WorldWideScience
1

Interior West Watershed Management  

OpenAIRE

Habitat type classification systems are reviewed for potential use in watershed management. Information on climate, soils, and vegetation related to the classifications are discussed. Possible cooperative applications of vegetation and habitat type classifications to watershed management are explored.

United States Department Of Agriculture, Forest Service

1981-01-01

2

Watershed Management-A case study of Satara Tanda Village  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water is the most critical component of life support system. India shares about 16% of the global population but it has only 4% of the water resources. The national water policy gives priority to drinking water followed by agriculture, industry and power. The single most important task before the country in the field of India’s water resource management is to pay special attention to rainwater conservation, especially which falls on our vast rain-fed lands but most of which flows away from it. The Marathwada region is declared the drought for this year by state government, to overcome the water scarcity watershed management is decided to do near the Sataratanda it is the outskirt region of Aurangabad city. The proposed site of watershed management structure bandhara is located on stream flowing near the Sataratanda village. The proposed bandhara is design for the conservation of water and recharging into the ground to raise the water table of this particular area for the benefits to villagers, fields & farmers. Since last few decades the demand for water had rapidly grown and with the increasing population would continue to rise in future. In Maharashtra, the assessment of ground water potential and scope for artificial recharge in the overdeveloped watershed is very crucial. The total cost of cement bandhara works about 9 lakhs thus the scheme is found economically feasible. The quantity of water store in the bandhara basin is 0.74 TCM.

P. R. Thakare

2013-08-01

3

Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

S. Vishnudas

2005-11-01

4

Integrated Approach for Prioritizing Watersheds for Management: A Study of Lidder Catchment of Kashmir Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan watersheds are susceptible to various forms of degradation due to their sensitive and fragile ecological disposition coupled with increasing anthropogenic disturbances. Owing to the paucity of appropriate technology and financial resources, the prioritization of watersheds has become an inevitable process for effective planning and management of natural resources. Lidder catchment constitutes a segment of the western Himalayas with an area of 1,159.38 km2. The study is based on integrated analysis of remote sensing, geographic information system, field study, and socioeconomic data. Multicriteria evaluation of geophysical, land-use and land-cover (LULC) change, and socioeconomic indicators is carried out to prioritize watersheds for natural resource conservation and management. Knowledge-based weights and ranks are normalized, and weighted linear combination technique is adopted to determine final priority value. The watersheds are classified into four priority zones (very high priority, high priority, medium priority, and low priority) on the basis of quartiles of the priority value, thus indicating their ecological status in terms of degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The correlation between priority ranks of individual indicators and integrated indicators is drawn. The results reveal that socioeconomic indicators are the most important drivers of LULC change and environmental degradation in the catchment. Moreover, the magnitude and intensity of anthropogenic impact is not uniform in different watersheds of Lidder catchment. Therefore, any conservation and management strategy must be formulated on the basis of watershed prioritization.

Malik, Mohammad Imran; Bhat, M. Sultan

2014-12-01

5

Overcoming limited information through participatory watershed management: Case study in Amhara, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study highlights two highly degraded watersheds in the semi-arid Amhara region of Ethiopia where integrated water resource management activities were carried out to decrease dependence on food aid through improved management of ‘green’ water. While top-down approaches require precise and centrally available knowledge to deal with the uncertainty in engineering design of watershed management projects, bottom-up approaches can succeed without such information by making extensive use of stakeholder knowledge. This approach works best in conjunction with the development of leadership confidence within local communities. These communities typically face a number of problems, most notably poverty, that prevent them from fully investing in the protection of their natural resources, so an integrated management system is needed to suitably address the interrelated problems. Many different implementing agencies were brought together in the two study watersheds to address water scarcity, crop production, and soil erosion, but the cornerstone was enabling local potential through the creation and strengthening of community watershed management organizations. Leadership training and the reinforcement of stakeholder feedback as a fundamental activity led to increased ownership and willingness to take on new responsibilities. A series of small short term successes ranging from micro-enterprise cooperatives to gully rehabilitation have resulted in the pilot communities becoming confident of their own capabilities and proud to share their successes and knowledge with other communities struggling with natural resource degradation.

Liu, Benjamin M.; Abebe, Yitayew; McHugh, Oloro V.; Collick, Amy S.; Gebrekidan, Brhane; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

6

Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study  

OpenAIRE

In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI) approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning a...

Yanli Zhang; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew McBroom; John DeGroote; Kauten, Rebecca L.; Barten, Paul K.

2011-01-01

7

Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

2011-12-01

8

Multiagent distributed watershed management  

Science.gov (United States)

Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing environmental interests). Different scenarios of distributed management are simulated, i.e. a situation where all the agents act independently, a situation in which a global coordination takes place and in-between solutions. The solutions are compared with the ones presented in Yang et al. (2009), aiming to present more general multiagent approaches to solve distributed management problems.

Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

2012-04-01

9

Watershed Management-A case study of Satara Tanda Village  

OpenAIRE

Water is the most critical component of life support system. India shares about 16% of the global population but it has only 4% of the water resources. The national water policy gives priority to drinking water followed by agriculture, industry and power. The single most important task before the country in the field of India’s water resource management is to pay special attention to rainwater conservation, especially which falls on our vast rain-fed lands but most of which flows away from ...

Thakare, P. R.; Jadhav, R. A.; Kumawat, H. S.

2013-01-01

10

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY  

OpenAIRE

In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have be...

Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,; Dr.Mrs.Sushma Shekhar Kulkarni

2011-01-01

11

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.

Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,

2011-03-01

12

Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning and it integrates land use/cover, hydrological data, soils, slope, roads, and other spatial data. The land is divided into three categories: Conservation Priority Index (CPI land, Restoration Priority Index (RPI land, and Stormwater Management Priority Index (SMPI land. Within each category, spatial factors are rated based on their influence on water resources and critical areas can be identified for soil conservation, water quality protection and improvement. The WebWMPI has user-friendly client side graphical interfaces which enable the public to interactively run the server side Geographic Information System to evaluate different scenarios for watershed planning and management. The system was applied for Dry Run Creek watershed (Cedar Falls, Iowa, US as a demonstration and it can be easily used in other watersheds to prioritize crucial areas and to increase public participation for soil and water conservation projects.

Yanli Zhang

2011-08-01

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Identification of effective best management practices in sediment yield diminution using GeoWEPP: the Kasilian watershed case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying areas that are susceptible to soil erosion is crucial for water resource planning and management efforts. Furthermore, modeling has proven helpful in recognizing and monitoring high-risk areas at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) geospatial interface (GeoWEPP) software integrates GIS with the WEPP to analyze the spatial variation in soil loss, and it has been used as a modeling tool to determine the areas that are most prone to soil erosion and to evaluate best management practices for the Kasilian watershed in Iran. As much as 62.4% of the agronomic land in the Kasilian watershed is affected by a high magnitude of erosion (>5 t/ha). On the basis of this study, by using soybeans, high fertilization levels, and the drill-no-tillage system, reductions of erosion by almost 32.68-34.02% are perceivable in three critical subwatersheds that are located in the cultivated lands. Also, it is projected that reductions in the production of sediment in the range of about 36.7-47.1% are achievable by structural management within two critical, upland subwatersheds. So, by utilizing the best management strategies, sediment yield can be lowered and the conservation of soil and water is feasible at the watershed scale. These results objectively indicate that GeoWEPP can be efficaciously used for evaluating effective management practices for developing watershed conservation. PMID:23780730

Reza Meghdadi, Amin

2013-12-01

14

Watershed Central: Dynamic Collaboration for Improving Watershed Management (Philadelphia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Watershed Central web and wiki pages will be presented and demonstrated real-time as part of the overview of Web 2.0 collaboration tools for watershed management. The presentation portion will discuss how EPA worked with watershed practitioners and within the Agency to deter...

