zhang


    Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.

  4. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management (United States)

    Chang, N.


    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals of sustainable development on a regional scale.

  5. An index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management in a changing climate. (United States)

    Kim, Yeonjoo; Chung, Eun-Sung


    This study developed an index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management dealing with water quantity and quality issues in a changing climate. It consists of two parts of management alternative development and analysis. The first part for alternative development consists of six steps: 1) to understand the watershed components and process using HSPF model, 2) to identify the spatial vulnerability ranking using two indices: potential streamflow depletion (PSD) and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD), 3) to quantify the residents' preferences on water management demands and calculate the watershed evaluation index which is the weighted combinations of PSD and PWQD, 4) to set the quantitative targets for water quantity and quality, 5) to develop a list of feasible alternatives and 6) to eliminate the unacceptable alternatives. The second part for alternative analysis has three steps: 7) to analyze all selected alternatives with a hydrologic simulation model considering various climate change scenarios, 8) to quantify the alternative evaluation index including social and hydrologic criteria with utilizing multi-criteria decision analysis methods and 9) to prioritize all options based on a minimax regret strategy for robust decision. This framework considers the uncertainty inherent in climate models and climate change scenarios with utilizing the minimax regret strategy, a decision making strategy under deep uncertainty and thus this procedure derives the robust prioritization based on the multiple utilities of alternatives from various scenarios. In this study, the proposed procedure was applied to the Korean urban watershed, which has suffered from streamflow depletion and water quality deterioration. Our application shows that the framework provides a useful watershed management tool for incorporating quantitative and qualitative information into the evaluation of various policies with regard to water resource planning and management. PMID:24365586

  6. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption (United States)

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.


    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  7. A watershed scale assessment of the impacts of suburban turf management on runoff water quality (United States)

    Bachman, M.; Inamdar, S. P.; Barton, S.; Duke, J.; Tallamy, D.; Bruck, J.


    Steadily increasing rates of urbanization have raised concerns about the negative impacts of urban runoff on receiving surface water quality. These concerns have been further amplified by landscaping paradigms that encourage high-input, intensively-managed and mono-culture turf and lawn landscapes. We conducted a watershed-scale assessment of turf management practices on water quality vis-à-vis less-intensive management practices that preserve and enhance more diverse and native vegetation. The study treatments with existing/established vegetation and landscaping practices included turf, urban, forest, meadow, and a mixed site with a professional golf course. Stream water sampling was performed during baseflow and storm events. Highest nutrient (nitrate and total nitrogen) concentrations in runoff were observed for the mixed watershed draining the golf course. In contrast, nutrient concentrations in baseflow from the turf watershed were lower than expected and were comparable to those measured in the surrounding meadow and forest sites. Runoff losses from the turf site may have been minimal due to the optimal quality of management implemented. Total nitrogen concentrations from the turf site increased sharply during the first storms following fertilization, suggesting that despite optimal management there exists a risk for nutrient runoff following fertilization. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from the turf site were elevated and aromatic in content while the mixed watershed site yielded more labile DOM. Overall, this study suggests that turf lawns, when managed properly, pose minimal environmental risk to surrounding surface waters. Based on the results of this study, providing homeowners with increased information regarding best management practices for lawn maintenance may serve as a cost-efficient method for reducing suburban runoff pollution.

  8. Urban Stormwater Temperature Surges: A Central US Watershed Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J. Zeiger


    Full Text Available Impacts of urban land use can include increased stormwater runoff temperature (Tw leading to receiving water quality impairment. There is therefore a need to target and mitigate sources of thermal pollution in urban areas. However, complex relationships between urban development, stormwater runoff and stream water heating processes are poorly understood. A nested-scale experimental watershed study design was used to investigate stormwater runoff temperature impacts to receiving waters in a representative mixed-use urbanizing watershed of the central US. Daily maximum Tw exceeded 35.0 °C (threshold for potential mortality of warm-water biota at an urban monitoring site for a total of five days during the study period (2011–2013. Sudden increases of more than 1.0 °C within a 15 min time interval of Tw following summer thunderstorms were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p < 0.01 to cumulative percent urban land use (r2 = 0.98; n = 29. Differences in mean Tw between monitoring sites were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p = 0.02 to urban land use practices, stream distance and increasing discharge. The effects of the 2012 Midwest USA drought and land use on Tw were also observed with maximum Tw 4.0 °C higher at an urban monitoring site relative to a rural site for 10.5 h. The current work provides quantitative evidence of acute increases in Tw related to urban land use. Results better inform land managers wishing to create management strategies designed to preserve suitable thermal stream habitats in urbanizing watersheds.

  9. Hydrology and the effects of selected agricultural best-management practices in the Bald Eagle Creek Watershed, York County, Pennsylvania, prior to and during nutrient management : Water-Quality Study for the Chesapeake Bay Program (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.; Fishel, David K.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, conducted a study as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program to determine the effects of nutrient management of surface-water quality by reducing animal units in a 0.43-square-mile agricultural watershed in York County. The study was conducted primarily from October 1985 through September 1990 prior to and during the implementation of nutrient-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and sediment discharges. Intermittent sampling continued until August 1991. The Bald Eagle Creek Basin is underlain by schist and quartzite. About 87 percent of the watershed is cropland and pasture. Nearly 33 percent of the cropland was planted in corn prior to nutrient management, whereas 22 percent of the cropland was planted in corn during the nutrient-management phase. The animal population was reduced by 49 percent during nutrient management. Average annual applications of nitrogen and phosphorus from manure to cropland were reduced by 3,940 pounds (39 percent) and 910 pounds (46 percent), respectively, during nutrient management. A total of 94,560 pounds of nitrogen (538 pounds per acre) and 26,400 pounds of phosphorus (150 pounds per acre) were applied to the cropland as commercial fertilizer and manure during the 5-year study. Core samples from the top 4 feet of soil were collected prior to and during nutrient management and analyzed from concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The average amount of nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 36 to 135 pounds per acre, and soluble phosphorus ranged from 0.39 to 2.5 pounds per acre, prior to nutrient management. During nutrient management, nitrate nitrogen in the soil ranged from 21 to 291 pounds per acre and soluble phosphorus ranged from 0.73 to 1.7 pounds per acre. Precipitation was about 18 percent below normal and streamflow was about 35 percent below normal prior to nutrient management, whereas precipitation was 4 percent above normal and streamflow was 3 percent below normal during the first 2 years of nutrient management. Eighty-four percent of the 20.44 inches of streamflow was base flow prior to nutrient management and 54 percent of the 31.14 inches of streamflow was base flow during the first 2 years of the nutrient-management phase. About 31 percent of the measured precipitation during the first 4 years of the study was discharged as surface water; the remaining 69 percent was removed as evapotranspiration or remained in ground-water storage. Median concentrations of total nitrogen and dissolved nitrate plus nitrite in base flow increased from 4.9 and 4.1 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, respectively, prior to nutrient management to 5.8 and 5.0 milligrams per liter, respectively, during nutrient management. Median concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen did not change significantly in base flow. Median concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in base flow did not change significantly and were 0.05 and 0.03 milligrams per liter as phosphorus, respectively, prior to the management phase, and 0.05 and 0.04 milligrams per liter, respectively, during the management phase. Concentrations and loads of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate in base flow increased following wet periods after crops were harvested and manure was applied. During the growing season, concentrations and loads decreased as nutrient utilization and evapotranspiration by corn increased. About 4,550 pounds of suspended sediment 5,300 pounds of nitrogen, and 70.4 pounds of phosphorous discharged in base flow in the 2 years prior to nutrient management. During the first 2 years of nutrient management about 2,860 pounds of suspended sediment, 5,700 pounds of nitrogen, and 46.6 pounds of phosphorus discharged in base flow. Prior to nutrient management, about 260,000 pounds of suspende


    The Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops and evaluates technologies, practices and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF)sources in urban watersheds.The focus is on the risk management aspects of WWF research. It ad...


    The U.S. EPA's Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating technologies and methods required managing the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily aimed...

  12. Best Management Practices for sediment control in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco


    Soil erosion can lead to severe destruction of agricultural sustainability that affects not only productivity, but the entire ecosystem in the neighboring areas. Sediments transported together with the associated nutrients and chemicals can significantly impact downstream water bodies. Various conservation and management practices implemented individually or integrated together as a system can be used to reduce the negative impacts on agricultural watersheds from soil erosion. Hydrological models are useful tools for decision makers when selecting the most effective combination of management practices to reduce pollutant loads within a watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading management model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of diverse management and conservation practices that can control or reduce the impact of soil erosion processes and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A 506 km2 Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) located in Apulia, Southern Italy was used as a case study to evaluate the model and best management practices (BMPs) for sediment load control. A monitoring station located at the Ordona bridge has been instrumented to continuously monitor stream flow and suspended sediment loads. The station has been equipped with an ultrasound stage meter and a stage recorder to monitor stream flow. An infrared optic probe was used to measure suspended sediment concentrations (Gentile et al., 2010 ). The model was calibrated and validated in the Carapelle watershed on an event basis (Bisantino et al., 2013), and the validated model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment reduction. Various management practices were investigated including evaluating the impact on sediment load of: (1) converting all cropland areas into forest and grass covered conditions; (2) converting the highest eroding cropland areas to forest or grass covered conditions; and (3) utilizing a crop rotation of wheat and forage crops (Abdelwahab et al., 2014). Further evaluations include scenarios with additional improvements in the input data, in particular better reflecting the management operations within model input parameters used to represent the current conditions applied in the watershed, and the study of the efficiency of the model in predicting runoff and sediment loads at a monthly and annual scale using un-calibrated parameters. The effect of riparian buffers as a natural trap that reduce runoff and increase the in-situ sediment deposition are also investigated. Acknowledgements This work is carried out in the framework of the Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, "National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area" National Coordinator prof. Mario Lenzi (University of Padova). References Gentile F., Bisantino T., Corbino R., Milillo F., Romano G., Trisorio Liuzzi G. (2010) Monitoring and analysis of suspended sediment transport dynamics in the Carapelle torrent (southern Italy). Catena 80, 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.08.004. Bisantino T., Bingner R., Chouaib W., Gentile F., Trisorio Liuzzi G. (2013) Estimation of runoff, peak discharge and sediment load at the event scale in a medium-size Mediterranean watershed using the AnnAGNPS model. Land Degradation & Development,, doi: 10.1002/ldr.2213. Abdelwahab O.M.M., Bingner R.L., Milillo F., Gentile F. (2014) Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, vol. XLV:430, 125-136, doi: 10.4081/jae.2014.430.

  13. Community implementation dynamics: Nutrient management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Earl Sterner


    Full Text Available The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying levels of governance. This paper examines the role of local engagement and the interaction between governance levels on the outcomes of nutrient management policy, a specific area of natural resource conservation and management. Presented are two case studies of the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds in the US. These case studies touch upon the themes of local citizen engagement and governance stakeholder interaction in changing nutrient management to improve water quality. An analysis of these cases leads to several key considerations for the creation and implementation of nutrient management and natural resource management more broadly, including the importance of: local citizen engagement, government brokering and cost sharing; and the need of all stakeholders to respect each other in the policy creation and implementation process.

  14. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management (United States)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.


    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

  15. Morphometric Analysis Of The Vidarbha River Basin, Amravati District, Maharashtra With Reference To Watershed Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadri S. F. R


    Full Text Available In this present study, an attempt has been made to understand the groundwater regime of the Vidarbha sub-watershed of Wardha River basin exposed Amravati District, Maharashtra using an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques with Arc GIS Desktop 9.3 and ERDAS Imagine 9.2 software for the sustainable watershed management. The remote sensing data combined with field survey details has provided a unique and hybrid database for the optimal planning and management of the watershed. Morphometry is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth's surface shape and dimension of its lard forms. The Vidarbha River is a tributary of Wardha River and spread over the 252.10 sq. km area in Amravati district, Maharashtra which have been determine by the morphometry analysis. The results indicate the presence of 6th order drainage basin with dendritic drainage pattern showing uniform lithology. The study area is covered by 98% of Deccan trap which is highly jointed and fractured Basalt.

  16. Linking nitrogen management, seep chemistry, and stream water quality in two agricultural headwater watersheds. (United States)

    Williams, Mark R; Buda, Anthony R; Elliott, Herschel A; Collick, Amy S; Dell, Curtis; Kleinman, Peter J A


    Riparian seepage zones in headwater agricultural watersheds represent important sources of nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) to surface waters, often connecting N-rich groundwater systems to streams. In this study, we examined how NO-N concentrations in seep and stream water were affected by NO-N processing along seep surface flow paths and by upslope applications of N from fertilizers and manures. The research was conducted in two headwater agricultural watersheds, FD36 (40 ha) and RS (45 ha), which are fed, in part, by a shallow fractured aquifer system possessing high (3-16 mg L) NO-N concentrations. Data from in-seep monitoring showed that NO-N concentrations generally decreased downseep (top to bottom), indicating that most seeps retained or removed a fraction of delivered NO-N (16% in FD36 and 1% in RS). Annual mean N applications in upslope fields (as determined by yearly farmer surveys) were highly correlated with seep NO-N concentrations in both watersheds (slope: 0.06; = 0.79; < 0.001). Strong positive relationships also existed between seep and stream NO-N concentrations in FD36 (slope: 1.01; = 0.79; < 0.001) and in RS (slope: 0.64; = 0.80; < 0.001), further indicating that N applications control NO-N concentrations at the watershed scale. Our findings clearly point to NO-N leaching from upslope agricultural fields as the primary driver of NO-N losses from seeps to streams in these watersheds and therefore suggest that appropriate management strategies (cover crops, limiting fall/winter nutrient applications, decision support tools) be targeted in these zones. PMID:26024271


    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...

  18. A Contingent Valuation Approach to Community-based Watershed Management in Bey?ehir Lake Basin


    Ozdemir, Fadim Yavuz; Baycan-Levent, Tüzin


    Community-based watershed management has become more predominant as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory approaches to water resources management. Locally based planning at the watershed scale is seen as an operative way to enhance long-term water resources management and environmental sustainability. Large-scale (regional) ecological systems can be most effectively regulated by small-scale (local) social organizations. Consequently motivating local people to actively par...

  19. An integrated system dynamics model developed for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale. (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Benoit, Gaboury; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng


    A reliable system simulation to relate socioeconomic development with water environment and to comprehensively represent a watershed's dynamic features is important. In this study, after identifying lake watershed system processes, we developed a system dynamics modeling framework for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale. Two reinforcing loops (Development and Investment Promotion) and three balancing loops (Pollution, Resource Consumption, and Pollution Control) were constituted. Based on this work, we constructed Stock and Flow Diagrams that embedded a pollutant load model and a lake water quality model into a socioeconomic system dynamics model. The Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China, which is the sixth largest and among the most severely polluted freshwater lakes in China, was employed as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Water quality parameters considered in the model included chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and three alternative management scenarios on spatial adjustment of industries and population (S1), wastewater treatment capacity construction (S2), and structural adjustment of agriculture (S3), were simulated to assess the effectiveness of certain policies in improving water quality. Results showed that S2 is most effective scenario, and the COD, TN, and TP concentrations in Caohai in 2030 are 52.5, 10.9, and 0.8 mg/L, while those in Waihai are 9.6, 1.2, and 0.08 mg/L, with sustained development in the watershed. Thus, the model can help support the decision making required in development and environmental protection strategies. PMID:25770958

  20. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas


    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity, quality and use of water resources could be evaluated and managed. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the research project "Hydromentor" funded by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the E.U. co-funded National Action "Cooperation".

  1. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.


    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  2. Field Scale Optimization for Long-Term Sustainability of Best Management Practices in Watersheds (United States)

    Samuels, A.; Babbar-Sebens, M.


    Agricultural and urban land use changes have led to disruption of natural hydrologic processes and impairment of streams and rivers. Multiple previous studies have evaluated Best Management Practices (BMPs) as means for restoring existing hydrologic conditions and reducing impairment of water resources. However, planning of these practices have relied on watershed scale hydrologic models for identifying locations and types of practices at scales much coarser than the actual field scale, where landowners have to plan, design and implement the practices. Field scale hydrologic modeling provides means for identifying relationships between BMP type, spatial location, and the interaction between BMPs at a finer farm/field scale that is usually more relevant to the decision maker (i.e. the landowner). This study focuses on development of a simulation-optimization approach for field-scale planning of BMPs in the School Branch stream system of Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana, USA. The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) tool is used as the field scale hydrologic model, and a multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to search for optimal alternatives. Multiple climate scenarios downscaled to the watershed-scale are used to test the long term performance of these alternatives and under extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness of these BMPs under multiple weather conditions are included within the simulation-optimization approach as a criteria/goal to assist landowners in identifying sustainable design of practices. The results from these scenarios will further enable efficient BMP planning for current and future usage.

  3. Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions


    Alexandra Andrade; Vinicius Alves Penteado; Luz Adriana Cuartas; Maria Paulete Pereira Martins; Livia Alves Alvarenga


    Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height...

  4. Effect of climate and land cover changes on watershed runoff: A multivariate assessment for storm water management (United States)

    Ekness, Paul; Randhir, Timothy O.


    Impact of climate change and land use on watershed runoff involves multiattribute ecohydrologic interactions. This information is critical to development of comprehensive storm water management policies. Watersheds in the continental United States have diverse temperatures and precipitation regimes and varying hydrogeomorphic features that influence runoff. This study investigates watershed-scale runoff using statistical modeling for storm water policy optimization. Multivariate statistical modeling show that vegetative activity, annual evaporation, precipitation, temperature, and soil moisture significantly influenced watershed runoff. Soil moisture has a strong influence on runoff with each percent increase causing 5% increase in runoff. Nonlinear modeling with quadratic and interaction effects shows a significant interaction between soil moisture and other climatic variables in influencing annual runoff patterns. Changes in climate affect ecohydrologic characters by altering available soil moisture, evaporation, precipitation patterns, and runoff. Optimization of green infrastructure design can be a successful management tool for runoff with an understanding that changes to multiple attributes in ecohydrologic variables affect runoff. Multi-attribute-based green infrastructure and incentive policies can result in comprehensive storm water policies that incorporate climatic and ecohydrologic conditions of watershed systems.

  5. GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rousseau


    Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

  6. Combined effects of best management practices on water quality in oxbow lakes from agricultural watersheds


    Cullum, RF; Knight, SS; Cooper, CM; Smith, S.


    Water quality conditions in three oxbow lakes were examined before and after best management practices (BMPs) implementation within the Mississippi Delta. Experimental design called for the development of structural and cultural treatments to reduce sediment and associated pollutants entering watershed oxbow lakes. Three watersheds were selected and developed with different levels of BMPs. Changes in lake water quality were used as measures of management success. Analyses of water quality dat...

  7. Influence of watershed system management on herbicide concentrations in Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes. (United States)

    Zablotowicz, Robert M; Locke, Martin A; Krutz, L Jason; Lerch, Robert N; Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Gordon, R Earl; Steinriede, R Wade


    The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MD-MSEA) project was established in 1994 in three small watersheds (202 to 1,497 ha) that drain into oxbow lakes (Beasley, Deep Hollow, and Thighman). The primary research objective was to assess the implications of management practices on water quality. Monthly monitoring of herbicide concentrations in lake water was conducted from 2000 to 2003. Water samples were analyzed for atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, and atrazine metabolites. Herbicide concentrations observed in the lake water reflected cropping systems of the watershed, e.g., atrazine and metolachlor concentrations were associated with the level of corn and sorghum production, whereas cyanazine and fluometuron was associated with the level of glyphosate-sensitive cotton production. The dynamics of herbicide appearance and dissipation in lake samples were strongly influenced by herbicide use, lake hydrology, rainfall pattern, and land management practices. The highest maximum concentrations of atrazine (7.1 to 23.4 microg L(-1)) and metolachlor (0.7 to 14.9 microg L(-1)) were observed in Thighman Lake where significant quantities of corn were grown. Introduction of s-metolachlor and use of glyphosate-resistant cotton coincided with reduced concentration of metolachlor in lake water. Cyanazine was observed in two lakes with the highest levels (1.6 to 5.5 microg L(-1)) in 2000 and lower concentrations in 2001 and 2002 (Lake were associated with greater use of glyphosate-resistant cotton and correspondingly less need for soil-applied fluometuron herbicide. In contrast, increased levels of fluometuron were observed in lake water after Deep Hollow was converted from conservation tillage to conventional tillage, presumably due to greater runoff associated with conventional tillage. These studies indicate that herbicide concentrations observed in these three watersheds were related to crop and soil management practices. PMID:17005240

  8. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira


    Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

  9. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)


    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

  10. A Decision Support Systems Using A Combined Dynamic Model For Integrated Watershed Management (United States)

    Kudo, E.; Ostrowski, M.

    In this context A Decision Support System (DSS) is presented using a combined dy- namic model for Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) in a small urbanized basin in Japan. In order to improve today's often unsustainable watershed management, the causes of water problems, which interact with each other, must be identified and adequate actions must be chosen to solve the problems. To achieve the ultimate goal of sustain- able development (SD) for water it is essential to develop and apply generic DSSs. A DSS is frequently defined as a combination of a management information system, a model base and an evaluation / assessment module. The EU Water Framework Di- rectives recently established have a narrow time schedule requiring fast action into this direction, which does hardly allow to develop completely new tolls. Thus we are trying to combine different existing dynamic models that incorporate an urban man- agement model, a water quality analysis model, a groundwater analysis model and a water supply model including geographical information system data. With this com- bined model, the most appropriate and sustainable water management plan in an urban area will be developed while considering land use, ground water level, allocation of drainage system, sewerage, water supply works, water quality, and quantity. Because of sharing input data, using this combined model requires less data than using sev- eral separate models. The DSS can also be used to determine the optimum location of gages and monitoring sites. As a case study, the research will deal with the Taguri-river basin in Japan. This basin is located near Tokyo. Although the area in this basin has about 8 km2 only, there are densely build-up areas, paddy fields, and non-developed areas. The river is polluted due to wastewater from point resources: households, and non-point resources: roads and fields, etc. Overpumping of aquifers results in sinking groundwater tables and land subsidence. Moreover, a decrease in groundwater levels leads to a decrease of available spring water. This basin includes many different water problems like many Japanese other basins. Besides this study IWM studies with some computer models are considered in other Japanese basins as well. The aims in this poster are to 1 - describe the relation between SD, IWM, and DSSs - the structure of the combined dynamic model for integrated watershed management - present preliminary case study results 2

  11. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton


    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  12. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Chen


    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited relative to LID modeling. In this study, the SUSTAIN model was applied to a Taiwanese watershed. Model calibration and verification were performed, and different types of LID facilities were evaluated. The model simulation process and the verified model parameters could be used in other cases. Four LID scenarios combining bioretention ponds, grass swales, and pervious pavements were designed based on the land characteristics. For the SUSTAIN model simulation, the results showed that pollution reduction was mainly due to water quantity reduction, infiltration was the dominant mechanism and plant interception had a minor effect on the treatment. The simulation results were used to rank the primary areas for nonpoint source pollution and identify effective LID practices. In addition to the case study, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, showing that the soil infiltration rate was the most sensitive parameter affecting the LID performance. The objectives of the study are to confirm the applicability of the SUSTAIN model and to assess the effectiveness of LID practices in the studied watershed.

  13. Potential Hydrological Responses, and Carbon and Nitrogen Pools of a Two Distinct Watersheds to Rainfall and Brush Management (United States)

    Ray, R. L.; Fares, A.; Awal, R.; Johnson, A. B.


    Investigating the effects of brush management on hydrologic fluxes, in the parts of the Texas where brush is a dominant component of the landscape is essential for the State of Texas's water management strategy and planning. The main goal of this study is to test the performance of brush management as an effective approach for protecting soil quality (carbon and nitrogen pools), and water resources management and planning. Specifically, this work reports on the potential i) hydrological response and ii) carbon and nitrogen pools of two watersheds, one in Colorado River Basin (arid) and the second one in Neches River Basin (humid), to brush management (uniform thinning vs. clear cutting) simulated using Regional Hydro-ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) model and site specific input data. The selected watersheds have similar potential evapotranspiration level, but their average elevations are 600 m and 250 m for the arid and humid watersheds, respectively. Results are showing that light thinning alone may not be enough to significantly impact water yield and soil quality. They further indicate that the streamflow response to brush reduction is a non-linear positive response.

  14. Navigating the socio-bio-geo-chemistry and engineering of nitrogen management in two illinois tile-drained watersheds. (United States)

    David, Mark B; Flint, Courtney G; Gentry, Lowell E; Dolan, Mallory K; Czapar, George F; Cooke, Richard A; Lavaire, Tito


    Reducing nitrate loads from corn and soybean, tile-drained, agricultural production systems in the Upper Mississippi River basin is a major challenge that has not been met. We evaluated a range of possible management practices from biophysical and social science perspectives that could reduce nitrate losses from tile-drained fields in the Upper Salt Fork and Embarras River watersheds of east-central Illinois. Long-term water quality monitoring on these watersheds showed that nitrate losses averaged 30.6 and 23.0 kg nitrate N ha yr (Embarras and Upper Salt Fork watersheds, respectively), with maximum nitrate concentrations between 14 and 18 mg N L. With a series of on-farm studies, we conducted tile monitoring to evaluate several possible nitrate reduction conservation practices. Fertilizer timing and cover crops reduced nitrate losses (30% reduction in a year with large nitrate losses), whereas drainage water management on one tile system demonstrated the problems with possible retrofit designs (water flowed laterally from the drainage water management tile to the free drainage system nearby). Tile woodchip bioreactors had good nitrate removal in 2012 (80% nitrate reduction), and wetlands had previously been shown to remove nitrate (45% reductions) in the Embarras watershed. Interviews and surveys indicated strong environmental concern and stewardship ethics among landowners and farmers, but the many financial and operational constraints that they operate under limited their willingness to adopt conservation practices that targeted nitrate reduction. Under the policy and production systems currently in place, large-scale reductions in nitrate losses from watersheds such as these in east-central Illinois will be difficult. PMID:26023956

  15. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng


    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a basis for further design of environmental instrument such as payment for watershed ecosystem services.

  16. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program


    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  17. Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Tarlé Pissarra


    Full Text Available Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Un-derstanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six sites and physical and chemical changes were analysed. Monthly water samples were collected from the streams on the same day of each month during the course of a year; Horiba equipment was used for recording data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for determining differences between the sites being investigated. Analysing the data revealed significant differences in pH, electric conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Topographical characteristics have been influenced by agricultural activity, thereby having an environmental impact. Surface runoff was predominant on steep slopes, mainly in areas near the top of the watershed. Land-use has had a significant impact on many physical parameters, including stream turbidity and tem-perature which increased with deforestation. The results indicated the agricultural watershed’s fragility to pollutant exposure and/ or toxicity, mainly due to turbidity in the streams caused by soil erosion, waste discharge and runoff.

  18. Science and management in the Hanalei watershed: a trans-disciplinary approach (United States)

    Field, Michael E.; Berg, Carl J.; Cochran, Susan A.


    The results of recent studies in the Hanalei watershed are impressive, both in content and breadth. Funded, directed, and/or conducted by investigators from many disciplines from local organizations (the Hanalei Watershed Hui), the University of Hawai‘i, the State of Hawai‘i (Department of Health, Department of Land and Natural Resources), and Federal organizations (U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency), their sum total have contributed markedly to our understanding of processes in the watershed. There has been an overwhelming amount of information that has been collected in the Hanalei Bay Watershed from Mt. Waialeale to the far reefs in just the past 5 years. This workshop was initiated to document our collective understanding, better integrate our results, and identify the salient issues that remain to be studied.

  19. Oued Zeroud watershed management and Sidi Saad Dam protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Tunisia has decided to construct the Qued Zeroud Dam to protect Kairouan from flooding, to irrigate 4,080 ha, and to maintain the groundwater supply. To prevent silting of the dam 100,000 ha of the Qued Zeroud watershed will undergo a conservation programme. Terraces, waterways and drop structures will be constructed and forage and tree plantations will be developed using Atriplex and cactus. Cultural and grazing practices will be controlled. (author)

  20. Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management


    Teresa Cristina Tarlé Pissarra; Flavia Mazzer Rodrigues; Christiano Luna Arraes; João Antonio Galbiatti; Maurício José Borges


    Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Un-derstanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six sites...

  1. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.


    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

  2. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João


    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision and biodiversity conservation value were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation. The current delivery of hydrological services in the Vez watershed is higher at the high and low mountain sub-basins, with lower provision in the valley. The overall performance for water quantity and timing is better under the shrubland and the oak scenarios, when compared to the eucalyptus/pine scenario, which performs better for flood regulation and erosion control, especially in the low mountain sub-basin. However, this scenario is the one with more spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value, especially inside protected areas. Several strategies may be suggested for effective land use planning in the Vez watershed. Eucalyptus/pine is the scenario with the best results for flood regulation and soil erosion control, associated to the positive revenues from the pulp production industry. However, cautions should be taken regarding strategies for biodiversity conservation (preferably by favoring native oak species), as well as the potential increase in fire risk. This study highlights SWAT as an effective tool for modelling and mapping hydrological services generated at the watershed scale, therefore contributing to improve the options for land management.

  3. Demarcation of Drainage Network for Watershed Management of Sangamner Tahsil Using Topographical and GIS Data: A Case Study of Sangamner Tahsil of Ahemadnagar District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Deshmukh Pragati P


    Full Text Available Water is significant geographical resource, which need to micro level planning for the conservation. It is the fundamental need of all biotic community which is depending on the precipitation sources directly and River, lake, tank water sources circuitously. There is sensitive issue regarding water managements because of its need and availability. So the, variety of research techniques applied for the sustainable development of water resource. In most of region very less rainfall incidence, where need to conservation of water by the appropriate techniques for sustainable development. From the ancient time humans are using variety of techniques for preservation of water, which is now a day becomes a time consuming, resources wastage and less correctness. This traditional techniques replaced by advance GIS and RS techniques where obtain the precise accuracy, digital quality, fewer recourses.

  4. 76 FR 68499 - Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement (United States)


    ...reduce conflicts over water by managing local watersheds through collaborative...available at any given place and time. Water shortage and water-use...supplemented. Individuals, universities, for-profit organizations...made publicly available at any time. While you can ask us in...


    NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...


    The three papers that follow in this issue of JAFC were presented at a Symposium held at the Fall 2004 American Chemical Society meeting in Philadelphia Entitled “Agrochemicals And Watershed-Scale Modeling: Solutions For Water Quality Management.” These papers show that industry pesticide scientist...

  7. WMOST: A tool for assessing cost-benefits of watershed management decisions affecting coastal resilience (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST v.1) was released by the US Environmental Protection Agency in December 2013 ( The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-domain screening tool th...

  8. Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.


    Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

  9. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.


    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nourani


    Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nash’s model parameters.


    The goal of this project, and associated research, is to establish thresholds for ecological response to watershed disturbance and to develop tools and insights that will help us manage risks. Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can result in increased ris...

  12. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project (United States)

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  13. Effect of Nutrient Management Planning on Crop Yield, Nitrate Leaching and Sediment Loading in Thomas Brook Watershed (United States)

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Ahmad, Nafees H. M.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob; Burton, David; Madani, Ali


    Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower leaching ( P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.

  14. Tomales High School Subshed of Keyes Creek Watershed-- A GIS Study of a Local Watershed (United States)

    McMillon, B.; Craig, K.; Cushman, T.; Greene, B.; Orsini, A.; Reynoso, E.; Whitlock, S.; Kinyon, J.


    Tomales Environmental Learning Center students, in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Science and Learning Center, developed a map of the Tomales High School Subshed of the Keyes Creek Watershed using both GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GIT Geographic Information Technology). The map was developed for future water quality analysis projects. To complete the task the students developed GIS knowledge using ESRI's ArcView 3.3 raster data analysis and hydrology modeling tools. With these they created flow accumulation and flow direction maps from USGS 10-meter pixel Digital elevation Model (DEM) files, and then created a watershed area map for the local sub-watershed that included the local high school. The students walked and photographed the perimeter of the watershed collecting data on a handheld GPS (Trimble GeoXT with real-time DGPS correction) and ESRI's ArcPad mapping software. The resolution and accuracy of their hand-collected data was of a higher quality and more current than that derived from the DEM files, and provided the base for their fiinal map.

  15. Representation of regional urban development conditions using a watershed-based gradient study design (United States)

    Terziotti, Silvia; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.


    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems (EUSE) have been intensively investigated in nine metropolitan areas in the United States, including Boston, Massachusetts; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Raleigh, North Carolina; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas–Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee–Green Bay, Wisconsin. Each of the EUSE study area watersheds was associated with one ecological region of the United States. This report evaluates whether each metropolitan area can be generalized across the ecological regions (ecoregions) within which the EUSE study watersheds are located. Seven characteristics of the EUSE watersheds that affect stream ecosystems were examined to determine the similarities in the same seven characteristics of the watersheds in the entire ecoregion. Land cover (percentage developed, forest and shrubland, and herbaceous and cultivated classes), average annual temperature, average annual precipitation, average surface elevation, and average percentage slope were selected as human-influenced, climate, and topography characteristics. Three findings emerged from this comparison that have implications for the use of EUSE data in models used to predict stream ecosystem condition. One is that the predominant or "background" land-cover type (either forested or agricultural land) in each ecoregion also is the predominant land-cover type within the associated EUSE study watersheds. The second finding is that in all EUSE study areas, the watersheds account for the range of developed land conditions that exist in the corresponding ecoregion watersheds. However, six of the nine EUSE study area watersheds have significantly different distributions of developed land from the ecoregion watersheds. Finally, in seven of the nine EUSE/ecoregion comparisons, the distributions of the values of climate variables in the EUSE watersheds are different from the distributions for watersheds in the corresponding ecoregions.

  16. Tribal Watershed Management: Culture, Science, Capacity, and Collaboration (United States)

    Cronin, Amanda; Ostergren, David M.


    This research focuses on two elements of contemporary American Indian natural resource management. First, the authors explore the capacity of tribes to manage natural resources, including the merging of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with Western science. Second, they analyze tribal management in the context of local and regional…

  17. Legacy Phosphorus in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Restoration and Management of Wetlands and Aquatic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.

  18. Evaluating changes in water quality with respect to nonpoint source nutrient management strategies in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (United States)

    Keisman, J.; Sekellick, A.; Blomquist, J.; Devereux, O. H.; Hively, W. D.; Johnston, M.; Moyer, D.; Sweeney, J.


    Chesapeake Bay is a eutrophic ecosystem with periodic hypoxia and anoxia, algal blooms, diminished submerged aquatic vegetation, and degraded stocks of marine life. Knowledge of the effectiveness of actions taken across the watershed to reduce nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads to the bay (i.e. "best management practices" or BMPs) is essential to its restoration. While nutrient inputs from point sources (e.g. wastewater treatment plants and other industrial and municipal operations) are tracked, inputs from nonpoint sources, including atmospheric deposition, farms, lawns, septic systems, and stormwater, are difficult to measure. Estimating reductions in nonpoint source inputs attributable to BMPs requires compilation and comparison of data on water quality, climate, land use, point source discharges, and BMP implementation. To explore the relation of changes in nonpoint source inputs and BMP implementation to changes in water quality, a subset of small watersheds (those containing at least 10 years of water quality monitoring data) within the Chesapeake Watershed were selected for study. For these watersheds, data were compiled on geomorphology, demographics, land use, point source discharges, atmospheric deposition, and agricultural practices such as livestock populations, crop acres, and manure and fertilizer application. In addition, data on BMP implementation for 1985-2012 were provided by the Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office (CBPO) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A spatially referenced nonlinear regression model (SPARROW) provided estimates attributing N and P loads associated with receiving waters to different nutrient sources. A recently developed multiple regression technique ("Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge and Season" or WRTDS) provided an enhanced understanding of long-term trends in N and P loads and concentrations. A suite of deterministic models developed by the CBPO was used to estimate expected nutrient load reductions attributable to BMPs. Further quantification of the relation of land-based nutrient sources and BMPs to water quality in the bay and its tributaries must account for inconsistency in BMP data over time and uncertainty regarding BMP locations and effectiveness.