15

Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530

Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia

2014-01-01

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18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management. 801.9 Section 801...COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character...quality of water resources of a given watershed are strongly affected by the land...

2010-04-01

17

The impact of watershed management on coastal morphology: A case study using an integrated approach and numerical modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal morphology evolves as the combined result of both natural- and human- induced factors that cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales of effect. Areas in the vicinity of natural stream mouths are of special interest, as the direct connection with the upstream watershed extends the search for drivers of morphological evolution from the coastal area to the inland as well. Although the impact of changes in watersheds on the coastal sediment budget is well established, references that study concurrently the two fields and the quantification of their connection are scarce. In the present work, the impact of land-use changes in a watershed on coastal erosion is studied for a selected site in North Greece. Applications are based on an integrated approach to quantify the impact of watershed management on coastal morphology through numerical modeling. The watershed model SWAT and a shoreline evolution model developed by the authors (PELNCON-M) are used, evaluating with the latter the performance of the three longshore sediment transport rate formulae included in the model formulation. Results document the impact of crop abandonment on coastal erosion (agricultural land decrease from 23.3% to 5.1% is accompanied by the retreat of ~ 35 m in the vicinity of the stream mouth) and show the effect of sediment transport formula selection on the evolution of coastal morphology. Analysis denotes the relative importance of the parameters involved in the dynamics of watershed-coast systems, and - through the detailed description of a case study - is deemed to provide useful insights for researchers and policy-makers involved in their study.

Samaras, Achilleas G.; Koutitas, Christopher G.

2014-04-01

18

Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory  

OpenAIRE

Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs uneven...

John Kerr

2007-01-01

19

Preliminary study on streamflow in forested and forest plantation experimental watersheds for water resources management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was mea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the discharge in C3 runoff while the delayed flow runoff dominate the discharge in the C1. (Author)

20

Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"  

Science.gov (United States)

"Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

2012-01-01

21

Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated research questions. The goal of this research was to investigate whether scientific research tools were available that could provide evidence that links water quality and land type. In particular, could such tools be used on raw water at the treatment point rather than monitoring over a large geographic spanning a watershed. This report summarizes the utility of using isotopic tracers to better understand sources of non-point source pollution and their relation to industry standard water quality measurements. In this study we have found that much of the water quality data generated by utilities is under-interpreted in the context of understanding watershed processes. For example, the City of St. Louis depends solely on the Missouri River for drinking water, but due to large variability in discharge and runoff sources, they are faced with DOC concentrations that vary nearly a factor of three within a single season. The relationship between discharge and concentration has not been constrained. However, we found a linear correlation between the DOC concentration and the fractional amount of downstream discharge (derived from within the State of Missouri). This correlation relates directly to differences in land use and climate between the upstream and downstream portions of the river basin.

Davisson, M L

2001-02-23

22

Sustainable Practices in Watershed Management: Global Experiences  

OpenAIRE

Watershed management is considered by scholars as well as practitioners across the world as the most appropriate approach to ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainability of all land based resources and for improving the living conditions of the people in uplands and low lands. More over watershed management technologies have proven to be effective for mitigating erosion on sloping land, stabilizing landscapes, providing clean water, stabilizing and improving agrarian production sy...

Menon, Sudha

2007-01-01

23

Socioeconomic and policy research on watershed management in India: synthesis of past experiences and needs for future research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book consists of the following chapters: Policy and institutional issues and concepts for watershed management; current policies and institutional arrangement for watershed management; watershed development programs and approaches; case studies and methods; analysis of selection case studies; lessons drawn for success of watershed development; knowledge gaps and areas for future research.

PK Joshi

2006-08-01

24

Socioeconomic and policy research on watershed management in India: synthesis of past experiences and needs for future research  

OpenAIRE

This book consists of the following chapters: Policy and institutional issues and concepts for watershed management; current policies and institutional arrangement for watershed management; watershed development programs and approaches; case studies and methods; analysis of selection case studies; lessons drawn for success of watershed development; knowledge gaps and areas for future research.

Pk, Joshi; Vasudha Pangare; Shiferaw, B.; Sp, Wani; Bouma, J.; Scott, C.

2006-01-01

25

Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

26

Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically nolementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after appropriate modifications. (author)

27

Water management in developing country: A case study of a watershed development program in the state of Bihar, India:  

OpenAIRE

It has for long been assumed that low-income communities do not know their infrastructure needs, so that decisions have been made by authorities without obtaining information and understanding of household and agricultural water demand. This top-down approach has been the reason for the failure of many water management initiatives, particularly in areas of erosion and reduced soil fertility. Watershed management plays a crucial role in sustainable development along the dry northern fringe of ...

Ghosh, A.; Bose, N.; Kroesen, O.; Bruining, H.; Bawane, V. H.; Chaubey, P. K.

2010-01-01

28

A review of watershed management experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring ork, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3 appendices

29

Morphometric Analysis Of The Vidarbha River Basin, Amravati District, Maharashtra With Reference To Watershed Management.  

OpenAIRE

In this present study, an attempt has been made to understand the groundwater regime of the Vidarbha sub-watershed of Wardha River basin exposed Amravati District, Maharashtra using an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques with Arc GIS Desktop 9.3 and ERDAS Imagine 9.2 software for the sustainable watershed management. The remote sensing data combined with field survey details has provided a unique and hybrid database for the optimal planning and management of the watershed...

Khadri S. F. R; Kharbadkar, Vidya S.

2013-01-01

30

Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

... Restore and Protect Our Waters Healthy Watersheds Mississippi River Basin/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force Surf Your Watershed Watershed Academy Watershed Central Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS) Watersheds ...

31

The use of stakeholder analysis in integrated watershed management  

OpenAIRE

In the Ngenge watershed, at Mt. Elgon in the eastern Ugandan highlands, agricultural practices cause serious soil erosion problems and subsequent decrease in soil and water quality. Attempts to manage soil erosion through policy interventions have not been successful, because existing policies and legislation for natural resource management are inadequate and often formulated without consulting local communities. In the Ngenge watershed, an integrated watershed management (IWM) program was in...

Mutekanga, F. P.; Kessler, A.; Leber, K.; Visser, S. M.

2013-01-01

32

Economic instruments for the sustainable management of Mediterranean watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems of unsustainable watershed use in the Mediterranean areas (overgrazing, forest degradation and clearing, soil erosion, fires, etc.) often result from the reduced profitability of traditional land use systems, lack of clearly defined property rights, insufficient enforcement of existing rules, and lack of adequate economic instruments. The paper tries to analyze these problems from two complementary economic perspectives: the first one, based on a Cost-Benefit Analysis approach, highlight the gap between public interest and local private profitability in ordinary watershed management activities through three case studies in Tunisia. Once we have demonstrated that market mechanisms are unable to allocate efficiently watershed resources, we assume a more normative perspective focusing on the implementation of voluntary instruments related to payments for environmental services. Due to the lack of experiences in the Mediterranean basin, we discus the results of a comparison among six case-studies of payments for water provision services in some developing countries underlying the role of transaction costs and social capital in the successful implementation of these new economic instruments for the sustainable management of Mediterranean watershed resources. Key words: cost-benefit analysis, payments for environmental services, Tunisia. (Author) 39 refs.

Daly-Hassen, H.; Pettenella, D.; Jemal Ahmed, T.