    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  20. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella


    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  1. Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama M. M. Abdelwahab


    Full Text Available The Annualised Agricultural Non-point Source model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different management practices to control the soil erosion and sediment load in the Carapelle watershed, a Mediterranean medium-size watershed (506 km2 located in Apulia, Southern Italy. The model was previously calibrated and validated using five years of runoff and sediment load data measured at a monitoring station located at Ordona - Ponte dei Sauri Bridge. A total of 36 events were used to estimate the performance of the model during the period 2007-2011. The model performed well in predicting runoff, as the high values of the coefficients of efficiency and determination during the validation process showed. The peak flows predictions were satisfactory especially for the high flow events; the prediction capability of sediment load was good, even if a slight over-estimation was observed. Simulations of alternative management practices show that converting the most eroding cropland cells (13.5% of the catchment area to no tillage would reduce soil erosion by 30%, while converting them to grass or forest would reduce soil erosion by 36.5% in both cases. A crop rotation of wheat and a forage crop can also provide an effective way for soil erosion control as it reduces erosion by 69%. Those results can provide a good comparative analysis for conservation planners to choose the best scenarios to be adopted in the watershed to achieve goals in terms of soil conservation and water quality.

  2. A GIS based watershed information system for water resources management and planning in semi-arid areas (United States)

    Tzabiras, John; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Kokkinos, Kostantinos; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros; Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas


    The overall objective of this work is the development of an Information System which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of water management as well as for planning and strategic decision-making in semi-arid areas. An integrated modeling system has been developed and applied to evaluate the sustainability of water resources management strategies in Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The modeling system, developed in the framework of "HYDROMENTOR" research project, is based on a GIS modelling approach which uses remote sensing data and includes coupled models for the simulation of surface water and groundwater resources, the operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and the estimation of water demands at several spatial scales. Lake Karla basin was the region where the system was tested but the methodology may be the basis for future analysis elsewhere. ?wo (2) base and three (3) management scenarios were investigated. In total, eight (8) water management scenarios were evaluated: i) Base scenario without operation of the reservoir and the designed Lake Karla district irrigation network (actual situation) • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation ii) Base scenario including the operation of the reservoir and the Lake Karla district irrigation network • Reduction of channel losses • Alteration of irrigation methods • Introduction of greenhouse cultivation The results show that, under the existing water resources management, the water deficit of Lake Karla watershed is very large. However, the operation of the reservoir and the cooperative Lake Karla district irrigation network coupled with water demand management measures, like reduction of water distribution system losses and alteration of irrigation methods, could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area. Acknowledgements: This study has been supported by the research project "Hydromentor" funded by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the framework of the E.U. co-funded National Action "Cooperation"

  3. Minnesota Watersheds (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  4. SWAT meta-modeling as support of the management scenario analysis in large watersheds. (United States)

    Azzellino, A; Çevirgen, S; Giupponi, C; Parati, P; Ragusa, F; Salvetti, R


    In the last two decades, numerous models and modeling techniques have been developed to simulate nonpoint source pollution effects. Most models simulate the hydrological, chemical, and physical processes involved in the entrainment and transport of sediment, nutrients, and pesticides. Very often these models require a distributed modeling approach and are limited in scope by the requirement of homogeneity and by the need to manipulate extensive data sets. Physically based models are extensively used in this field as a decision support for managing the nonpoint source emissions. A common characteristic of this type of model is a demanding input of several state variables that makes the calibration and effort-costing in implementing any simulation scenario more difficult. In this study the USDA Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the Venice Lagoon Watershed (VLW), Northern Italy. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network was trained on SWAT simulations and used as a meta-model for scenario analysis. The MLP meta-model was successfully trained and showed an overall accuracy higher than 70% both on the training and on the evaluation set, allowing a significant simplification in conducting scenario analysis. PMID:26675997

  5. Q-BIC3 - A Québec-Bavarian international collaboration for adapting regional watershed management to climate change (United States)

    Ludwig, Ralf


    Adapting to the impacts of climate change is certainly one of the major challenges in water resources management over the next decades. Adaptation to climate change risks is most crucial in this domain, since projected increase in mean air temperature in combination with an expected increase in the temporal variability of precipitation patterns will contribute to pressure on current water availability, allocation and management practices. The latter often involve the utilization of valuable infrastructure, such as dams, reservoirs and water intakes, for which adaptation options must by developed over long-term and often dynamic planning horizons. Research to establish novel methodologies for improved adaptation to climate change is thus very important and only beginning to emerge in regional watershed management. The presented project Q-BIC³, funded by the Bavarian Minstry for the Environment and the Québec Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation, aims to develop and apply a newly designed spectrum of tools to support the improved assessment of adaptation options to climate change in regional watershed management. It addresses in particular selected study sites in Québec and Bavaria. The following key issues have been prioritized within Q-BIC³: i) The definition of potential adaptation options in the context of climate change for pre-targeted water management key issues using a subsequent and logical chain of modelling tools (climate, hydrological and water management modeling tools) ii) The definition of an approach that accounts for hydrological projection uncertainties in the search for potential adaptation options in the context of climate change iii) The investigation of the required complexity in hydrological models to estimate climate change impacts and to develop specific adaptation options for Québec and Bavaria watersheds. iv) The development and prototyping of a regionally transferable and modular modelling system for integrated watershed management under climate change conditions. The study sites under investigation, namely the Haut-Saint Francois and Gatineau watersheds in Québec and the Isar and Regnitz catchments in Bavaria, are under heavy anthropogenic use. Intense dam and reservoir operations and even water transfer systems are in place to satisfy multi-purpose demands on available water resources. These are imposing extreme modifications to the natural flow regimes. In the first phase of the project, climatic forcing, stemming from an ensemble of selected GCM and RCM runs, is applied to a variety of hydrological models with different complexity. The derived projections of future hydrological conditions serve to investigate, whether current operation rules and/or existing infrastructure needs to be adapted to a changing environment. First findings demonstrate the large uncertainties associated to the model chain outputs, but also indicate that related adaptation is indispensable to meet the challenges of the rapidly changing man-environment systems.

  6. Tailored Watershed Assessment and Integrated Management (TWAIM: A Systems Thinking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Magner


    Full Text Available Control of non-point source (NPS water pollution remains elusive in the United States (US. Many US water-bodies which have been primarily impacted by NPS pollution have not achieved water quality goals set by Clean Water Act. Technological advances have been made since 1972, yet many water resources fail to meet water quality standards. Common Pool Resources Theory is considered to understand the human dimension of NPS pollution by exploring anthropogenic activities superimposed upon dynamic ecosystems. In the final analysis, priority management zones (PMZs for best management practice (BMP implementation must have buy-in from land managers. TWAIM is an iterative systems thinking approach to planning, collecting landscape and land use information and communicating systems understanding to stakeholders. Hydrologic pathways that link the physical, chemical and biological characteristics influence processes occurring in a watershed which drive stream health and ecological function. With better systems understanding and application by technical specialists, there is potential for improved stakeholder interaction and dialogue which could then enable better land use decisions. Issues of pollutant origin, transport, storage and hydraulic residence must be defined and communicated effectively to land managers within a watershed context to observe trends in water quality change. The TWAIM concept provides a logical framework for locally-led assessment and a means to communicate ecohydrologic systems understanding over time to the key land managers such that PMZs can be defined for BMP implementation.

  7. Participatory watershed management to decrease land degradation and sediment transport in Kagera and Nyando catchments of Lake Victoria basin


    Kenge, James Gunya


    Attention to participatory watershed management is increasing across the developing world as soil erosion continues to degrade agricultural land; reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure are clogged with sediment. The realization of the importance of watersheds is crucial for sustainable utilization especially in developing countries where rural livelihoods and economies are highly dependant on the exploitation of natural resources. The Lake Victoria basin is characterized by high population ...

  8. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey


    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ? NS ? 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  9. Community-based shared values as a 'Heart-ware' driver for integrated watershed management: Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective (United States)

    Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu


    This paper explores the case for using "community-based shared values" as a potential driver for the "Heartware" aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.

  10. Rainfall Runoff Modelling Using the Principle of Maximum Entropy(Case Study: Kasilian Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirabbasi Najafabadi


    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of runoff for a watershed is a very important issue in water resources management. In this study, the monthly runoff was estimated using the rainfall information and conditional probability distribution model based on the principle of maximum entropy. The information of monthly rainfall and runoff data of Kasilian River basin from 1960 to 2006 were used for the development of model. The model parameters were estimated using the prior information of the watershed such as mean of rainfall, runoff and their covariance. Using the developed model, monthly runoff was estimated for different values of runoff coefficient, , return period, , at different probability levels of rainfall for the basin under study. Results showed that the developed model estimates runoff for all return periods satisfactorily if the runoff coefficient value is taken 0.6. Also, it is observed that at a particular probability level and runoff coefficient, the estimated runoff decreases as return period increases. However, the rate of change of runoff decreases slightly as return period increases.

  11. Comparative study of climate and human impacts on seasonal baseflow in urban and agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Wang, Dingbao; Cai, Ximing


    This study explores the long-term trends of low flow magnitude and the slopes and shapes of the recession curves during winter and summer seasons under climatic and human factors. Four watersheds in the American Midwest are selected for the analysis, including two urban watersheds (Salt Creek and Des Plaines) and two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kankakee). The results show that the long-term baseflow recession slope trends in all the watersheds are primarily induced by human interferences. In the urban watersheds, the recession slopes decrease over time in both winter and summer due to effluent discharges. In the Kankakee watershed with irrigation, the recession slopes decrease in winter but increase in summer, and the opposite winter and summer trends are caused by the seasonal water use regime of irrigated agriculture. In the Embarras watershed with rainfed agriculture, the recession slopes decrease over time in winter but display no change in summer. Sources of water withdrawal (groundwater versus surface water) also have different impacts on the recession process. This long-term analysis of recession rates, in conjunction with the changes in low flow magnitude, offers valuable insight on human interferences to hydrologic processes. Beyond the specific case studies, this paper documents how a scientific approach based on existing streamflow observation can be applied to improving our understanding of the impact of human and climatic influences on baseflow and low flow processes.

  12. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.


    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  13. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruvesh P Patel; Prashant K Srivastava; Manika Gupta; Naresh Nandhakumar


    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  14. Managing watershed services of tropical forests and plantations: Can meta-analyses help?


    Locatelli, Bruno; Vignola, Raffaele


    The watershed services provided by tropical natural and planted forests are critical to human well-being. An increasing number of valuation studies and experiences with payment for ecosystem services have dealt with the role of ecosystems in regulating the flow of water. However, several studies and experiences have been based on misconceptions about the role of forests and plantations in the hydrological cycle, despite the publication of many reviews by hydrologists. The objective of this pa...

  15. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania)




    Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern ...


    Assessment of watershed ecological status and trends is challenging for managers who lack randomly or consistently sampled data, or monitoring programs developed from a watershed perspective. This study investigated analytical approaches for assessment of status and trends using ...

  17. A Web-based environmental decision support system (WEDSS) for environmental planning and watershed management (United States)

    Sugumaran, Ramanathan; Meyer, James C.; Davis, Jim


    Local governments often struggle to balance competing demands for residential, commercial and industrial development with imperatives to minimize environmental degradation. In order to effectively manage this development process on a sustainable basis, local planners and government agencies are increasingly seeking better tools and techniques. In this paper, we describe the development of a Web-Based Environmental Decision Support System (WEDSS), which helps to prioritize local watersheds in terms of environmental sensitivity using multiple criteria identified by planners and local government staff in the city of Columbia, and Boone County, Missouri. The development of the system involved three steps, the first was to establish the relevant environmental criteria and develop data layers for each criterion, then a spatial model was developed for analysis, and lastly a Web-based interface with analysis tools was developed using client-server technology. The WEDSS is an example of a way to run spatial models over the Web and represents a significant increase in capability over other WWW-based GIS applications that focus on database querying and map display. The WEDSS seeks to aid in the development of agreement regarding specific local areas deserving increased protection and the public policies to be pursued in minimizing the environmental impact of future development. The tool is also intended to assist ongoing public information and education efforts concerning watershed management and water quality issues for the City of Columbia, Missouri and adjacent developing areas within Boone County, Missouri.

  18. Delineation and Characterization of Furnace Brook Watershed in Marshfield, Massachusetts: A Study of Effects upon Conjunctive Water Use within a Watershed (United States)

    Croll, E. D.; Enright, R.


    An understanding of conjunctive use between surface and ground water is essential to resource management both for sustained public use and watershed conservation practices. The Furnace Brook watershed in Marshfield, Massachusetts supplies a coastal community of 25,132 residents with nearly 50% of the town water supply. As with many other coastal communities, development pressure has increased creating a growing demand for freshwater extraction. It has been observed, however, that portions of the stream and Furnace Pond disappear entirely. This has created a conflict between protection of the designated wetland areas and meeting public pressure for water resources, even within what is traditionally viewed as a humid region. Questions have arisen as to whether the town water extraction is influencing this losing behavior by excessively lowering water-table elevations and potentially endangering the health of the stream. This study set out to initially characterize these behaviors and identify possible influences of anthropogenic and natural sources acting upon the watershed including stream flow obstructions, water extraction, and geologic conditions. The initial characterization was conducted utilizing simple, low-cost and minimally intrusive methods as outlined by Lee and Cherry (1978), Rosenberry and LaBaugh (2008) and others during a six week period. Five monitoring stations were established along a 3.0 mile reach of the basin consisting of mini-piezometers, seepage meters, survey elevation base-lines, and utilizing a Marsh-McBirney flow velocity meter. At each station stream discharge, seepage flux rates and hydraulic gradients were determined to develop trends of stream behavior. This methodology had the benefit of demonstrating the efficacy of an intrinsically low-expense, minimally intrusive initial approach to characterizing interactions between surface and ground water resources. The data was correlated with town pumping information, previous geologic surveys and meteorological data. Early data analysis indicated that the stream behaved in an anomalous manner decreasing in discharge with downstream flow despite normal precipitation inputs. The behavior within this particular watershed appeared to be influenced by four primary factors resulting in the stream "running dry" during the June-August period. These factors included: (1) A losing gradient induced by well pumping (2) Obstructions to stream flow reduced contribution from upper reaches to lower reaches (3) A highly anisotropic layer of lower conductivity material regulated infiltration rates and (4) Evapotranspiration effects are such that during this period the basin is in a deficit situation even without additional losses. Additionally, relationships between well pumping and decreasing discharge, seepage flux loss rates and hydraulic gradients have demonstrated that even within humid region watersheds it cannot be assumed aquifer recharge is sufficient to avoid conflict between surface water protection and ground water utilization. Timing of precipitation events combined with geological governance of aquifer recharge play critical roles in managing the conjunctive use of water resources and cannot be assumed to have a negligible effect, even within relatively humid regions.

  19. Streamflow Modeling in a Highly Managed Mountainous Glacier Watershed Using SWAT: The Upper Rhone River Watershed Case in Switzerland


    Rahman, Kazi; Maringanti, Chetan; Beniston, Martin; Widmer, Florian; Abbaspour, Karim; Lehmann, Anthony


    Stream flow simulation is often challenging in mountainous watersheds because of irregular topography and complex hydrological processes. Rates of change in precipitation and temperature with respect to elevation often limit the ability to reproduce stream runoff by hydrological models. Anthropogenic influence, such as water transfers in high altitude hydropower reservoirs increases the difficulty in modeling since the natural flow regime is altered by long term storage of water in the reserv...

  20. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management (United States)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.


    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  1. Sustainable forest management: a challenging task in the siran watershed of district Mansehra in the NWFP of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure has led to unsustainable forest management during the past three decades in the study area. Strategic analysis of the system indicates that lack of national conservation based forest management has further aggravated the problem. Moreover, SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis show that the internal weaknesses and external threats outweigh the internal strengths and external opportunities of the Forest Department. Based on these analytical results, priority issues were evaluated in terms of their efficiency, social soundness, institutional acceptability and environmental sustainability. The proposed sustainable forest management options which fulfilled this criteria were the community based forest management, wood demand and supply management interventions, institutional restructuring and income generation opportunities using integrated forest management in the study area. (author)

  2. Multiobjective Optimization Combining BMP Technology and Land Preservation for Watershed-based Stormwater Management (United States)

    McGarity, A. E.


    Recent progress has been made developing decision-support models for optimal deployment of best management practices (BMP’s) in an urban watershed to achieve water quality goals. One example is the high-level screening model StormWISE, developed by the author (McGarity, 2006) that uses linear and nonlinear programming to narrow the search for optimal solutions to certain land use categories and drainage zones. Another example is the model SUSTAIN developed by USEPA and Tetra Tech (Lai, et al., 2006), which builds on the work of Yu, et al., 2002), that uses a detailed, computationally intensive simulation model driven by a genetic solver to select optimal BMP sites. However, a model that deals only with best management practice (BMP) site selections may fail to consider solutions that avoid future nonpoint pollutant loadings by preserving undeveloped land. This paper presents results of a recently completed research project in which water resource engineers partnered with experienced professionals at a land conservation trust to develop a multiobjective model for watershed management. The result is a revised version of StormWISE that can be used to identify optimal, cost-effective combinations of easements and similar land preservation tools for undeveloped sites along with low impact development (LID) and BMP technologies for developed sites. The goal is to achieve the watershed-wide limits on runoff volume and pollutant loads that are necessary to meet water quality goals as well as ecological benefits associated with habitat preservation and enhancement. A nonlinear programming formulation is presented for the extended StormWISE model that achieves desired levels of environmental benefits at minimum cost. Tradeoffs between different environmental benefits are generated by multiple runs of the model while varying the levels of each environmental benefit obtained. The model is solved using piecewise linearization of environmental benefit functions where each linear segment of represents a different option for reducing stormwater runoff volumes and pollutant loadings. The solutions space is comprised of optimal levels of expenditure for categories of BMP's by land use category and optimal land preservation expenditures by drainage zone. To demonstrate the usefulness of the model, results from its application to the Little Crum Creek watershed in suburban Philadelphia are presented. The model has been used to assist a watershed association and four municipalities to develop an action plan for restoration of water quality on this impaired stream. References Lai, F., J. Zhen, J. Riverson, and L. Shoemaker (2006). "SUSTAIN - An Evaluation and Cost-Optimization Tool for Placement of BMPs," ASCE World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2006. McGarity, A.E. (2006). A Cost Minimization Model to Priortize Urban Catchments for Stormwater BMP Implementation Projects. American Water Resources Association National Meeting, Baltimore, MD, November, 2006. Yu, S., J. X. Zhen, and S.Y. Zhai, (2002). Development of Stormwater Best Management Practice Placement Strategy for the Virginia Department of Transportation. Final Contract Report, VTRC 04-CR9, Virginia Transportation Research Council.

  3. Quantifying suspended sediment flux in a mixed-land-use urbanizing watershed using a nested-scale study design. (United States)

    Zeiger, Sean; Hubbart, Jason A


    Suspended sediment (SS) remains the most pervasive water quality problem globally and yet, despite progress, SS process understanding remains relatively poor in watersheds with mixed-land-use practices. The main objective of the current work was to investigate relationships between suspended sediment and land use types at multiple spatial scales (n=5) using four years of suspended sediment data collected in a representative urbanized mixed-land-use (forest, agriculture, urban) watershed. Water samples were analyzed for SS using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design (n=836 samples×5 gauging sites). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc multiple comparison tests were used to test for significant differences (CI=95%, p<0.05) in SS levels between gauging sites. Climate extremes (high precipitation/drought) were observed during the study period. Annual maximum SS concentrations exceeded 2387.6mg/L. Median SS concentrations decreased by 60% from the agricultural headwaters to the rural/urban interface, and increased by 98% as urban land use increased. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed significant relationships between SS, annual total precipitation (positive correlate), forested land use (negative correlate), agricultural land use (negative correlate), and urban land use (negative correlate). Estimated annual SS yields ranged from 16.1 to 313.0tkm(-2)year(-1) mainly due to differences in annual total precipitation. Results highlight the need for additional studies, and point to the need for improved best management practices designed to reduce anthropogenic SS loading in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519591

  4. Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beria Leimona


    Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.

  5. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

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    Surendra Kumar Chandniha


    Full Text Available In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and environment aspects of water resources. However it is difficult to bring all these indicators on a single platform. In this study, a watershed sustainability index (WSI which integrates the hydrology, environment, life and policy (HELP has been suggested for Piperiya watershed in Chhattisgarh state of India. This watershed has an area of about 2400km2 and is part of Hasdeo river basin which is located in Koriya district of Chhattisgarh. Further, the majority of population in the area is tribal and illiterate. Providing safe and adequate water to the masses is a challenge in this area. The District has numerous hill ranges with rocky geological formation having steep slope. The district faces an acute water shortage for drinking as well as irrigation. Further, the area has number of coal mines and coal washing plants, which contaminate the surface water as well as groundwater. Thus, the availability of safe and fresh water is quite limited. It has been noticed that the WSI for this watershed is about 0.60, which is moderate level of sustainability. In order to improve the water sustainability in this watershed, a watershed management framework and its utilizationhas been elaborated.

  6. Effects of integrated watershed management on livestock water productivity in water scarce areas in Ethiopia (United States)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mapedza, Everisto; Amede, Tilahun; Ayalneh, Wagnew

    In the water scarce Lenche Dima watershed in the northern Ethiopian highlands community based integrated watershed management was implemented to fight land degradation, raise agricultural productivity and improve farmers’ livelihoods. The effects of two interventions, namely exclosures and water harvesting structures, were assessed based on data from farmers’ interviews, measurements of feed biomass production, and estimates of energy production and requirements. Water used for livestock feed production was obtained through simple soil water balance modelling. By protecting 40% of the rangelands, the water productivity of the feed increased by about 20%. This indicated that exclosure establishment could lead to similar improvements in livestock water productivity (LWP, defined as the ratio of livestock benefits over the water used in producing these). Water harvesting structures ensured year-round water availability in the homestead, which resulted in less energy used for walking to drinking points. A considerable amount of energy was thus saved, which could be used for livestock production and improved animal health without additional water use. Besides restoring regulating and supporting ecosystem services, both interventions led to a more efficient use of the scarce water resources for biomass and livestock production.

  7. Curative vs. preventive management of nitrogen transfers in rural areas: lessons from the case of the Orgeval watershed (Seine River basin, France). (United States)

    Garnier, J; Billen, G; Vilain, G; Benoit, M; Passy, P; Tallec, G; Tournebize, J; Anglade, J; Billy, C; Mercier, B; Ansart, P; Azougui, A; Sebilo, M; Kao, C


    The Orgeval watershed (104 km(2)) is a long-term experimental observatory and research site, representative of rural areas with intensive cereal farming of the temperate world. Since the past few years, we have been carrying out several studies on nitrate source, transformation and transfer of both surface and groundwaters in relation with land use and agriculture practices in order to assess nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching, contamination of aquifers, denitrification processes and associated nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. A synthesis of these studies is presented to establish a quantitative diagnosis of nitrate contamination and N2O emissions at the watershed scale. Taking this watershed as a practical example, we compare curative management measures, such as pond introduction, and preventive measures, namely conversion to organic farming practices, using model simulations. It is concluded that only preventive measures are able to reduce the NO3(-) contamination level without further increasing N2O emissions, a result providing new insights for future management bringing together water-agro-ecosystems. PMID:24935024

  8. Identification and prioritization of critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed using SWAT model


    Besalatpour, Asghar; Hajabbasi, M. Ali; Ayoubi, Shamsolah; Jalalian, Ahmad


    A few areas in a large watershed might be more critical and responsible for high amount of runoff and soil losses. For an effective and efficient implementation of watershed management practices, identification of these critical areas is vital. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2009) to identify and prioritize the critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed with imprecise and uncertain data (Bazoft watershed, southwestern Iran). Three different SWAT mo...

  9. Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

  10. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring 222Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for 222Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rnq, the 222Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rnq to the measured 222Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach

  11. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control (United States)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  12. USGS perspectives on an integrated approach to watershed and coastal management (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Robert R.


    The writers discuss three critically important steps necessary for achieving the goal for improved integrated approaches on watershed and coastal protection and management. These steps involve modernization of monitoring networks, creation of common data and web services infrastructures, and development of modeling, assessment, and research tools. Long-term monitoring is needed for tracking the effectiveness approaches for controlling land-based sources of nutrients, contaminants, and invasive species. The integration of mapping and monitoring with conceptual and mathematical models, and multidisciplinary assessments is important in making well-informed decisions. Moreover, a better integrated data network is essential for mapping, statistical, and modeling applications, and timely dissemination of data and information products to a broad community of users.

  13. Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia

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    Kebede Wolka Wolancho


    Full Text Available Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide sediment to critical water bodies. Nutrients and chemicals from cropland and urban sewage are transported into the water systems. Many reservoirs which have been established for hydroelectric power, urban water supply and irrigation accumulate an alarmingly higher level of sediment than expected. Koka, Angereb, Legedadi, Gilgel Gibe I and other reservoirs are threatened by this accelerated sedimentation. Consequences of reservoir sedimentation include the loss of storage capacity and its subsequent effects. These effects include water supply shortages for human consumption, irrigation and hydropower; increased hydro-equipment maintenance and repair; a decline in water quality; the cost of removing sediment; blockage of navigational waters and loss of recreation opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are modified by increased deposition of sediments and adsorbed or dissolved nutrients and chemicals, which commonly causes eutrophication which in turn negatively influences habitats of fish and other organisms. Some of the techniques suggested to reduce reservoir sediment concentration are technically less feasible as it requires design considerations during construction (which is difficult to implement for the existing dams. Removal of sediment is also economically demanding. Among the approaches and techniques proposed and implemented, integrated participatory watershed management is strongly recommended to reduce sediment inflow in sustainable pattern.

  14. Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures

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    Benjamin J. Koch


    Full Text Available Abstract Excess nitrogen (N is a primary driver of freshwater and coastal eutrophication globally, and urban stormwater is a rapidly growing source of N pollution. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs are used widely to remove excess N from runoff in urban and suburban areas, and are expected to perform under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Yet the capacity of BMPs to retain excess N varies; and both the variation and the drivers thereof are largely unknown, hindering the ability of water resource managers to meet water quality targets in a cost-effective way. Here, we use structured expert judgment (SEJ, a performance-weighted method of expert elicitation, to quantify the uncertainty in BMP performance under a range of site-specific environmental conditions and to estimate the extent to which key environmental factors influence variation in BMP performance. We hypothesized that rain event frequency and magnitude, BMP type and size, and physiographic province would significantly influence the experts’ estimates of N retention by BMPs common to suburban Piedmont and Coastal Plain watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Expert knowledge indicated wide uncertainty in BMP performance, with N removal efficiencies ranging from 40%. Experts believed that the amount of rain was the primary identifiable source of variability in BMP efficiency, which is relevant given climate projections of more frequent heavy rain events in the mid-Atlantic. To assess the extent to which those projected changes might alter N export from suburban BMPs and watersheds, we combined downscaled estimates of rainfall with distributions of N loads for different-sized rain events derived from our elicitation. The model predicted higher and more variable N loads under a projected future climate regime, suggesting that current BMP regulations for reducing nutrients may be inadequate in the future.

  15. Assessing the impacts of land use and land cover change on hydrology of watershed: a case study on Gigel-Abbay Watershed, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia


    Geremew, Asmamaw Adamu


    The population growth for the last 16 years caused changes in land cover of the Gilgel Abbay watershed, Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. The effects of the land cover changes have impacted on the stream flow of the watershed by changing the magnitude of surface runoff and ground water flow. This study is mainly focusing on the assessment of the impacts of the land cover changes on the stream flow by changing SURQ and GWQ for the wet months (June, July, August) and dry months (January, February, Mar...

  16. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania

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    Full Text Available Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern part of Romania. A distinct characteristic of this watershed is the presence of lakeunits (natural and artificial. Natural lakes and ponds are a polarizing element, which provides identity for the landscapein Fizes watershed, concentrates the majority of settlements in their close vicinity and also represent a support ofeconomical activities development, from agriculture to tourism.The objective of the present work is to discuss the major ion chemistry of the main lakes from Fizes watershed.Chemical classification also throws light on the concentration of various predominant cations, anions and theirinterrelationships. Water lake samples were collected from 11 sampling points covering the area during the years 2007and 2008 and were analyzed for physical-chemical characters. The system of lake units present distinctive physicalchemicalcharacteristics, influenced by local natural conditions, main factors being climate, morphometriccharacteristics of lakes, vegetation by shadowing, factors which together with biological conditions and anthropicinfluences shape the quality conditions of the lake waters. Climatic, hydrological and substrate conditions are reflectedin the resulting water quality. The lakes located in the upper part of the watershed can be included in the bicarbonateclass, while lakes located in the lower part are closer to sulphate waters.

  17. Debris flow run off simulation and verification ? case study of Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-L. Lin


    Full Text Available In 1996 typhoon Herb struck the central Taiwan area, causing severe debris flow in many subwatersheds of the Chen-You-Lan river watershed. More severe cases of debris flow occurred following Chi-Chi earthquake, 1999. In order to identify the potentially affected area and its severity, the ability to simulate the flow route of debris is desirable. In this research numerical simulation of debris flow deposition process had been carried out using FLO-2D adopting Chui-Sue river watershed as the study area. Sensitivity study of parameters used in the numerical model was conducted and adjustments were made empirically. The micro-geomorphic database of Chui-Sue river watershed was generated and analyzed to understand the terrain variations caused by the debris flow. Based on the micro-geomorphic analysis, the debris deposition in the Chui-Sue river watershed in the downstream area, and the position and volume of debris deposition were determined. The simulated results appeared to agree fairly well with the results of micro-geomorphic study of the area when not affected by other inflow rivers, and the trends of debris distribution in the study area appeared to be fairly consistent.

  18. Calibration of SWAT2009 Using Crop Biomass, Evapotranspiration, and Deep Recharge: Calera Watershed in Zacatecas, Mexico Case Study


    Alan J. Verser; Edward T. Kanemasu; Howell, Terry A.; Jean L. Steiner; Jurgen D. Garbrecht; Francisco G. Echavarria-Cháirez; Carlos Bautista-Capetillo; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Daniel N. Moriasi; Francisco Mojarro Dávila; Jose R. Ávila-Carrasco; Kevin Wagner; Jairo Hernandez


    Groundwater is the main source of water in the semi-arid Calera watershed, located in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Due to increasing population, rapid industrial growth, and increased irrigation to meet growing food demand, groundwater extraction in the Calera watershed are exceeding recharge rates. Therefore, development and evaluation of alter-native water management strategies are needed for sustainable development of the region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was selec...

  19. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

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    Xinyi Xu


    Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

  20. Managing a Watershed Monitoring Project with Innovative Data Telemetry and Communications Software (United States)

    In collaboration with Clermont County, the U.S. EPA is developing watershed-wide load and transport models to better understand environmental stressors in stream flow and the structure and function of stream ecosystems in the tributaries of the Lower East Fork River. Watershed se...

  1. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management (United States)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  2. Estimation of Urban Growth Impact on River Ecosystems through Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of the Cahaba Watershed Area (United States)

    Caliskan, S.; Campbell, K.; Cowart, K.; Foreman, M.; Keyes, D. E.; Olson, J.; Padgett-Vasquez, S.


    Landscape transformations are the most widespread and potential threat to watershed ecosystems. Different land transformations such as urbanization, deforestation, and expansion of agricultural areas impact land cover, hydrology, and terrestrial and aquatic linkages in the watershed. The Cahaba River, located in Alabama, is among the most biologically diverse rivers in North America, and supplies water to 20% of Alabama residents. The largest metropolitan area in Alabama, the city of Birmingham, is found within the upper sub-watersheds of the Cahaba River watershed. As the city and its population grow there has also been an increase in environmental concern over the recent declines of aquatic species, a rise in endangered wildlife, and issues of water quality, in particular surface runoff and sedimentation. The main objective of this research is to assess the land use and land cover changes and their impacts on the biodiversity and different aquatic habitat species on the Cahaba Watershed. To investigate the land cover changes, LandSAT 5 TM scenes from 2001, 2006 and 2010 were used to derive vegetation cover changes and apply spatio-temporal analyses. The second objective of the study is to establish a GIS model to integrate the social and physical factors impacting the biodiversity with remotely sensed data. The final objective is to apply statistical analyses to investigate the habitat degradation with results of the GIS model. Findings and end products will be vital to policy makers for the Cahaba River Society, City of Birmingham, and Alabama Department of Environmental Management in development of conservation strategies and new land-use plans pertaining to the Cahaba River watershed.


    The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. A large body of current literature suggests that human land-use practice is the most important factor influencing natural resource management and environmental condition...

  4. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel


    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation methods, and discount rates applied. Further guidance on representing uncertainty and applying uncertain results in decisionmaking would benefit both tool developers and those offices in using ecosystem services to compare management tradeoffs. Decisionmakers and Bureau of Land Management managers at the State-, district-, and field-office level would also benefit from continuing model improvements, training, and guidance on tool use that can be provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of the Interior. Tradeoffs were identified in the level of effort needed to parameterize and run tools and the amount and quality of information they provide to the decision process. We found the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, Ecosystem Services Review, and United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Centre Ecosystem Services Toolkit to be immediately feasible for application by the Bureau of Land Management, given proper guidance on their use. It is also feasible for the Bureau of Land Management to use the InVEST model, but in early 2012 the process of parameterizing the model required resources and expertise that are unlikely to be available in most Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Application of past primary valuation is feasible, but developing new primary-valuation studies is too time consuming for regular application. Value transfer approaches (aside from the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit) are best applied carefully on the basis of guidelines described in this report, to reduce transfer error. The ARIES model can provide useful information in regions modeled in the past (Arizona, California, Colorado, and Washington), but it lacks some features that will improve its usability, such as a generalized model that could be applied anywhere in the United States. Eleven other tools described in this report could become useful as the tools more fully develop, in high-profile cases for which additional resources are available for tool application or in case-st

  5. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico (United States)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.


    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of the water resource leads to a degradation of the water quality of the aquifer basically being reflected by an increase in sulfates, sodium and chloride. Combining the results with the hydrologic data and modeling it was possible outline high impact zones with steep water level drops of up to 15 m and high water quality deterioration as well as low impact zones with shallow water level fluctuation less tan on meter and stable water quality. These results will finally lead to a proposal how to guide the Guadalupe watershed towards a sustainable management of the aquifer.

  6. Using ion-exchange resins to study soil response to experimental watershed acidification. (United States)

    Szillery, Johanna E; Fernandez, Ivan J; Norton, Stephen A; Rustad, Lindsey E; White, Alan S


    Ion-exchange resins (IER) offer alternative approaches to measuring ionic movement in soils that may have advantages over traditional approaches in some settings, but more information is needed to understand how IER compare with traditional methods of measurement in forested ecosystems. At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), one of two paired, forested watersheds is treated bi-monthly with S and N (28.8 and 25.2kg ha(-1)yr(-1) of S and N, respectively). Both IER and ceramic cup tension lysimeters were used to study soil solution responses after approximately 11 years of treatment. Results from both methods showed treatments resulted in the mobilization of base cations and Al, and higher SO(4)-S and inorganic N in the treated watershed. Both methods indicated similar differences in results associated with forest type (hardwoods versus softwoods), a result of differences in litter quality and atmospheric aerosol interception capacity. The correlation between lysimeter and IER data for individual analytes varied greatly. Significant correlations were evident for Na (r=0.75), Al (r=0.65), Mn (r=0.61), Fe (r=0.57), Ca (r=0.49), K (r=0.41) and NO(3)-N (r=0.59). No correlation was evident between IER and soil solution data for NH(4)-N and Pb. Both IER and soil solution techniques suggested similar interpretations of biogeochemical behavior in the watershed. PMID:16779603

  7. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2 Watershed, India (United States)

    Pophare, Anil M.; Lamsoge, Bhushan R.; Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Nawale, Vijay P.