2010-07-01

33

Development of environmental performance indicators for watershed management  

OpenAIRE

Demonstrating the success of watershed management efforts is critical for securing future funding, gaining public support, and communicating water quality results to stakeholders. However, many community-based watershed management groups find that the monitoring methods they are using cannot effectively show the impact of their project. Environmental performance indicators, also known as environmental performance measures or performance indicators can be used to assess the impacts of watershe...

Birt, Lindsay Nicole

2012-01-01

34

A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential strategies, guidance on strategy selection in other watersheds where such detailed analyses have not been completed, and a framework for organizing information and modeled predictions to best manage wide-ranging species.

Michael Maher

2008-12-01

35

Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address challenging resource management issues in industry, government and nongovernmental agencies. Current research and analysis tools were developed to manage meteorological, climatological, and land and water resource data efficiently at high resolution in space and time. The deliverable for this work is a Whitebox-GENESYS open-source resource management capacity with routines for GIS based watershed management including water in agriculture and food production. We are adding urban water management routines through GENESYS in 2013-15 with an engineering PhD candidate. Both Whitebox-GAT and GENESYS are already well-established tools. The proposed research will combine these products to create an open-source geomatics based water resource management tool that is revolutionary in both capacity and availability to a wide array of Canadian and global users

Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

2013-12-01

36

Geomorphometry through remote sensing and GIS for watershed management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of remote sensing and GIS for effective determination of the quantitative description of drainage basin geometry for watershed management prioritization forms the theme of this paper. In the present study, each of the eight sub watersheds of Racherla watershed of Prakasam (District) Andhra Pradesh, have been studied in terms of the morphometric parameters -stream length, bifurcation ratio, length ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor area, perimeter, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and sediment yield index. The prioritization of the eight sub watersheds is carried out considering morphometry and sediment yield index. Using IRS IC satellite imagery, a computerized database is created availing ARC / INFO software. The initial drainage map prepared from the survey of India toposheets was later unified with satellite imagery. The prioritization of sub sheds based on morphometry compared with sediment yield prioritization and found nearly same for the study area. The information obtained from all the thematic map is integrated and action plan is suggested for land and water resources development on a sustainable basis. (author)

37

Climate Change, Resource Management and Human Safety in the Watershed -The Nishinotani Stream Case Study, Kyushu; Japan-  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is occurring already and heavy rain appears to be one of the many indicators. This requires revisiting the integration of resource management and policy making particularly in mountainous areas exposed to flashfloods with the view of increasing human safety too. Devastating flooding took place in the main island of Kyushu due to heavy rain during the second week of July 2012 causing major devastation in various watershed, cities and towns. This event has been tagged as unprecedented although a similar one with records of 27 inches of rain occurred in 1953 as reported in the literature and newspapers of the time. Levels of 7 inches per hour and about 31 inches of raining 72 hours were recorded in certain parts of the island causing most of the rivers to burst their banks, and produce large landslides in Kumamoto, Oita, Fukushima and Saga Prefectures. One of the many impacted upper watersheds belong to the Hoshino-Yokoyamawa river in the Minou Renzan mountains in Yame City; Fukuoka Prefecture. The Yokoyamawa waters flow downstream within high concrete walls with sporadic containments while receiving various affluents along its course. This type of embankment's design is typical of steep river courses and large seasonal discharge fluctuations, which is typical of many rivers in Japan. Along the embankments there are forest areas mainly of Japanese cedar (Sugi), bamboo trees as well as rice growing terraces and farmer houses. The lack of proper environmental management, safe planning by the local municipalities and peoples awareness came to light in many areas after the floods resulting in large damage. A particular case in point was identified in the Nishinotani stream, which feeds the Yokoyamawa River where a large farmer's house and rice field was built directly facing the stream flow direction. Furthermore, the municipality built a small bridge over the stream to allow for traffic. Both proved to be most inappropriate and unwise decisions causing enormous damage In view of the climatic change predictions for Japan as described by the Meteorological Agency it is likely that heavy precipitations will continue in the future. Therefore, this type of flash flooding event in small mountain streams are likely to keep occurring hence the need to revisit local policies related to natural resource management, awareness raising and human safety. Basic environmental management approaches and environmental education awareness for local communities are also required to avoid future cases like the Nishinotani stream.

Santiago-Fandiño, V.

2012-12-01

38

Identifying non-point source priority management areas in watersheds with multiple functional zones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of water functional zones promotes the comprehensive supervision and scientific oversight of non-point source (NPS) pollution at the watershed scale. Therefore, understanding the spatial distributions and temporal trends in watershed priority management areas (PMAs) is important in the study and efficient management of NPS pollution. However, no comprehensive studies of PMAs have been conducted to protect water quality effectively in watersheds with multiple water functional zones. In this study, a new framework is presented that quantifies the perturbations of multiple spatial assessment units to the quality of nearby water bodies in various water functional zones. This innovative approach, which combines the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical analysis, was applied to characterize multiple-level PMAs with a case study of the Daning River watershed in China. Based on the results, the advantage of this new framework is better suited to downstream areas, particularly in dry periods and severely polluted watersheds. This paper reinforces the view that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in the framework of PMAs targeting. From the aspect of watershed management, these new PMAs can offer an optimal strategy for locating comprehensive and cost-effective management practices at the watershed scale, particularly in large watersheds or long river systems. PMID:25462762

Shen, Zhenyao; Zhong, Yucen; Huang, Qin; Chen, Lei

2014-10-27

39

Changing approaches to mountain watersheds management in mainland South and Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountain watersheds, comprising a substantial proportion of national territories of countries in mainland South and Southeast Asia, are biophysical and socioeconomic entities, regulating the hydrological cycle, sequestrating carbon dioxide, and providing natural resources for the benefit of people living in and outside the watersheds. A review of the literature reveals that watersheds are undergoing degradation at varying rates caused by a myriad of factors ranging from national policies to farmers' socioeconomic conditions. Many agencies--governmental and private--have tried to address the problem in selected watersheds. Against the backdrop of the many causes of degradation, this study examines the evolving approaches to watershed management and development. Until the early 1990s, watershed management planning and implementation followed a highly centralized approach focused on heavily subsidized structural measures of soil conservation, planned and implemented without any consultation with the mainstream development agencies and local people. Watershed management was either the sole responsibility of specially created line agencies or a project authority established by external donors. As a consequence, the initiatives could not be continued or contribute to effective conservation of watersheds. Cognizant of this, emphasis has been laid on integrated, participatory approaches since the early 1990s. Based on an evaluation of experiences in mainland South and Southeast Asia, this study finds not much change in the way that management plans are being prepared and executed. The emergence of a multitude of independent watershed management agencies, with their own organizational structures and objectives and planning and implementation systems has resulted in watershed management endeavors that have been in complete disarray. Consistent with the principle of sustainable development, a real integrated, participatory approach requires area-specific conservation programs that are well incorporated into integrated socioeconomic development plans prepared and implemented by local line agencies in cooperation with nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and concerned people. PMID:11334155

Thapa, G B

2001-05-01

40

Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management  

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Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

Zeyuan Qiu

2013-03-01

41

Watershed Conservation, Groundwater Management, and Adaptation to Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainability science is transdisciplinary, organizing research to deliver meaningful and practical contributions to critical issues of resource management. As yet, however, sustainability science has not been integrated with the policy sciences. We provide a step towards integration by providing an integrated model of optimal groundwater management and investment in watershed conservation. The joint optimization problem is solved under alternative forecasts of the changing rainfall distribution for the Koolau Watershed in Oahu, Hawaii. Optimal groundwater management is solved using a simplified one-dimensional model of the groundwater aquifer for analytical tractability. For a constant aquifer recharge, the model solves for the optimal trajectories of water extraction up to the desalination steady state and an incentive compatible pricing scheme. The Koolau Watershed is currently being degraded, however, by invasive plants such as Miconia calvescens and feral animals, especially wild pigs. Runoff and erosion have increased and groundwater recharge is at risk. The Koolau Partnership, a coalition of private owners, the State Department of Land and Natural Resources have proposed a $5 million (present value) conservation plan that promises to halt further losses of recharge. We compare this to the enhanced present value of the aquifer, showing the benefits are an order of magnitude greater than the costs. If conservation is done in the absence of efficient groundwater management, however, more than 40% of the potential benefits would be wasted by under-pricing and overconsumption. We require an estimate of the rainfall-generating distribution and how that distribution is changing over time. We obtain these from statistical downsizing of IPCC climate models. Despite the finding that global warming will increase precipitation for most of the world, the opposite is forecast for Hawaii. A University of Hawaii study finds that the most likely precipitation scenario is a 5-10% reduction in wet season mean precipitation and a 5% increase during the dry season by the end of the 21st century. These trends will be used to condition the time series analysis through Bayesian updating. The resulting distributions, conditioned for seasonality and long-run climate change, will be used to recursively simulate daily rainfalls, thereby allowing for serial correlation and forming a basis for the watershed model to recursively determine components of the water balance equation. The methodology will allow us to generate different sequences of rainfall from the estimated distribution and the corresponding recharge functions. These in turn are used as the basis of optimizing groundwater management under both the watershed conservation program and no conservation. We calculate how much adaptation via joint optimization of watershed conservation and groundwater management decreases the damages from declining precipitation. Inasmuch as groundwater scarcity increases with the forecasted climate change, even under optimal groundwater management, the value of watershed conservation also increases.

Roumasset, J.; Burnett, K.; Wada, C.

2009-12-01

42

Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon

2013-04-01

43

BMP analysis system for watershed-based stormwater management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Best Management Practices (BMPs) are measures for mitigating nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused mainly by stormwater runoff. Established urban and newly developing areas must develop cost effective means for restoring or minimizing impacts, and planning future growth. Prince George's County in Maryland, USA, a fast-growing region in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, has developed a number of tools to support analysis and decision making for stormwater management planning and design at the watershed level. These tools support watershed analysis, innovative BMPs, and optimization. Application of these tools can help achieve environmental goals and lead to significant cost savings. This project includes software development that utilizes GIS information and technology, integrates BMP processes simulation models, and applies system optimization techniques for BMP planning and selection. The system employs the ESRI ArcGIS as the platform, and provides GIS-based visualization and support for developing networks including sequences of land uses, BMPs, and stream reaches. The system also provides interfaces for BMP placement, BMP attribute data input, and decision optimization management. The system includes a stand-alone BMP simulation and evaluation module, which complements both research and regulatory nonpoint source control assessment efforts, and allows flexibility in the examining various BMP design alternatives. Process based simulation of BMPs provides a technique that is sensitive to local climate and rainfall patterns. The system incorporates a meta-heuristic optimization technique to find the most cost-effective BMP placement and implementation plan given a control target, or a fixed cost. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the Prince George's County system. The case study involves a highly urbanized area in the Anacostia River (a tributary to Potomac River) watershed southeast of Washington, DC. An innovative system of management practices is proposed to minimize runoff, improve water quality, and provide water reuse opportunities. Proposed management techniques include bioretention, green roof, and rooftop runoff collection (rain barrel) systems. The modeling system was used to identify the most cost-effective combinations of management practices to help minimize frequency and size of runoff events and resulting combined sewer overflows to the Anacostia River. PMID:16854811

Zhen, Jenny; Shoemaker, Leslie; Riverson, John; Alvi, Khalid; Cheng, Mow-Soung

2006-01-01

44

Estimating Plot Scale Impacts on Watershed Scale Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Over recent decades, land and resource use as well as climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, agricultural and forest products). The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, biology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a catchment of South Korea. A variety of models (Erosion-3D, HBV-Light, VS2DH, Hydrus, PIXGRO, DNDC, and Hydrogeosphere) are being used to simulate plot and field scale measurements within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. The experimental field data throughout the catchment was integrated with the spatially-distributed SWAT2005 model. Typically, macroscopic homogeneity and average effective model parameters are assumed when upscaling local-scale heterogeneous measurements to the watershed. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources.

Shope, C. L.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.; Huwe, B.

2010-12-01

45

Chlorothalonil and 2,4-D Losses in Surface Water Discharge From a Managed Turf Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Managed turf sites (golf courses) are the most intensively managed landscapes in the urban environment. Yet, long-term watershed scale studies documenting the environmental transport of agrichemicals applied to these systems are rare. The objective of this study was to quantify the surface runoff lo...

46

Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

Mark Weaver

2009-01-01

47

A Study of the Relationship between Landslide and Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study in Karaj Watershed Management  

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Full Text Available This research shows a noticeable comparison between slide zones produced with the results using the Nilsen method with active tectonic hazard zonation map. A determination landform of geometry or morphometry factors is one of the best methods for study and evaluation active tectonics. The first image provided is a Dem maps from GIS software showing topography, geology and tectonic maps participant with field activities. The second image provided shows an active tectonic map also generated by the same above mentioned factors into three classes A, B, C, D and a landslide hazard zonation map which shows five classes: Stable zone, generally stable zone, stable moderately stable zone, moderately stable zone and talented to liquefaction zone. The study and comparison and conformity landslide hazard zonation map with hazard zonations into active tectonic hazard zonation map showed about 79 percent (56,880 hectare moderately unstable zone and talented for liquefaction zone settled in A zone (very high tectonic activity and B zone (high tectonic activity active tectonic map and 21 percent (15,130 hectare remain unsettled sequential 12 percent (8640 hectare and 9 percent (6480 hectare in C (moderate tectonic activity, D (lowest tectonic activity zone of active tectonic hazard zonation produced from above mentioned factors. This research showed a relationship between slide zones produced in landslide hazard zonations using the Nilsen method to measure active tectonic hazard zonation in the study region.

Rahman Sharifi

2013-07-01

48

New trends in watershed management and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would like to present some new environmental technologies by shoving restoration projects that are currently being implemented in the eastern United States that require this co-operation for successful implementation. The environmental technologies that will be discussed include the use of existing or constructed wetlands to treat surface and groundwater impacted in contaminants from various sources. The main goal of these type projects are to provide a low-cost and effective treatment for existing pollution problems. Many of these projects are initiated by civic associations (or NGOs) that wanted to improve the state of environment in their area. Because everyone has the responsibility to a clean environment in which they live, NGOs, state government, business, and local citizens, and local citizens worked closely together to solve problems in their watersheds. These projects are only examples of what is being done in the United States. However, I would like also to discuss what projects exist in eastern Slovakia, and others that could be started in Slovakia that improve relationships between MGOs and the state and local governmental decision-making process, with the ultimate goal to improve water quality in the Danube watershed in the future. There are severe environmental technologies that can be applied to improve the water quality of rivers throughout the Danube watershed, such as treatment of wastewater using wetland vegetation, and treatment of acid-mine drainage. In April 1996, NGO People and Water in co-operation with the village governments of the Upper Torysa River watershed started the project Villages for the 3 rd millennium in the Carpathian Euro-Region. One of the main goals of this project is to introduce new environmental technologies in the rural communities of the Upper Torysa River area. Since people trust their eyes than their ears. It is important to initiate practical, pilot projects to convince citizens and governments that these low-cost, effective technologies are applicable in Slovakia and in Central and Eastern Europe. (author)

49

Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

OpenAIRE

The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted...

Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon; Mariza Guimarães Prota; Tadeu Fabricio Malheiros

2013-01-01

50

75 FR 27552 - Guidance for Federal Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

...Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed which EPA is publishing pursuant to Section...the way in protecting the Bay and its watershed with the most effective tools and...

2010-05-17

51

Land cover and water management: prospective modelling in patchy agricultural landscape (case study on the Blavet watershed)  

OpenAIRE

If major land use / landcover changes (deforestation, urbanization...) have induced important environmental damages at the global scale, subtle changes that occur at the local scale may also have dramatic consequences. For example, land cover and landscape feature changes in the agricultural patchy landscape of Brittany (France) over the last 50 years have caused significant water quality degradation. Since the new European water policy (2000/60/EC Directive), water managers must restore a ?...

Houet, Thomas

2006-01-01

52

Preliminary identification of watershed management strategies for the Houjing river in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Houjing River watershed is one of the three major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Based on the recent water quality analysis, the Houjing River is heavily polluted. Both point and non-point source (NPS) pollutants are the major causes of the poor water quality in the Houjing River. Investigation results demonstrate that the main point pollution sources included municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. In this study, land use identification in the Houjing River watershed was performed by integrating the skills of geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS). Results show that the major land-use patterns in the upper catchment of the Houjing River watershed were farmlands, and land-use patterns in the mid to lower catchment were residential and industrial areas. An integrated watershed management model (IWMM) and Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2K) were applied for the hydrology and water quality modeling, watershed management, and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the calculated NH?-N carrying capacity of the Houjing River was only 31 kg/day. Thus, more than 10,518 kg/day of NH?-N needs to be reduced to meet the proposed water quality standard (0.3 mg/L). To improve the river water quality, the following remedial strategies have been developed to minimize the impacts of NPS and point source pollution on the river water quality: (1) application of BMPs [e.g. source (fertilizer) reduction, construction of grassy buffer zone, and land use management] for NPS pollution control; (2) application of river management scenarios (e.g. construction of the intercepting and sewer systems) for point source pollution control; (3) institutional control (enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards), and (4) application of on-site wastewater treatment systems for the polishment of treated wastewater for water reuse. PMID:20935386

Lin, C E; Kao, C M; Jou, C J; Lai, Y C; Wu, C Y; Liang, S H

2010-01-01

53

Management of urbanizing watersheds: Central tendencies, outliers, and the art of the possible  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban watersheds pose numerous challenges for environmental management, and many of these challenges involve well-known examples of degraded water quality and altered hydrologic flow paths. These impacts, such as the widely studied "urban stream syndrome" that has been linked to impervious surfaces, describe the central tendencies of urbanized systems to undergo some sort of degradation as a function of the intensity of the human footprint on the landscape. More people, or more pavement, or more nitrogen inputs are all known to lead to progressive water quality degradation. These central tendencies can result in useful management prescriptions, such as reducing impervious surfaces to reduce impacts on stream hydrology, but they may also result in large investments with a relatively weak scientific underpinning or management prescriptions ("less people") that are not particularly practical. I suggest that as a research community, we should explicitly embrace a research agenda that aggressively continues to describe these central tendencies, but places more emphasis on understanding outliers from the central tendency, and quantifying the impacts of management solutions through experimental observations. Fruitful areas for research include understanding how the impacts of urbanization vary by biome; do the central tendencies of urbanized watersheds vary independent of biome and climate? Better understanding of outlier watersheds can be highly informative for management, as these watersheds are ones in which urban impacts are much more or much less than expected, and thus can provide strong evidence for practical management suggestions. Finally, what is actually possible to achieve through improved physical infrastructure and management practices should be determined experimentally through the development of a network of experimental urban and suburban watersheds.

McDowell, W. H.

2012-12-01

54

A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon  

OpenAIRE

Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, US...

Michael Maher; Jennifer Burke; David Jensen; Patricia Olson; Sheer, Mindi B.; Aimee Fullerton; Yuko Caras; Ashley Steel, E.; Paul McElhany

2008-01-01

55

Selecting socio-economic metrics for watershed management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The selection of social and economic metrics to document baseline conditions and analyze the dynamic relationships between ecosystems and human communities are important decisions for scientists, managers, and watershed citizens. A large variety of social and economic data is available but these have limited use without theoretical frameworks. In this paper, several frameworks for reviewing social-ecosystem relations are offered, namely social sanctions, sense of place, civic structure, and cultural differences. Underlying all of these frameworks are attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that affect which questions are asked and which indicators are chosen. Much work and significant challenges remain in developing a standard set of spatially based socio-economic metrics for watershed management. PMID:15861988

Morton, Lois Wright; Padgitt, Steve

2005-04-01

56

Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals of sustainable development on a regional scale.

Chang, N.

2006-12-01

57

Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.

Dejian Zhang

2015-02-01

58

An index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management in a changing climate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study developed an index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management dealing with water quantity and quality issues in a changing climate. It consists of two parts of management alternative development and analysis. The first part for alternative development consists of six steps: 1) to understand the watershed components and process using HSPF model, 2) to identify the spatial vulnerability ranking using two indices: potential streamflow depletion (PSD) and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD), 3) to quantify the residents' preferences on water management demands and calculate the watershed evaluation index which is the weighted combinations of PSD and PWQD, 4) to set the quantitative targets for water quantity and quality, 5) to develop a list of feasible alternatives and 6) to eliminate the unacceptable alternatives. The second part for alternative analysis has three steps: 7) to analyze all selected alternatives with a hydrologic simulation model considering various climate change scenarios, 8) to quantify the alternative evaluation index including social and hydrologic criteria with utilizing multi-criteria decision analysis methods and 9) to prioritize all options based on a minimax regret strategy for robust decision. This framework considers the uncertainty inherent in climate models and climate change scenarios with utilizing the minimax regret strategy, a decision making strategy under deep uncertainty and thus this procedure derives the robust prioritization based on the multiple utilities of alternatives from various scenarios. In this study, the proposed procedure was applied to the Korean urban watershed, which has suffered from streamflow depletion and water quality deterioration. Our application shows that the framework provides a useful watershed management tool for incorporating quantitative and qualitative information into the evaluation of various policies with regard to water resource planning and management. PMID:24365586

Kim, Yeonjoo; Chung, Eun-Sung

2014-03-01

59

Climate change and drought risk management in Mediterranean watersheds (Invited)  

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As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic forcings are key attributable factors for this increased drying, though the external signal explains only half of the drying magnitude. Climate models subjected to a uniform 0.5oC warming of the world oceans induce eastern Mediterranean drying but do not generate the observed widespread Mediterranean drying pattern. The extent to which these mechanisms and the region's overall drying since 1902 reflect similar mechanisms operating in association with external radiative forcing are summarized.

Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.

2013-12-01

60

GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments  

OpenAIRE

Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS). GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant trans...

Rousseau, A. N.; Quilbe?, R.

2007-01-01

61

GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management ? sample applications and current developments  

OpenAIRE

Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS). GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant trans...

Quilbe?, R.; Rousseau, A. N.