    The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977-2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 ?S/cm per year. During 2007-2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 ?S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.

  8. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2Watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Bhushan R Lamsoge; Yashwant B Katpatal; Vijay P Nawale


    The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977–2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 S/cm per year. During 2007–2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.

  9. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal (United States)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.


    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  10. Study of the relationship between runoff, rainfall and evaporation watershed in the southern zone of the Mediterranean (case of Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water resources in Algeria are not distributed evenly inspace and time that engenders enormous difficulties for their mobilization. Water shortage is becoming a major problem. A number of regions already suffers from water deficiency and the others will soon follow. To solve this problem, the construction of new dams becomes indispensable. Through the hydrological studies and the exploitation of future dams, the evaluation of wateryield in sites of these structures is indispensable. At present, the calculation of the interannual runoff in absence of data for the not gauged watercourse is determined from empirical formulae established especially for the climatic and geographical conditions of Algeria. Unfortunately, all these formulas do not provide accurate results.Watersheds which were used in the study represent almost the entire surface of Northern Algeria whose number is 106 basins.The objective of the present study is to establish working tools, allowing the planners and the managers to determine the value of the interannual runoff of watershed for the climatic conditions of Algeria without going through the empirical formulae often used in the absence of measurable dataand leading to absurd errors.The calculation parameters for interannual runoff from the proposed model are standard meteorological data (air temperature, humidity and pluviometry), always available and periodically broadcastedby meteorological services and hydrology of Algeria. Runoff values calculated by the model are close to the values of measured runoff.The difference between them didnot exceed 15 to 20%. (author)

  11. Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelašnica watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risti? Ratko


    Full Text Available Serbia’s hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the land’s capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and the more frequent appearance of torrential floods and bed-load deposits on downstream sections. Environmental degradation creates economicsocial problems within local societies which is often followed by depopulation. Restoring watersheds to their optimal hydrologic state would reduce flood discharge and by increasing groundwater recharge would increase both low-flow and average discharges in springs and streams. Best management practices could be developed through the application of specific combinations of biotechnical, technical and administrative measures, and by using the concept of ?natural reservoirs?. The design of such practices is explored through a case study of the watershed of the river Jelašnica, southeastern Serbia. Realization of these planned restoration works should help decrease the annual yields of erosive material by 44.1% and the specific annual transport of sediment through hydrographic network by 43.6%. Representative value of the coefficient of erosion will be reduced from Z=0.555 to Z=0.379. The value of maximal discharge Qmax-AMCIII (1%=54.17 m3•s-1, before restoration, is decreased to Qmax-AMCIII (1%=41.22 m3•s-1 after restoration, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of land use changes. Administrative measures are applied through ?Plans for announcement of erosive regions and protection from torrential floods in the territory of Leskovac municipality?.

  12. Isotopic study of the upper watershed of the Rio Abancan (Province of Catamarca, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper watershed of the Rio Abaucan drains the main part of the water resources of a semi arid area in the northern Argentine Andes. An isotopic study of the flow pattern has been undertaken within the lack of relevant hydrological and hydrogeological data. Oxygen 18, deuterium and tritium data suggest that snow is not contributing to the recharge of the aquifers. The storage of the alluvial deposits capacity appears to be low. The working hypotheses drawn out from this study indicate that such a kind of study could be done in a systematic way in order to prospect the resources of the andine watersheds. In a more general way, the interest of the isotopic methodology in areas where few data are available and where the environmental isotope labelling is large, these are often the same, must be underlined

  13. Effects of best-management practices in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks in the Waumandee Creek Priority Watershed, Wisconsin, 1990-2007 (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Walker, John F.; Bannerman, Roger T.; Rutter, Troy D.


    In many watersheds, nonpoint-source contamination is a major contributor to water-quality problems. In response to the recognition of the importance of nonpoint sources, the Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program (Nonpoint Program) was enacted in 1978. This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of watershed-management practices for controlling nonpoint-source contamination for the Eagle Creek and Joos Valley Creek Watersheds. Streamflow-gaging stations equipped for automated sample collection and continuous recording of stream stage were installed in July 1990 at Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were operated through September 2007. In October 1990, three rain gages were installed in each watershed and were operated through September 2007. Best-Management Practices (BMPs) were installed during 1993 to 2000 in Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks and were tracked throughout the study period. By the year 2000, a majority of the BMPs were implemented in the two watersheds and goals set by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the local Land Conservation Department had been achieved for the two study watersheds (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 1990). The distributions of the rainstorms that produced surface runoff and storm loads were similar in the pre-BMP (1990-93) and post-BMP implementation (2000-07) periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks. The highest annual streamflow occurred at both sites in water year 1993, which corresponded to the greatest above normal nonfrozen precipitation measured at two nearby NOAA weather stations. The minimum streamflow occurred in water year 2007 at both sites. Base-flow and stormwater samples were collected and analyzed for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks the median concentrations of suspended solids and total phosphorus in base flow were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre-BMP period and were statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. The decrease in median concentrations of ammonia nitrogen at both sites was not statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to remove the effects of climatologic conditions and seasonality from computed storm loads. For both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks, the median storm loads for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were lower during the post-BMP period compared to the pre-BMP period and were statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. The decreases in storm-load regression residuals from the pre- to the post-BMP periods for both Eagle and Joos Valley Creeks were statistically significant for all three constituents at the 0.05 significance level and indicated an apparent improvement in water-quality in the post-BMP period. Because the rainfall characteristics for individual storms in the pre- and post-BMP periods are likely to be different, separate pre- and post-BMP regressions were used to estimate the theoretical pre- and post-BMP storm loads to allow estimates of precent reductions between the pre- and post-BMP periods. The estimated percent reductions in storm loads for suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were 89, 77, and 66 respectively for Eagle Creek and 84, 67, and 60 respectively for Joos Valley Creek. The apparent improvement in water quality is attributed to the implemented BMPs and to a reduction in the number of cattle in the watersheds.

  14. High-resolution maps of forest-urban watersheds present an opportunity for ecologists and managers (United States)

    Dense populations of people and abundant impervious surfaces contribute to poor water quality and increased flooding in forest-urban watersheds. Green infrastructure mitigates these effects, but precisely quantifying benefits is difficult because most land cover maps rely on coar...

  15. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  16. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan


    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  17. Planning of water resources management and pollution control for Heshui River watershed, China: A full credibility-constrained programming approach. (United States)

    Zhang, Y M; Huang, G; Lu, H W; He, Li


    A key issue facing integrated water resources management and water pollution control is to address the vague parametric information. A full credibility-based chance-constrained programming (FCCP) method is thus developed by introducing the new concept of credibility into the modeling framework. FCCP can deal with fuzzy parameters appearing concurrently in the objective and both sides of the constraints of the model, but also provide a credibility level indicating how much confidence one can believe the optimal modeling solutions. The method is applied to Heshui River watershed in the south-central China for demonstration. Results from the case study showed that groundwater would make up for the water shortage in terms of the shrinking surface water and rising water demand, and the optimized total pumpage of groundwater from both alluvial and karst aquifers would exceed 90% of its maximum allowable levels when credibility level is higher than or equal to 0.9. It is also indicated that an increase in credibility level would induce a reduction in cost for surface water acquisition, a rise in cost from groundwater withdrawal, and negligible variation in cost for water pollution control. PMID:25897733

  18. Organochlorine pesticides in soils around watersheds of Beijing reservoirs: a case study in Guanting and Miyun Reservoirs. (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Guang; Wang, Tieyu; Luo, Wei; Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Xiang; Jiao, Wentao


    A systematic survey of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in soils around reservoirs that supply water to Beijing, China, has been lacking. 104 representative surface soil samples were collected around Guanting Reservoir (GTR) and Miyun Reservoir (MYR) in Beijing watershed to characterize concentrations and sources of organochlorine pesticides, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Compared with other studies of OCPs in soils and with the Chinese environmental quality standard for soil, the concentrations of OCP were relatively lower in soils around the watershed. The results indicated that past agricultural application of OCPs was the major source of OCP residues in the watershed. PMID:19280094

  19. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Soil Erosion Prediction Using GIS and RUSLE: Study at Sampean Watershed


    Arif Faisol; Indarto


    Erosionis one factor that cause soil degradation in Indonesia. RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) is widely usedto predict average annual rate of soil erosion. This research integrate the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(RUSLE) and Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict potential soil erosion losses. Study was conducted atSampean Watershed where located in Eastern part of East Java. Firstly, GIS layer was obtained from available databasethat cover East Java Province. All...

  1. A framework model for investigating the export of phosphorus to surface waters in forested watersheds: Implications to management. (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L


    The present study was developed in four sub-basins of rivers Cávado and Douro, located in the North of mainland Portugal. The goal was to identify main stressors as well as driving and attenuating processes responsible for the presence of phosphorus in masses of surface water in those catchments. To accomplish the goal, the basins were selected where a quality station was present at the outlet, the forest occupation was greater than 75% and the phosphorus concentrations have repeatedly exceeded the threshold for the good ecological status in the period 2000-2006. Further, in two basins the quality station was installed in a lotic (free-flow water) environment whereas in the other two was placed in a lentic (dammed water) environment. The ArcMap GIS-based software package was used for the spatial analysis of stressors and processes. The yields of phosphorus vary widely across the studied basins, from 0.2-30kg·ha(-1)·yr(-1). The results point to post-fire soil erosion and hardwood clear cuttings as leading factors of phosphorus exports across the watersheds, with precipitation intensity being the key variable of erosion. However, yields can be attenuated by sediment deposition along the pathway from burned or managed areas to water masses. The observed high yields and concentrations of phosphorus in surface water encompass serious implications for water resources management in the basins, amplified in the lentic cases by potential release of phosphorus from lake sediments especially during the summer season. Therefore, a number of measures were proposed as regards wildfire combat, reduction of phosphorus exports after tree cuts, attenuation of soil erosion and improvement of riparian buffers, all with the purpose of preventing phosphorus concentrations to go beyond the regulatory good ecological status. PMID:26225737

  2. A Case Study of Form-Based Solutions for Watershed Protection (United States)

    Berg, Hannah E.; Bendor, Todd K.


    Despite an array of policies at the federal and state level aimed at regulating stormwater discharges, engineered solutions enforced by local governments often fall short of meeting water quality standards. Although the implications of land use planning and development regulations are important for stormwater management, they are often overlooked as critical initial steps to improving water quality. This study explores the role of ‘form-based’ regulations as tools for achieving urban planning and water quality objectives. Form-based codes are a new generation of development codes aimed at regulating urban development based on urban form and density, rather than land use. We present an exploratory case study of the feasibility of form-based codes in the Jordan Lake Watershed in North Carolina, a rapidly growing region where fragmented local governments face stringent nutrient reduction standards under new state regulations. Through program analysis and interviews, we explore the viability of form-based codes for reducing development impacts on Jordan Lake’s water quality. We consider the legal feasibility of code enforcement, regional and local barriers and opportunities, and implementation given existing regulatory frameworks. Our findings suggest that high quality information and data modeling are foundational to gaining support for a consensus agreement on the sources and degree of water quality impairment. Furthermore, implementing form-based solutions for water quality is greatly aided by (1) experienced regional planning bodies that have regulatory authority, and (2) local governments whose staff are experienced in implementing complex development ordinances, reviewing architectural renderings, and communicating development requirements with the public and developers.

  3. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design (United States)

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie


    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a sustainable and decentralized stormwater management plan and redaction of performance standards at the watershed scale. The method applied in this paper toggles the decentralized stormwater approach from a common experimental point of view to an oriented problem-solution point of view.

  4. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Management Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control (United States)

    The overall objective of this project was to identify innovative strategies for managing the effects of wet-weather flow (WWF) control and failing infrastructure in an urban setting. The intent was to establish areas where external information can benefit US Environmental Protec...

  5. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mulholland, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  6. Environmental baseline study of the Huron River Watershed, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Cannon, William F.


    This report summarizes results of a study to establish water-quality and geochemical baseline conditions within a small watershed in the Lake Superior region. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a survey of water-quality parameters and soil and streambed sediment geochemistry of the 83 mi2 Huron River Watershed in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Streamflow was measured and water-quality samples collected at a range of flow conditions from six sites on the major tributaries of the Huron River. All water samples were analyzed for a suite of common ions, nutrients, and trace metals. In addition, water samples from each site were analyzed for unfiltered total and methylmercury once during summer low-flow conditions. Soil samples were collected from 31 sites, with up to 4 separate samples collected at each site, delineated by soil horizon. Streambed sediments were collected from 11 sites selected to cover most of the area drained by the Huron River system. USGS data were supplemented with ecological assessments completed in 2006 by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality using a modified version of their Great Lakes Environmental Assessment Section procedure 51, and again during 2008 using volunteers under supervision of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Results from this study define a hydrological, geological, and environmental baseline for the Huron River Watershed prior to any significant mineral exploration or development. Results from the project also serve to refine the design of future regional environmental baseline studies in the Lake Superior Basin.

  7. Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

  8. Movements by adult cutthroat trout in a lotic system: Implications for watershed-scale management (United States)

    Sanderson, T.B.; Hubert, W.A.


    Movements by adult cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson), were assessed from autumn to summer in the Salt River watershed, Wyoming-Idaho, USA by radio telemetry. Adult cutthroat trout were captured during September and October 2005 in the main stem of the Salt River, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked through to August 2006. Adult cutthroat trout were relatively sedentary and resided primarily in pools from October to March, but their movement rates increased during April. Higher movement rates were observed among tagged fish during May and early June. Among 43 fish residing in the Salt River during April 2006, 44% remained in the river, 37% moved into mountain tributaries and 19% moved into spring streams during the spawning season. Fish did not use segments of mountain tributaries or the upstream Salt River where fish passage was blocked by anthropogenic barriers or the channel was dewatered during summer. Almost all the fish that moved into spring streams used spring streams where pools and gravel-cobble riffles had been constructed by landowners. The results suggest that adult Snake River cutthroat move widely during May and early June to use spawning habitat in mountain tributaries and improved spring streams. Maintaining the ability of adult fish to move into mountain streams with spawning habitat, preserving spawning habitat in accessible mountain tributaries and removing barriers to upstream movements, and re-establishing summer stream flows in mountain tributaries affected by dams appear to be habitat management alternatives to preserve the Snake River cutthroat trout fishery in the Salt River. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Empirical streamflow simulation for water resource management in data-scarce seasonal watersheds (United States)

    Shortridge, J. E.; Guikema, S. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.


    In the past decade, certain methods for empirical rainfall-runoff modeling have seen extensive development and been proposed as a useful complement to physical hydrologic models, particularly in basins where data to support process-based models is limited. However, the majority of research has focused on a small number of methods, such as artificial neural networks, despite the development of multiple other approaches for non-parametric regression in recent years. Furthermore, this work has generally evaluated model performance based on predictive accuracy alone, while not considering broader objectives such as model interpretability and uncertainty that are important if such methods are to be used for planning and management decisions. In this paper, we use multiple regression and machine-learning approaches to simulate monthly streamflow in five highly-seasonal rivers in the highlands of Ethiopia and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure and bias, model interpretability, and uncertainty when faced with extreme climate conditions. While the relative predictive performance of models differed across basins, data-driven approaches were able to achieve reduced errors when compared to physical models developed for the region. Methods such as random forests and generalized additive models may have advantages in terms of visualization and interpretation of model structure, which can be useful in providing insights into physical watershed function. However, the uncertainty associated with model predictions under climate change should be carefully evaluated, since certain models (especially generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines) became highly variable when faced with high temperatures.

  10. Empirical streamflow simulation for water resource management in data-scarce seasonal watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Shortridge


    Full Text Available In the past decade, certain methods for empirical rainfall–runoff modeling have seen extensive development and been proposed as a useful complement to physical hydrologic models, particularly in basins where data to support process-based models is limited. However, the majority of research has focused on a small number of methods, such as artificial neural networks, despite the development of multiple other approaches for non-parametric regression in recent years. Furthermore, this work has generally evaluated model performance based on predictive accuracy alone, while not considering broader objectives such as model interpretability and uncertainty that are important if such methods are to be used for planning and management decisions. In this paper, we use multiple regression and machine-learning approaches to simulate monthly streamflow in five highly-seasonal rivers in the highlands of Ethiopia and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure and bias, model interpretability, and uncertainty when faced with extreme climate conditions. While the relative predictive performance of models differed across basins, data-driven approaches were able to achieve reduced errors when compared to physical models developed for the region. Methods such as random forests and generalized additive models may have advantages in terms of visualization and interpretation of model structure, which can be useful in providing insights into physical watershed function. However, the uncertainty associated with model predictions under climate change should be carefully evaluated, since certain models (especially generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines became highly variable when faced with high temperatures.

  11. Site Suitability Analysis of Water Harvesting Structures Using Remote Sensing and GIS - A Case Study of Pisangan Watershed, Ajmer District, Rajasthan (United States)

    Prasad, H. C.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.


    Rajasthan is a region with very limited water resources. Water is the most crucial for maintaining an environment and ecosystem conducive to sustaining all forms of life. The principle of watershed management is the proper management of all the precipitation by the way of collection, storage and efficient utilization of runoff water and to recharge the ground water. The present study aim's to identify suitable zones for water harvesting structures in Pisangan watershed of Ajmer district, Rajasthan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Evaluation (MSE). Multi criteria evaluation is carried out in Geographic Information system to help the decision makers in determining suitable zones for water harvesting structures based on the physical characteristics of the watershed. Different layers which were taken into account for multi criteria evaluation are; Soil texture, slope, rainfall data (2000-2012), land use/cover, geomorphology, lithology, lineaments, drainage network. The soil conservation service model was used to estimate the runoff depth of the study area Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) is used to find suitable water harvesting structures on the basis of rainfall. Produced suitability map will help in the selection of harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, storage tank, check dams and stop dams.

  12. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R


    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  13. Managing Broiler Litter Application Rate and Grazing to Decrease Watershed Runoff Losses (United States)

    Pasture management and broiler litter application rate are critical factors influencing the magnitude of nutrients being transported by runoff from fields. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of pasture management (haying, grazing, and a haying and grazing combination) and broiler lit...

  14. Grid based rainfall-runoff GIS modelling to study the anthropogenic effect on the hydrology of a small watershed


    SENES, GIULIO; Greppi, Mauro


    In the Po basin urban development, land use change and variations in rain intensity have influenced watershed runoff and increased floods. In order to better study the anthropogenic effect on the basin hydrology the Olona river watershed proved to be an interesting small catchment to test. It went through a rapid change from agricultural land to urbanized and partly forest areas over the period 1954 – 1994. The Olona River is known for frequent flooding along its course and in some districts ...

  15. Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan


    Hsu, S. M.; Wen, H. Y.; Chen, N. C.; Hsu, S. Y.; Chi, S Y


    A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and...

  16. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel


    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  17. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S


    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...



    CARLOS E. OYARZÚN; Anton Huber


    Measuring nutrients fluxes in watersheds with different landuse is important for evaluating the effects of conversion of native forests to agricultural land, and for establishing guidelines for land management. Nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes were studied over a 12-month period in four watersheds in the Lake Rupanco basin in the Andean Cordillera and four watersheds located in the Lake Huillinco basin in the Coastal Cordillera of southern Chile. Two watersheds in either lake basins wer...

  19. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP: a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Condom


    Full Text Available For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP, the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i, a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and simulated river flow at 16 control points in the Rio Santa watershed. At the global scale of the watershed, the glacier retreat is correctly simulated for the period 1970/1999 with a calculated retreat equals to ?23% when the observed retreat is of ?24%. Having established that the model can respond to these scientific objectives, the ultimate goal of the study was to demonstrate how this integrated modelling system can be used as a decision support tool to assist in planning water management adaptation to climate change. This sort of integrated assessment is required to adapt water resources management in the Andes to a~range of future climatic conditions, improving the resilience of developing Andean economies such Peru's in the face of a major drive of global change.

  20. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds


    Indrajeet Chaubey; Gitau, Margaret W.


    There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP) effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little ...

  1. The Estimating of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Using Regional Flood Analysis and Geomorphologic Parameters (Case Study: Kanisavaran and Marenj Watersheds, Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shirzadi1*, K. Chapi1 and P. Fathi2


    Full Text Available Estimation of flood hydrograph is of necessities in hydrological studies such as flood mitigation projects. This estimation in un-gauged watersheds is usually taken place using geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. The objective of this research is to estimate synthetic unit hydrograph using regional flood frequency analysis and geomorphological parameters of watersheds. 1-hour and 2-hour hydrographs of two watersheds, Kanisavaran and Maranj Watersheds, were generated using maximum discharge data based on regional flood frequency analysis. Estimated hydrographs were compared with observed data and the efficiency of the model was evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, absolute and bias errors. The results showed that multiple regression models give more acceptable results among others for the computation of synthetic unit hydrograph (higher coefficient of determination. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.98 for 1-hour hydrograph while it was 0.93 for the 2-hour hydrograph. The absolute error in 1-hour hydrograph and 2-hour hydrograph was 0.13 and 1.2, respectively. The bias error was close to zero for both hydrographs, indicating that the proposed model is efficient. The model may be used for estimation of synthetic unit hydrograph in similar un-gauged watersheds.

  2. Managing manure for sustainable livestock production in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (United States)

    Manure presents one of the greatest challenges to livestock operations in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay is threatened by excessive nutrient loadings and, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, manure is the source of 18% of the nitrogen and 27% of the phosphorus en...

  3. Water Quality, Contamination, and Wetlands in the Croton Watershed, New York, USA


    Jeffrey M. McKenzie; Donald I. Siegel; Laura K. Lautz; Martin H. Otz; James Hassett; Ines Otz


    The Croton Watershed (New York State, USA) is a semi-urban region that provides 10% of the drinking water for the City of New York. Nonpoint source contamination in the watershed is a major concern for managers because the water supply is currently unfiltered water. Results are reported from three synoptic studies of surface water quality from 98 wetland-containing sub-catchments in the Croton Watershed designed to broadly characterize, at a reconnaissance level, the geochemical controls on w...

  4. Groupwise Modeling Study of Bacterially Impaired Watersheds in Texas: Clustering Analysis (United States)

    Paul, Sabu; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Sanabria, Joaquin; Haan Saqib Mukhtar, Patricia K.; Neimann, Kerry


    Under the Clean Water Act (CWA) program, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) listed 110 stream segments in the year 2000 with pathogenic bacteria impairment. A study was conducted to evaluate the probable sources of pollution and characterize the watersheds associated with these impaired water bodies. The primary aim of the study was to group the water bodies into clusters having similar watershed characteristics and to examine the possibility of studying them as a group by choosing models for total maximum daily load (TMDL) development based on their characteristics. This approach will help to identify possible sources and determine appropriate models and hence reduce the number of required TMDL studies. This in turn will help in reducing the effort required to restore the health of the impaired water bodies in Texas. The main characteristics considered for the classification of water bodies were land use distribution within the watershed, density of stream network, average distance of land of a particular use to the closest stream, household population, density of on-site sewage facilities (OSSFs), bacterial loading from different types of farm animals and wildlife, and average climatic conditions. The climatic data and observed instream fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were analyzed to evaluate seasonal variability of instream water quality. The grouping of water bodies was carried out using the multivariate statistical techniques of factor analysis/principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. The multivariate statistical analysis resulted in six clusters of water bodies. The main factors that differentiated the clusters were found to be bacterial contribution from farm animals and wildlife, density of OSSFs, density of households connected to public sewers, and land use distribution.

  5. Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Andrade


    Full Text Available Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height of water depth during dry and wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 allowed the construction of the "rating curve" in four points of water quality monitoring and to reconstruct the series of water flow in these seasons. The analysis results showed that there is indication of changes in water quality parameters due to the conservation practices adopted. The water temperature parameter was the most influenced by the seasonal variation in runoff. Several physical factors may have influenced the correlation of the other parameters with runoff, especially the different environmental recovery actions implemented in the study to achieve the sustainability of the water resources.

  6. Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

  7. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha; G Victor Rajamanickam; P Kumaravel


    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes – low, very low, uncertain, high and very high ? 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  8. The assessment of land use change impact on watersheds runoff using SWAT: case study of Urmia Lake in Iran (United States)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein


    Lake Urmia, long counted among the world's largest saltwater lakes, contains only 5% of the amount of water it did just 20 years ago. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. It has been believed that land use changes in Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important factors in shrinkage of Urmia Lake in recent decades. Transforming the traditional agricultural practices (i.e., wheat) to the more water consuming practices (i.e., apple orchards) is one of the most important reasons increased agricultural water consumption in the watershed. In this study we assessed the effect of the land use changes of watershed in hydrological runoff processing in the Nazloo chai watershed, one of the most important river basins of the Urmia Lake basin. Actually the rapid and at the same time unreasonable transformations of land use in farm lands of Urmia lake sub basins, extremely has been raised the amount of blue water (surface or groundwater) consumption in watershed which leads to dramatic decrement of watershed runoff amounts. One of the most unfavorable consequences of land use change was changing the blue and green (rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) water usage patterns in watershed, in addition to water use increment. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), one of the most important and reliable models which was used to model the rainfall runoff, has been used in current study. The land use maps were extracted from Landsat images archives for the most severe turning points in respect of land use change in the recent 30 years. After calibrating the model, several land use patterns of historical data were used in the model to produce the runoff. The results showed the strong relation between land use change and runoff reduction in the Lake Urmia basin.

  9. Hydrological characterization of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pathak


    Full Text Available Executive Summary Water is one of the most critical resource and constraint in the semi-arid tropics (SAT. To minimize land degradation and sustain crop productivity in the SAT, management and efficient utilization of rainwater is important. Watershed-based resource utilization involves the optimum use of the area’sprecipitation for the improvement and stabilization of agriculture on the watershed through better water, soil, and crop management. More effective utilization of water for the production of crops canbe facilitated by one or more of the following means: (i in situ conservation of moisture; (ii proper drainage, collection, storage, and re-utilization of runoff; and (iii groundwater recovery from wells. For the proper development, conservation, and management of land and water resources, accurate information on surface and groundwater hydrology is crucial. Under the Asian Development Bank(ADB-supported project on integrated watershed management we studied the hydrological behavior of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam. From the five benchmarkwatersheds, the information on topography, rainfall, runoff, groundwater, and other relevant data were collected and analyzed.The hydrological data from the five benchmark watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam clearly show the effectiveness of improved watershed technologies in reducing runoff volume and peakrunoff rate. The highest runoff volume of 433 mm (51% of seasonal rainfall was recorded from the Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, while the lowest runoff volume of 55 mm (7% of seasonal rainfall wasrecorded from the Adarsha watershed in Kothapally, India. The highest peak runoff rate of 0.235 m3 s-1ha-1 was recorded from the untreated watershed at Kothapally. Between the treated and untreatedwatersheds the maximum difference in runoff volume was recorded at Lalatora watershed in India(290 mm in untreated compared to 55 mm in treated watershed. Among the three locations in India, the highest runoff was recorded at Lalatora watershed followed by Ringnodia and Kothapally watersheds. The groundwater observations from the three sites in India, clearly show the effectiveness of the improved watershed technologies in increasing the groundwater recharge therebyimproving the availability of water for agricultural and other uses. Throughout the season the groundwater levels in the treated areas were significantly higher compared to the groundwater levelsin the untreated areas. In terms of prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge, the Tad Fa watershed inThailand has the highest potential followed by Lalatora watershed in India. The prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge at Ringnodia and Adarsha watersheds in India aremoderate. The region-specific hydrological data reported in this publication will be useful in the planning, design, development, and management of land and water resources in the target regions.

  10. Integrating GIS, remote sensing and mathematical modelling for surface water quality management in irrigated watersheds:


    Azab, A.M.


    The intensive uses of limited water resources, the growing population rates and the various increasing human activities put high and continuous stresses on these resources. Major problems affecting the water quality of rivers, streams and lakes may arise from inadequately treated sewage, poor land use practices, inadequate controls on the discharges of industrial waste waters, uncontrolled poor agricultural practices, excessive use of fertilizers, and a lack of integrated watershed managemen...

  11. Alternative Land-Use Method for Spatially Informed Watershed Management Decision Making Using SWAT (United States)

    In this study, a modification is proposed to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to enable identification of areas where the implementation of best management practices would likely result in the most significant improvement in downstream water quality. To geospatially link...

  12. Watersheds in disordered media (United States)

    Andrade, Joséi, Jr.; Araújo, Nuno; Herrmann, Hans; Schrenk, Julian


    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  13. Evaluation of Best Management Practices in Millsboro Pond Watershed Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model


    Aditya Sood; William F. Ritter


    The Inland Bays in southern Delaware (USA) are facing eutrophication due to the nutrient loading from its watershed. The source of nutrients in the watershed is predominantly agriculture. The Millsboro Pond, a sub-watershed within the Inland Bays basin, was modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. It was found that the contribution of ground water from outside the watershed had a signifi-cant impact on the hydrology of the region. Once the model was calibrated and valida...

  14. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management. (United States)

    Franciskovi?-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zuni?, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D


    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers. PMID:17203367

  15. Interfaces da gestão ambiental urbana e gestão regional: análise da relação entre Planos Diretores Municipais e Planos de Bacia Hidrográfica / Interfaces of urban environmental management and regional management: analysis of the relationship between Municipal Master Plans and Watershed Plans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Bovo, Peres; Ricardo Siloto da, Silva.


    Full Text Available Este artigo relata uma pesquisa que discute como a questão ambiental vem sendo tratada nos instrumentos e práticas de gestão localizadas em dois recortes territoriais: municípios e bacias hidrográficas. Foi analisada a relação da dimensão ambiental com a gestão regional e municipal, por meio dos ins [...] trumentos Planos de Bacia Hidrográfica e Planos Diretores Municipais, tendo como locus a Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos Tietê-Jacaré do Estado de São Paulo. Os objetos de pesquisa selecionados foram o Plano de Bacia Hidrográfica Tietê-Jacaré e os Planos Diretores de Araraquara e São Carlos. A pesquisa abordou as seguintes categorias de análise: unidades de planejamento, instrumentos ambientais contidos no Plano de Bacia e nos Planos Diretores, instâncias de gestão e grau de infiluência entre os planos analisados. O método se pautou em levantamentos, análises bibliográficas e documentais, entrevistas semiestruturadas e questionários. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que o Plano de Bacia Hidrográfica ainda apresenta lacunas e dificuldades para uma atuação mais ampliada. Não reconhece os confilitos de uso da terra e de organização territorial como uma vulnerabilidade que precisa ser enfrentada. Mostraram, ainda, que os Planos Diretores Municipais concentram-se na aplicação dos instrumentos voltados ao parcelamento e ao zoneamento urbano. Nesses planos, as condições e os aspectos ambientais e regionais se apresentam como uma temática periférica e pouco articulada com as demais políticas. As análises procuraram demonstrar a complexa relação entre políticas, instrumentos e instâncias de planejamento e gestão, explicitando os obstáculos que dificultam a aplicação do conceito de gestão territorial integrada. Abstract in english This article details a research work that discusses how environmental issues have been addressed in the instruments and management practices in two territorial areas: municipalities and watersheds. The environmental relationship of the regional and municipal management was analyzed using the Watersh [...] ed Plans and the Municipal Master Plans, located at the Management Unit of Tietê-Jacaré Water Resources - State of São Paulo. The research subjects selected were the Tietê-Jacaré Watershed Plan and the Master Plans of Araraquara and São Carlos. The study focused on the following analysis categories: the environmental instruments used in the Watershed Plans and the Master Plans, management events and the degree of influence of the plans analyzed. The method was based on surveys, bibliographic and documentary analysis, semistructured interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that there are still gaps and difficulties in the watershed plan to perform a more expanded management planning. It does not acknowledge the conflicts related to land use and territorial organization as a vulnerability that must be addressed. It also showed that the municipal master plans focus on the application of these instruments for urban subdivision and zoning. In these plans, the conditions and regional and environmental aspects are presented as a peripheral issue, which are rarely coordinated with the other policies. The analyses performed sought to demonstrate the complex relationship between policies, instruments and planning and management events, describing the obstacles that interfere with the application of the integrated territorial management concept.

  16. The experimental watersheds in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

  17. 77 FR 71404 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Flood Risk Management Study... (United States)


    ... Proposed Flood Risk Management Study for the Blanchard River Watershed Including Communities of Findlay and... preparing the EIS. The EIS will consider Federal actions associated with the proposed Flood Risk Management... measures to improve flood risk management, navigation, water quality, recreation, and fish and...

  18. Predictive Model of Rainfall-Runoff: A Case Study of the Sanaga Basin at Bamendjin Watershed in Cameroon


    Terence Kibula Lukong; Michel Mbessa; Thomas Tamo Tatietse


    In order to reduce the energy deficit recorded in Cameroon, management of watersheds where storage dams are situated plays a vital role. The Bamendjin dam situated upstream of the river Sanaga in Cameroon plays a significant role in regulating the flow of the river Sanaga which is used to generate hydroelectric energy for the South Interconnected Network (SIN) of AES SONEL (the main producer and distributor of electricity in Cameroon) at the power plants of Edea and Songloulou downstream of t...

  19. Characterizing a Century of Climate and Hydrological Variability of a Mediterranean and Mountainous Watersheds: the Durance River Case-Study (United States)

    Mathevet, T.; Kuentz, A.; Gailhard, J.; Andreassian, V.


    Improving the understanding of mountain watersheds hydrological variability is a great scientific issue, for both researchers and water resources managers, such as Electricite de France (Energy and Hydropower Company). The past and current context of climate variability enhances the interest on this topic, since multi-purposes water resources management is highly sensitive to this variability. The Durance River watershed (14000 km2), situated in the French Alps, is a good example of the complexity of this issue. It is characterized by a variety of hydrological processes (from snowy to Mediterranean regimes) and a wide range of anthropogenic influences (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, tourism and water supply), mixing potential causes of changes in its hydrological regimes. As water related stakes are numerous in this watershed, improving knowledge on the hydrological variability of the Durance River appears to be essential. In this presentation, we would like to focus on a methodology we developed to build long-term historical hydrometeorological time-series, based on atmospheric reanalysis (20CR : 20th Century Reanalysis) and historical local observations. This methodology allowed us to generate precipitation, air temperature and streamflow time-series at a daily time-step for a sample of 22 watersheds, for the 1883-2010 period. These long-term streamflow reconstructions have been validated thanks to historical searches that allowed to bring to light ten long historical series of daily streamflows, beginning on the early 20th century. Reconstructions appear to have rather good statistical properties, with good correlation (greater than 0.8) and limited mean and variance bias (less than 5%). Then, these long-term hydrometeorological time-series allowed us to characterize the past variability in terms of available water resources, droughts or hydrological regime. These analyses help water resources managers to better know the range of hydrological variabilities, which are usually greatly underestimated with classical available time-series (less than 50 years).


    The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

  1. Participatory Scenario Planning for the Cienega Watershed: Embracing Uncertainty in Public Lands Management in the U.S. Southwest (United States)

    Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.