2007-01-01

62

Impacts of forest changes on hydrology: a case study of large watersheds in the upper reaches of Minjiang River watershed in China  

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Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of forest changes on hydrology in large watersheds is important for designing forest or land management and adaptation strategies for watershed ecosystem sustainability. Minjiang River watershed, located in the upper reach of the Yangtze River basin, plays a strategic role in the environmental protection and economic and social well-being for both the watershed and the entire Yangtze River basin. The watershed lies in the transition zone from Sichuan Basin to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a size of 24 000 km2. Due to its strategic significance, severe historic deforestation and high sensitivity to climate change, the watershed has long been recognized as one of the highest priority watersheds in China for scientific research and resource management. The purpose of this review paper is to provide a state-of-the-art summary on what we have learned from several recently completed research programs (one of them known as "973 of the China National Major Fundamental Science" from 2002 to 2008. This summary paper focused on how land cover or forest change affected hydrology at both forest stand and watershed scales in this large watershed. Inclusion of two different spatial scales is useful, because the results from a small spatial scale (e.g. forest stand level can help interpret the findings on a large spatial scale. Our review suggests that historic forest harvesting or land cover change has caused significant water yield increase due to reduction of forest canopy interception and evapotranspiration caused by removal of forest vegetation on both spatial scales. The impact magnitude caused by forest harvesting indicates that the hydrological effects of forest or land cover changes can be as important as those caused by climate change, while the opposite impact directions suggest their offsetting effects on water yield in the Minjiang River watershed. In addition, different types of forests have different magnitudes of evapotranspiration (ET, with the lowest in old-growth natural coniferous forests (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils. and the highest in coniferous plantations (e.g. Picea asperata Mast. among major forest types in the study watershed. This suggests that selection of different types of forests can have an important role in ET and consequently water yield. Our synthesis indicates that future reforestation and climate change would likely produce the hydrological effects in the same direction and thus place double the pressure on water resource as both key drivers may lead to water yield reduction. The findings can support designing management strategies for protection of watershed ecological functions in the context of future land cover and climate changes.

X. Cui

2012-11-01

63

Watershed Conservation and Groundwater Management: An Integrated Perspective  

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US natural resource policy has explicitly acknowledged the hydrological connection between forest resources and water resources from the inception of the USDA Forest Service for the dual purpose of timber and watershed management,, but it is often overlooked in short run policy decisions. In Hawaii, these closely interconnected resources led to the establishment of the Ko`olau Mountains Conservation District in the early 1900s in order to improve water supplies. This early action on the part of the state has enabled today a healthy watershed. The health of the watershed, however, is now under threat from incremental ecosystem change, particularly in the form of invasive species (e.g. pigs (Sus scrofa) and weedy shrubs (Miconia calvescens)) that change the hydrological properties of the watershed to increase runoff and reduce aquifer recharge. Economic costs of reduced recharge in the face of rising water demand from a growing population are potentially large, with preliminary estimates suggesting the losses from reduced groundwater recharge in the Pearl Harbor aquifer have a present value of 1.4 to 2.6 billion dollars (Kaiser and Roumasset, 2002). To refine and improve these preliminary estimates we use spatial analysis of the water balance in the Ko`olaus to relate land use and land cover to recharge and we simultaneously explore the risk of degradation of the forest quality for recharge purposes through a survey of watershed experts. Using this information together with a dynamic model of water pricing as a function of aquifer recharge and use, we examine how much of an economic return (in present value) forest conservation expenditures may produce in the form of protecting aquifer recharge. In conjunction, we begin to examine additional integrated benefits of reducing runoff to near-shore resources by relating upland conservation to reef quality using monitoring data from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program. Kaiser and Roumasset (2002). "Valuation of Nature's Intermediate products: The Ko`olau Forest's Contribution to the Pearl Harbor Aquifer," Environment and Development Economics 7(4): 701-714.

Kaiser, B. A.

2005-05-01

64

Analyzing the impacts of forest disturbance and regrowth on watershed hydrology: A case study from the Homochitto Watershed, Mississippi  

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Forests are efficient sinks and reservoirs of terrestrial carbons. They can relieve or amplify the adverse impacts of global warming and climate variability and hence, managing forests has been the most important sustainable strategy to mitigate climatic impacts. However, forest management often involves a large scale landscape transformation of land use and cover, and brings significant changes on water resources to the local community. This study is to evaluate the impacts of forest management and disturbance on water quality and quanity in the Homochitto watershed (Mississippi), where forest management and disturbance have occurred on a large scale over long time scales. Using a watershed simulation model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a long term water monitoring data from USGS and US EPA, we will investigate how the spatial heterogeneity of land use, vegetation cover, topography, and climate affect water cycles (e.g., soil water content, water yields), and water quality (e.g., nutrients and sediments) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Historic chronologies of forest disturbance maps will be generated with a number of satellite-based measurements (such as Landsat, MODIS, and aerial photographs), Geospatial datasets (including MS Gap Analysis Project (GAP), National Land Cover Database (NLCD)), field measurements from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) database, and historic records on forest land management in the region, characterizing the human induced changes in the forest landscape. This study will provide valuable information to better understand the hydrologic feedbacks to changing forests and climate system.

Yeo, I.; Islam, A.; Huang, C.

2009-12-01

65

Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management  

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Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

2013-12-01

66

Longitudinal patterns in carbon and nutrient export from urban watersheds with contrasting headwater management  

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Stormwater management in urban areas presents challenges and opportunities to enhance water quality while simultaneously protecting property and infrastructure. Through several generations, stormwater management practices have evolved from 'gray infrastructure' such as pipes and ditches designed to quickly transport water away from the landscape, to more 'green infrastructure' projects meant to allow for biological processing and retention of urban runoff. Implementation of these practices has replaced traditional stream burial with bioretention cells, wetlands, and ponds. We hypothesize that these contrasting green versus gray strategies for headwater management may have significant consequences for the delivery and processing of dissolved carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. To address this hypothesis, we compared two paired urbanized watersheds with different stormwater management by measuring the longitudinal export of DOC, DIC, TDN, PO4+, and major anions, and characterizing dissolved organic matter using Fluorescence Index (FI) and Spectral Slope. Both watersheds were located in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Dead Run is an urbanized catchment with prevalent stream burial and minimal stormwater management which was implemented after initial development. Red Run is a similarly sized watershed with more recent development and comprehensive stormwater management (wetlands, ponds, bioretention cells, sand filters) and 100m wide stream buffer areas. In each of these contrasting watersheds, we chose two headwater streams which drain SWM features and one stream that terminates at a storm drain. We measured longitudinal changes in export by conducting a synoptic survey of both watersheds in which flow and water chemistry were measured every 500m in the main stem and approximately every 250m in the selected tributaries. Within watersheds, we found differences in the C, N and P loads from SWM and non-SWM streams. In Red Run, DOC and DIC were higher in SWM streams, while TDN was higher in non-SWM streams. In contrast, Dead Run SWM streams had lower DIC and PO4+ concentrations than non-SWM, but DOC and TDN were comparable for this single sampling date. Overall, Red Run had lower C export with 4.6 Kg day-1 of DOC and 83 Kg day-1 of DIC, than Dead Run which exported 28.7 Kg day-1 of TOC and 174.2 Kg day-1 of DIC. The instantaneous TDN load was very similar with 5.5 Kg day-1 in Red Run and 5.4 Kg day-1 in Dead Run. Dead Run had an overall longitudinal increase in DOC and decline in DIC concentrations from the headwaters to the mainstem. Red Run showed an overall longitudinal increase in both DIC and DOC concentrations with distance downstream. Future work will investigate biogeochemical processing rates within these contrasting watersheds to explain the longitudinal patterns along stream networks. This work will connect how headwater management strategies alter downstream transport and transformation of carbon and nutrients across the urban watershed continuum.

Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.

2012-12-01

67

Forest use strategies in watershed management and restoration: application to three small mountain watersheds in Latin America  

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Full Text Available The effect of forests on flow and flood lamination decreases as the magnitude and intensity of torrential events and the watershed surface increase, thus resulting negligible when extreme events affect large catchments. However the effect of forests is advantageous in case of major events, which occur more often, and is particularly effective in soil erosion control. As a result, forests have been extensively used for watershed management and restoration, since they regulate water and sediments cycles, preventing the degradation of catchments.

Juan Ángel Mintegui Aguirre

2014-06-01

68

Watershed Management and Public Health: An Exploration of the Intersection of Two Fields as Reported in the Literature from 2000 to 2010  

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Watersheds are settings for health and well-being that have a great deal to offer the public health community due to the correspondence between the spatial form of the watershed unit and the importance to health and well-being of water. However, managing watersheds for human health and well-being requires the ability to move beyond typical reductionist approaches toward more holistic methods. Health and well-being are emergent properties of inter-related social and biophysical processes. This paper characterizes points of connection and integration between watershed management and public health and tests a new conceptual model, the Watershed Governance Prism, to determine the prevalence in peer-reviewed literature of different perspectives relating to watersheds and public health. We conducted an initial search of academic databases for papers that addressed the interface between watershed management (or governance) and public health themes. We then generated a sample of these papers and undertook a collaborative analysis informed by the Watershed Governance Prism. Our analysis found that although these manuscripts dealt with a range of biophysical and social determinants of health, there was a tendency for social factors and health outcomes to be framed as context only for these studies, rather than form the core of the relationships being investigated. At least one cluster of papers emerged from this analysis that represented a cohesive perspective on watershed governance and health; "Perspective B" on the Watershed Governance Prism, "water governance for ecosystems and well-being," was dominant. Overall, the integration of watershed management/governance and public health is in its infancy.

Bunch, Martin J.; Parkes, Margot; Zubrycki, Karla; Venema, Henry; Hallstrom, Lars; Neudorffer, Cynthia; Berbés-Blázquez, Marta; Morrison, Karen

2014-08-01

69

Morphometric Analysis Of The Vidarbha River Basin, Amravati District, Maharashtra With Reference To Watershed Management.  

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Full Text Available In this present study, an attempt has been made to understand the groundwater regime of the Vidarbha sub-watershed of Wardha River basin exposed Amravati District, Maharashtra using an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques with Arc GIS Desktop 9.3 and ERDAS Imagine 9.2 software for the sustainable watershed management. The remote sensing data combined with field survey details has provided a unique and hybrid database for the optimal planning and management of the watershed. Morphometry is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth's surface shape and dimension of its lard forms. The Vidarbha River is a tributary of Wardha River and spread over the 252.10 sq. km area in Amravati district, Maharashtra which have been determine by the morphometry analysis. The results indicate the presence of 6th order drainage basin with dendritic drainage pattern showing uniform lithology. The study area is covered by 98% of Deccan trap which is highly jointed and fractured Basalt.

Khadri S. F. R

2013-09-01

70

COST-EFFECTIVE ALLOCATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM  

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Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...

71

Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation  

Science.gov (United States)

Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River) which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i) An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii) The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii) Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

Sène, A. M.; Bonin, S.; Soubeyran, O.

2007-06-01

72

Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

A. M. Sène

2007-06-01

73

Integrated watershed management through consortium approach: team building for watershed consortium  

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Full Text Available DFID-funded Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP is currently supported by a consortium of several research and development institutions led by ICRISAT. This is one of the first systematic attempts of convergence of various agencies at watershed level. To develop a common vision of the goals of the project it is important that the partners of the consortium deliberate and discuss with each other and come to know of each other's strengths and limitations. A series of team building workshops were therefore organized at different levels to facilitate the partners of the consortium to function as an effective team. This process was carried out in four rounds starting with the core team in the first round spiraling up further to include the entire network of the consortium partners. This report brings forth the output of these exercises in the form of learnings that are useful to facilitate a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team for natural resource management.

Sreenath Dixit

2006-08-01

74

ARS-BLM COOPERATIVE STUDIES, REYNOLDS CREEK WATERSHED, IDAHO, 1975  

Science.gov (United States)

This interim report summarizes progress and results of cooperative watershed research between the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. Of Agriculture and the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Dept of the Interior. Work was initiated in 1968. This report covers January 1 thro...

75

Evaluating watershed service availability under future management and climate change scenarios in the Pangani Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed services are the benefits people obtain from the flow of water through a watershed. While demand for such services is increasing in most parts of the world, supply is getting more insecure due to human impacts on ecosystems such as climate or land use change. Population and water management authorities therefore require information on the potential availability of watershed services in the future and the trade-offs involved. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model watershed service availability for future management and climate change scenarios in the East African Pangani Basin. In order to quantify actual “benefits”, SWAT2005 was slightly modified, calibrated and configured at the required spatial and temporal resolution so that simulated water resources and processes could be characterized based on their valuation by stakeholders and their accessibility. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate three management and three climate scenarios. The results show that by the year 2025, not primarily the physical availability of water, but access to water resources and efficiency of use represent the greatest challenges. Water to cover basic human needs is available at least 95% of time but must be made accessible to the population through investments in distribution infrastructure. Concerning the trade-off between agricultural use and hydropower production, there is virtually no potential for an increase in hydropower even if it is given priority. Agriculture will necessarily expand spatially as a result of population growth, and can even benefit from higher irrigation water availability per area unit, given improved irrigation efficiency and enforced regulation to ensure equitable distribution of available water. The decline in services from natural terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. charcoal, food), due to the expansion of agriculture, increases the vulnerability of residents who depend on such services mostly in times of drought. The expected impacts of climate change may contribute to an increase or decrease in watershed service availability, but are only marginal and much lower than management impacts up to the year 2025.

Notter, Benedikt; Hurni, Hans; Wiesmann, Urs; Ngana, James O.

76

GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

A. N. Rousseau

2007-11-01

77

GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i timber harvesting; (ii municipal clean water program; (iii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iv past land use evolution; (v possible future agricultural land use evolution under climate change, as well as (vi determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

A. N. Rousseau

2007-06-01

78

GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management - sample applications and current developments  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS). GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution) on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada). They include impact assessments of: (i) municipal clean water program; (ii) agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii) past and future land use changes, as well as (iv) determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

Quilbé, R.; Rousseau, A. N.

2007-11-01

79

Field Scale Optimization for Long-Term Sustainability of Best Management Practices in Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural and urban land use changes have led to disruption of natural hydrologic processes and impairment of streams and rivers. Multiple previous studies have evaluated Best Management Practices (BMPs) as means for restoring existing hydrologic conditions and reducing impairment of water resources. However, planning of these practices have relied on watershed scale hydrologic models for identifying locations and types of practices at scales much coarser than the actual field scale, where landowners have to plan, design and implement the practices. Field scale hydrologic modeling provides means for identifying relationships between BMP type, spatial location, and the interaction between BMPs at a finer farm/field scale that is usually more relevant to the decision maker (i.e. the landowner). This study focuses on development of a simulation-optimization approach for field-scale planning of BMPs in the School Branch stream system of Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana, USA. The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) tool is used as the field scale hydrologic model, and a multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to search for optimal alternatives. Multiple climate scenarios downscaled to the watershed-scale are used to test the long term performance of these alternatives and under extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness of these BMPs under multiple weather conditions are included within the simulation-optimization approach as a criteria/goal to assist landowners in identifying sustainable design of practices. The results from these scenarios will further enable efficient BMP planning for current and future usage.