    Land managers and communities struggle to sustain natural landscapes and the benefits they provide--especially in an era of rapid and unpredictable changes being driven by shifts in climate and other drivers that are largely outside the control of local managers and residents. The Cienega Watershed Partnership (CWP) is a long-standing multi-agency partnership involved in managing lands and resources over about 700,000 acres in southeast Arizona, surrounding the Bureau of Land Management's Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. The region forms a vital wildlife corridor connecting the diverse ecosystems of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and grasslands with the Sierra Madrean and Rocky Mountain forests and woodlands. The CWP has long-standing forums and relationships for considering complex issues and novel approaches for management, including practical implementation of adaptive management, development of monitoring programs and protocols, and the use of nested objectives to adjust management targets. However, current plans have objectives and strategies based on what is known or likely to become known about natural and socio-cultural systems; they do not incorporate uncertainties related to rapid changes in climate or have well developed feedback mechanisms for routinely reconsidering climate information. Since 2011, more than 50 individuals from over 20 federal and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and private landowners have participated in scenario planning for the Cienega Watershed. Scenario planning is an important tool for (1) managing risks in the face of high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity; (2) integrating quantitative climate projections, trend and impact assessments, and local expertise to develop qualitative scenario narratives that can inform decisions even by simply provoking insights; and (3) engaging jurisdictions having different missions, objectives, and planning processes. Participants are helping to extend and refine participatory scenario planning methods from the development of regional qualitative narratives to (1) development of scenario narratives that are relevant at the local management level, (2) creation and evaluation of portfolios of management options that can accommodate changes in management objectives, connect to formal agency planning processes, and that can be adjusted as the future evolves, and (3) explicit identification of the data and information that link qualitative narratives to quantitative scenario and adaptation assessments, which can be used to drive the timing and implementation of activities within the adaptation portfolios, and to prioritize monitoring and research activities to resolve near-term uncertainties. Project tasks are structured around four resource teams that focus on their specific management concerns (Montane, Riparian, Upland and Cultural), but that come together periodically to consider interaction and conflict among their scenarios or prospective adaptation. Participants are finding that embracing uncertainty enables them to approach climate change with a sense of empowerment rather than a sense of reacting to crises, and they appreciate the methods and opportunities for thinking differently and crossing boundaries that the scenario planning exercises provide.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling (United States)

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.


    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquife?s reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering uncertainties in supply (climate change), demand (market variations), and measurement (risk definition). Applied to the Copaipó case study, this methodology proposes the solution of a 30% demand decrease within the agricultural sector through urban wastewater recycling and increased irrigation efficiency.

  3. Derechos de agua y gestión por cuencas en México: El caso del río Sonora / Water rights and watershed management in Mexico: The Sonora river case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicolás, Pineda Pablos; José Luis, Moreno Váquez; Alejandro, Salazar Adams; América Nallely, Lutz Ley.


    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel de los derechos de agua en la gestión por cuenca. Esta es considerada como un recurso de uso común donde la intervención estatal y el registro de los derechos de agua pueden ser aprovechados para poner límites a las extracciones y evitar la sobreexplotación del recurso [...] . Para el análisis, se hace un repaso de las ideas de la gestión por cuenca y se revisa el marco legal de los derechos del agua en México; después se revisa una base de datos de derechos de agua de la cuenca del río Sonora; y al final del trabajo se presentan los hallazgos. Entre ellos se encuentran las discrepancias entre los principios del marco legal y la operación concreta de los derechos de agua, así como el desaprovechamiento de estos últimos para ejecutar la gestión por cuencas. Abstract in english This article analyzes the role of water rights in watershed management. The watershed is seen as a common pool resource where State intervention and the register of water rights might be used to constrain water tapping and avoid overexploitation. For this purpose, it reviews the ideas of watershed m [...] anagement and revises the Mexican legal framework for water rights. Then, it analyses a database of water rights in the Sonora River. At the end, findings are presented such as the disagreement between the principles devised by the legal framework and the practical implementation of water rights and that those are not used to undertake watershed management.

  4. Assessing the role of spatial rainfall variability on watersheds response using weather radar A case study in the Gard region, France (United States)

    Anggraheni, Evi; Payrastre, Olivier; Emmanuel, Isabelle; Andrieu, Herve


    The consideration of spatial rainfall variability in hydrological modeling is not only an important scientific issue but also, with the current development of high resolution rainfall data from weather radars, an increasing request from managers of sewerage networks and from flood forecasting services. Although the literature on this topic is already significant, at this time the conclusions remain contrasted. The impact of spatial rainfall variability on the hydrological responses appears to highly depend both on the organization of rainfall fields and on the watershed characteristics. The objective of the study presented here is to confirm and analyze the high impact of spatial rainfall variability in the specific context of flash floods. The case study presented is located in the Gard region in south east of France and focuses on four events which occurred on 13 different watersheds in 2008. The hydrological behaviors of these watersheds have been represented by the distributed rainfall - runoff model CINECAR, which already proved to well represent the hydrological responses in this region (Naulin et al., 2013). The influence of spatial rainfall variability has been studied here by considering two different rainfall inputs: radar data with a resolution of 1 km x 1 km and the spatial average rainfall over the catchment. First, the comparison between simulated and measured hydrographs confirms the good performances of the model for intense rainfall events, independently of the level of spatial rainfall variability of these events. Secondly, the simulated hydrographs obtained from radar data are taken as reference and compared to those obtained from the average rainfall inputs by computing two values: the time difference and the difference of magnitude between the simulated peaks discharge. The results highly depend on the rainfall event considered, and on the level of organization of the spatial rainfall variability. According to the model, the behavior of the studied watersheds may sometimes remain very similar with a homogeneous rainfall input, whereas for some cases the differences in the peak discharges can reach up to 80%. A detailed analysis illustrates the possible role of the watershed in enhancing the effect of rainfall spatial variability. In a further step, the objective is to test the ability of four rainfall variability indicators to identify the situations for which spatial rainfall variability has the greatest influence on the watershed response. The selected indicators include those of Zoccatelli et al. (2010), and all rely on a detailed analysis of spatial rainfall organization in function of hydrological distances (i.e. the distances measured along the stream network from one point of the watershed to the outlet). The analysis of the links between these indicators and the hydrological behaviors identified is currently in progress. Reference: Naulin, J.P., Payrastre, O., Gaume, E., 2013. Spatially distributed flood forecasting in flash flood prone areas: Application to road network supervision in Southern France. Journal of Hydrology, 486, 88-99, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.044 Zoccatelli, D., Borga, M., Zanon, F., Antonescu, B., Stancalie, G., 2010. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania. Journal of Hydrology, 394, 148-161

  5. Criteria for evaluating sediment quality. Case study: sub-watershed of Espirito Santo Stream, affluent of the Sao Francisco river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Sediment Quality Values Guidelines' (SQVG) have been used for evaluating ecological risk associated with the sediment contamination for benthic organisms. The main objective of this work was to develop methodologies and to collect data that allowed the application of SQVG for the following metals: Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The location chosen for the case study was the sub-watershed of the Espirito Santo Stream, which is part of the Unit Planning and Hydrologic Resources Management- UPGRH SF4, of the Sao Francisco river watershed, located in the area of the city of Tres Marias. The life in the sub-watershed is significantly affected by the installation of a waste dam that controls effluents coming from the zinc-ore beneficiation plant. Our studies addressed the biogeochemical characterization of the sediments of those environments through the determination of the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), the study of the partitioning of metals is among the total sediments and interstitial waters, and the determination of the fraction of metals is associated with AVS in the total sediments. The data obtained were analyzed in association with those related to the analysis of the structure of the benthic community and eco-toxicity tests. The studies also included analysis of the physico-chemical variables and concentration of metals is in the samples of the surface water; mineralogical and granulometric analyses, quantity of organic matter and concentration of inorganic contaminants in the samples of sediments. High levels of electrical conductivity and total solids diluted were found in one surface water sample site. The results of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) showed that the chemical elements predominant in the samples were Ti, Al, V, Mn and Fe. The results of the total metal analysis in sediment samples showed that only one point located in the Lavagem stream, situated immediately downstream the dam and before flowing into the Espirito Santo stream, presented concentration values of the evaluated metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) above those of the 'background' value. The TEL limits ('Threshold Effect Level') and PEL ('Probable Effect Level') were not exceeded in any of the sampling campaigns. The Guidelines Interstitial Water Toxic Units (IWTU), established by the USEPA, was violated for all samples. The application of SQVG, based on the equilibrium partition theory, showed that metals are controlled by the sulfide-phase present in sediments. This indicates that the metals presented in the sediments may have low bio-availability. The results of the evaluation of the benthic community structure indicated a possible influence of the waste dam in the Lavagem stream and in the Espirito Santo stream, downstream the confluence with the Lavagem stream. The results of eco-toxicity tests showed that contaminated sediment can cause only chronic effects. (author)

  6. Endangered ecosystem conservation: a 30-year lesson from the evolution of saline-alkali soil management in Manasi river watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on saline-alkali soil management mostly followed an instrumental 'prediction and control' approach dominated by technical end-of-pipe solutions. However, those 'integrated' instrumental solutions frequently perished due to the growing social and economic uncertainties in financial support, legal insurance, expertise service and other factors. This investigation summarizes the 30-year period of saline-alkali soil management - the social and economic and ecological (SEE) management innovation - its adoption, diffusion, adaptation and transformation in Manasi River watershed of northern Xinjiang. This area was experiencing three distinct SEE management stages from pure instrumental desalination techniques to integrated desalination technique system following the SEE supporting system. The results of GIS analysis (Fragatats 3.3) and historical documents provide data evidence for above three transition stages. The total area of saline and alkali land was increased by 32.7%, 47.6% during the first two decades but decreased by 11.9% in the recent decade. The numbers of saline land patches were 116, 129 and 121 in 1989, 2000 and 2007 respectively, a similar trend to the changes of total area. However, both perimeter-area fractal dimension (PAFD) and splitting index (SI) continued to increase, with values of 1.265, 1.272 and 1.279 for PAFD and 259.29, 269.68, 272.92 for SI in 1989, 2000 and 2007, respectively. It suggests that saline and alkaline land distribution had been fragmented, and sequestrated into salt micro-catchments within whole oasis ecosystems. This case is largely associated with effective adoption of integrated engineering and biological desalination programs as a result of local SEE saline-alkali soil management innovation. (author)

  7. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux


    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  8. Prioritizing Watersheds for Conservation Actions in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Ecoregion (United States)

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B.


    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts.

  9. The influence of stormwater management practices on denitrification rates of receiving streams in an urban watershed (United States)

    Cronenberger, M. S.; McMillan, S. K.


    Increasing urbanization and the subsequent disruption of floodplains has led to the need for implementing stormwater management strategies to mitigate the effects of urbanization, including soil and streambank erosion, increased export of nutrients and contaminants and decreased biotic richness. Excessive stormwater runoff due to the abundance of impervious surfaces associated with an urban landscape has led to the ubiquitous use of best management practices (BMPs) to attenuate runoff events and prevent the destructive delivery of large volumes of water to stream channels. As a result, effluent from BMPs (i.e. wetlands and wet ponds) has the potential to alter the character of the receiving stream channel and thus, key ecosystem processes such as denitrification. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which BMPs, in the form of constructed wetlands and wet ponds, influence in-stream denitrification rates in the urban landscape of Charlotte, NC. Four sites, two of each BMP type, were evaluated. Sediment samples were collected upstream and downstream of the BMP outflow from May-July 2011 to determine the effect of wetland discharge on in-stream nitrogen removal via denitrification. Denitrification rates were determined using the acetylene block method; water column nutrient and carbon concentrations and sediment organic matter content were also measured. Generally, wetland sites exhibited higher denitrification rates, nitrate concentrations and sediment organic matter content. Our work and others has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between nitrate concentration and denitrification rates, which is the likely driver of the higher observed rates at the wetland sites. Geomorphology was also found to be a key factor in elevated denitrification rates at sites with riffles and boulder jams. Sediment organic matter was found to be higher downstream of BMP outflows at all four sites, but demonstrated no significant relationship with denitrification rates. We are continuing to investigate these spatial (e.g. BMPs, streams) and temporal (e.g. storm pulse, delayed wetland release) patterns, particularly in the context of factors that influence the specific drivers of denitrification. Understanding these patterns is critical to managing stormwater in urban landscapes as we aim to improve water quality while enhancing ecosystem functions.

  10. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold


    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  11. Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis (United States)

    Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Davis, Gary M.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Bradley, Paul M.


    Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling.

  12. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.


    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be accomplished in a virtual environment. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil quality index comparisons using Fort Cobb Oklahoma watershed-scale land management data (United States)

    The Soil Conditioning Index (SCI) and Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) are two different but complementary methods for evaluating soil management effects on soil quality. Although both tools have been widely used, little is known regarding how they compare to one another and if they produ...

  14. Watershed District (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  15. Investigation of Check Dam`s Effects on Channel Morphology (Case Study: Chehel Cheshme Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Solaimani


    Full Text Available This research is focused on morphologic changes of channels resulted from establishing check dam construction in Chehel cheshme watershed located at Fars Province. In this study, five channels with check dams were selected through the study area. Then some morphologic parameters of channels such as width/depth ratio, the maximum depth and cross section area along the channel on which check dam were constructed had been measured. These measurements were made on 6 cross section areas in 10, 50 and 90% distances from check dams at upstream and downstream. The above mentioned parameters were calculated using calculating and graphic soft wares. Then, some analytical methods were used to estimate and compare the average digital numbers of calculated parameters through different channels. The results showed that check dams have definitely influenced on width/depth ratios at their upstream and downstream. These influences are associated with higher width/depth ratios at upstream and lower width/depth ratio at downstream. Furthermore, the maximum depth of channels had significant influenced by check dams. As for cross section areas, no significant difference existed between cross sections through total channels and check dams.

  16. Watershed Charachterization And Prioritization Of Tulasi Subwatershed: A Geospatial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It is proficiently important to conserve the limited and precarious natural resources vis land, water and soil which should be categorically studied at watershed level. Due to improper land, soil and water management practices, land and water resources getting degraded and eroded, water getting polluted. In this regard present study is profoundly concerned to characterization and prioritization of Tulasi sub watershed which is small tributary of Bhogavati River in mega Panchganga river basin of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. The prioritization of this small watershed has been carried out on the basis of morphometric analysis for land reclamation and soil erosion prevention. Database has been prepared in ArcGIS 9.3 desktop application, ARCSWAT extension tool for sub-watershed demarcation and other analysis carried out for certain significant areal, linear morphometric parameters vis stream length, stream frequency, bifurcation ratio, Length of overland flow, perimeter of basin, drainage density etc. have been assessed. Cartosat data used for preparation DEM and delineation of watershed. Above said parameters obtained by using Arc Gis ver.9.3 software and appropriate weightage assigned to them in order to assess the priority of sub watershed. The result reveals that, sub-basin TB-2, TB-3 and TB-4 has comes under the high risk for soil erosion and need to give a high priority for land conservation practices. These studies are significant for soil erosion prevention and surface rainwater harvesting.

  17. Effects of grassed buffer strip management on potential denitrification in a belgian agricultural watershed


    Cors, Marie; Tychon, Bernard


    Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with nitrate uptake by plant growth- that reduces nitrate input in surface water. We investigated the Denitrifier Enzyme Activity (DEA) to test how the buffer strip management modifies the denitrification process. The experimental site is composed of a crop field and a 11 m wide grassed buffer st...

  18. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (United States)

    Moore, Rachel


    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the course of 2009-2010, student teams carried out two independent research projects focused on the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The first investigated the threat of invasive species to forests in Maryland. The second investigated the detection of winter cover crops throughout the watershed from satellite data.

  19. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

  20. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

  1. The Magnitude of Lost Ecosystem Structure and Function in Urban Streams and the Effectiveness of Watershed-Based Management (United States)

    Watershed development is a leading cause of stream impairment and increasingly threatens the availability, quality, and sustainability of freshwater resources. In a recent global meta-analysis, we found that measures of desirable ecological structure (e.g., algal, macroinvertebra...

  2. Evaluation of an operational streamflow forecasting system driven by ensemble precipitation forecasts : a case study for the Gatineau watershed (United States)

    Boucher, M.-A.; Perreault, L.; Tremblay, D.; Gaudet, J.; Minville, M.; Anctil, F.


    Among the various sources of uncertainty for hydrological forecasts, the uncertainty linked to meteorological inputs prevail. Precipitation is particularly difficult to forecast and observed values are often poor representation of the true precipitation field. In order to account for the uncertainty related to precipitation data, it can be interesting to produce ensemble streamflow forecasts by feeding a hydrological model with ensemble precipitation forecasts issued by atmospheric models. In this study, we use ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive Hydrotel, a distributed hydrological model. We concentrate on the Gatineau watershed, which serves as an experimental watershed for Hydro-Québec, the major hydropower producer in Quebec. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate that ensemble precipitation forecasts can improve streamflow forecasting for the watershed of interest. The ensemble precipitation forecasts were produced by Environnement Canada from march first of 2002 to december 31st of 2003. They were obtained using two atmospheric models, SEF (8 members plus the control deterministic forecast) and GEM (8 members). The corresponding deterministic precipitation forecast issued by SEF model is also used with Hydrotel in order to compare ensemble streamflow forecasts with their deterministic counterparts. The quality of the precipitation forecasts is first assessed, using the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the logarithmic score, rank histograms and reliability diagrams. The performance of the corresponding streamflow forecasts obtained at the end of the process is also evaluated using the same quality assessment tools.


    Much of the worldwide loss of aquatic habitats has been attributed to draining and clearing for agriculture as well as non-point source pollution associated with agricultural runoff. Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was designed to development and test land and cul...

  4. Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah


    Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

  5. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  6. Relationships among environmental factors influencing soil erosion using GIS (Khiav Chay Watershed, Ardabil Province)


    Barmaki, Maryam; Pazira, Ebrahim; Esmali, Abazar


    One of the biggest problems of natural resources is soil erosion. Effective land management to prevent soil loss requires prediction for large areas. Usually, empirical relations are used for investigating soil erosion in watershed areas. The case study is took place in Khiav Chay Watershed, Ardabil Province. In the current study, environmental factors, influence in water erosion of the area, investigated in four categories, including topographic, soil & ground, vegetation and human facto...

  7. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar


    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  8. An evolving simulation and gaming process to facilitate adaptive watershed management in mountain northern Thailand


    Barnaud, Cécile; Promburom, Tanya; Trébuil, Guy; Bousquet, Francois


    Decentralization of natural resources management provides an opportunity for communities to increase their participation in related decision-making. Research should propose adapted methodologies enabling the numerous local stakeholders of these complex socio-ecological settings to define themselves their problems and to identify agreed-upon solutions. In the research presented in this paper, a Companion Modelling (ComMod) approach combining Role-Playing Games (RPG) and Multi-Agent Systems (MA...

  9. A machine-to-machine architecture for the real-time study of urban watersheds (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Zhao, Y.


    Complex patterns of water quality across urban watersheds are driven by yet to be understood dynamics between natural and human-induced phenomena. More spatiotemporally representative data are required to improve our understanding of the contributions of various land-use patterns on water quality. This is particular true of the Great Lakes watersheds in the mid-western United States, where significant stream nutrient loading is adversely affecting ecosystem health. We discuss the development of a machine-to-machine architecture to enable the long-term, reliable, real-time measurement of water parameters across large, urbanized watersheds. Our sensor network is presently being deployed in a 2300km2 watershed in southeastern Michigan, where temperature fluctuations between -10C to 32C and annual precipitation of up to 750mm impose significant challenges on deployed hardware. Exploiting the cellular coverage of urban environments enables the use of ultra-low-power, low-cost, embedded wireless modules for measurement, computation and communication. Bi-directional links between sensor nodes and cloud-based services permit extreme network configurability and ease of deployment, while permitting seamless access to sensors via an IP-based addressing scheme. We show how hardware and software selection will enable years of battery life without sacrificing temporal data resolutions. Initial results indicate that the system provides a reliable means by which to collect and analyze real-time water quantity and water quality data.

  10. Landscape processes, effects and the consequences of migration in their management at the Jatún Mayu watershed (Bolivia) (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna; Jaquet, Stephanie; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Kaenzig, Raoul; Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Liniger, Hanspeter; Machaca, Angelica; Cuba, Edgar; Boillat, Sebastien


    Bolivia has a large rural population, mostly composed of subsistence farmers that face natural and anthropogenic driven processes affecting their livelihoods. In order to establish sustainable management strategies, it is important to understand the factors governing landscape changes. This work explores the geomorphic imprint and effects of natural and anthropogenic driven processes on three mountain communities undergoing de-population in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Based on satellite image interpretation, field work and household surveys, we have identified gullies and landslides as main active processes, causing land losses, affecting inter-communal roads, etc. While landslides are mostly occurring in the middle and lower section of the basin, gullies are especially affecting the upper part (especially the southern slope). Our analysis indicated that in the middle and lower part of the basin, landslides are developing in response to the Jatún Mayu incision (slopes reach a critical angle and slope failures increase). However in the upper part, where no river down-cutting is taking place, preliminary analysis indicates that past and present human interventions (over-grazing, agriculture, road construction, etc.) play a key role on driving land degradation toward the formation of gullies. Based on the comparison of high resolution images from 2004 and 2009, we determined an agricultural land loss rate of 8452 m2/year, mostly in the form of landslides. One single event swept away 0.03 km2 of agricultural lands (~13 parcels), approximately 87% of an average household property. People's main concerns are hail, frost and droughts because they cause an "immediate" loss on family incomes, but the impacts caused by landslides and gullies are not disregarded by the communities and the government. Communities are organized to set up and maintain key infrastructure such as irrigation canals and roads. They also intend to develop protective measures against erosion like check dams based on tyres filled with rocks. In addition, organizations supported by government and institutions from abroad have built dams, reforested some slopes, and raised local capacities to improve soil conservation measures e.g. through slow-forming terraces. However, rural-to-urban migration could be affecting the management of processes leading to land degradation. Around 77% of the 22 households surveyed have at least one migrant family member (permanent, seasonal or double residence migrant). Labour force is reduced and because of de-population, two of the three schools in the area have closed. In spite of the support that communities receive, our findings indicate that high population mobility is affecting land management practices and the capacity of communities to cope with land degradation processes.

  11. Soil erosion and sediment fluxes analysis: a watershed study of the Ni Reservoir, Spotsylvania County, VA, USA. (United States)

    Pope, Ian C; Odhiambo, Ben K


    Anthropogenic forces that alter the physical landscape are known to cause significant soil erosion, which has negative impact on surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes/reservoirs, and coastal zones, and thus sediment control has become one of the central aspects of catchment management planning. The revised universal soil loss equation empirical model, erosion pins, and isotopic sediment core analyses were used to evaluate watershed erosion, stream bank erosion, and reservoir sediment accumulation rates for Ni Reservoir, in central Virginia. Land-use and land cover seems to be dominant control in watershed soil erosion, with barren land and human-disturbed areas contributing the most sediment, and forest and herbaceous areas contributing the least. Results show a 7 % increase in human development from 2001 (14 %) to 2009 (21.6 %), corresponding to an increase in soil loss of 0.82 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) in the same time period. (210)Pb-based sediment accumulation rates at three locations in Ni Reservoir were 1.020, 0.364, and 0.543 g cm(-2) year(-1) respectively, indicating that sediment accumulation and distribution in the reservoir is influenced by reservoir configuration and significant contributions from bedload. All three locations indicate an increase in modern sediment accumulation rates. Erosion pin results show variability in stream bank erosion with values ranging from 4.7 to 11.3 cm year(-1). These results indicate that urban growth and the decline in vegetative cover has increased sediment fluxes from the watershed and poses a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of the Ni Reservoir as urbanization continues to increase. PMID:24141485

  12. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed. (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui


    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions. PMID:22218174

  13. Participação comunitária e implementação dos instrumentos de gestão da água em bacias hidrográficas / Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Fabrício, Malheiros; Mariza Guimarães, Prota; Mario Alejandro, Perez Rincón.


    Full Text Available O modelo atual de gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é descentralizado, participativo e integrado, e tem como unidade de planejamento a bacia hidrográfica. Baseia-se na atuação de comitês de bacia, sendo que cada comitê possui composição e regras de funcionamento próprias, regidas por seu estatu [...] to, os quais apresentam semelhanças básicas. Os princípios básicos desta gestão foram ditados pela Constituição Brasileira de 1988 e detalhados pela Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos em 1997. Em nível estadual, São Paulo promulgou sua Política Estadual de Recursos Hídricos em 1991. Este artigo faz análise do processo de participação nos comitês de bacia do Estado de São Paulo e suas implicações na implementação dos instrumentos de gestão de recursos hídricos, por meio de um estudo de caso no Comitê da Bacia Hidrográfica do Tietê - Jacaré, adotando como metodologia a aplicação de questionários aos seus membros titulares da gestão 2009-2011. Observou-se engajamento e integração entre seus diversos integrantes. Mesmo assim, os resultados encontrados apontam para a necessidade de revisão do estatuto deste comitê, sendo evidenciadas distorções causadas pelas divergências entre a legislação estadual e a federal, principalmente quanto aos segmentos participantes e atores envolvidos. Mostraram também a necessidade de uma maior divulgação das questões de recursos hídricos nesta bacia e no Estado de São Paulo, como um todo. Ao mesmo tempo, recomenda-se colocar esforços para ampliar o exercício da representatividade das instituições no comitê e fortalecer os resultados dos trabalhos desenvolvidos nas câmaras técnicas no espaço de tomada de decisão do comitê de bacia hidrográfica. Abstract in english The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. Th [...] e basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee's members (2009 - 2011). Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews' results have shown that the Committee's statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.


    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  15. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Neris, Jonay


    Soil water repellency is being researched in many enviroments of the world due to the fact that after two decades of intense investigations we found that soil water repellency is a soil property that can be found at any ecosystem (Atanassava and Doerr, 2011; Goebel et al., 2011; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Roper et al., 2013; Young et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2014). Soil water repellency inhibits or delays infiltration, encourage surface runoff but also the preferential flow in cracks and other macropores (Arye et al., 2011; Jordán et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; Spohn and Rilling, 2012; García-Moreno et al., 2013; Hallin et al., 2013). Water repellency has been found in many soil types and it is present after forest fire, on forested land and also in agriculture soils (Granjed et al., 2013; Bodí et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Dlapa et al., 2013; González-Peñaloza et al., 2012; López Garrido et al., 2012; León et al., 2013; Hewelke et al., 2014; Santos et al., 2014; Kröpfl et al., 2013). This paper show the measurements caried out by means of the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method in olive plantation in the Cànyoles watershed in Eastern Spain. Conservation practices applied such as no-tillage, manure addition, application of herbicides may contribute to increase soil organic matter and, hence, soil water repellency, and this is unknow under Mediterranean type ecosystems. The effect of long-term addition of plant residues and organic manure, no-tillage and no chemical fertilization (MNT), annual addition of plant residues and no-tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no-tillage (H), and conventional tillage (CT) on soil water repellency in Mediterranean calcareous citrus-cropped soils (Eastern Spain) has been studied. Water repellency was observed in MNT soils, which may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic compounds as a consequence of the addition of plant residues and organic manure such has been demonstrated by the soil organic matter measurements. CT reduced the organic matter content and soils remained wettable. Water repellency was observed in soils under NT and H treatments, but it was below 5 seconds. Previos studies developed by González Peñaloza et al., (2013) show that under citrus production the response of the land management was similar. We found also an increase in the soil water repellency due to the time since organic matter is accumulating. This results should be shown in the framework of the land degradation that can trigger (or not) the increase in water repellency (Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Nadal Romero et al., 2013; Neal et al., 2013; Taguas et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Arye, G., Tarchitzky, J., Chen, Y. 2011. Treated wastewater effects on water repellency and soil hydraulic properties of soil aquifer treatment infiltration basins. Journal of hydrology, 397(1), 136-145. Atanassava and Doerr, 2011; Goebel et al., 2011; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Roper et al., 2013; Young et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2014; Atanassova, I., Doerr, S. H. 2011. Changes in soil organic compound composition associated with heat-induced increases in soil water repellency. European Journal of Soil Science, 62(4), 516-532. Atanassova, I., Doerr, S. H. 2011. Changes in soil organic compound composition associated with heat-induced increases in soil water repellency. European Journal of Soil Science, 62(4), 516-532. Badía-Villas, D., González-Pérez, J. A., Aznar, J. M., Arjona-Gracia, B., & Martí-Dalmau, C. 2014. Changes in water repellency, aggregation and organic

  16. Watershed management and farmer conservation investments in the semi-arid tropics of India: analysis of determinants of resource use decisions and land productivity benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele A Shiferaw


    Full Text Available Integrated watershed management has been promoted as a suitable strategy for improving productivity and sustainable intensification of agriculture in rainfed drought-prone regions. The paper examines the socioeconomic and biophysical factors influencing farmers' soil and water conservation investment decisions and the resulting economic incentives (productivity benefits from watershed management interventions in the semi-arid tropics of India. The paper develops a theoretical framework to test hypotheses and to explore (a the interlinkages between land productivity, soil quality, input use and conservation investments, and (b the influence of local market imperfections on production and conservation decisions. These relationships are analyzed using plot-level data in six semi-arid villages. A systems approach (3SLS is used for the joint estimation of structural equations related to land productivity, input use, resource investments and land values. The results show that after controlling for input use and germplasm technologies, soil quality and access to supplemental irrigation significantly affect the productivity of land. Off-farm income is negatively associated with resource investments and land productivity. The watershed program seems to have a greater impact on dryland crops (cereals and pulses than on other crop not supported by the project. A plot-wise analysis found some degree of substitution between private and public investments in land and water management. Differential effects of family labor on the decision to invest in agriculture revealed that male labor plays a key role in this decision while female workers significantly influence the level of labor use in production and resource conservation. This indicates that labor market imperfections, especially for female labor, are most likely to affect production and conservation investment.

  17. Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Ralph


    Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

  18. Vulnerability to uncertain climate change scenarios: implications for water resources management in two Mediterranean watersheds (United States)

    Nunes, J. P.


    Water resource consumption in Mediterranean basins is often dominated by irrigation. Climate change is expected to increase pressure on available resources, due to a decrease in total rainfall coupled with an increase in irrigation water demands due to higher temperatures. This pressure needs to be quantified in order to allow water resource managers to adapt to the impacts of climate change; this is made difficult, however, by the uncertainty in climate change scenarios. This work addressed this uncertainty by using synthetic climate change scenarios covering a good part of climate change scenarios predicted by climate models (temperature increases from 1.6 to 6.4 °C, rainfall decreases from -2.5% to -40%). The SWAT hydrological model was applied to assess changes to water resource availability in the Portuguese part of two large Mediterranean basins, the Guadiana and the Tejo, where water is used mostly (80 to 90%) for irrigation. Changes to water demand in irrigated areas were evaluated, for the same scenarios, using the FAO method, and taking into account adaptation through precision irrigation methods. Supply and demands were compared both for average years and droughts with a 5 year return period, in order to identify changes to the frequency of severe water stress and water shortfall years. The results of this work indicate that climate change would significantly impair the capacity of the Guadiana river basin for sustaining current water uses, with severe water stress coupled with water shortage during drought years predicted for low magnitude climate change; and permanent water shortfalls occurring for high magnitude climate changes. The Tejo basin showed a greater capacity to sustain water uses under climate change, except during 5-year droughts which could lead to severe water stress. However, the water management system in this basin might need to be redesigned in order to cope with these stress periods. In short, the results indicate that there is a greater resilience to climate change on the Tejo basin where severe water stress is not expected for lower magnitudes of climate change. The results also indicate that, in both cases, the adoption of precision irrigation methods only allows for a relatively small margin of adaptation.

  19. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP): a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru)


    T. Condom; Escobar, M.; D. Purkey; J. C. Pouget; Suarez, W.; Ramos, C; J. Apaestegui; Zapata, M; Gomez, J.; W. Vergara


    For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper d...

  20. Management Practices for Phosphorus and Sediment Reduction in the Salton Sea Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Bali


    Full Text Available Nutrients, sediment and silt in drainage waters have been identified as the leading cause for water quality impairments in rivers and waterbodies in California. Approximately one-third of applied irrigation water leaves irrigated field as surface runoff and subsurface drainage. In this project, we implemented seven standard and improved irrigation and fertigation management practices on a commercial alfalfa field to reduce the load and concentration of phosphorus and sediment in drainage waters. Reducing the amount of surface runoff after the application of P fertilizer is a key factor in reducing the load of P in drainage waters. The loads of P in runoff waters were reduced by as much as 75% compared to normal irrigation and fertigation practices. Water-run application of P increased the concentration and load of P in runoff water by almost 100% compare to broadcast P applications. Avoiding water-run applications can reduce the load of P in runoff water by more than 50%.

  1. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha


    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  2. GIS and ordination techniques for studying influence of watershed characteristics on river water quality. (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyan


    Landscape characteristics of twenty-eight sub-catchments within the Miyun reservoir watershed in Miyun County, northeast Beijing of China were examined to identify relationships with stream water chemistry. The influences of the entire catchment and 300 m buffer zone on water quality were compared using multiple regression analysis and redundancy analysis during three seasons. Results showed that strong seasonal differences in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium are observed whereas no difference in total phosphorus and conductivity. Landscape factors were significantly correlated to stream water quality. Residential area and stream density contributed markedly to river condition variability. Water quality was better explained by interactions with the landscape during and after rainy season. There was also a seasonal shift in the landscape factors that were the dominant explanatory variables. The relationships between landscape attributes and water quality on watershed scale were slightly different from those on riparian scale; however, landscape attributes may have stronger influences on water chemistry. PMID:22097072

  3. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

  4. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study (United States)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad


    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results showed that using Toutin's Model, enabling Wallis filter and specifying high DEM detail, along with restricting the holes filling option gave the best position accuracy and the least number of failure values. This is mainly due to the ruggedness of the studying area. Comparing GPS heights with the extract DEM showed a Minimum and a maximum error of (-11.9 m, 10.56 m), Mean error (1.32 m) and RMSE of (4.7 m). While extracting the drainage lines showed 80 to 90 % of coincidence of the upper water heads and an order of less than one pixel for the main river course and mountainous road intersection.

  5. Variation of ecosystem services and human activities: A case study in the Yanhe Watershed of China (United States)

    Su, Chang-hong; Fu, Bo-Jie; He, Chan-Sheng; Lü, Yi-He


    The concept of 'ecosystem service' provides cohesive views on mechanisms by which nature contributes to human well-being. Fast social and economic development calls for research on interactions between human and natural systems. We took the Yanhe Watershed as our study area, and valued the variation of ecosystem services and human activities of 2000 and 2008. Five ecosystem services were selected i.e. net primary production (NPP), carbon sequestration and oxygen production (CSOP), water conservation, soil conservation, and grain production. Human activity was represented by a composite human activity index (HAI) that integrates human population density, farmland ratio, influence of residential sites and road network. Analysis results of the five ecosystem services and human activity (HAI) are as follows: (i) NPP, CSOP, water conservation, and soil conservation increased from 2000 to 2008, while grain production declined. HAI decreased from 2000 to 2008. Spatially, NPP, CSOP, and water conservation in 2000 and 2008 roughly demonstrated a pattern of decline from south to north, while grain production shows an endocentric increasing spatial pattern. Soil conservation showed a spatial pattern of high in the south and low in the north in 2000 and a different pattern of high in the west and low in the east in 2008 respectively. HAI is proportional to the administrative level and economic development. Variation of NPP/CSOP between 2000 and 2008 show an increasing spatial pattern from northwest to southeast. In contrast, the variation of soil conservation shows an increasing pattern from southeast to northwest. Variation of water conservation shows a fanning out decreasing pattern. Variation of grain production doesn't show conspicuous spatial pattern. (ii) Variation of water conservation and of soil conservation is significantly positively correlated at 0.01 level. Both variations of water conservation and soil conservation are negatively correlated with variation of HAI at 0.01 level. Variations of NPP/CSOP are negatively correlated with variations of soil conservation and grain production at 0.05 level. (iii) Strong tradeoffs exist between regulation services and provision service, while synergies exist within regulation services. Driving effect of human activities on ecosystem services and tradeoffs and synergies among ecosystem service are also discussed.

  6. Effects of agricultural management, land use, and watershed scale on E. coli concentrations in runoff and streamflow (United States)

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a critical water quality concern with serious human health implications. Many states use Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an indicator organism for fecal contamination and apply watershed models to develop and support bacterial Total Maximum Daily Loads; howeve...

  7. TMDL for phosphorus and contributing factors in subtropical watersheds of southern China. (United States)

    Meng, Cen; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Yang, Wen; Jiao, Junxia; Wang, Meihui; Zhang, Manyi; Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui


    Water eutrophication, particularly that caused by phosphorus runoff, is of major concern in China due to the serious threats it poses to watershed environments. We investigated one forested and nine agricultural watersheds with areas of 9-5212 ha in a hilly region of Hunan Province in a subtropical region of southern China from 2010 to 2012 to study total phosphorus (TP) loads and contributing factors. The annual TP loads varied from 35.7 to 222.1 kg P km(-2) year(-1) among the different watersheds, with the rainy season of spring and summer accounting for 56.3-82.0% of TP loss. The highest total maximum daily load (TMDL, 0.5 kg P km(-2) day(-1)) and existing exported daily TP loads (DTPL, 1.8 kg P km(-2) day(-1)) were observed under high flow and moist flow conditions in the ten watersheds. However, the target daily reduction ratios for the DTPLs to reach the water quality standard of 0.05 mg P L(-1) varied little with flow condition in the stream but depended on the type of watershed, i.e., agricultural, and livestock-dominated watersheds, respectively. Gray relational analysis (GRA) suggested that livestock density was the most important factor for watershed TP load under various hydrologic conditions, while livestock density (LD), soil available phosphorous (SAP), cropland percentage, and mean shape index (SHMN) were notable factors for daily reduction rate (DRR) under high and moist flow conditions. Therefore, to protect the local watershed environments, watershed management approaches that include the regulation of livestock production are recommended as the most effective means of reducing P loads at the watershed scale in subtropical areas of southern China. PMID:26202816

  8. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210ex. (author)

  9. Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis – a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lahousse


    Full Text Available We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study of Peddavanka watershed, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Gowd, S. Srinivasa


    In India, the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation is variable from place to place. Assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater. Quality of groundwater in a 398 km2 Peddavanka watershed of a semi-arid region of south India is evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The middle Proterozoic Cuddapah Supergroup and Kurnool Group of rocks underlie most of the watershed. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of quartzite, limestone, and shale. Seventy-six water samples were collected from open-wells and bore-holes. Water samples were collected representative of the post-monsoon (winter) and pre-monsoon (summer). The quality assessment is made through the estimation of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, total hardness as CaCO3, TDS, EC, and pH. Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated. According to Gibbs‘ ratio samples in both seasons fall in the rock dominance field. The overall quality of waters in the study area in post-monsoon season is high for all constituents ruling out pollution from extraneous sources.

  11. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida (United States)

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.


    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  12. Regional scale modeling of hillslope sediment delivery: a case study in the Ésera—Isábena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM


    Alatorre, L. C.; Beguería, Santiago; García-Ruiz, José María


    Soil erosion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2; centra...

  13. Surface reconstruction using Power Watershed


    Couprie, Camille; Bresson, Xavier; Najman, Laurent; Talbot, Hugues; Grady, Leo


    Surface reconstruction from a set of noisy point measurements has been a well studied problem for several decades. Recently, variational and discrete optimization approaches have been applied to solve it, demonstrating good robustness to outliers thanks to a global energy minimization scheme. In this work, we use a recent approach embedding several optimization algorithms into a common framework named power watershed. We derive a specific watershed algorithm for surface reconstruction which i...

  14. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Jayakaran


    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  15. Community Capacity for Watershed Conservation: A Quantitative Assessment of Indicators and Core Dimensions (United States)

    Brinkman, Elliot; Seekamp, Erin; Davenport, Mae A.; Brehm, Joan M.


    Community capacity for watershed management has emerged as an important topic for the conservation of water resources. While much of the literature on community capacity has focused primarily on theory construction, there have been few efforts to quantitatively assess community capacity variables and constructs, particularly for watershed management and conservation. This study seeks to identify predictors of community capacity for watershed conservation in southwestern Illinois. A subwatershed-scale survey of residents from four communities located within the Lower Kaskaskia River watershed of southwestern Illinois was administered to measure three specific capacity variables: community empowerment, shared vision and collective action. Principal component analysis revealed key dimensions of each variable. Specifically, collective action was characterized by items relating to collaborative governance and social networks, community empowerment was characterized by items relating to community competency and a sense of responsibility and shared vision was characterized by items relating to perceptions of environmental threats, issues with development, environmental sense of place and quality of life. From the emerging factors, composite measures were calculated to determine the extent to which each variable contributed to community capacity. A stepwise regression revealed that community empowerment explained most of the variability in the composite measure of community capacity for watershed conservation. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of community capacity by quantifying the role of collective action, community empowerment and shared vision in community capacity, highlighting the need for multilevel interaction to address watershed issues.

  16. Watershed-scale assessment of oil palm cultivation impact on water quality and nutrient fluxes: a case study in Sumatra (Indonesia). (United States)

    Comte, Irina; Colin, François; Grünberger, Olivier; Whalen, Joann K; Harto Widodo, Rudi; Caliman, Jean-Pierre


    High fertilizer input is necessary to sustain high yields in oil palm agroecosystems, but it may endanger neighboring aquatic ecosystems when excess nutrients are transported to waterways. In this study, the hydrochemical dynamics of groundwater and streams under baseflow conditions were evaluated with bi-monthly measurements for 1 year on 16 watersheds. Hydrochemical measurements were related to the spatial distribution of soil and fertilization practices across a landscape of 100 km(2), dominated by oil palm cultivation, in Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The low nutrient concentrations recorded in streams throughout the landscape indicated that the mature oil palm plantations in this study did not contribute to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. This was ascribed to high nutrient uptake by oil palm, a rational fertilizer program, and dilution of nutrient concentrations due to heavy rainfall in the study area. Soil type controlled dissolved inorganic N and total P fluxes, with greater losses of N and P from loamy-sand uplands than loamy lowlands. Organic fertilization helped to reduce nutrient fluxes compared to mineral fertilizers. However, when K inputs exceeded the oil palm requirement threshold, high K export occurred during periods when groundwater had a short residence time. For higher nutrient use efficiency in the long term, the field-scale fertilizer management should be complemented with a landscape-scale strategy of fertilizer applications that accounts for soil variability. PMID:25843822

  17. Applicability of Doppler weather radar based rainfall data for runoff estimation in Indian watersheds – A case study of Chennai basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Josephine; B V Mudgal; S B Thampi


    Traditionally, India has been vulnerable to various hazards such as floods, droughts and cyclones. About 8% of the total Indian landmass is prone to cyclones. A number of Doppler weather radars are installed in India and their products are utilized for weather predictions and detection of cyclones approaching the Indian coast. Radar-based hydrological studies in various countries have proven that computation of runoff using radar rainfall data could outperform rain gauge network measurements. There are no reported studies on their utilization for hydrological modelling and/or flood-related studies in Indian river basins. A comparison study between Doppler weather radar (DWR) derived rainfall data and the conventional rain gauge data was carried out with hourly inputs at one of the watersheds of Chennai basin, Tamil Nadu, India using HEC-HMS model. The model calibration and validation were performed by comparing the simulated outflow with the observed daily outflow data. The calibrated model was used to predict runoff from two post-monsoon cyclonic storm events with hourly inputs. It was noticed that the discrepancy in the runoff volume was small, but the difference in the peak flow was substantial. Additionally, there was a variation at the time to peak flow using daily and hourly inputs. The results show that the use of radar data may be optional for runoff volume estimation for the watersheds with sufficient rain gauge density, but highly desirable for peak flow and time to peak estimation. Therefore, the DWR derived rainfall data is a promising input for runoff estimation, especially in urban flood modelling.

  18. Chamberino Floodplain Management Study (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Dona Ana County Flood Commission requested the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service to conduct a study of the...

  19. Does social capital improve watershed environmental governance?


    Monteiro, Fernando


    In Brazil, water management has been both sectored and centralized. In the 1990s, a series of state level reforms granted substantial participation to civil society and water users' organizations by incorporating Integrated Water Resourse Management principles and Watershed Committees as its guideline. However, its full implementation should produce quite different outcomes, understood as improved or poorer watershed environmental governance. That means that the key reason why some of these n...

  20. Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín / Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, Zúñiga; Enrique, Muñoz; José Luis, Arumí.

    Full Text Available En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la [...] disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur. Abstract in english In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availabilit [...] y of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  1. Data management for toxicological studies.


    Horii, I


    Organized data management increases the reliability of statistical analysis. The basic purpose of data management is to assure the integrity and the quality of data. To assure data validity, establishing a checking system, such as data audit, would be desirable at the following points: protocol design, supervision of study schedule, definition of data, data collection, choice of tests and procedures, verification, data checking, data recording, data handling, data analysis, and data validatio...

  2. Uncertainty based analysis of the impact of watershed phosphorus load on reservoir phosphorus concentration (United States)

    Karamouz, Mohammad; Taheriyoun, Masoud; Seyedabadi, Mohammadreza; Nazif, Sara


    In many regions of the world that depend on surface reservoirs as a source of water supply, eutrophication is a major water quality problem. Developing simulation models to evaluate the impact of watershed nutrient loads on the reservoir's water quality is an essential step in eutrophication management. In this regard, analysis of model uncertainty gives an opportunity to assess the reliability and the margin of safety of the model predictions for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) from the watershed nutrient load. In this study, a computational procedure has been proposed for the analysis of the model uncertainties in simulation of watershed phosphorous load and reservoir phosphorous concentration. Data from the Aharchai watershed which is located upstream of the Satarkhan reservoir in the northwestern part of Iran, is used as the study area to test the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) is utilized for assessment of watershed phosphorus load as the main agent resulting in the reservoir eutrophication in the region. The most effective parameters in model performance are identified by a global sensitivity analysis technique named modified Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) which can incorporate parameter interdependencies. The Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique is also applied to set up behavioral ranges of the parameters that are relevant to the actual observations. Finally, the cumulative weighted-likelihood distribution functions (CWLDF) are derived for outputs of the SWAT. They are used jointly for estimation of results uncertainty limits using the Copula method. To assess the effectiveness of applying Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the watershed, two scenarios of with and without BMPs application are tested. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed model in uncertainty estimation of watershed phosphorus load and reservoir phosphorus concentration as well as the effectiveness of BMPs in reducing P loads from the watershed.

  3. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE


    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  4. Possible Scenarios of Impacts of Climatic Change on Potential Evapotranspiration in the Watershed of the Conchos River, Mexico (United States)

    Raynal-Villasenor, J. A.; Rodriguez-Pineda, J. A.


    The watershed of the Conchos River is the main watershed of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, and it is the main source of water of the watershed of the Grande river downstream El Paso, Texas. Such part of the watershed of the Grande River is also the border between Mexico and the United States of America, from El Paso-Ciudad Juarez up to Brownsville-Matamoros. It is very important for the state of Chihuahua and Mexico as a whole, to construct possible scenarios of the effects of the global climatic change in the potential evapotranspiration in such watershed and to construct likely scenarios which results will help to define an integrated watershed management to mitigate those global climate change impacts. The results of a recent study sponsored by the alliance between WWF-Fundacion Gonzalo Rio Arronte, are presented in the paper. The study was conducted to construct possible scenarios on the effects of the global climatic change on the potential evapotranspiration in the watershed of the Conchos River in Mexico. Three watershed characteristic meteorological stations were selected to conduct such study. The predictions of change of the surface air temperature and the change of the rainfall produced by the global climatic change, by the end of the XXI Century, were those published by the Hadley Center. The results show that air temperature increment of one degree centigrade increases evapotranspiration values between 3 and 3.5% with respect current values. As a consequence moisture deficiency increases from 9% to 40%. With an air temperature increment of three degrees centigrades, the potential evapotranspiration increases between 8.8% and 10% increasing moisture deficiency from 27.5% up to 116%. The expected rainfall increment values show a negligible contribution for the potential evapotranspiration reduction in the Rio Conchos watershed. These results conclude that immediate actions need to be taken to mitigate climate change impacts all along the watershed.

  5. Linking watershed geomorphic characteristics to sediment yield: Evidence from the Loess Plateau of China (United States)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Shi, Z. H.; Fang, N. F.; Guo, M. H.


    The geomorphic characteristics of a watershed affect the energy fluxes, mass movement, and water and sediment dispersion within the watershed. This paper examines how watershed complexity affects sediment yield in terms of rainfall and geomorphic characteristics. The geomorphic characteristics include primary, secondary and compound topographic attributes; watershed shape characteristics; relief parameters; and stream network characteristics. Because of the high co-dependence among these characteristics, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to identify the relationships between the sediment yield and 29 selected watershed characteristics. The PLSR combines the features of a principal component analysis and multiple linear regression and is a robust multivariate regression method that is appropriate when the predictors exhibit multiple co-linearity. The first-order factors were determined by calculating the variable importance for the projection (VIP). Those variables with high VIP values are the most relevant for explaining the dependent variable. The results showed that the watershed shape and relief parameters have large influences on the sediment yield. The VIP values revealed that the sediment yield is primarily controlled by the plan curvature (VIP = 1.87) and the highest order channel length (VIP = 1.53), followed by the hypsometric integral (VIP = 1.49), rainfall (VIP = 1.44), basin relief (VIP = 1.19), slope (VIP = 1.15), sediment transport capacity index (VIP = 1.13), length ratio (VIP = 1.06), profile curvature (VIP = 1.01) and divide average relief (VIP = 1.00). This paper quantified the effects and relative importance of different geomorphic attributes on sediment yield. The insight provided by these results can be used in the selection of appropriate geomorphic variables for watershed erosion and hydrological models. Thus, this study is intended to elucidate the internal dynamics of sediment transport and storage in a watershed and provide a guide for watershed management.

  6. Soil organic carbon under different land uses and its storage in two typical watersheds of the Loess Plateau, China (United States)

    Xue, Zhijing; An, Shaoshan; Cheng, Man


    Soil organic carbon distribution and soil organic carbon storage were estimated in two classical small watersheds that based on 163 samples under different land uses and slope positions. Land use conversion would alter land cover, which results in carbon stock changes in biomass as well as in the soil. After the Grain for Green project initiated in 1999, most land of China's loess plateau has been completed vegetation restoration as same as the comprehensive managed watershed (Shanghuang) which with spread vegetation-covered area and lower slope farmland. However, it is not clear how effective the newly initiated project will be. In this study, we found a reference area, original and untreated watershed (Sidigou). It is an area which has not any restore vegetation projects that kept primitive farming management. We found that there were significant differences between two study areas either soil organic carbon concentration or its distribution. The soil organic carbon content in the comprehensive managed watershed (Shanghuang) was higher than the untreated watershed's (Sidigou). As the soil depth increases, the soil organic carbon content gradually decreases. Soil organic carbon concentration and distribution were significantly influenced by land uses and slope positions. More specifically, the soil organic carbon for the shrub land and natural grassland were significantly higher than for the other land uses. In different slope positions, valley's soil organic carbon content was greater than that for the top of mound crests and mound slope. The total soil organic carbon storage of untreated watershed and comprehensively managed watershed were 20099.42 t and 46527.12 t, respectively. The area proportion of land uses is the significant reason for income gap of two study areas. Land use conversion from farmland to shrub land and manmade grassland in Shanghuang watershed played an important role in ecological restoration. It was found that vigorously developing Grain for Green project is of benefit for the Loess Plateau.

  7. The Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems Application in Watersheds Modeling (United States)

    Khairy, W. M.; Jones, P. L.; Hannoura, A. P.; Coleman, T. L.


    Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies have become indispensable tools for watershed-scale hydrologic analyses and modeling. These integrative capabilities can emulate real-world complexities, facilitating interdisciplinary research and communication. Landsat 5 Thermal Mapper raster images represent topography, land use, land cover, and soil types as well as spatial data of surface and ground water hydrology, and weather. These data are all integrated in GIS themes using views, tables, charts, and layouts. GIS is being used for data visualization, processing, and management. This paper presents a case study on the integration between the Geographical Resources and Assessment Support System (GRASS) and the distributed parameter and physical process watershed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the simulating large watershed processes. The study area is Tangipahoa watershed (about 518,000 acres), located on the border between the States of Louisiana and Mississippi. This integration proved to be effective and efficient for input data extraction and management for simulating the baseline conditions. SWAT is capable of continuous time simulation and flexible domain delineation. The spatial distribution of SWAT output results was successfully presented by using Geomedia-Intergraph software. By using SWAT-Geomedia integration, sub-areas under severe water quality problems could be identified. Sediment and nutrients loads were studied in order to determine a better management of surface water resources in large agricultural watershed.

  8. Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of a Semi-Distributed Model in a Semi-Arid Region, Case Study: Nishabour Watershed

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    K. Davari


    Full Text Available Application of conceptual hydrological models is an important issue in watersheds for researchers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The hydrological behaviors are complicated in such watersheds and their calibration is more difficult. In this article, the conceptual and semi-distributed SWAT model is used for a semi-arid Nishabour watershed with 9350 km2 area. Streamflow simulation is considered for 8 years. Nishabour watershed modeling led to 22 subbasins and 146 Hydrologic response units. SUfI2 approach is used for calibration and uncertainty analysis of watershed modeling. Results showed that calibration and validation of watershed model is not satisfactory, because of uncertainties in conceptual model such as dam structures, and land subsidence. Another reason is related to the complexity of hydrological system in arid regions which has simplified in hydrological models. Moreover, the complex behavior between runoff and subsurface flow in low depth of rainfall events usually effects in hydrological simulation results. Finally, it concluded that we cannot rely on conceptual hydrologic models with different sources of uncertainty without including them in hydrological modeling at arid and semi-arid watersheds.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Aisha M.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Shirmohammadi, Adel


    The value of watershed?scale, hydrologic and water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropriate application of watershed models. In small watersheds, where no dense rain gauge network is available, modelers are faced with a dilemma to choose between different data sets. In this study, we used the German Branch (GB) watershed (~50 km2), which is included in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), to examine the implications of using surface rain gauge and next?generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data sets on the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The GB watershed is located in the Coastal Plain of Maryland on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Stream flow estimation results using surface rain gauge data seem to indicate the importance of using rain gauges within the same direction as the storm pattern with respect to the watershed. In the absence of a spatially representative network of rain gauges within the watershed, NEXRAD data produced good estimates of stream flow at the outlet of the watershed. Three NEXRAD datasets, including (1)*non?corrected (NC), (2) bias?corrected (BC), and (3) inverse distance weighted (IDW) corrected NEXRAD data, were produced. Nash?Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients for daily stream flow simulation using these three NEXRAD data ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 during calibration and from 0.68 to 0.76 during validation. Overall, correcting NEXRAD with rain gauge data is promising to produce better hydrologic modeling results. Given the multiple precipitation datasets and corresponding simulations, we explored the combination of the multiple simulations using Bayesian model averaging.

  10. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor


    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  11. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  12. Modelado hidrológico de grandes cuencas: caso de estudio del río Senegal, África Occidental / Hydrological modeling of large watersheds: case study of the Senegal River, West Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Khalidou M., Bâ; Carlos, Díaz-Delgado; Emmanuelle, Quentin; Víctor Hugo, Guerra-Cobián; Jaime Israel, Ojeda-Chihuahua; Alin Andrei, Cârsteanu; Roberto, Franco-Plata.


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la modelación de los escurrimientos diarios de grandes cuencas bajo el empleo del modelo de parámetros distribuidos CEQUEAU y del software de sistemas de información geográfica IDRISI. Se implementó un módulo hidrogeomático que proporciona, bajo un proceso sup [...] ervisado, la información de entrada requerida por el modelo hidrológico. Se han utilizado imágenes de radar SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-USGS), con resolución espacial de 30" (? 1 km) para la delimitación del parteaguas de la cuenca, con lo cual se eliminan fuentes de incertidumbre significativas, reduciendo tiempos de procesamiento. El caudal del río Senegal ha sido aforado en la estación hidrométrica Bakel desde inicios del siglo XX y se cuenta con una serie de datos relativamente abundante. Se han llevado a cabo diversos estudios hidrológicos sobre la cuenca, donde se reporta un área de captación cercana a 289 x 10³ km², pero altamente subestimada, según revela este estudio. La cuenca presenta condiciones climáticas muy diversas, con alta variabilidad en la precipitación total anual, desde 2 000 mm en el sur hasta 50 mm en el norte. Los parámetros fisiográficos han sido calculados considerando la extensa superficie de la cuenca localizada en Mauritania, despreciada en estudios previos como parte de ésta. Las simulaciones de caudales para el periodo 1970-2000 generan buenos resultados (coeficiente de Nash, por lo general superiores a 0.80), por ello se concluye que utilizando el nuevo módulo hidrogeomáico y el modelo CEQUEAU, las simulaciones son más adecuadas y representan una base sólida para la gestión de recursos hídricos de la zona. Abstract in english The present paper is focusing on improving the rainfall-runoff modeling in a large basin, at a daily scale, using the distributed hydrological model CEQUEAU and the GIS IDRISI. A hydrogeomatic module was implemented using a supervised process to provide the input data required by the hydrological mo [...] del. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, USGS) images were used, with a spatial resolution of 30" (? 1 km), for the purpose of defining watershed divides, which eliminates significant sources of uncertainty and reduces processing times. On the other hand, the discharge of the Senegal River has been gauged at the Bakel hydrometric station since the beginning of the 20th century until today, so a relatively long time series of data is now available. Various hydrologic studies about this basin have been performed, reporting a watershed area of roughly 289 × 103 km2, which is greatly underestimated according to the present study. The basin contains very diverse climatic conditions, with high variability in total annual precipitation, from 2 000 mm in the south to 50 mm in the north. Physiographic parameters have been computed taking into account the extensive area of the basin located in Mauritania, which had been neglected as part of this watershed by previous studies. Since the simulations of daily volumes for the period 1970-2000 produced good results (Nash coefficients generally above 0.80), it is concluded that simulations are more suitable when using the new hydrogeomatic module and the CEQUEAU and represent a solid basis for water resources management in the area.

  13. Trip report: pilot studies of factors linking watershed function and coastal ecosystem health in American Samoa (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Medeiros, Arthur C.


    Coral reef resources in the territory of American Samoa face significant problems from overfishing, non-point source pollution, global warming, and continuing population growth and development. The islands are still relatively isolated relative to other parts of the Pacific and have managed to avoid some of the more devastating invasive species that have reached other archipelagoes. As a result, there are opportunities for collaborative and integrative research and monitoring programs to help restore and maintain biodiversity and functioning natural ecosystem in the archipelago. We found that the 'Ridge to Reef' paradigm already exists in American Samoa, with a high degree of interagency cooperation and efficient use of limited resources already taking place in the Territory. USGS may be able to make contributions as a partner organization in the Coral Reef Advisory Group (CRAG) through deployment of sediment monitoring instrumentation to supplement stream monitoring by the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, by providing high resolution vegetation and land-use maps of main islands, by providing additional support to the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources and the National Park Service for monitoring of invasive species, by working with members of CRAG to initiate sediment transport studies on Samoan reefs, and by developing new projects on the effects of bacterial contamination and pollutants on coral reef physiology and demography.

  14. Community Responses to Government Defunding of Watershed Projects: A Comparative Study in India and the USA (United States)

    Koontz, Tomas M.; Sen, Sucharita


    When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

  15. Assessing Watershed-Wildfire Risks on National Forest System Lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Haas


    Full Text Available Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial risk assessment methods can be brought to bear to identify and prioritize at-risk watersheds for risk mitigation treatments, in both pre-fire and post-fire planning contexts. Risk assessment results can be particularly useful for prioritizing management of hazardous fuels to lessen the severity and likely impacts of future wildfires, where budgetary and other constraints limit the amount of area that can be treated. Specifically we generate spatially resolved estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity, and couple that information with spatial data on watershed location and watershed erosion potential to quantify watershed exposure and risk. For a case study location we focus on National Forest System lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The Region houses numerous watersheds that are critically important to drinking water supplies and that have been impacted or threatened by large wildfires in recent years. Assessment results are the culmination of a broader multi-year science-management partnership intended to have direct bearing on wildfire management decision processes in the Region. Our results suggest substantial variation in the exposure of and likely effects to highly valued watersheds throughout the Region, which carry significant implications for prioritization. In particular we identified the San Juan National Forest as having the highest concentration of at-risk highly valued watersheds, as well as the greatest amount of risk that can be mitigated via hazardous fuel reduction treatments. To conclude we describe future opportunities and challenges for management of wildfire-watershed interactions.

  16. Framework for Placement of BMPs in Urban Watersheds (2008) (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are primarily a...

  17. Land use influence in the Cerrado biome water quality: a comparative study between watersheds in the Goiás State, Brazil


    Luis Fernando Stone; Silvando Carlos da Silva; José Vicente Granato de Araújo; Manuel Eduardo Ferreira; Marisa Prado Gomes; Clarisse Guimarães Rabelo


    Based on the assumption that the water quality in a watershed is directly related to the degree of equilibrium between the natural and anthropic factors, in this paper we examined the effects of the land cover changes in areas of savanna (Cerrado biome) over the watersheds ecological viability (expressed here as Water Quality Index). Thus, we analyzed two middle-sized basins located in the Goiás State (a representative area of this biome), with different characteristics regarding both the phy...

  18. Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia


    Aflizar; Roni Afrizal; Tsugiyuki Masunaga


    Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D) in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate R...

  19. Traditional and Host-Associated Fecal Indicator Bacterial Patterns in Southern California Watersheds: Field Source Identification Studies and Laboratory Microcosms Investigating Presence and Persistence in Water and Sediments (United States)

    Mika, Kathryn Beth

    Overall, recreational beach water quality remains an issue of concern in Southern California and across the globe. Many factors come into play when determining water quality, including physical issues such as the myriad sources that contribute pollution to the site and financial and political issues that control the way water quality is monitored and determined. Current national regulations require the monitoring of fecal indicator bacteria in order to determine recreational water quality. However, it is also important to identify biological and geographical sources of pollution to consistently impaired locations. A commonly applied approach to meet the goals of source identification is to sample sites that have been high in FIB for further study. A tiered approach such as this, however, assumes a correlation between FIB and the sources of interest in the watershed. The research described in this dissertation tests this assumption in two Southern California watersheds, Santa Monica Canyon and Ventura Harbor. In both cases, a tiered approach to sampling using FIB as a first tier to guide sampling would have failed to identify sources of human fecal pollution (as identified by the presence of the human-associated Bacteroides marker HF183). Every watershed is a distinct environment that has different potential sources of bacteria and many factors contributing to the persistence of the bacteria. Rather than attempting to apply an indicator that has worked as a first tier in other watersheds, it would be better to have as a first tier an in-depth study of the watershed using historical data or local experts to provide information on the most likely sources of pollution in the watershed. Using this information it would be possible to design a study using FIB and one or more source-associated parameters to identify specific sources of pollution in the watershed. In addition, sampling FIB and other parameters such as HF183 allow the application of other microbial source tracking tools including indicator ratios and detection frequencies. Source identification studies do not necessarily have to be long-term to identify consistent sources of pollution. For example, within the first four months of sampling at Ventura, the increased frequency of detection of HF183 at the Marina Dock sample location was apparent, and a dry weather influx of HF183 was seen in the Keys channels. In addition to the many sources of FIB to the environment such as storm drains, leaking sewers, and wildlife, there are important environmental reservoirs such as sand and seaweed that can foster FIB growth and persistence in the environment. As such, it is important to understand the effect of different factors on the ability of bacteria to survive and persist in these reservoirs. Microcosm experiments conducted during the course of this dissertation research found that in dry beach sand (0.1% moisture), the addition of moisture was detrimental to the survival of the indicators studied (General Bacteroidales, E. coli, and enterococci). While increased moisture was not always detrimental to bacterial survival, these results point to the ability of bacteria to persist for long periods of time in beach environments under in-situ conditions (including dry sand). These findings point to the importance of understanding the behavior of indicator bacteria populations that have evolved to survive in environmental conditions so that their potential impact on overlying or adjacent water quality can be better understood. In summation, results from this research point to the importance of selecting indicators and sample locations that are most relevant to watershed concerns rather than using a first tier such as FIB to preferentially select sites for further analysis. Measuring a marker for human fecal pollution in both watershed studies provided useful information for potential human inputs that would have been missed if sites were chosen based on high FIB levels. In addition it is very important to underst

  20. A comparison of the watershed hydrology of coastal forested wetlands and the mountainous uplands in the Southern US (United States)

    Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Amatya, D. M.; Skaggs, R. W.; Swift, L. W.; Shepard, J. P.; Riekerk, H.


    Hydrology plays a critical role in wetland development and ecosystem structure and functions. Hydrologic responses to forest management and climate change are diverse in the Southern United States due to topographic and climatic differences. This paper presents a comparison study on long-term hydrologic characteristics (long-term seasonal runoff patterns, water balances, storm flow patterns) of three watersheds in the southern US. These three watersheds represent three types of forest ecosystems commonly found in the lower Atlantic coastal plain and the Appalachian upland mountains. Compared to the warm, flat, and shallow groundwater dominated pine flatwoods on the coast, the inland upland watershed was found to have significantly higher water yield, Precipitation/Hamon's potential evapotranspiration ratio (1.9 for upland vs 1.4 and 0.9 for wetlands), and runoff/precipitation ratio (0.53±0.092 for upland vs 0.30±0.079 and 0.13±0.094 for wetlands). Streamflow from flatwoods watersheds generally are discontinuous most of the years while the upland watershed showed continuous flows in most years. Stormflow peaks in a cypress-pine flatwoods system were smaller than that in the upland watershed for most cases, but exceptions occurred under extreme wet conditions. Our study concludes that climate is the most important factor in determining the watershed water balances in the southern US. Topography effects streamflow patterns and stormflow peaks and volume, and is the key to wetland development in the southern US.

  1. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

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    R. J. Thayyen


    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is to augment stream runoff during the years of low summer discharge. This paper intends to highlight the importance of creating credible knowledge on the Himalayan cryospheric processes to develop a more representative global view on river flow response to cryospheric changes and locally sustainable water resources management strategies.

  2. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  3. Outage management: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

  4. Effects of best-management practices in Bower Creek in the East River priority watershed, Wisconsin, 1991-2009 (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Horwatich, Judy A.; Rutter, Troy D.; Bannerman, Roger T.


    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at Bower Creek during the periods before best-management practices (BMPs), and after BMPs were installed for evaluation of water-quality improvements. The monitoring was done between 1990 and 2009 with the pre-BMP period ending in July 1994 and the post-BMP period beginning in October 2006. BMPs installed in this basin included streambank protection and fencing, stream crossings, grade stabilization, buffer strips, various barnyard-runoff controls, nutrient management, and a low degree of upland BMPs. Water-quality evaluations included base-flow concentrations and storm loads for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. The only reductions detected between the base-flow samples of the pre- and post-BMP periods were in median concentrations of total phosphorus from base-flow samples, but not for total suspended solids or dissolved ammonia nitrogen. Differences in storm loads for the three water-quality constituents monitored were not observed during the study period.

  5. Adopt Your Watershed (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  6. Analysis of Potential Deep-Seated Landslide in Hekeng Watershed by Environment Indices (United States)

    Hsieh, C. J.; Chompuchan, C.


    Landslides are a major natural disaster in Taiwan relevant to the human life. After the catastrophic Xiaolin landslide during Typhoon Morakot in August 2009 caused around 400 casualties, the deep-seated landslide has become a serious issue. This study explored the potential deep-seated landslide in Hekeng watershed extracted from SPOT-5 imageries. The empirical topographic correction was applied to minimize effect of the mountain shaded area due to the difference of sun elevation and terrain angle. Consequently the multi-temporal environmental indices, i.e., modified Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDVI) and modified Normalized Difference Water Index (mNDWI) were corrected. Seasonal vegetation cover and surface moisture change were analyzed incorporate with a slope which obtain from DEM data. The result showed that the distribution of potential deep-seated landslide vulnerable area mainly located at headstream watershed. It could be explained that the headstream watershed has less human interference, therefore the environmental indices interpreted those area as deep soil layer and dense vegetation coverage. However, the upstream canal could suffer from the long-term erosion and possibly cause slope toe collapse. In addition, the western watershed is the afforestation zone whereas the eastern watershed is natural forest zone with higher development ratio. The upslope forest management of eastern and western watershed should be discussed variously.

  7. Hydrological year 2009 in the small watersheds ?ervík and Malá Ráztoka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zden?k Vícha


    Full Text Available Unique experiment, not only with respect to time, is ongoing within the two small watersheds in Beskid Mts. The year 2009 represents already the 56-th year of this long-term forestry-hydrological research. Experimental watershed ?ervík (CE is situated near the village Staré Hamry, watershed Malá Ráztoka (MR near Trojanovice. The aim of the research is to study the impact of forest on the water runoff from the watershed, and the impact of forest management on water balance in the headwater regions. Compared to the long-term time series, the data measured in 2009 seems to be relatively balanced. In 2009 the year precipitation amount within two watersheds was only slightly higher than the long-term average. Snowing had started in the middle of November; more intensive snow fall was registered in February, March, and also at the end of the hydrological year (mid-October. The average year temperatures within the two watersheds are again much higher than the averages of the last 56 years. During the vegetation season only few short period without precipitation was recorded, forest vegetation was not threatened by dryness in this year.

  8. The typology, frequency and magnitude of some behaviour events in case of torrential hydrographical management works in the upper Tarlung watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Clinciu


    Full Text Available During the 20-25 years from their startup, the torrential hydrographical management works carried out in the upper T?rlung Watershed (55 dams, 22 sills, 25 traverses and 4 outlet canals have exposed a number of 24 behaviour event types: 13 out of them reduce the safety of exploitation and the sustainability of the works (hereinafter called damages, while the other 11 reduce the functionality of the works (hereinafter called disfunctionalities. The following behaviour events have the highest frequency:(i damages caused by water and alluvia erosion (erosive damages, followed by breakages, in the category of damages, and (ii unsupervised installation of forest vegetation on the managed torrential hydrographical network and apron siltation, in the category of disfunctionalities. For methodological reasons, only the erosive damage of works was successively analysed, according to two criteria: the average depth (cm in the eroded area and the percentage of the erosive area out of the total surface. Further on, by combining the two criteria for analysis, five representation areas with the same damage intensity were defined (very low, low, medium, high and very high intensity. With the aid of the event frequency values recorded in these areas and of the coefficients attributed to each intensity class (from 1 for very low intensity to 5 for very high intensity, the author reached the conclusion that the level of the recorded intensity of the damage caused by water and alluvia erosion ranged from very low to low.

  9. Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method (United States)

    Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris


    Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

  10. Spate Irrigation Systems and Watershed Development in Eritrea: the case of Sheeb watershed


    Tesfai, M.H.


    This paper describes the interactions of the Spate Irrigation System (SIS) in Eritrea with their upper watersheds, as a case study in Sheeb watershed. The spate irrigation practices, among others, include techniques to harvest runoff water, sediments, and nutrients. A strong relationship exists between the SIS in the lowlands of Eritrea and their upper watersheds. For example, the spate irrigation system in the lowlands of Sheeb area entirely depends for water, soils and nutrients on the reso...

  11. Effects of conservation reserve program on runoff and lake water quality in an oxbow lake watershed (United States)

    Sediment and its associated pollutants entering a water body can be destructive to the ecological health of the system. Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to reduce these pollutants, but understanding the most effective practices is difficult. A case study of Beasley Lake Watershed, typica...

  12. A GIS-based study on non-point source pollutant distribution around Miyun Reservoir Watershed, Beijing, China (United States)

    Wang, X.; wang, y; cai, x; wang, x


    Nitrogen and phosphorus, coming mainly from non-point sources (NPS), are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of Miyun Reservoir, the only one surface drinking water source of Beijing, China. The spatial nature of the NPS pollution problem necessitates the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to manipulate, retrieve, and display the large volumes of spatial data. Based on the relevant data which range from meteorological and hydrological data to land use, fertilizer and pesticide usage, and even livestock raising information, the database of NPS of Shixia Catchment in Miyun Reservoir watershed were established. Using GIS, abstracting attribute data, digitizing, editing, coordinate transferring and generating the digital elevation model (DEM) could be finished. A total of four land use scenarios were modeled to evaluate various land management strategies on sediment and nutrient loading from catchment. The results suggest that high nutrient loads are associated with village, which has unsuitable livestock raising. Different land use influences intensively the loss of pollutants, especially slope tilling in agricultural land. The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is the highest, that from forestry is the secondary and that from grassland is the lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes the greatest effort to TP and forestry lands to TN. The loss amount of pollutant in flood season is nearly 60% of annual loss amount. The amount of nutrient loss from hill areas is larger than that from mountain areas. Pattern of non-point source pollution in Miyun County is showed that near the north and east boundary of the Reservoir is the heaviest area. It is indicated that nutrient loss is correlated with people density, fertilizer usage and soil erosion.

  13. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.


    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Mechanistic Watershed Modeling of Mercury, Carbon, and Nitrogen Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed (McTier Creek watershed, SC, USA) (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Golden, H. E.; Davis, G. M.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C.; Conrads, P. A.; Brigham, M. E.


    The Coastal Plain of the US is a hotspot of methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation due to the mix of high Hg deposition, widespread wetland coverage, and high DOC and/or acidic surface waters. However, research in mercury fate and transport is just recently emerging in this region. Although atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury to many aquatic ecosystems, there is little understanding and associated modeling representation of how atmospherically deposited mercury transports and transforms within the watershed on its way to receiving streams, particularly within watersheds with different drainage areas within similar physiographical provinces. In this study, we examine mercury and linked biogeochemical cycling (nitrogen (N) and carbon (C)) cycling at a variety of spatial scales within a set of nested sub-basins of the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina, which is located in the upper Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. Our goal is to advance current understanding of mercury dynamics in the Coastal Plain and discern important processes governing multi-scale transformation, fate, and transport of mercury. We apply a spatially-explicit, linked process-based watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment; VELMA) to predict daily flow and daily fluxes and concentrations of total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The modeling effort was performed in concert with a rigorous sampling effort as part of the USGS NAWQA Mercury in Stream Ecosystems Program. VELMA was applied at a series of different scales including a focused reach (0.11 km^2), two sub-watersheds (28 km^2, 24 km^2) and the full watershed (79.4 km^2). We scale VELMA parameterization and processes occurring within the focused study reach to the larger sub-watersheds to investigate how well the current model structure represents the system and evaluate areas for future improvements. This approach provides insights into governing processes influencing mercury concentrations and fluxes at the catchment outlet and identifies whether these dynamics are consistent at a variety of spatial scales.

  15. Practices, awareness and attitudes of Maranao farmers in three watershed barangays in Masiu, Lanao Del Sur, Philippines towards the protection and conservation of the Lake Lanao Watershed


    Gatocod M. Rascal; Rodolfo C. Aranico; Nimfa L. Bracamonte; Ruben F. Amparado Jr.


    The study determined the practices, awareness and attitudes of Maranao farmers in the LakeLanao Watershed in three watershed barangays namely: Gabar Sawer, Lanco Dimapatoy and Lacadun inMasiu, Lanao Del Sur, Philippines and their implications to the protection and conservation of Lake LanaoWatershed. The awareness and attitudes of the farmers are geared towards the conservation andprotection of the said watershed to serve the needs of the people living within the watershed. The sociodemograph...

  16. Study of the distribution of non-point source pollution in the watershed of the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China. (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, T; Xu, A; He, W


    Nitrogen and phosphorus are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade the water quality of the Miyun Reservoir, a very important drinking water source of Beijing in China. These are mainly from non-point sources. The watershed in Miyun County is selected as the study region with a total area of 1400 km2. Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation, runoff, sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime. The results show that the total nutrient loss amount of TN and TP is 898.07 t/a, and 40.70 t/a, respectively, in which nutrient N and P carried by runoff is 91.3% and 77.3%, respectively. There is relatively heavier soil erosion at the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast rim of the reservoir. Different land uses influence the loss of non-point source pollutants. The amount of nutrient loss from agricultural land per unit is the highest, nutrient loss from forestry is the second highest and that from grassland is the lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes the greatest amount of TP and forestry lands the greatest amount of TN. PMID:11724492

  17. Study on Irrational Strategic Management


    Yongbo Guo


    With the development of economy, original pure rational strategic management could not adapt to the complex andever-changing environment now. A kind of irrational strategic management is emerging quietly. This passage introduces the development of irrational strategic management and its function in strategic management, and discusses the way of irrational factor playing an active role in strategic management.

  18. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Applicability on Nutrients Loadings Prediction in Mountainous Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) Watershed, Utah. (United States)

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.


    The application of watershed simulation models is indispensable when pollution is generated by a nonpoint source. These models should be able to simulate large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time. This study presents the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate, manage, and research the transport and fate of nutrients in (Subbasin HUC 16010204) Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed, Box elder County, Utah. Water quality problems arise primarily from high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations that were caused by increasing agricultural and farming activities and complex network of canals and ducts of varying sizes and carrying capacities that transport water (for farming and agriculture uses). Using the available input data (Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use/Land cover (LULC), soil map and weather and climate data for 20 years (1990-2010) to predict the water quantity and quality of the LBMR watershed using a spatially distributed model version of hydrological ArcSWAT model (ArcSWAT 2012.10_1.14). No previous studies have been found in the literature regarding an in-depth simulation study of the Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed to simulate stream flow and to quantify the associated movement of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment. It is expected that the model mainly will predict monthly mean total phosphorus (TP) concentration and loadings in a mountainous LBRM watershed (steep Wellsville mountain range with peak of (2,857 m)) having into consideration the snow and runoff variables affecting the prediction process. The simulated nutrient concentrations were properly consistent with observations based on the R2 and Nash- Sutcliffe fitness factors. Further, the model will be able to manage and assess the land application in that area with corresponding to proper BMPs regarding water quality management. Keywords: Water Quality Modeling; Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT); Lower Bear-Malad River (LBMR); Mountainous watershed

  19. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed. (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad


    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area. PMID:25154685

  20. Influence of land use on nutrients transport using SWAT model: Study case of Ardila Watershed


    Durão, A; Brito, D.; Morais, M; Fernandes, R.M.; Neves, R.


    The impacts of agricultural activities in the environment are due to the lixiviation and soil erosion. Pollution of agricultural origin presents diffuse characteristics reaching the environment through surface runoff, lateral flow and groundwater flow. Models can contribute to understand the sources and the processes responsible for pollution, also identifying areas of concern. To evaluate the status of river water bodies is important to consider management options, being water quality models...

  1. Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia


    Beria Leimona; Noviana Khususiyah; Suyanto, S.


    Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and brief...

  2. Management by Values: A Case Study


    Liu, Zhen


    The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable manage...

  3. Case Study Report: REDD+ Pilot Project in Community Forests in Three Watersheds of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Shrestha


    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is an international climate policy instrument that is expected to tap into the large mitigation potential for conservation and better management of the world’s forests through financial flows from developed to developing countries. This paper describes the results and lessons learned from a pioneering REDD+ pilot project in Nepal, which is based on a community forest management approach and which was implemented from 2009–2013 with support from NORAD’s Climate and Forest Initiative. The major focus of the project was to develop and demonstrate an innovative benefit-sharing mechanism for REDD+ incentives, as well as institutionally and socially inclusive approaches to local forest governance. The paper illustrates how community-based monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV and performance-based payments for forest management can be implemented. The lessons on REDD+ benefit sharing from this demonstration project could provide insights to other countries which are starting to engage in REDD+, in particular in South Asia.

  4. Knowledge Management System- A STUDY


    Nidhi Agrawal


    Every organization and institute is facing the savior problem of generating the knowledge on the basis of their assets. Knowledge management is very indispensable for any organization. We discuss about the knowledge management through this paper. This paper provide an outline of knowledge management and how knowledge management is useful to improve the quality of the educational institute. With the help of knowledge management system we can manage any information. We can defin...

  5. 2012 Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  6. Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk.

  7. Impacts of land use change scenarios on hydrology and land use patterns in the Wu-Tu watershed in Northern Taiwan


    Lin Yu-Pin; Hong Nien-Ming; Wu Pei-Jung; Wu Chen-Fa; Verburg, P.H.


    Developing an approach for simulating and assessing land use changes and their effects on land use patterns and hydrological processes at the watershed level is essential in land use and water resource planning and management. This study provided a novel approach that combines a land use change model, landscape metrics and a watershed hydrological model with an analysis of impacts of future land use scenarios on land use pattern and hydrology. The proposed models were applied to assess the im...

  8. Fecal Contamination of Groundwater in a Small Rural Dryland Watershed in Central Chile Contaminación Fecal en Agua Subterránea en una Pequeña Cuenca de Secano Rural en Chile Central


    Mariela Valenzuela; Bernardo Lagos; Marcelino Claret; MARÍA A MONDACA; Claudio Pérez; Oscar Parra


    Research on microbiological groundwater quality was conducted in Chile in a rural watershed that has almost no other water source. Forty-two wells were randomly selected and levels of indicator bacteria - total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), and fecal streptococci (FS) - were repeatedly measured during the four seasons of 2005. The aim of this study was to characterize microbiological groundwater quality, relate indicator levels to certain watershed features and management characterist...

  9. An empirical study of mutual fund manager’s characteristics


    Chow, Tung Kenny


    To promote market efficiency, analysts must first study the causes of inefficiency. Because some mutual fund managers exhibit consistently superior performance, this paper uses the characteristics of funds and its managers to explain the cause of superior performance. Although differences in manager characteristics can cause different systematic behavioural patterns, the data is not readily available to the public, and more investigation is required. By examining manager characteristics in re...

  10. Artificial neural networks applied to flow prediction scenarios in Tomebamba River - Paute watershed, for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador (United States)

    Cisneros, Felipe; Veintimilla, Jaime


    The main aim of this research is to create a model of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) that allows predicting the flow in Tomebamba River both, at real time and in a certain day of year. As inputs we are using information of rainfall and flow of the stations along of the river. This information is organized in scenarios and each scenario is prepared to a specific area. The information is acquired from the hydrological stations placed in the watershed using an electronic system developed at real time and it supports any kind or brands of this type of sensors. The prediction works very good three days in advance This research includes two ANN models: Back propagation and a hybrid model between back propagation and OWO-HWO. These last two models have been tested in a preliminary research. To validate the results we are using some error indicators such as: MSE, RMSE, EF, CD and BIAS. The results of this research reached high levels of reliability and the level of error are minimal. These predictions are useful for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador

  11. Critical management studies: some reflections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christine, McLean; Rafael, Alcadipani.


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to challenge some assumptions associated with Critical Management Studies (CMS). This is done based on insights originating from the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), an approach that can be considered as an empirical form of post-structuralism and that has gained prominence in social sci [...] ences. Fundamentally, this paper broadly reviews some key CMS ideas associated with this perspective ontology to argue that what CMS usually tends to take as explanation is exactly what has to be explained. Moreover, it discusses CMS' problematic view of objects and its tendency to neglect how existence is kept and maintained.


    Although urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens ...

  13. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study (United States)

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.


    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  14. The effect of organic matter on chemical weathering: study of a small tropical watershed: nsimi-zoétélé site, cameroon (United States)

    Oliva, Priscia; Viers, Jerôme; Dupré, Bernard; Fortuné, Jean Pôl; Martin, François; Braun, Jean Jacques; Nahon, Daniel; Robain, Henri


    The effect of organic matter during soil/water interaction is still a debated issue on the controls of chemical weathering in a tropical environment. In order to study this effect in detail, we focused on the weathering processes occurring in a small tropical watershed (Nsimi-Zoetélé, South Cameroon). This site offers an unique opportunity to study weathering mechanisms in a lateritic system within a small basin by coupling soil and water chemistry. The lateritic cover in this site can reach up to 40 m in depth and show two pedological distinct zones: unsaturated slope soils on the hills and/or elevated areas; and water-saturated soils in the swamp zone which represent 20% of the basin surface. The study present chemical analysis performed on water samples collected monthly from different localities between 1994-1997 and on soil samples taken during a well drilling in December 1997. The results suggest the existence of chemical and spatial heterogeneities of waters in the basin: colored waters flooding the swamp zone have much higher concentrations of both organic matter (i.e., DOC) and inorganic ions (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Th, Zr) than those from springs and groundwater from the hills. Nevertheless, these organic-rich waters present cation concentrations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) which are among the lowest compared to that of most world rivers. The main minerals in the soils are secondary kaolinite, iron oxi-hydroxides, quartz, and accessory minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile). We mainly focused on the mineralogical and geochemical study of the swamp zone soils and showed through SEM observations the textural characterization of weathered minerals such as kaolinite, zircon, rutile, and the secondary recrystallization of kaolinite microcrystals within the soil profile. Water chemistry and mineralogical observations suggest that hydromorphic soils of the swamp zone are responsible for almost all chemical weathering in the basin. Thus, in order to explain the increase of element concentration in the organic-rich waters, we suggest that organic acids enhance dissolution of minerals such as kaolinite, goethite, and zircon and also favors the transport of insoluble elements such as Al, Fe, Ti, Zr, and REE by chemical complexation. SiO 2(aq) concentrations in these waters are above saturation with respect to quartz. Dissolution of phytholithes (amorphous silica) may be responsible for this relatively high SiO 2(aq.) concentration. Al/Mg ratios obtained for the soil and the Mengong river waters show that a significant amount of Al does not leave the system due to kaolinite recrystallisation in the swamp zone soils. Geochemical data obtained for this watershed show the important contribution of vegetation and organic matter on chemical weathering in the swamp zone. Quantitatively we propose that the increasing amount in total dissolved solid (TDS) due to organic matter and vegetation effect is about 35%. In summary, this interaction between soils and waters occurs mostly in soils that are very depleted in soluble elements. Thus, the low concentration of major elements in these water is a direct consequence of the depleted nature of the soils.

  15. The Role of Agency Partnerships in Collaborative Watershed Groups: Lessons from the Pacific Northwest Experience (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Mahler, Robert L.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Shafii, Bahman


    Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

  16. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades. (United States)

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  17. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  18. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  19. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  20. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.


    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Identification and prioritization of critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed using SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Besalatpour


    Full Text Available A few areas in a large watershed might be more critical and responsible for high amount of runoff and soil losses. For an effective and efficient implementation of watershed management practices, identification of these critical areas is vital. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2009 to identify and prioritize the critical sub-basins in a highly mountainous watershed with imprecise and uncertain data (Bazoft watershed, southwestern Iran. Three different SWAT models were first developed using different climate input data sets. The first data set (denoted as CRU was derived from the climate research unit data set developed by the British Atmosphere Data Center (BADC. The second data set (denoted as CDW was included the climate data obtained from the precipitation and air temperature stations in the study area. The third set (denoted as COM was a combination of CRU and CDW climate data. The Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE program was used for calibrating and validating the SWAT model. Daily rainfall, temperature, and runoff data of 20 years (1989-2008 were used in this study. In results, the constructed SWAT model using COM data set simulated the runoff more satisfactorily than the two other developed SWAT models according to the statistical evaluation criteria. The correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliff values for the constructed SWAT model using COM data set were 0.40 and 0.38, respectively. The model simulated the runoff satisfactorily; however, the predicted runoff values were much more in agreement with the measured data for the calibration period than those for the validation period. Sub-basins S10, S12, and S13 were assigned as the most top critical sub-basins in runoff production in the watershed. The study revealed that the SWAT model could successfully be used for identifying the critical sub-basins in a watershed with imprecise and uncertain data for management purposes.

  3. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed (United States)

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

  4. The Influence of Perceptions of Practice Characteristics: An Examination of Agricultural Best Management Practice Adoption in Two Indiana Watersheds (United States)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Weinkauf, Denise Klotthor; Prokopy, Linda Stalker


    Agricultural best management practices (BMPs), or conservation practices, can help reduce nonpoint source pollution from agricultural lands, as well as provide valuable wildlife habitat. There is a large literature exploring factors that lead to a producer's voluntary adoption of BMPs, but there have been inconsistent findings. Generally, this…

  5. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.


    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment load decreases to occur; (4) long-term monitoring on the order of decades can be required to detect meaningful changes in water quality in response to BMP implementation; and (5) all consequences of specific BMPs need to be considered when considering strategies for watershed protection.

  6. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables


    This technical report provides a description of the field project design, quality control, the sampling protocols and analysis methodology used, and standard operating procedures for the South Fork Broad River Watershed (SFBR) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) project. This watersh...

  8. The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited) (United States)

    Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.


    The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within smaller land units that have a clear catchment scale benefit. This will provide the evidence base for future policy which is of use to all location in the UK. Hence, the need to have suite of parameters that can be evaluated has given rise to specific experimental design. Fundamental to this is to use continuous telemetered sampling at as many location as possible, including field laboratories capable of measuring, Nitrate, Ammonia, Total Phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, suspended sediment and chlorophyll a. Standard hydro-metrological equipment is also fully telemetered. The goal is to allow all the data to be freely available to all end users via an internet data portal. The long term goal is to invite experts from many environmental and social sciences to work at the established research platform and ultimately give a better understanding of what a healthy catchment should be like. Being able to communicate this point to both local and national audiences will also be made and will link closely to the UK Virtual Observatory project funded by the NERC.

  9. Characterization of nonpoint source microbial contamination in an urbanizing watershed serving as a municipal water supply. (United States)

    Rowny, Jakob G; Stewart, Jill R


    Inland watersheds in the southeastern United States are transitioning from agricultural and forested land uses to urban and exurban uses at a rate greater than the national average. This study sampled creeks representing a variety of land use factors in a rapidly urbanizing watershed that also serves as a drinking water supply. Samples were collected bimonthly under dry-weather conditions and four times during each of three storm events and assessed for microbial indicators of water quality. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were measured using standard membrane filtration techniques. Results showed that FIB concentrations varied between 10(0) and 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that FIB were generally higher in more developed watersheds (p contamination is influenced by intensity of watershed development, streamflow and antecedent precipitation. Dry-weather FIB loads showed considerable seasonal variation, but the average storm event delivered contaminant loads equivalent to months of dry-weather loading. Analysis of intra-storm loading patterns provided little evidence to support "first-flush" loading of either FIB, results that are consistent with environmental reservoirs of FIB. These findings demonstrate that single sampling monitoring efforts are inadequate to capture the variability of microbial contaminants in a watershed, particularly if sampling is conducted during dry weather. This study also helps to identify timing and conditions for public health vulnerabilities, and for effective management interventions. PMID:23021518

  10. A gestão integrada de recursos hídricos e do uso do solo em bacias urbano-metropolitanas: o controle de inundações na bacia dos rios Iguaçu/Sarapuí, na Baixada Fluminense / The integrated water resources management and land use in urban-metropolitan watersheds: flood control in the Iguaçu/Sarapuí watershed, Baixada Fluminense

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto Ferreira, Carneiro; Adauto Lucio, Cardoso; Gustavo Bezerra, Zampronio; Melissa de Carvalho, Martingil.


    Full Text Available O artigo trata da necessidade de integração do planejamento do uso do solo à gestão dos recursos hídricos, buscando estabelecer relações entre as formas de uso e ocupação do solo urbano e os problemas envolvendo as inundações urbanas. Que novos paradigmas de planejamento e gestão poderão emergir da [...] articulação dos marcos regulatórios recentemente aprovados? O artigo traz essas questões para o debate. Abstract in english This research concerns the integration of urban land use planning to water resources management, focusing on flood control. What new planning and management paradigms may emerge from the articulation of recent regulatory frameworks? This paper brings up theseissues, proposing alternatives that lead [...] to an integrated management in urban watersheds.

  11. A gestão integrada de recursos hídricos e do uso do solo em bacias urbano-metropolitanas: o controle de inundações na bacia dos rios Iguaçu/Sarapuí, na Baixada Fluminense The integrated water resources management and land use in urban-metropolitan watersheds: flood control in the Iguaçu/Sarapuí watershed, Baixada Fluminense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ferreira Carneiro


    Full Text Available O artigo trata da necessidade de integração do planejamento do uso do solo à gestão dos recursos hídricos, buscando estabelecer relações entre as formas de uso e ocupação do solo urbano e os problemas envolvendo as inundações urbanas. Que novos paradigmas de planejamento e gestão poderão emergir da articulação dos marcos regulatórios recentemente aprovados? O artigo traz essas questões para o debate.This research concerns the integration of urban land use planning to water resources management, focusing on flood control. What new planning and management paradigms may emerge from the articulation of recent regulatory frameworks? This paper brings up theseissues, proposing alternatives that lead to an integrated management in urban watersheds.

  12. Collaborative environmental planning in river management: An application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont (United States)

    Hermans, C.; Erickson, J.; Noordewier, T.; Sheldon, A.; Kline, M.


    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PROMET - Large scale distributed hydrological modelling to study the impact of climate change on the water flows of mountain watersheds (United States)

    Mauser, Wolfram; Bach, Heike


    SummaryClimate change will change availability, quality and allocation of regional water resources. Appropriate modelling tools should therefore be available to realistically describe reactions of watersheds to climate change and to identify efficient and effective adaptation strategies on the regional scale. The paper presents the hydrologic model PROMET (Processes of Radiation, Mass and Energy Transfer), which was developed within the GLOWA-Danube project as part of the decision support system DANUBIA. PROMET covers the coupled water and energy fluxes of large-scale ( A ˜ 100,000 km 2) watersheds. It is fully spatially distributed, raster-based with raster-elements of 1 km 2 area, runs on an hourly time step, strictly conserves mass and energy and is not calibrated using measured discharges. Details on the model concept and the individual model components are given. An application case of PROMET is given for the mountainous Upper-Danube watershed in Central Europe ( A = 77,000 km 2). The water resources are intensively utilized for hydropower, agriculture, industry and tourism. The water flows are significantly influenced by man-made structures like reservoirs and water diversions. A 33-years model run covering the period from 1971 to 2003 using the existing meteorological station network as input is used to validate the performance of PROMET against measured stream flow data. Three aspects of the model performance were validated with good to very good results: the annual variation of the water balance of the whole watershed and selected sub-watersheds, the daily runoff for the whole period at selected gauges and the annual flood peaks and low flows (minimum 7-days average). PROMET is used to investigate the impact of climate change on the water cycle of the Upper Danube. A stochastic climate generator is fed with two scenarios of climate development until 2060. One assumes no future temperature change, the other uses the temperature trends of the IPCC-A1B climate change scenario. PROMET is run with both climate data sets. No change in low-flow is detected when no temperature change is assumed. The IPCC-A1B climate scenario results in marked decreases of low-flow at the outlet of the watershed.

  14. Quantification of diffuse and concentrated pollutant loads at the watershed-scale: an Italian case study. (United States)

    Candela, Angela; Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare


    In this study, diffuse and point source pollutant loads were evaluated using an Italian case study: the Nocella catchment, which has been subject to extensive monitoring. The Nocella catchment is located in Sicily (Italy) and has an area of about 60 km(2). The river receives wastewater and stormwater from two urban areas drained by combined sewers. The two sewer systems, two wastewater treatment plants and a river reach were monitored during both dry and wet weather periods. Thereafter, an integrated catchment-scale model was applied to simulate point pollutant sources, i.e., pollution coming from the urban drainage system, and nonpoint pollutant sources, i.e., pollution coming from agricultural and wildlife activities. Different models were combined and long-term simulations were carried out in order to reconstruct the total pollutant loads discharged into the receiving water body and identify the roles of the different pollutant sources. This study demonstrates the complexity of water quality assessment in partially urbanised natural basins where neither point nor nonpoint sources can be neglected. Point sources are mainly responsible for acute oxygen demanding polluting impact during wet weather periods, and both point and nonpoint sources are responsible for the impact of nutrients on the receiving water body. PMID:19494451

  15. Hydrologic Effects of Brush Management in Central Texas (United States)

    Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.


    Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing brush management practices (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal cooperators, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Preliminary results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget as well as water quality between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods.


    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Chacama Rodríguez.

    Full Text Available Se propone que durante la prehistoria tardía de la precordillera de Arica o Altos de Arica se llevó a cabo en dicha zona una interacción cultural, política y económica entre poblaciones de tradición de valles occidentales y poblaciones altiplánicas, específicamente Caranga. Paralelamente a las menci [...] onadas formas de interacción, la etnia Caranga habría sostenido además un manejo simbólico del espacio cordillerano, al que hoy podemos acceder mediante ciertos tipos de representaciones que han dejado sus huellas en el imaginario de estas poblaciones así como en el paisaje cultural dejado por ellas. Dichas representaciones hacen referencia a la invocación de los cerros y a la construcción de estructuras arquitectónicas vinculadas al ámbito ritual, que en su conjunto nos aproximan a la ideología Caranga y por ende al manejo simbólico de la vertiente occidental andina. Abstract in english It is proposed that during the late prehistory of the precordillera of Arica or 'Altos de Arica', there were cultural, political and economic interactions between populations of the western valleys and the highland populations, specifically the Caranga. Parallel to the above forms of interaction, th [...] e ethnic Caranga have also held the mountain as a symbolic space, which today can be unders-tood through certain types of representations that have left their mark in the minds of these populations as well as in the cultural landscape. These representations make reference to the invocation of the hills and the construction of architectural structures linked to the ritual sphere, which when together allow us to approximate the Caranga ideology and therefore the symbolic management of the Andean western watershed.

  17. The typology, frequency and magnitude of some behaviour events in case of torrential hydrographical management works in the upper Tarlung watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Clinciu


    Full Text Available During the 20-25 years from their startup, the torrential hydrographicalmanagement works carried out in the upper T?rlung Watershed(55 dams, 22 sills, 25 traverses and 4 outlet canals have exposed a number of 24 behaviour event types: 13 out of them reduce the safety of exploitation and the sustainability of the works (hereinafter called damages, while the other 11 reduce the functionality of the works (hereinafter called disfunctionalities. The following behaviour events have the highest frequency:(i damages caused by water and alluvia erosion (erosive damages,followed by breakages, in the category of damages, and (ii unsupervised installation of forest vegetation on the managed torrential hydrographical network and apron siltation, in the category of disfunctionalities. For methodological reasons, only the erosive damage of works was successively analysed, according to two criteria: the average depth (cm in the eroded area and the percentage of the erosive area out of the total surface. Further on, by combining the two criteria for analysis, five representation areas with the same damage intensity were defined (very low, low, medium, high and very high intensity. With the aid of the event frequency values recorded in these areas and of the coefficients attributed to each intensity class (from 1 for very low intensity to 5 for very high intensity, the author reached the conclusion that the level of the recorded intensity of the damage caused by water and alluvia erosion ranged from very low to low.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study: Watershed and Estuary Mapping (United States)

    Hansen, Mark


    Tampa Bay, Florida, and its environs have experienced phenomenal urban growth and significant changes in land-use practices over the past 50 years. This trend is expected to continue, with human activity intensifying and affecting a wider geographic region. Urbanization creates impervious surfaces, which increase stormwater runoff and contribute to greater amounts of chemicals flowing into coastal waters. Man-made structures including bridges, a gas pipeline, desalination plant, ports, navigation channels, and extensive sea walls have been built and will continue to be maintained and modified. This task of the Tampa Bay Study aims to provide a better understanding of these and other man-made impacts on the Tampa Bay region.

  19. Software for Managing Parametric Studies (United States)

    Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; DeVivo, Adrian


    The Information Power Grid Virtual Laboratory (ILab) is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) graphical-user-interface computer program that generates shell scripts to facilitate parametric studies performed on the Grid. (The Grid denotes a worldwide network of supercomputers used for scientific and engineering computations involving data sets too large to fit on desktop computers.) Heretofore, parametric studies on the Grid have been impeded by the need to create control language scripts and edit input data files painstaking tasks that are necessary for managing multiple jobs on multiple computers. ILab reflects an object-oriented approach to automation of these tasks: All data and operations are organized into packages in order to accelerate development and debugging. A container or document object in ILab, called an experiment, contains all the information (data and file paths) necessary to define a complex series of repeated, sequenced, and/or branching processes. For convenience and to enable reuse, this object is serialized to and from disk storage. At run time, the current ILab experiment is used to generate required input files and shell scripts, create directories, copy data files, and then both initiate and monitor the execution of all computational processes.

  20. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey


    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  1. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale. (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun


    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings. PMID:25169808

  2. WMOST v2 Case Study: Monponsett Ponds (United States)

    This webinar presents an overview of the preliminary results of a case study application of EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool v2 (WMOST) for stakeholders in the Monponsett Ponds Watershed Workgroup. Monponsett Ponds is a large water system consisting of two ba...

  3. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management


    Zhenghong Che; Zhengmei Che


    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students’ ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial management.


    Resource Purpose:The Watershed Information Network is a set of about 30 web pages that are organized by topic. These pages access existing databases like the American Heritage Rivers Services database and Surf Your Watershed. WIN in itself has no data or data sets.L...

  5. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai


    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value-and-Stakeholder structure corresponding to the social subsystem. This study seeks to share a vision of social adaptation for a global sustainable future through developing a network to adopt contributions from and forming partnerships among all ecosystem stakeholders.

  6. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China) (United States)

    changwen, ye


    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  7. Advances in Stated Preference Studies for Valuing and Managing the Environment : A Developing Country Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassahun, Habtamu Tilahun


    The most important factor that inspires the work of this dissertation is the loss of ecosystem services. Soil erosion, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity are prevalent in developing countries. Thus, reliable estimates of their values are crucial for policy making and sustainable management of environmental and natural resources. However, empirical evidence shows that many valuation studies conducted in developing countries are of poor quality, questioning the reliability of their results. Therefore, the core work presented in this dissertation aims at improving the reliability of stated preference (SP) studies by addressing critical issues across four self-contained articles using three examples of SP surveys related to the Blue Nile ecosystem service valuation and watershed management. The dissertation answers three core research questions: 1) What incentive mechanisms can motivate farmers to participate in a new integrated private and common land management activity to reduce both on-site and offsite impacts of soil erosion and hence provide ecosystem services? 2) How much are ecosystem service users willing to pay for watershed management in the Blue Nile Basin?, And 3) How can stated preference methods be improved to get reliable value estimates? From this PhD study, we can draw three general conclusions regarding managing watershed externalities and application of SP methods in a developing country context. 1. There is no uniform incentive to motivate ecosystem service providers to implement land management strategies to reduce both on-site and offsite impacts of soil erosion. Thus, policy design to address both the on-site and off-site effects of soil erosion in the Ethiopian highlands of the Upper Blue Nile Basin should consider the heterogeneity of preference for incentives across different groups of farmers. 2. Citizens are willing to pay a substantial amount of money for environmental services. However, from our results we can conclude that the overall WTP for environmental services are often underestimated. 3. SP methods can provide reliable estimates of value in a developing country context. However, several issues need to be considered in the design of the survey instrument as well as in the data analysis.

  8. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.


    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  9. Sediment loss and its cause in Puerto Rico watersheds (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Taguas, E. V.; Mbonimpa, E. G.; Hu, W.


    A major environmental concern in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is increased sediment load to water reservoirs, to estuaries, and finally to coral reef areas outside the estuaries. Sediment deposition has significantly reduced the storage capacity of reservoirs, and sediments, with their associated contaminants and nutrients that are adsorbed, can stress corals and negatively impact reef health. To prevent and manage sediment loss it is therefore important to understand local soil erosion and sediment transport processes. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of landscape characteristics on sediment loss. We analyzed available precipitation and sediment data collected in Puerto Rico during the past three decades, as well as information on land use, soil properties, and topography. Our partial least squares analysis was not very successful in identifying major factors associated with sediment loss due to the complexity of the study's watersheds; however, it was found that topography and rainfall factors do not play a leading role. Sediment loss from the ridge watersheds in Puerto Rico was mainly caused by interactions of development, heavy rainfall events (especially hurricanes), and steep mountainous slopes associated with the ridges. These results improve our understanding of sediment loss resulting from changes in land use/cover within a Puerto Rico watershed, and allow stakeholders to make more informed decisions about land use planning.

  10. Gully control in SAT watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pathak


    Full Text Available Gully erosion is geographically a widespread problem. It is common in the semi-arid region, characterized by denuded landscape and flash floods. An estimated 4 million ha land in India and 29 million ha of land in Africa are affected by severe gully erosion. Gully erosion is more difficult and expensive to control than other types of soil erosion. A full understanding of erosion processes at various stages of gully development is essential to achieve gully stabilization. Without proper understanding often the measures taken for controlling gully were found unnecessary or ineffective. This report provides the basic knowledge of gully formation and its causes. The classification of gullies and the basic principles of its control are explained. Drawing primarily the experiences from the several on-farm watershed projects implemented by ICRISAT, the report provides the practical approach for gully control in the context of overall watershed development and management. The basic considerations and the design details of various gully control structures, viz, loose rock dam, double-row post-brush dam, double-row post-stone dam, single-row post-stone dam, stone wall dam, masonry check-dam, earthen check-dam and gabion structures are covered in detail. The key hydrological data, ie, runoff volume and peak runoffrate measured at the watershed scale along with design peak runoff rate for the various locations in India are given. These data will greatly assist the watershed implementing agencies in the selection, design, construction and maintenance of gully control structures.

  11. Comprehensive hydrologic calibration of SWAT and water balance analysis in mountainous watersheds in northwest China (United States)

    Lu, Zhixiang; Zou, Songbing; Xiao, Honglang; Zheng, Chunmiao; Yin, Zhenliang; Wang, Weihua

    Model calibration is important for streamflow simulations using distributed hydrological models, especially in highland and cold areas of northwest China with scarce data. Quantitative analysis of water balance based on the accurate simulation is also essential for reasonably planning and managing water resources in these river basins facing a severe water shortage. In this study, a comprehensive method was proposed to calibrate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in the Yingluoxia watershed, upstream area of the Heihe River basin; it was based on multi-temporal, multi-variable and multi-site integrated drainage characteristics. Meanwhile a fresh approach of the parameter transferability and model validation was used by applying the set of calibrated parameters in its tributary to other area of the watershed. The results indicated that the method was effective and feasible; the values of Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (r2) were greater than 0.81 and as high as 0.94 and the absolute values of the Percent Bias (PBIAS) were less than 2. Based the output of model the water balance in the Yingluoxia watershed was analyzed, that the mean annual precipitation, evapotranspiration, and discharge of the watershed from 1990 to 2000 were 491.8 mm, 334 mm, and 157.8 mm, respectively. The comprehensive calibration method based on multi-temporal, multi-variable and multi-site integrated drainage characteristics can better portray the hydrological processes of watershed and improve the model simulation; and the output of the model then provide a reliable reference for assessing and managing water resource of the watershed.

  12. Watershed: A Comparative Study


    Shikha Manrai #; Rajiv Bansal #


    Morphological gradient is often used to find the gradient of an image which is further used for the transformation. However, noise in the gradient image results in to over-segmentation which have an undesirable bad effect on resulting segmented image. For the fine segmentation results the quality of the gradient estimate has a major influence on the segmentation performance. In this paper it is shownthat different types of gradient are computed with the help of different operators and further...

  13. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, Timor Leste using GIS, remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique (United States)

    Pinto, Domingos; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.; Ninsawat, Sarawut


    Groundwater plays an important role for socio-economic development of Comoro watershed in Timor Leste. Despite the significance of groundwater for sustainable development, it has not always been properly managed in the watershed. Therefore, this study seeks to identify groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, using geographical information systems and remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process technique. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five classes and validated with the recorded bore well yield data. It was found that the alluvial plain in the northwest along the Comoro River has very high groundwater potential zone which covers about 5.4 % (13.5 km2) area of the watershed. The high groundwater potential zone was found in the eastern part and along the foothills and covers about 4.8 % (12 km2) of the area; moderate zone covers about 2.0 % (5 km2) of the area and found in the higher elevation of the alluvial plain. The poor and very poor groundwater potential zone covers about 87.8 % (219.5 km2) of the watershed. The hilly terrain located in the southern and central parts of the study area has a poor groundwater potential zone due to higher degree of slope and low permeability of conglomerate soil type. The demarcation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed will be helpful for future planning, development and management of the groundwater resources.

  14. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  15. Information Management in Communication Studies




    An introduction to the concept of Information Management. Its close relation to other disciplines, the tasks it covers and its impact in Information Society. Digital citizens and Information Literacy.

  16. Study of industry safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with general remarks, industrial accidents, statistics of industrial accidents, unsafe actions, making machinery and facilities safe, safe activities, having working environment safe, survey of industrial accidents and analysis of causes, system of safety management and operations, safety management planning, safety education, human engineering such as human-machines system, system safety, and costs of disaster losses. It lastly adds individual protective equipment and working clothes including protect equipment for eyes, face, hands, arms and feet.

  17. Contamination of the Sulfur River Wildlife Management Area and watershed in and near Texarkana, Arkansas and Texas (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted this study in response to the concern of local citizens that contaminants from four industrial facilities two of which...

  18. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lien Lo


    Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  19. Experimental Study of Splash Erosion and Its Relation With Some Soil Properties in Three Adjacent Land Uses (A Case Study: Kasilian Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaie Pasha


    Full Text Available As the first event in soil erosion, rain splash erosion causes movement of soil fragments. Splash is an important process in interrill erosion. The amount of soil particles detached from the surface is associated with soil and rain characteristics and may be affected by rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility. Therefore, in this study, splash erosion rate and its relation with some soil properties were studied. 120 soil samples were collected from three adjacent land uses including forest, rangeland and agriculture in two depths of 0-10 and10-20 cm in Kasilian Watershed. Soil samples were investigated under the experimental condition using splash cup and rainfall simulator. Results showed no significant differences between splash erosion in different land uses. Cultivated and rangeland soils were found to show a significantly lower organic matter (OM by 59.93% and 33.62% in depth (0-10cm and 33.33% and 25.59% in depth (10-20cm, respectively. We also found significance positive correlation between percent of silt and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.69, p=0.018 and significance negative correlation between soil organic matter and splash erosion rate in rangeland (r=0.767, p=0.001 and significance positive correlation between K-USLE and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.00, p=0.758.

  20. Management and climate change in coastal Oregon forests: The Panther Creek Watershed as a case study (United States)

    The highly productive forests of the Oregon Coast Range Mountains have been intensively harvested for many decades, and recent interest has emerged in the potential for removing harvest residue as a source of renewable woody biomass energy. However, the long-term consequences of ...

  1. Long-Term Observations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Export in Paired-Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage. (United States)

    Sunohara, M D; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Craiovan, E; Topp, E; Que, Z; Seidou, O; Frey, S K; Lapen, D R


    Controlled tile drainage (CTD) regulates water and nutrient export from tile drainage systems. Observations of the effects of CTD imposed en masse at watershed scales are needed to determine the effect on downstream receptors. A paired-watershed approach was used to evaluate the effect of field-to-field CTD at the watershed scale on fluxes and flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of N and P during multiple growing seasons. One watershed (467-ha catchment area) was under CTD management (treatment [CTD] watershed); the other (250-ha catchment area) had freely draining or uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) (reference [UCTD] watershed). The paired agricultural watersheds are located in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analysis of covariance and paired tests were used to assess daily fluxes and FWMCs during a calibration period when CTD intervention on the treatment watershed was minimal (2005-2006, when only 4-10% of the tile-drained area was under CTD) and a treatment period when the treatment (CTD) watershed had prolific CTD intervention (2007-2011 when 82% of tile drained fields were controlled, occupying >70% of catchment area). Significant linear regression slope changes assessed using ANCOVA ( ? 0.1) for daily fluxes from upstream and downstream monitoring sites pooled by calibration and treatment period were -0.06 and -0.20 (stream water) (negative values represent flux declines in CTD watershed), -0.59 and -0.77 (NH-N), -0.14 and -0.15 (NO-N), -1.77 and -2.10 (dissolved reactive P), and -0.28 and 0.45 (total P). Total P results for one site comparison contrasted with other findings likely due to unknown in-stream processes affecting total P loading, not efficacy of CTD. The FWMC results were mixed and inconclusive but suggest physical abatement by CTD is the means by which nutrient fluxes are predominantly reduced at these scales. Overall, our study results indicate that CTD is an effective practice for reducing watershed scale fluxes of stream water, N, and P during the growing season. PMID:26436276

  2. Watershed Restoration and Protection under Changing Climate Conditions in Kansas (United States)

    Sheshukov, A. Y.; Douglas-Mankin, K. R.; Wilson, B. N.


    Non-point pollution sources from agricultural fields, grazing lands, and urban areas are leading causes of water-quality problems in the United States. State of Kansas is actively involved in a watershed-scale planning and management initiative called the Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) that fosters greater watershed stakeholder involvement and attempts to enhance effectiveness of implementation of conservation practices. The WRAPS framework consists of: (1) identifying watershed restoration and protection needs, (2) establishing management goals for watershed community, (3) creating a cost-effective action plan to achieve goals, and (4) implementing the action plan. The current watershed assessment plan within the WRAPS framework is based on historical and current conditions and does not consider shifts in weather patterns and associated land-use changes due to climate change. To quantify potential climate change impacts on watershed management and estimate potential changes in pollutant loads, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model within several watersheds in Eastern Kansas that are currently listed within the WRAPS program. The model was calibrated and validated on the historic data and used the current state of implementation of conservation practices. This baseline provided a reference for comparison to future climate change scenarios. Climate data from future global climate model (GCM) scenarios provided by NCAR was downscaled, and meteorological data for daily model input was generated using the Weather Input for Nonpoint Data Simulations (WINDS) weather generator. Results will (1) demonstrate various methods of presenting the impact of GCM projections on expected watershed-scale hydrologic and water-quality responses, (2) quantify the degree to which hydrologic and water-quality responses to conservation-practice implementation change as climate inputs change, and (3) discuss the importance of climate change on stakeholder decisions toward watershed restoration and protection.

  3. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed (United States)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.


    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, <0.05 ppm, 0.5 ppm, and 5 ppm in surface runoff, shallow subsurface water, and groundwater, respectively. Atrazine concentrations were, on average, <0.001 ppb, 0.052 ppb and <0.0001 in surface runoff, shallow subsurface water and groundwater, respectively. The data indicated that TN in stream water was primarily from groundwater, while shallow subsurface water was the dominant source of atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  4. Valuing investments in sustainable land management using an integrated modelling framework to support a watershed conservation scheme in the Upper Tana River, Kenya (United States)

    Hunink, Johannes E.; Bryant, Benjamin P.; Vogl, Adrian; Droogers, Peter


    We analyse the multiple impacts of investments in sustainable land use practices on ecosystem services in the Upper Tana basin (Kenya) to support a watershed conservation scheme (a "water fund"). We apply an integrated modelling framework, building on previous field-based and modelling studies in the basin, and link biophysical outputs to economic benefits for the main actors in the basin. The first step in the modelling workflow is the use of a high-resolution spatial prioritization tool (Resource Investment Optimization System -- RIOS) to allocate the type and location of conservation investments in the different subbasins, subject to budget constraints and stakeholder concerns. We then run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the RIOS-identified investment scenarios to produce spatially explicit scenarios that simulate changes in water yield and suspended sediment. Finally, in close collaboration with downstream water users (urban water supply and hydropower) we link those biophysical outputs to monetary metrics, including: reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for upstream farmers in the conservation area. We explore how different budgets and different spatial targeting scenarios influence the return of the investments and the effectiveness of the water fund scheme. This study is novel in that it presents an integrated analysis targeting interventions in a decision context that takes into account local environmental and socio-economic conditions, and then relies on detailed, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the economic return on those investments. We conclude that the approach allows for an analysis on different spatial and temporal scales, providing conclusive evidence to stakeholders and decision makers on the contribution and benefits of the land-based investments in this basin. This is serving as foundational work to support the implementation of the Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund, a public-private partnership to safeguard ecosystem service provision and food security.

  5. Examining Land-Use/Land-Cover Change in the Lake Dianchi Watershed of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China with Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: 1974-2008


    Yingchun Fu; Ke Zhang; Yaolong Zhao; Hong Zhang


    Monitoring land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) and exploring its mechanisms are important processes in the environmental management of a lake watershed. The purpose of this study was to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of LULCC by using multi landscape metrics in the Lake Dianchi watershed, which is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China. Landsat images from the years 1974, 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analyzed using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. The result...

  6. Multi-Layer Assessment of Land Use and Related Changes for Decision Support in a Coastal Zone Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Gitau


    Full Text Available In order to address the challenges in coastal regions, there is the need to understand the extent and impacts of past changes and their implications for future management. Land use data and remotely-sensed imagery are often used to provide insights into these changes. Often, however, existing land use data are inconsistent, thus differences observed through their analyses could also be attributable to error. The use of multiple layers of data, in addition and as related to basic land use layers, has been suggested in the literature as a method to mitigate such error. This study used existing land use data, population, stream flow, climate and water quality data with a view to determining what information could be discerned from multi-layer analyses and whether or how it could be used in watershed-level management decision making. Results showed that all the datasets provided useful, but not necessarily complemental, insights into spatial and temporal changes occurring in the watershed. The information obtained did, however, provide a broader perspective on watershed dynamics, which would be useful for watershed-level decision making. Overall, the multi-layer approach was found suitable in the absence of consistent land use data, provided results were interpreted in context, considering the historical perspective and with a working knowledge of the watershed.

  7. Implementation of watershed based image segmentation algorithm in FPGA


    Ruparelia, Sameer


    The watershed algorithm is a commonly used method of solving the image segmentation problem. However, of the many variants of the watershed algorithm not all are equally well suited for hardware implementation. Different algorithms are studied and the watershed algorithm based on connected components is selected for the implementation, as it exhibits least computational complexity, good segmentation quality and can be implemented in the FPGA. It has simplified memory access compared to all ot...

  8. Green Infrastructure Management Techniques in Arid and Semi-arid Regions: Software Implementation and Demonstration using the AGWA/KINEROS2 Watershed Model (United States)

    Increasing urban development in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States has led to greater demand for water in a region with limited water resources and has fundamentally altered the hydrologic response of developed watersheds. Green Infrastructure (GI) p...


    The Chesapeake Bay Watershed has lost over half of its historic wetlands, and most of those that remain are forested, Coastal Plain wetlands. Unfortunately, remaining wetlands are at high risk for future loss, due to inadequate legal protection and rapid population growth. Hydrology (flooding and so...

  10. A Watershed Cooperative Addresses Short and Long-Term Perspectives for the Management of Harmful Algae at a Southwestern Ohio Drinking Water Reservoir (United States)

    The multi-agency East Fork Watershed Cooperative (EFWCoop) has focused discussion and consequent leveraged monitoring efforts to understand how to ensure water safety in the short term. The EFWCoop is also collecting the dense data sets required to consider potential options for...

  11. Soil bio-engineering for watershed management and disaster mitigation in Ecuador: a short-term species suitability test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preti F


    Full Text Available This paper reports a soil bio-engineering technical assessment program conducted in the Santo Domingo, Ecuador region. Autochthonous plant species survivorship and vegetative growth was evaluated in a short-term palisade experimental regime. Among the four species evaluated, Brugmansia versicolor, Malvaviscus penduliflorus, and Trichanthera gigantea performed well, evidenced by > 70% survivorship, however Euphorbia cotinifolia exhibited increased mortality (59%. Significant differences and notable variability in terminal shoot length and stem diameter among species indicated further study is warranted in growth parameters.

  12. Integrated Landsat Image Analysis and Hydrologic Modeling to Detect Impacts of 25-Year Land-Cover Change on Surface Runoff in a Philippine Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Paringit


    Full Text Available Landsat MSS and ETM+ images were analyzed to detect 25-year land-cover change (1976–2001 in the critical Taguibo Watershed in Mindanao Island, Southern Philippines. This watershed has experienced historical modifications of its land-cover due to the presence of logging industries in the 1950s, and continuous deforestation due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture in the present time. To estimate the impacts of land-cover change on watershed runoff, land-cover information derived from the Landsat images was utilized to parameterize a GIS-based hydrologic model. The model was then calibrated with field-measured discharge data and used to simulate the responses of the watershed in its year 2001 and year 1976 land-cover conditions. The availability of land-cover information on the most recent state of the watershed from the Landsat ETM+ image made it possible to locate areas for rehabilitation such as barren and logged-over areas. We then created a “rehabilitated” land-cover condition map of the watershed (re-forestation of logged-over areas and agro-forestation of barren areas and used it to parameterize the model and predict the runoff responses of the watershed. Model results showed that changes in land-cover from 1976 to 2001 were directly related to the significant increase in surface runoff. Runoff predictions showed that a full rehabilitation of the watershed, especially in barren and logged-over areas, will be likely to reduce the generation of a huge volume of runoff during rainfall events. The results of this study have demonstrated the usefulness of multi-temporal Landsat images in detecting land-cover change, in identifying areas for rehabilitation, and in evaluating rehabilitation strategies for management of tropical watersheds through its use in hydrologic modeling.

  13. An Overview of Stream Ecological Responses to Urban Effects and Management Practices in New England (United States)

    Many recent studies have found large changes in ecological conditions related to small increases in watershed development. Future development and restoration practices will benefit from better documenting the effectiveness of management practices. We present (1) a brief summary o...

  14. Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA (United States)

    Tu, Jun


    A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

  15. Local Algorithm for Monitoring Total Suspended Sediments in Micro-Watersheds Usin Drones and Remote Sensing Applications. Case Study: TEUSACÁ River, la Calera, Colombia (United States)

    Sáenz, N. A.; Paez, D. E.; Arango, C.


    An empirical relationship of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) concentrations and reflectance values obtained with Drones' aerial photos and processed using remote sensing tools was set up as the main objective of this research. A local mathematic algorithm for the micro-watershed of the Teusacá River at La Calera, Colombia, was developed based on the computing of four component of bands from consumed-grade cameras obtaining from each their corresponding reflectance values from procedures for correcting digital camera imagery and using statistical analysis for study the fit and RMSE of 25 regressions. The assessment was characterized by the comparison of reflectance values and 34 in-situ data measurements concentrations between 1.6 and 33 mg L-1 taken from the superficial layer of the river in two campaigns. A large data set of empirical and referenced algorithm from literature were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the relationship. For estimation of TSS, a higher accuracy was achieved using the Tassan's algorithm with the BAND X/ BANDX ratio. The correlation coefficient with R2 = X demonstrate the feasibility of use remote sensed data with consumed-grade cameras as an effective tool for a frequent monitoring and controlling of water quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids of watersheds, these being the most vulnerable and less compliance with environmental regulations.

  16. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs. (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E


    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean ?(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The ?(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. PMID:25481652

  17. Modeling nitrogen loading in a small watershed in Southwest China using a DNDC model with hydrological enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Deng


    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality has been observed worldwide, and inputs of nitrogen (N, along with other nutrients, play a key role in the process of contamination. The quantification of N loading from non-point sources at a watershed scale has long been a challenge. Process-based models have been developed to address this problem. Because N loading from non-point sources result from interactions between biogeochemical and hydrological processes, a model framework must include both types of processes if it is to be useful. This paper reports the results of a study in which we integrated two fundamental hydrologic features, the SCS (Soil Conservation Service curve function and the MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss, into a biogeochemical model, the DNDC. The SCS curve equation and the MUSLE are widely used in hydrological models for calculating surface runoff and soil erosion. Equipped with the new added hydrologic features, DNDC was substantially enhanced with the new capacity of simulating both vertical and horizontal movements of water and N at a watershed scale. A long-term experimental watershed in Southwest China was selected to test the new version of the DNDC. The target watershed's 35.1 ha of territory encompass 19.3 ha of croplands, 11.0 ha of forest lands, 1.1 ha of grassplots, and 3.7 ha of residential areas. An input database containing topographic data, meteorological conditions, soil properties, vegetation information, and management applications was established and linked to the enhanced DNDC. Driven by the input database, the DNDC simulated the surface runoff flow, the subsurface leaching flow, the soil erosion, and the N loadings from the target watershed. The modeled water flow, sediment yield, and N loading from the entire watershed were compared with observations from the watershed and yielded encouraging results. The sources of N loading were identified by using the results of the model. In 2008, the modeled runoff-induced loss of total N from the watershed was 904 kg N yr?1, of which approximately 67 % came from the croplands. The enhanced DNDC model also estimated the watershed-scale N losses (1391 kg N yr?1 from the emissions of the N-containing gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and dinitrogen. Ammonia volatilization (1299 kg N yr?1 dominated the gaseous N losses. The study indicated that process-based biogeochemical models such as the DNDC could contribute more effectively to watershed N loading studies if the hydrological components of the models were appropriately enhanced.

  18. Modeling nitrogen loading in a small watershed in southwest China using a DNDC model with hydrological enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Deng


    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality has been observed worldwide, and inputs of nitrogen (N, along with other nutrients, play a key role in the process of contamination. The quantification of N loading from non-point sources at a watershed scale has long been a challenge. Process-based models have been developed to address this problem. Because N loading from non-point sources result from interactions between biogeochemical and hydrological processes, a model framework must include both types of processes if it is to be useful. This paper reports the results of a study in which we integrated two fundamental hydrologic features, the SCS (Soil Conservation Service curve function and the MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss, into a biogeochemical model, the DNDC. The SCS curve equation and the MUSLE are widely used in hydrological models for calculating surface runoff and soil erosion. Equipped with the new added hydrologic features, DNDC was substantially enhanced with the new capacity of simulating both vertical and horizontal movements of water and N at a watershed scale. A long-term experimental watershed in Southwest China was selected to test the new version of the DNDC. The target watershed's 35.1 ha of territory encompass 19.3 ha of croplands, 11.0 ha of forest lands, 1.1 ha of grassplots, and 3.7 ha of residential areas. An input database containing topographic data, meteorological conditions, soil properties, vegetation information, and management applications was established and linked to the enhanced DNDC. Driven by the input database, the DNDC simulated the surface runoff flow, the subsurface leaching flow, the soil erosion, and the N loadings from the target watershed. The modeled water flow, sediment yield, and N loading from the entire watershed were compared with observations from the watershed and yielded encouraging results. The sources of N loading were identified by using the results of the model. In 2008, the modeled runoff-induced loss of total N from the watershed was 904 kg N yr?1, of which approximately 67 % came from the croplands. The enhanced DNDC model also estimated the watershed-scale N losses (1391 kg N yr?1 from the emissions of the N-containing gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and dinitrogen. Ammonia volatilization (1299 kg N yr?1 dominated the gaseous N losses. The study indicated that process-based biogeochemical models such as the DNDC could contribute more effectively to watershed N loading studies if the hydrological components of the models were appropriately enhanced.

  19. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  20. Analysis of Erosion Level Using Map Windows Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution (MWAGNPS) on Jeneberang Sub-watershed South Sulawesi Province


    Ahmad Rifqi Asrib; M. Yanuar J. Purwanto; Sukandi S; E Eriza


    The aims of this study was to obtain information about the level of soil erosion in Jeneberang sub watershed, as well as the impact of land management and information to determine the direction of land management in the watershed. The approach model used is MWAGNPS. MWAGNPS Model is a model of cell-based rainfall events with the main components are topographic maps, land use and soil type. This model is able to determine the source of erosion and the erosion that occurs. Simulation model show...

  1. 2012 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  2. Coaching managers : A Q methodological study of managers’ subjective experience of being coaching managers


    Halvorsen, Marit G.


    The aim of this study is to explore managers’ subjective experience of having a coaching approach to management. This has been researched through a Q methodological approach where 18 participants sorted a sample of 36 statements based on their subjective experience. These statements were prepared on the basis of a research design which included how managers perceive their role as both manager and coach, how they relate to a focus on process and product, and how they experience the relational ...

  3. Impact evaluation of agrotechnologies in watersheds. (United States)

    Gomarasca, M A


    The special project RAISA (Advanced Researches for Innovation in Agricultural Systems) of the National Research Council of Italy concerns the development of new methodologies for the study and evaluation of the impact of agrotechnologies on the environment. In the project, several trans-disciplinary Units have worked together since 1990. The aim of the project is to define systems, using tools such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems, for decision making support in land planning and land use management, with particular attention to groudwater table pollution. The fundamental steps for evaluation of the impact of agrotechnologies on the Po river watershed, 75,000 km(2) in northern Italy, and Tevere (Tiber) river watershed, 17.169 km(2) in Central Italy are described here. The study concerns particular areas located in the western part of the Po River plain, where flooded rice is the main crop, and in the central plain of the Tevere basin where the risk of water pollution is considerable, due to small and medium sized swine breeding farms. The aspects considered were water pollution due to mineral nitrogen used to fertilize the rice crop and the nitrogen contained in the waste water from pig farms. For the Po river basin the methodology developed was based on the integration of satellite remote sensing images, and the available cartography, such as topographic and thematic maps, together with the hydrological and the toxicological data of the chemical fertilizers employed, summarized in maps of the groundwater table pollution hazard. A simpler evaluation was obtained in the Tevere river basin: the thematic layers were crossed in bi-directional matrices and the result merged with the map of the territorial distributionof the swine. In both cases the selected information was integrated and processed in Integrated sub-basin scale. The GISs led to the development of a user-friendly system for formalizing our knowledge of the degree of pollution hazard in simple and readable maps. PMID:24193311

  4. Watershed development practices for ecorestoration in a tribal area - A case study in Attappady hills, South India (United States)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Zaag, Pieter Van der

    Attappady is a rural area in Kerala, South India, that has suffered from severe land degradation and which is inhabited by a poor and predominantly tribal population. The combination of severe land degradation, poverty and a tribal population make Attappady hydrologically and socially unique. Ecological degradation and deforestation followed the gradual building up of land pressure resulting from immigration by more wealthy outsiders. The hills of Attappady were once the forest land of Kerala. Recently it was on the verge of complete degradation. This paper explains how an ecorestoration project involving soil and water conservation interventions, the introduction of agro-forestry, nutritional diversification, income generation activities and training was implemented in a participatory manner. The project had positive impacts on both the environment and the livelihoods of the people living in the watershed, but it also suffered from drawbacks. This paper reports on the successes as well as the lessons learned from this unique ecorestoration project.

  5. Determination of soil loss by 137Cs fallout radionuclide in Ömerli watershed of ?stanbul, Turkey


    KIZILTA?, Muhammet Sahip; HACIYAKUPO?LU, Sevilay; GÖKBULAK, Ferhat; HIZAL, Ahmet


    Soil erosion and sedimentation in watersheds are usually part of the information to be considered for soil and water conservation measures. Soil loss is generally estimated with models or measured with plot studies. Although fallout radionuclides (FRN) methodology provides a powerful technique for predicting the impacts of proposed land management strategies on soil erosion and sediment yield within river basins and estimates erosion based on fallout radioisotopes (Cs-137, Pb-210, Be-7) radio...

  6. Effect of Wildfire on Hydrological Processes in a Monoculture Invasive Grass Catchment within the Panama Canal Watershed (United States)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.


    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to watershed management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One question posed by this project concerns the hydrologic role of fire in tropical environments. Within the Panama Canal Watershed, fire has seen widespread use among agriculturalists. This study focused on a monoculture invasive grass (Saccharum spontaneum) catchment. Specifically, the effects of significant wildfire events on hydrological processes in the catchment were analyzed. The catchment is within Panama's protected Soberania National Park, which is part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Installed instrumentation includes a rain gauge cluster, a two-stage v-notch weir, atmometer and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across the catchment is available from 2009-2013. Various hydrologic characteristics, such as runoff ratio, peak flow per unit area, time to peak, runoff duration, and leaf area index, from before and after the events were compared. These characteristics are related to rates of ground water recharge and the occurrence of flash floods. This study provides a baseline from which the potential impacts of fire on hydrological processes in tropical environments can be analyzed.

  7. The typology, frequency and magnitude of some behaviour events in case of torrential hydrographical management works in the upper Tarlung watershed


    Ioan Clinciu; Ion C?t?lin Petri?an; Mihai Daniel Ni??; Nicu Constantin Tudose


    During the 20-25 years from their startup, the torrential hydrographicalmanagement works carried out in the upper T?rlung Watershed(55 dams, 22 sills, 25 traverses and 4 outlet canals) have exposed a number of 24 behaviour event types: 13 out of them reduce the safety of exploitation and the sustainability of the works (hereinafter called damages), while the other 11 reduce the functionality of the works (hereinafter called disfunctionalities). The following behaviour events have the highest ...

  8. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Watershed Services of the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City, Philippines


    Margaret Mejorada Calderon; Kharmina Paola Angat Anit; Leo Kris Mariano Palao; Rodel Diaz Lasco


    Watersheds provide numerous ecosystem services to downstream communities often with no cost to them. Although these services are valuable to humans, they do not have monetary values attached to them, making their total economic value quite ambiguous. This ambiguity results in the non-optimal use of the natural resources that leads to the degradation of the watersheds. One approach that could address this issue is payments for ecological services (PES). The main objective of this study was to ...

  9. The Future Management of Thai Musical Study


    Supatra Vilailuck; Supunnee Leauboonshoo; Sudarat Janlekha


    The two aims of this investigation wereto study the management of Thai musical education and study the trends of Thai musical education management and improvement for the academic year 2013 to the academic year 2022. Data was gathered using aholistic approach between qualitative analysis and the Delphi method. For the Delphi method, 17 specialists were consulted. The results show that Thai music courses have been prescribed in 3 categories. Courses are assigned containing both theoretical and...

  10. Hydrological Modeling in a watershed of the Lower Araguaia River Basin, TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Viola


    Full Text Available Hydrological simulation is an important tool for water resources management since it allows for practitioners toevaluate the impacts of anthropic activities and climatic changes on water availability. The Lontra River watershedis situated in the Lower Araguaia River Basin which is an important economic region of Northern Tocantins State.The understanding of its hydrological features is fundamental for the development of environmental studies forsupporting the decision-making related to the water resources management as strong pressure has been observeddue to both the agricultural frontier expansion and installed economic center. The LASH hydrological model (standsfor Lavras Simulation of Hydrology is characterized as a deterministic, semi conceptual and spatially distributedmodel and has been successfully applied in watersheds located in Southeastern Brazil. It was found in this study thatthe model was able to adequately capture the overall hydrological regime in the studied watershed. Three statisticalcoefficients used for measuring the model goodness-of-fit, Nash-Sutcliffe (CNS, Log (CNS and determinationcoefficient (R², have shown values greater than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.90, respectively. The simulated flow duration curvepresented a good fit in relation to the observed one, with small errors for prediction of minimum and maximumstream flows. Thus, we can be conclude that LASH model simulated properly the hydrological regime in the LontraRiver Watershed and it can be applied for either evaluation water availability or planning and management ofwater resources in the Lower Araguaia River Basin.

  11. Conceptual model for transferring information between small watersheds (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.


    Stream and watershed management and restoration can be greatly facilitated through use of physiographic landform classification to organize and communicate natural resource, hazard, and environmental information at a broad scale (1:250,000) as illustrated by the Piedmont and Coastal Plain Provinces in Maryland, or at a small scale (1:24,000) as illustrated using divisions and zones combined with a conceptual model. The conceptual model brings together geology, surficial processes, landforms and land use change information at the small watershed scale and facilitates transfer of information from one small watershed to another with similar geology and landforms. Stream flow, sediment erosion, and water quality illustrate the use of the model.

  12. Evaluation of the current state of distributed watershed nutrient water quality modeling. (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher; Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad-Reza; Arhonditsis, George B


    Watershed models have been widely used for creating the scientific basis for management decisions regarding nonpoint source pollution. In this study, we evaluated the current state of watershed scale, spatially distributed, process-based, water quality modeling of nutrient pollution. Beginning from 1992, the year when Beven and Binley published their seminal paper on uncertainty analysis in hydrological modeling, and ending in 2010, we selected 257 scientific publications which (i) employed spatially distributed modeling approaches at a watershed scale; (ii) provided predictions of flow, nutrient/sediment concentrations or loads; and (iii) reported fit to measured data. Most "best practices" (optimization, validation, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis) are not consistently employed during model development. There are no statistically significant differences in model performance among land uses. Studies which used more than one point in space to evaluate their distributed models had significantly lower median values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (0.70 vs 0.56, p<0.005, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test), and r2 (p<0.005). This finding suggests that model calibration only to the basin outlet may mask compensation of positive and negative errors of source and transportation processes. We conclude by advocating a number of new directions for distributed watershed modeling, including in-depth uncertainty analysis and the use of additional information, not necessarily related to model end points, to constrain parameter estimation. PMID:25691078

  13. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management. (United States)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.


    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  14. Using Landsat and a Bayesian hard classifier to study forest change in the Salmon Creek Watershed area from 1972-2013 (United States)

    Mullis, David Stone

    The Salmon Creek Watershed in Sonoma County, California, USA, is home to a variety of wildlife, and many of its residents are mindful of their place in its ecology. In the past half century, several of its native and rare species have become threatened, endangered, or extinct, most notably the once common Coho salmon and Chinook salmon. The cause of this decline is believed to be a combination of global climate change, local land use, and land cover change. More specifically, the clearing of forested land to create vineyards, as well as other agricultural and residential uses, has led to a decline in biodiversity and habitat structure. I studied sub-scenes of Landsat data from 1972 to 2013 for the Salmon Creek Watershed area to estimate forest cover over this period. I used a maximum likelihood hard classifier to determine forest area, a Mahalanobis distance soft classifier to show the software's uncertainty in classification, and manually digitized forest cover to test and compare results for the 2013 30 m image. Because the earliest images were lower spatial resolution, I also tested the effects of resolution on these statistics. The images before 1985 are at 60 m spatial resolution while the later images are at 30 m resolution. Each image was processed individually and the training data were based on knowledge of the area and a mosaic of aerial photography. Each sub-scene was classified into five categories: water, forest, pasture, vineyard/orchard, and developed/barren. The research shows a decline in forest area from 1972 to around the mid-1990s, then an increase in forest area from the mid-1990s to present. The forest statistics can be helpful for conservation and restoration purposes, while the study on resolution can be helpful for landscape analysis on many levels.

  15. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald


    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  16. Payments for Watershed Protection Services: Emerging Lessons from the Philippines


    Daniel Gaitán Cremaschi; Rodel D. Lasco; Rafaela Jane P. Delfino


    There is growing interest on payments for ecosystem services (PES) in developing countries including the Philippines. Watersheds have been degraded through deforestation and subsequent conversion to other land cover, principally for agriculture. In the last decade, several Payments for Watershed Services schemes have been implemented and this paper is an attempt to assess the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different manag...

  17. Micro - Watershed Development Plans Using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques Panoli Village, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, Iindia (United States)

    Purushothuman, S.


    Sustainable development aims at maintaining the equilibrium between the human needs and economic developments within the parameters of environmental conservation through efficient use of natural resources to ensure tradeoff between desired productions - consumption levels. The well-known Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as a "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In essence, the sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and instrumental changes, all are in harmony". The sustainable development of natural resources is based on maintaining the fragile ecosystem balance between the productivity functions and conservation practices through monitoring and identification of problem areas, agricultural practices, crop rotation, use of bio-fertilizers, energy efficient farming methods and reclamation of underutilized lands. Sustainable development requires a holistic approach towards natural resources after taking into account the precarious environmental conditions. Watershed development has become the main involvement in natural resource management in India. This Dissertation demonstrates the use of Remote Sensing and GIS-based modeling framework for local-level planning, incorporating the sustainability aspects of Micro-watershed development. A case study has been taken in Panoli Village, Parner Taluka, Ahmanagar District, Maharashtra state to demonstrate the implementation of these new technologies for watershed prioritization and sustainable development. Watershed development and its management is achieved through the combination of database within the watershed boundaries of a drainage area to optimally develop land, water and plant resources to meet the basic minimum needs of the people in a sustained manner.;

  18. California Watershed Hydrologic Units (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring...

  19. The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia, U.S.A (United States)

    Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Sullivan, K.; Oakley, B.; Berrang, M.; Meinersmann, R.


    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FIB and pathogens in stream water and sediment based on three land management-affected categories: agricultural, forest, and waters receiving treated municipal wastewater. Two synoptic sampling events were conducted under baseflow conditions (Listeria spp. were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected at 15 locations (six agricultural (AG); six forested (FORS); and three receiving discharge from water pollution control plants (WPCP)) in the S. Fork Broad River watershed located in northeast Georgia, USA. Mean E. coli and E. faecalis concentrations were highest in the AG stream water samples (3.08 log MPN 100 mL -1 for E. coli and 3.07 log CFU 100 mL -1 for E. faecalis ) and lowest in the FORS water samples for E. coli (2.37 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) and WPCP water samples for E. faecalis (2.53 log CFU 100 mL -1 ). E. coli concentrations (2.74 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) in the WPCP streams were intermediate. Similar to water samples, E. coli concentrations were highest in the AG sediments (4.31 log MPN g -1 ), intermediate in the WPCP sediments (4.06 log MPN g -1 ), and lowest in the FORS sediments (3.46 log MPN g -1 ). In contrast to E. coli, E. faecalis concentrations were lower (1.10 to 1.31 log CFU g -1 ) and relatively more constant than E. coli in sediments over the three land management categories. Campylobacter was detected in 27% of the water samples and 8% of the sediment samples. The highest occurrence of Campylobacter detection was in the AG streams (15% of the water samples; 5% of the sediment samples). Listeria was detected in 76% of the water samples and 65% of the sediment samples. The FORS and AG streams had the highest occurrence of Listeria in water and sediment (32% and 29% of the water samples, respectively; 24% and 29% of sediment samples, respectively) suggesting Listeria is fairly ubiquitous in these streams. Based on the high concentrations of E. faecalis in water and E. coli in water and sediment, and higher frequency of Campylobacter detection in the AG streams, this study indicates that E. coli and Campylobacter may occur in high concentrations in stream sediments in land management areas where fecal material is deposited directly by livestock into the stream or adjacent land in large doses.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management


    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI


    161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEski?ehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM) as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…...

  1. Bed coarsening, riffle shortening, and channel enlargement in urbanizing watersheds, northern Kentucky, USA (United States)

    Hawley, Robert J.; MacMannis, Katherine R.; Wooten, Matthew S.


    Stream systems naturally respond to watershed land use dynamics, particularly in urban developments with unmanaged impervious areas. Such urban-provoked alterations to channel morphology cause water quality impairments, have adverse effects on aquatic biota, and pose risks to adjacent public infrastructure. Over the past four years we have collected detailed hydrogeomorphic data at 40 unique stream locations throughout northern Kentucky, with at least two rounds of annually repeated surveys at 70% of the sites and three rounds of surveys at 50% of the sites. Analysis of this time-series data encompassed measured rates of instability across three distinct dimensions including (1) channel cross sections, (2) longitudinal profiles, and (3) bed material particle composition. Regression analyses between geomorphic change and 2011 watershed imperviousness indicated stream cross sections in urban/suburban watersheds tend to be getting larger-their overall shape is both deepening and widening. Additionally, stream riffle lengths are shrinking and their pools are becoming both longer and deeper; and finally, their bed material composition is coarsening, particularly in streams in the early stages of watershed development. By documenting fluvial geomorphologic dynamics in such detail, this study highlights the process by which unmitigated urbanization homogenizes stream habitat and degrades aquatic ecosystems. This improved, process-based understanding of the urban-induced channel response sequence has clear implications to both stormwater management and stream/ecosystem restoration, particularly in stream systems where headcut migration is a primary driver of channel instability.

  2. Analysis of Hydrologic Flowpaths in Two Meso-scale Watersheds, Mt. Mansfield, VT (United States)

    Zinni, B. J.; Wemple, B. C.; Lini, A.; Shanley, J. B.


    The various paths by which water moves through forested watersheds are complex and not well understood. Much of our insight into runoff production processes and the effects of landuse are drawn from studies in small watersheds and on experiments involving traditional forest management activities (timber harvesting, road construction). The purpose of this research is to better understand stream water generation processes under varying seasonal and land-use conditions in two meso-scale basins in northern Vermont. An additional aspect of this research is an analysis of the impact of ski resort development on hydrologic flowpaths. We are utilizing stream and potential source water chemistries to characterize the flowpaths within the Ranch Brook (9.6 km2) and West Branch (11.7 km2) watersheds on the eastern slope of Mt. Mansfield. The West Branch basin encompasses an alpine ski resort while the Ranch Brook basin serves as our forested control site. Event-based samples of stream water have been collected since October 2000, and precipitation, soilwater, groundwater and snowpack samples were collected beginning in late spring of 2004. All were analyzed for their basic solute chemistry and oxygen isotopic signatures. Chemical data and principal components analysis have revealed dynamic systems of stream water generation in both watersheds. Our results provide new insights into runoff production and the effects of landuse activities in meso-scale basins.

  3. A methodology for evaluating evapotranspiration estimates at the watershed-scale using GRACE (United States)

    Billah, Mirza M.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Narayan, Ujjwal; Reager, J. T.; Lakshmi, Venkat; Famiglietti, James S.


    Accurate quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) at the watershed-scale remains an important research challenge. ET products from model simulations and remote sensing, even after incorporating in situ ET observations from flux towers in calibration or assimilation procedures, often produce different watershed areal-averaged ET estimates. These differences in ET estimates are magnified when they are integrated over time as part of water balance calculations. To address this challenge, we present a methodology for comparing watershed-average ET within a water balance framework that makes use of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-observed terrestrial water storage change (TWSC). The methodology is demonstrated for South Carolina for a five-year period (2003-2007) using four different ET products: ET generated using a locally calibrated VIC model, a MODIS-derived ET product, and ET generated from two models (NOAH and VIC) as part of the North American Land Data Assimilation Systems 2 (NLDAS-2) project. The results of the example application suggest that the NLDAS-NOAH ET product is most consistent with GRACE-observed TWSC for the overall study region and time period. However, for periods of decreasing TWS, when ET becomes a more significant term in the water balance, the locally calibrated VIC model showed the most agreement with GRACE-observed TWSC. Application of the methodology for other regions and time periods can provide insight into different ET products when used for watershed-scale water resources management.

  4. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi


    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment loading at watershed outlet were reduced with bioenergy scenarios except for stover removal scenarios with reduction ranging between 2.4% to 30.5%. Based on the simulation results for different bioenergy crop production scenario, we have also developed a multi-level spatial optimization framework (MLSOPT) to optimize production of food and energy crops under various sustainability objective functions. The method works in two levels, first level divides large watershed into small subareas and optimum solutions for individually for these subareas are identified. The second level uses these optimum solutions from the first level to identify watershed scale optimum solutions. The framework is tested with a complex spatial optimization case study designed to maximize crop residue (corn stover) harvest with minimum environmental impacts in a 2000 km2 watershed, located in Indiana, USA. In this presentation, results related to optimize sustainability of bioenergy crops will also be discussed.

  5. Estimation of nutrient sources and transport using Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes: a case study in Songhuajiang River Basin, China. (United States)

    Li, Xue; Wellen, Christopher; Liu, Guangxun; Wang, Yuqiu; Wang, Zhong-Liang


    We report here the first application of the Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to China, a country naturally and culturally distinct from previous SPARROW applications. The Songhuajiang River Basin (556,700 km(2)) empties into the Tongjiang monitoring section, a shared water resource of great import for both Chinese and Russian citizens. The model was calibrated to annual loads of total nitrogen (TN) at 102 sites and total phosphorus (TP) at 65 sites. We assessed the rates of delivery and loss of nutrients from diffuse sources and also provided reach-level predictions of the percentage of nutrient loads delivered from upstream subbasins to Tongjiang monitoring section. The results indicated that farmland and pasture land were responsible for about 70 % of nutrient inputs to the Tongjiang monitoring section. Point source inputs were not statistically significant sources of TN or TP. We presented evidence that rice paddies delivered less TN to streams per area than other types of cropland. The locations responsible for the highest TN and TP inputs to the Tongjiang monitoring section tended to be located near the mainstream, though the areas of highest TN delivered yield did not correspond to the areas of highest TP delivered yield. This suggests that different management priorities may be needed in different parts of the Songhuajiang River Basin. PMID:25483972

  6. Analysis of non-point and point source pollution in China: case study in Shima Watershed in Guangdong Province (United States)

    Fang, Huaiyang; Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei


    China economy has been rapidly increased since 1978. Rapid economic growth led to fast growth of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. A significant portion of fertilizers and pesticides entered the water and caused water quality degradation. At the same time, rapid economic growth also caused more and more point source pollution discharge into the water. Eutrophication has become a major threat to the water bodies. Worsening environment problems forced governments to take measures to control water pollution. We extracted land cover from Landsat TM images; calculated point source pollution with export coefficient method; then SWAT model was run to simulate non-point source pollution. We found that the annual TP loads from industry pollution into rivers are 115.0 t in the entire watershed. Average annual TP loads from each sub-basin ranged from 0 to 189.4 ton. Higher TP loads of each basin from livestock and human living mainly occurs in the areas where they are far from large towns or cities and the TP loads from industry are relatively low. Mean annual TP loads that delivered to the streams was 246.4 tons and the highest TP loads occurred in north part of this area, and the lowest TP loads is mainly distributed in middle part. Therefore, point source pollution has much high proportion in this area and governments should take measures to control point source pollution.

  7. Implementation of BMP Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change and Land Use Change in a Pasture-Dominated Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang


    Full Text Available Implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs can reduce non-point source (NPS pollutants from various land use activities. Watershed models are generally used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMP performance in improving water quality as the basis for watershed management recommendations. This study evaluates 171 management practice combinations that incorporate nutrient management, vegetated filter strips (VFS and grazing management for their performances in improving water quality in a pasture-dominated watershed with dynamic land use changes during 1992–2007 by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. These selected BMPs were further examined with future climate conditions (2010–2069 downscaled from three general circulation models (GCMs for understanding how climate change may impact BMP performance. Simulation results indicate that total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP losses increase with increasing litter application rates. Alum-treated litter applications resulted in greater TN losses, and fewer TP losses than the losses from untreated poultry litter applications. For the same litter application rates, sediment and TP losses are greater for summer applications than fall and spring applications, while TN losses are greater for fall applications. Overgrazing management resulted in the greatest sediment and phosphorus losses, and VFS is the most influential management practice in reducing pollutant losses. Simulations also indicate that climate change impacts TSS losses the most, resulting in a larger magnitude of TSS losses. However, the performance of selected BMPs in reducing TN and TP losses was more stable in future climate change conditions than in the BMP performance in the historical climate condition. We recommend that selection of BMPs to reduce TSS losses should be a priority concern when multiple uses of BMPs that benefit nutrient reductions are considered in a watershed. Therefore, the BMP combination of spring litter application, optimum grazing management and filter strip with a VFS ratio of 42 could be a promising alternative for use in mitigating future climate change.

  8. Management in Practice : A Multiple Case Study of Contemporary Managers in a Management Theory Context


    Lange, Julien; Schörling, Egon


    Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the distance between theory and practice in the field of management. Theoretical perspective In the literature review we have chosen to give insights on the concepts that aresurrounding management students: organization, management, leadership and culture. Bydoing we were able to get a better understanding of the concepts that are fundamental tomanagement studies. In addition to that, by selecting these concepts we could assimilate thekey p...

  9. Managing uncertainty in typical mining project studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Kühn; J.K., Visser.


    Full Text Available Mining project studies and their evaluation are characterised by high uncertainties. These uncertainties range in magnitude from, and are prevalent in, the geological data on which the project is based, through to the final prices received for the ore, metal, or mineral being sold to the market. The [...] process for managing uncertainties in mining projects could have a huge impact on the decision about the final option and on the project composition. It is therefore critical that a systematic process is followed that manages these uncertainties effectively and consistently throughout the project phases, and when evaluating various options one against the other. This paper discusses the results of an investigation to determine the extent to which risk management was applied in twenty different project studies in the mining environment. The results of these studies indicate that uncertainties relating to typical mining project studies are not well understood or managed. A process to manage these uncertainties throughout the project development phases was developed and used in a typical pre-feasibility study. The results indicate that the process can be successfully implemented; and that the process helps to develop the project faster by focusing the project teams most on the uncertainties that affect the project need or requirement.

  10. Integrated display and communication of information towards stakeholders. NAMIBIE: an application for the integrated management of the Thau lagoon and its watershed


    Loubersac, Lionel; Maraux, Sébastien; Lemsanni, Abdellah; Fiandrino, Annie; Jouan, Mathieu; Tellier, Denis; Denis, Jacques


    NAMIBIE (a French acronym for Integrated Multimedia Navigator Within Coastal Environment Data Bases) is a specific tool which first concept has been established by Ifremer and has been developed by an association between research in the field of coastal environment, innovation in the field of new information and communication technologies and services in the field of coastal integrated management and impact studies. The objectives of this tool is to facilitate research, direct access and disp...

  11. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting


    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  12. Relationships among environmental factors influencing soil erosion using GIS (Khiav Chay Watershed, Ardabil Province

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    Maryam Barmaki


    Full Text Available One of the biggest problems of natural resources is soil erosion. Effective land management to prevent soil loss requires prediction for large areas. Usually, empirical relations are used for investigating soil erosion in watershed areas. The case study is took place in Khiav Chay Watershed, Ardabil Province. In the current study, environmental factors, influence in water erosion of the area, investigated in four categories, including topographic, soil & ground, vegetation and human factors. From environmental factors influencing soil erosion, NDVI, land use and drainage density were studied and related maps produced and compared in two time series using aerial photos (1968 and satellite images (2007. For estimating specific erosion, EPM model was used. Work unit map was made and crossed with environmental factors map as independent variables (NDVI, land use and drainage density and specific erosion map as a dependent variable and then effective areas of each parameters specified.

  13. Monitoring deforestation and urbanization growth in rawal watershed area using remote sensing and gis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rawal watershed in Pothwar region of Pakistan has undergone significant changes in its environmental conditions and landuse activities due to numerous socio-economic and natural factors. These ultimately influence the livelihood of the inhabitants of the area. The connected environmental changes are resulting in accelerated land degradation, deforestation, and landslides. In the present study, spatio-temporal behaviour of landuse/landcover in the Rawal watershed area was investigated using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Satellite image data of LANDSAT ETM+ of 1992, 2000 and 2010 periods were processed and analyzed for detecting land use change and identifying risk prone locations in the watershed area. The study results revealed significant changes in the coverage of conifer forest (34 % decrease), scrub forest (29 % decrease) and settlement (231 % increase) during the decade 1992-2010. The rate of decline in conifer class is about 19 ha/annum while that of scrub class is 223 ha/annum. In both the cases, the rates of decrease were higher during the period 1992-2000 than the period 2000-2010. The Agriculture land has shown an increase of about 1.8% while built-up land had increased almost four folds, i.e. from 2.6 % in 1992 to 8.7 % in 2010. The growth in urbanization may result in further loss of forest cover in the watershed area. The findings of the study could help in developing effective strategies for future resource management and conservation, as well as for controlling land degradation in the watershed area. (author)


    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts of different extents and...

  15. Understanding the effect of watershed characteristic on the runoff using SCS curve number (United States)

    Damayanti, Frieta; Schneider, Karl


    Runoff modeling is a key component in watershed management. The temporal course and amount of runoff is a complex function of a multitude of parameters such as climate, soil, topography, land use, and water management. Against the background of the current rapid environmental change, which is due to both i) man-made changes (e.g. urban development, land use change, water management) as well as ii) changes in the natural systems (e.g. climate change), understanding and predicting the impacts of these changes upon the runoff is very important and affects the wellbeing of many people living in the watershed. A main tool for predictions is hydrologic models. Particularly process based models are the method of choice to assess the impact of land use and climate change. However, many regions which experience large changes in the watersheds can be described as rather data poor, which limits the applicability of such models. This is particularly also true for the Telomoyo Watershed (545 km2) which is located in southern part of Central Java province. The average annual rainfall of the study area reaches 2971 mm. Irrigated paddy field are the dominating land use (35%), followed by built-up area and dry land agriculture. The only available soil map is the FAO soil digital map of the world, which provides rather general soil information. A field survey accompanied by a lab analysis 65 soil samples of was carried out to provide more detailed soil texture information. The soil texture map is a key input in the SCS method to define hydrological soil groups. In the frame of our study on 'Integrated Analysis on Flood Risk of Telomoyo Watershed in Response to the Climate and Land Use Change' funded by the German Academic Exchange service (DAAD) we analyzed the sensitivity of the modeled runoff upon the choice of the method to estimate the CN values using the SCS-CN method. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of different data sources on the curve numbers and the estimated runoff. CN values were estimated using the field measurements of soil textures for different combinations of land use and topography. To transfer the local soil texture measurements to the watershed domain a statistical analysis using the frequency distribution of the measured soil textures is applied and used to derive the effective CN value for a given land use, topography and soil texture combination. Since the curve numbers change as a function of parameter combinations, the effect of different methods to estimate the curve number upon the runoff is analyzed and compared to the straight forward method of using the data from the FAO soil map.

  16. Estimating watershed irrigation capacity with an integrated hydrological model in the Lower Platte River basin, Nebraska (United States)

    Ou, G.; Chen, X.


    Irrigation changes the hydrologic cycle in irrigated areas. Watershed irrigation capacity (IRC), defined as the available water amount in a watershed for irrigation while the water level and streamflow are maintained above threshold values, is essential for irrigation planning and sustainable water management. Considering the intimated interaction between surface water and groundwater, this study couples two common models, including the hydrological model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the groundwater flow model MODFLOW to estimate the IRC in the Lower Platte River basin, Nebraska. The integrated model simulates water movement from land surface to aquifers, including the interaction between them. Different water components, such as transpiration, evaporation, and return flow, in the water cycle are estimated with the model. The actual consumptive water use and the actual water withdrawal are computed as the crop transpiration and the amount of total groundwater withdrawal minus return flow respectively. The integrated model can lead to a better understanding of the linkage between surface water and groundwater in the irrigated areas, and provide an effective tool for irrigation and integrated water management. Keywords: interaction, integrated management, SWAT, MODFLOW, watershed irrigation capacity

  17. Hydrological Processes in a High Alpine Watershed


    Mutzner, Raphaël


    Alpine hydrology is particularly challenging due to the complexity of mountainous terrain and the spatial and temporal variability of meteorological parameters such as precipitation, temperature and evaporation. Yet improving our understanding of hydrological processes in alpine regions is critical for freshwater management and for protection against natural hazards. Since 2009, the upper Val Ferret watershed in the Swiss Alps is monitored with a large variety of instruments to measure hydrol...

  18. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro


    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  19. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.


    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (?15N, ?18O, and ?17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  20. A tool for rapid assessment of erosion risk to support decision-making and policy development at the Ngenge watershed in Uganda


    Mutekanga, F.P.; Visser, S.M.; Stroosnijder, L.


    This study tests a rapid, user-friendly method for assessing changes in erosion risk, which yields information to aid policy development and decision-making for sustainable natural resources management. There is currently a lack of timely, up-to-date and current information to support policy development on sustainable natural resources management in Uganda. The study was carried out in the Ngenge watershed, a typical catchment in the Ugandan Highlands, characterised by deforestation in favour...

  1. Segmentation of Medical Image using Clustering and Watershed Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C.J. Christ


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging. Segmentation of an image is the division or separation of the image into dissimilar regions of similar attribute. In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates clustering algorithm and marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm for medical image segmentation. The use of the conservative watershed algorithm for medical image analysis is pervasive because of its advantages, such as always being able to construct an entire division of the image. On the other hand, its disadvantages include over segmentation and sensitivity to false edges. Approach: In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates K-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm and integrates Fuzzy C-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm separately for medical image segmentation. The Clustering algorithms are unsupervised learning algorithms, while the marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm makes use of automated thresholding on the gradient magnitude map and post-segmentation merging on the initial partitions to reduce the number of false edges and over-segmentation. Results: In this study, we compared K-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm with Fuzzy C-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm. And also we showed that our proposed method produced segmentation maps which gave fewer partitions than the segmentation maps produced by the conservative watershed algorithm. Conclusion: Integration of K-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm gave better segmentation than integration of Fuzzy C-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm. By reducing the amount of over segmentation, we obtained a segmentation map which is more diplomats of the several anatomies in the medical images.

  2. An object-oriented watershed management tool (QnD-VFS) to engage stakeholders in targeted implementation of filter strips in an arid surface irrigation area (United States)

    Campo, M. A.; Perez-Ovilla, O.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kiker, G.; Ullman, J. L.


    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution cause the majority of the 1,224 different waterbodies failing to meet designated water use criteria in Washington. Although various best management practices (BMPs) are effective in mitigating agricultural pollutants, BMP placement is often haphazard and fails to address specific high-risk locations. Limited financial resources necessitate optimization of conservation efforts to meet water quality goals. Thus, there is a critical need to develop decision-making tools that target BMP implementation in order to maximize water quality protection. In addition to field parameters, it is essential to incorporate economic and social determinants in the decision-making process to encourage producer involvement. Decision-making tools that identify strategic pollution sources and integrate socio-economic factors will lead to more cost-effective water quality improvement, as well as encourage producer participation by incorporating real-world limitations. Therefore, this study examines vegetative filter strip use under different scenarios as a BMP to mitigate sediment and nutrients in the highly irrigated Yakima River Basin of central Washington. We developed QnD-VFS to integrate and visualize alternative, spatially-explicit, water management strategies and its economic impact. The QnDTM system was created as a decision education tool that incorporates management, economic, and socio- political issues in a user-friendly scenario framework. QnDTM, which incorporates elements of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and risk assessment, is written in object-oriented Java and can be deployed as a stand-alone program or a web-accessed tool. The model performs Euler numerical integration of various rate transformation and mass-balance transfer equations. The novelty of this object-oriented approach is that these differential equations are detailed in modular XML format for instantiation within the Java code. This design allows many levels of complexity to be quickly designed and rendered in QnDTM without time-consuming additions of new Java code. Thus, temporal and spatial scales used in the equations become part of model development and iteration. A salient aspect is that QnDTM links spatial components within GIS (ArcInfo Shape) files to the abiotic (e.g., climate), biotic and chemical/contaminant interactions. QnD-VFS integrates environmental, management and socio-economic/cultural factors identified through stakeholder input. Several scenarios have been studied. Thus one of the main results show that changing water management, improved irrigation, is equivalent to changing length of vegetative filter strips, with a low economic impacts for farmers. Concurrently, these interactive tools allow resource managers to identify economic and social determinants that may impede conservation efforts.

  3. Watershed scale environmental sustainability analysis of biofuel production in changing land use and climate scenarios (United States)

    RAJ, C.; Chaubey, I.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Brouder, S. M.; Volenec, J. J.


    One of the grand challenges in meeting the US biofuel goal is producing large quantities of cellulosic biofeedstock materials for the production of biofuels in an environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. The possible land use and land management practice changes induce concerns over the environmental impacts of these bioenergy crop production scenarios both in terms of water availability and water quality, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. This study aims to evaluate environmental sustainability of various plausible land and crop management scenarios for biofuel production under changing climate scenarios for a Midwest US watershed. The study considers twelve environmental sustainability indicators related hydrology and water quality with thirteen plausible biofuels scenarios in the watershed under nine climate change scenarios. The land use change scenarios for evaluation includes, (1) bioenergy crops in highly erodible soils (3) bioenergy crops in low row crop productive fields (marginal lands); (3) bioenergy crops in pasture and range land use areas and (4) combinations of these scenarios. Future climate data bias corrected and downscaled to daily values from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used in this study. The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate bioenergy crops growth, hydrology and water quality. The watershed scale sustainability analysis was done in Wildcat Creek basin, which is located in North-Central Indiana, USA.

  4. Ageing management studies of RAPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) is the first nuclear power plant of India with pressurized heavy water reactor. The construction of Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) was started in the year 1966 in collaboration with Canada. The Unit-1 achieved first criticality on August 1972 and was first synchronized to Grid on November 1972. During initial operation of the Unit, several problems were faced in its various systems and these were addressed by incorporating various engineering changes and procedures. In this unit various major innovative repairs were done like end shield leak repair, OPRD leak repair. Considering the operation of various systems of Unit-1, since year 1971 it was imperative to study ageing degradation mechanisms and mitigating measures were to be taken. Although the ageing management is a continuous process the opportunity of Unit-1 shutdown for upgradations from 30-04-2002 to 08-02-2004 was utilized for inspection and assessment of health of various SSC, which otherwise could not have been done with unit in operational state. This paper contains the following in detail. (1) Ageing management programme, its objectives and scope (2) Methodology of ageing management studies - Replacement and upgradation -Additional inspection programme based on ageing management review - Statistical analysis of ageing degradation occurrence - Estimation of residual life span of cables and relays (3) Criteria for selection of components for ageing management programme (4) Findings of ageing management studies-case studies. The ageing study done for RAPS-1 indicated that appropriate ageing monitoring methods and procedures exist in the station for taking timely mitigating measures. The technological obsoleteness has been overcome by installing new components of latest technology. On overall assessment, the Unit-1 was considered fit for further service. (author)

  5. A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Sediments: A Case Study from Wailpalli Watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rama Mohan and N.N. Murthy


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study, focuses on investigation of heavy metal distribution in sediments of the Wailpalli watershed located in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India, and to study different causes of enrichment by applying multivariate statistics on the studied elements, including correlation and factor analyses, and to identify possible sources of sediment bound heavy metals. Sediment samples were collected along the streams from a depth of 0-10 cm and were analyzed for Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn and Zr by using Philips PW 2440 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF. The concentration ranges were Ba 128.5 to 929.4 mg/kg, Co 0.4 to 36.2 m g/kg, C r 15.8 to 107.8 mg/kg, Cu 1.6 to 43.1 mg/kg, Ni 0.2 to 69.8 mg/kg, Pb 2.3 to 14.1 mg/kg, Rb 8.0 to 446.2 mg/kg, Sr 73.0 to 360.6 mg/kg, V 7.9 to 240.8 mg/kg, Zn 24.5 to 130.1 mg/kg, and Zr 108.4 to 2668 mg/kg. Distribution maps metal concentrations in sediments were plotted by Golden Software’s SURFER program. Using multivariate statistical analysis (correlation coefficients, factor analysis, the interrelationships among elements, and Enrichment Factor (EF was calculated to differentiate the origin of metals between anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The results of median EF indicate no significant enrichment of the metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn except for high Pb and Ni possibly indicating some point source input to the stream sediments. However, systematic and continuous monitoring of the study area for heavy metals is necessary as most of the area in Wailpalli watershed is under active irrigation and these elements may enter the food chain, and could be hazardous to human health.

  6. Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yields Using the AnnAGNPS Model in a Three-Gorge Watershed of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Nan


    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been recognized as one of the major threats to our environment and water quality worldwide, especially in China. To mitigate nonpoint source water quality problems caused by soil erosion, best management practices (BMPs and/or conservation programs have been adopted. Watershed models, such as the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading model (AnnAGNPS, have been developed to aid in the evaluation of watershed response to watershed management practices. The model has been applied worldwide and proven to be a very effective tool in identifying the critical areas which had serious erosion, and in aiding in decision-making processes for adopting BMPs and/or conservation programs so that cost/benefit can be maximized and non-point source pollution control can be achieved in the most efficient way. The main goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of soil erosion, sediment and sediment delivery of a watershed so that effective conservation measures can be implemented. To achieve the overall objective of this study, all necessary data for the 4,184 km2 Daning River watershed in the Three-Gorge region of the Yangtze River of China were assembled. The model was calibrated using observed monthly runoff from 1998 to 1999 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.94 and R2 of 0.94 and validated using the observed monthly runoff from 2003 to 2005 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.93 and R2 of 0.93. Additionally, the model was validated using annual average sediment of 2000–2002 (relative error of ?0.34 and 2003–2004 (relative error of 0.18 at Wuxi station. Post validation simulation showed that approximately 48% of the watershed was under the soil loss tolerance released by the Ministry of Water Resources of China (500 t·km?2·y?1. However, 8% of the watershed had soil erosion of exceeding 5,000 t·km?2·y?1. Sloping areas and low coverage areas are the main source of soil loss in the watershed.

  7. Comparison of ecological instream flow and release flow downstream of dams in Quebec : the effect of dam management practices, watershed size and the season; Comparaison entre debits reserves ecologiques et debits laches en aval des barrages au Quebec : influence du mode de gestion des barrages, de la taille des bassins versants et de la saison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, F.; Assani, A.A; Matteau, M. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Geographie, Laboratoire d' hydro-climatologie et de geomorphologie fluvial; Mesfioui, M. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Mathematiques et d' Informatique; Roy, A.G. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geography


    The effect of dams on downstream ecology was examined. The authors argued that clear regulations for discharges from dams should be clearly defined. However, despite the large number of dams in Quebec on important fluvial systems, there are no studies to verify compliance downstream from these dams with standards for ecological instream flows. A study was therefore conducted to compare discharges with recommended instream flows to protect fish habitat and their life cycle. An equation for estimating the instream flows downstream from dams was presented. Three factors that influence the extent of hydrological changes caused by dams in Quebec were identified, namely dam management, watershed size and season. It was shown that there is a lack of compliance with instream flows downstream from the dams. The same 3 factors also determine the frequency of this non-compliance and the variance between the instream flows and the released flows downstream from the dams. Compared to dams associated with hydroelectric generating stations only, dams associated with reservoirs have greater variance between the instream flows and the released flows from the dam. The frequency of non-compliance and variance diminish with the size of the watersheds. The frequency when instream flows are not exceeded is also higher in spring than in winter in the two hydrologic regimes, but the variance between the two seasons is more important during an inversion regime. However, the season was found to have no influence on the variance between the instream flows and the released flows downstream from the dams. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar GÖNCÜ


    Full Text Available Determining low-flows and their periodicities is very important for sustainably using and managing streams which are one of the most important water resources. In this study, EPA’s DFLOW software has been used for the analysis of the main stream and tributaries of the Porsuk watershed. Flow data sets from selected stream flow gauge stations located in the Porsuk Watershed have been provided by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. Hydrologically and biologically based low-flow criteria like 7Q10, 4B3 have been calculated by using the DFLOW software and how these stream tributaries have been affected over the last 45 years has been determined. Also temporal trends of low-flow periods and 7-day average low flows whose return period is a year (7Q1 have been examined. As a result of this study, increasing trends have been determined on some tributaries used for irrigation purposes and after reservoir construction. Undisturbed tributaries have decreasing low-flow patterns. Increases in temperature and precipitation changes due to climate change should be consideredwith more care. In addition, in the planning and use of water control structures, such as hydroelectrical power plant dams, such studies are important for the more efficient use and sustainabilityof the limited surface water resources in our country.

  9. Evaluating the SWAT's snow hydrology over a Northern Quebec watershed (United States)

    Troin, M.; Caya, D.


    The snowmelt is an important component of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT[1]) model's hydrology when applied in snowy watersheds where spring flows are dominated by snow melting. However, little is known about its performance in modeling Nordic environments and its accuracy with respect to operational snowmelt models because most studies were conducted in rainfall-runoff catchments. To fill this gap in SWAT's knowledge, we aim to evaluate its performance for simulating a snowy Nordic catchment streamflow with comparison to the Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR[2]) model. SSARR is one of the selected operational models by the Snow Hydrology Guide as valuable tool for snowmelt runoff simulation (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 1989). In the Côte Nord region of Quebec, most of the streamflow come from snowmelt in watersheds. Understanding the interactions among snow accumulation, snowmelt and streamflow generation is a challenge for water resources management in Quebec, since this province is the Canada's leader in hydroelectric energy production. The selected snow-covered watershed, namely the Outardes Basin, presents extreme climatic conditions. Few examples of model calibration in this Nordic environment exist because of the scarcity of reliable data. The basin has the interest of being well instrumented providing a comprehensive dataset to implement SWAT over this Nordic watershed. The evaluation indicates that SWAT has a good performance in simulating the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual mean discharges with low volume biases over the calibration and validation periods. The predominantly spring snow-melting generated streamflow is simulated with a good accuracy for both its magnitude and its timing. Seasonal snowpack plays an important role in defining the hydrologic regime where the accumulated snowmelt runoff contributes to 64% of the annual runoff. When we compared SWAT's results to SSARR, comparable performances in simulating the daily discharges were observed. SSARR simulates more accurately streamflow generated at the snowmelt onset whereas SWAT better predicts streamflow in summer, fall and winter. SWAT provided reasonable streamflow simulations for our snowy catchment but refinement of the processes-driven baseflow during the snowmelt onset could improve performances in spring within snowy catchments under extreme climatic conditions. Reviewing the results underlined that SWAT becomes an attractive tool for evaluating water resources management and assessing the consequences of climate change in seasonal distribution of streamflow in Nordic environments. [1] Arnold JG, Srinivasan R, Muttiah RS, Williams JR. 1998. Large area hydrologic modelling and assessment-Part I: model development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 34: 73-89. [2] USACE. 1987. SSARR Model-Streamflow Synthesis And Reservoir Regulation. User's manual.

  10. Japanese-Style Management: A Bibliometric Study. (United States)

    Noguchi, Sachie


    Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…

  11. Factors controlling the long-term temporal and spatial patterns of nitrate-nitrogen export in a dairy farming watershed. (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wang, Chun-ying; Hatano, Ryusuke; Kuramochi, Kanta; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Woli, Krishna P


    It is difficult to investigate the factors that control the riverine nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) export in a watershed which gains or losses groundwater. To control the NO3--N contamination in these watersheds, it is necessary to investigate the factors that are related to the export of NO3--N that is only produced by the watershed itself. This study was conducted in the Shibetsu watershed located in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, which gains external groundwater contribution (EXT) and 34% of the annual NO3--N loading occurs through EXT. The riverine NO3--N exports from 1980 to 2009 were simulated by the SWAT model, and the factors controlling the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3--N exports were investigated without considering the EXT. The results show that hydrological events control NO3--N export at the seasonal scale, while the hydrological and biogeochemical processes are likely to control NO3--N export at the annual scale. There was an integrated effect among the land use, topography, and soil type related to denitrification process, that regulated the spatial patterns of NO3--N export. The spatial distribution of NO3--N export from hydrologic response units (HRUs) identified the agricultural areas with surplus N that are vulnerable to nitrate contamination. A new standard for the N fertilizer application rate including manure application should be given to control riverine NO3--N export. This study demonstrates that applying the SWAT model is an appropriate method to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of NO3--N export from the watershed which includes EXT and to identify the crucial pollution areas within a watershed in which the management practices can be improved to more effectively control NO3--N export to water bodies. PMID:25805369

  12. Modeling suspended sediment transport and assessing the impacts of climate change in a karstic Mediterranean watershed. (United States)

    Nerantzaki, S D; Giannakis, G V; Efstathiou, D; Nikolaidis, N P; Sibetheros, I ?; Karatzas, G P; Zacharias, I


    Mediterranean semi-arid watersheds are characterized by a climate type with long periods of drought and infrequent but high-intensity rainfalls. These factors lead to the formation of temporary flow tributaries which present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours and high erosion rates with significant sediment transport. Modeling of suspended sediment concentration in such watersheds is of utmost importance due to flash flood phenomena, during which, large quantities of sediments and pollutants are carried downstream. The aim of this study is to develop a modeling framework for suspended sediment transport in a karstic watershed and assess the impact of climate change on flow, soil erosion and sediment transport in a hydrologically complex and intensively managed Mediterranean watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was coupled with a karstic flow and suspended sediment model in order to simulate the hydrology and sediment yield of the karstic springs and the whole watershed. Both daily flow data (2005-2014) and monthly sediment concentration data (2011-2014) were used for model calibration. The results showed good agreement between observed and modeled values for both flow and sediment concentration. Flash flood events account for 63-70% of the annual sediment export depending on a wet or dry year. Simulation results for a set of IPCC "A1B" climate change scenarios suggested that major decreases in surface flow (69.6%) and in the flow of the springs (76.5%) take place between the 2010-2049 and 2050-2090 time periods. An assessment of the future ecological flows revealed that the frequency of minimum flow events increases over the years. The trend of surface sediment export during these periods is also decreasing (54.5%) but the difference is not statistically significant due to the variability of the sediment. On the other hand, sediment originating from the springs is not affected significantly by climate change. PMID:26311584

  13. Resources from waste : integrated resource management phase 1 study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated resource management (IRM) of municipal waste streams and water systems requires a structured analysis of options that consider environmental aspects such as greenhouse gases, carbon taxes and credits. Each option's inputs and outputs are assessed to determine the net highest and best use and value. IRM focuses on resource recovery and extracting maximum value. It considers the overall net impact on the taxpayer and requires the integration of liquid and solid waste streams to maximize values for recovering energy in the form of biofuels, heat, minerals, water and reducing electricity demand. IRM is linked to water management through reuse of treated water for groundwater recharge and to offset potable water use for non-potable purposes such as irrigation, including potential commercial use, which contributes to maintaining or improving the health of watersheds. This report presented a conceptual design for the application of IRM in the province of British Columbia (BC) and analyzed its potential contribution to the provincial climate change agenda. The report discussed traditional waste management, the IRM approach, and resource recovery technology and opportunities. The business case for IRM in BC was also outlined. It was concluded that IRM has the potential to be a viable solution to water, solid and liquid waste management that should be less expensive, result in fewer environmental impacts, and provide greater flexibility than traditional approaches to waste management. 63 refs., 17 tabs., 21 figs., 10 appendices

  14. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  15. Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management / Características topográficas y evaluación del agua en el manejo de cuencas hidrográficas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa Cristina, Tarlé Pissarra; Flavia, Mazzer Rodrigues; Christiano, Luna Arraes; João Antonio, Galbiatti; Maurício José, Borges.


    Full Text Available Se evaluaron características topográficas y muestras de agua en un cauce de la hacienda Gloria, municipio Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil. Las características morfométricas del relieve y del agua fueron estudiadas en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica, considerando zonas protegidas con bosque nativo y a [...] quellas que presentaban uso agrícola de la tierra para ajustar la hipótesis de que el uso de ella afecta la calidad del agua y ayuda a predecir cómo se producen los cambios en este y en el local paisaje circundante. La calidad del agua fue evaluada en seis sitios y se analizaron los cambios de los parámetros físicos y químicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas el mismo día de cada mes, durante un año, mediante un equipo de Horiba. Para determinar diferencias entre los sitios estudiados se realizó el análisis de varianza (Anova). El análisis de los datos presentó diferencias significativas de pH, conductividad eléctrica, turbidez, oxígeno disuelto y temperatura. Las características topográficas han sido influenciadas por las actividades agrícolas, impactando el medio ambiente. La escorrentía superficial es predominante en las laderas pronunciadas, sobre todo en las zonas altas de la cuenca. Los resultados indican la fragilidad de la cuenca agrícola a la exposición de contaminantes o agentes tóxicos, debido a la turbidez en el agua causada por la erosión de los suelos, la deposición de residuos agrícolas y por la escorrentía superficial. Abstract in english Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil . Understanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and hel [...] ps predict how cha