Samuels, A.; Babbar-Sebens, M.

2012-12-01

80

Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

Raquel Maria de Oliveira

2010-04-01

81

Integrating water-quality management and land-use planning in a watershed context.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial relationships between land uses and river-water quality measured with biological, water chemistry, and habitat indicators were analyzed in the Little Miami River watershed, OH, USA. Data obtained from various federal and state agencies were integrated with Geographic Information System spatial analysis functions. After statistically analyzing the spatial patterns of the water quality in receiving rivers and land uses and other point pollution sources in the watershed, the results showed that the water biotic quality did not degrade significantly below wastewater treatment plants. However, significantly lower water quality was found in areas downstream from high human impact areas where urban land was dominated or near point pollution sources. The study exhibits the importance of integrating water-quality management and land-use planning. Planners and policy-makers at different levels should bring stakeholders together, based on the understanding of land-water relationship in a watershed, to prevent pollution from happening and to plan for a sustainable future. PMID:11381456

Wang, X

2001-01-01

82

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CALIBRATION METHODS OF NASH’S RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL TO AMMAMEH WATERSHED, IRAN  

OpenAIRE

Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliab...

Vahid Nourani

2008-01-01

83

Development of a Coupled Land Surface and Ground Water Model for use in Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of surface water quality is often complicated by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Traditional Land-Surface Models (LSM) used for numerical weather prediction, climate projection, and as inputs to water management decision support systems, do not treat the lower boundary in a fully process-based fashion. LSMs have evolved from a leaky bucket to more sophisticated land surface water and energy budgets that typically have a so-called basement term to depict the bottom model layer exchange with deeper aquifers. Nevertheless, the LSM lower boundary is often assumed zero flux or the soil moisture content is set to a constant value; an approach that while mass conservative, ignores processes that can alter surface fluxes, runoff, and water quantity and quality. Conversely, models for saturated and unsaturated water flow, while addressing important features such as subsurface heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow, often have overly simplified upper boundary conditions that ignore soil heating, runoff, snow and root-zone uptake. In the present study, a state-of-the-art LSM (CLM2.0) and a variably-saturated groundwater model (ParFlow) have been coupled as a single column model. An initial set of simulations based on data from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) and synthetic data demonstrate the temporal dynamics of both of the coupled models. Changes in soil moisture and movement of the water table are used as indicators of conservation of mass between the two models. Sensitivity studies demonstrate the affect of precipitation, evapotransporation, radiation, subsurface geology and heterogeneity on predicted watershed flow. The coupled model will ultimately be used to assist in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs - a surface water quality standard) for a number of pollutants in an urban watershed in Southern California in the United States. Sensitivity studies demonstrating the effects of watershed flow in uncoupled and coupled modes will be presented.

Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, N. L.

2003-12-01

84

Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

85

Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

2009-12-15

86

APPLYING ECOLOGICAL RISK PRINCIPLES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable progress in addressing point source (end of pipe) pollution problems has been made but it is now recognized that further substantial environmental improvements depend on controlling nonpoint source pollution. A watershed approach is being used more frequently to add...

87

Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed  

OpenAIRE

The Annualised Agricultural Non-point Source model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different management practices to control the soil erosion and sediment load in the Carapelle watershed, a Mediterranean medium-size watershed (506 km2) located in Apulia, Southern Italy. The model was previously calibrated and validated using five years of runoff and sediment load data measured at a monitoring station located at Ordona - Ponte dei Sauri Bridge. A total of 36 events were us...

Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Fabio Milillo; Francesco Gentile

2014-01-01

88

[Ecological risk assessment and its management of bailongjiang watershed, southern gansu based on landscape pattern].  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed ecological risk assessment is an important research subject of watershed ecological protection and environmental management. Research on the ecological risk focuses on addressing the influence of human activities and its spatial variation at watershed scale is vital to policy-making to control the impact of human activity and protocols for sustainable economic and societal development. A comprehensive ecological environment index, incorporating a landscape index and an assessment of ecological vulnerability, was put forward to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics of ecological risk of the Bailongjiang watershed, southern Gansu Province, Northwest China. Using ArcGIS and Fragstats software and a land use map of 2010, an ecological risk map was obtained through spatial sampling and disjunctive Kriging interpolation. The results indicated that there were some obvious spatial differences of ecological risk levels in the watershed. The ecological risk level of the north and northwest of the Bailongjiang was higher than that of the western and southern extremities of the watershed. Ecological risk index (ERI) of Wudu and Tanchang was higher than that of Wenxian and Diebu. Some measures for ecological risk management were put forward on the basis of ERI of Bailongjiang watershed. To strengthen the integrated management of human activities and land use in the watershed, to carry out the vegetation restoration and ecological reconstruction, and to reduce the ecological risks and hazards of irrational human disturbance, are vital to the realization 'multiple-win' of the economic, social and ecological protection and for the sustainable development in the hilly area in southern Gansu. PMID:25345056

Gong, Jie; Zhao, Cai-Xia; Xie, Yu-Chu; Gao, Yan-Jing

2014-07-01

89

The Watershed and River Systems Management Program: Decision Support for Water- and Environmental-Resource Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing demands for limited fresh-water supplies, and increasing complexity of water-management issues, present the water-resource manager with the difficult task of achieving an equitable balance of water allocation among a diverse group of water users. The Watershed and River System Management Program (WARSMP) is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) to develop and deploy a database-centered, decision-support system (DSS) to address these multi-objective, resource-management problems. The decision-support system couples the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS) with the BOR RiverWare tools using a shared relational database. MMS is an integrated system of computer software that provides a research and operational framework to support the development and integration of a wide variety of hydrologic and ecosystem models, and their application to water- and ecosystem-resource management. RiverWare is an object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework developed to provide tools for evaluating and applying water-allocation and management strategies. The modeling capabilities of MMS and Riverware include simulating watershed runoff, reservoir inflows, and the impacts of resource-management decisions on municipal, agricultural, and industrial water users, environmental concerns, power generation, and recreational interests. Forecasts of future climatic conditions are a key component in the application of MMS models to resource-management decisions. Forecast methods applied in MMS include a modified version of the National Weather Service's Extended Streamflow Prediction Program (ESP) and statistical downscaling from atmospheric models. The WARSMP DSS is currently operational in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado; Yakima River Basin, Washington; Rio Grande Basin in Colorado and New Mexico; and Truckee River Basin in California and Nevada.

Leavesley, G.; Markstrom, S.; Frevert, D.; Fulp, T.; Zagona, E.; Viger, R.

2004-12-01

90

Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

2014-10-01

91

Selection and placement of best management practices used to reduce water quality degradation in Lincoln Lake watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

An increased loss of agricultural nutrients is a growing concern for water quality in Arkansas. Several studies have shown that best management practices (BMPs) are effective in controlling water pollution. However, those affected with water quality issues need water management plans that take into consideration BMPs selection, placement, and affordability. This study used a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). This multiobjective algorithm selects and locates BMPs that minimize nutrients pollution cost-effectively by providing trade-off curves (optimal fronts) between pollutant reduction and total net cost increase. The usefulness of this optimization framework was evaluated in the Lincoln Lake watershed. The final NSGA-II optimization model generated a number of near-optimal solutions by selecting from 35 BMPs (combinations of pasture management, buffer zones, and poultry litter application practices). Selection and placement of BMPs were analyzed under various cost solutions. The NSGA-II provides multiple solutions that could fit the water management plan for the watershed. For instance, by implementing all the BMP combinations recommended in the lowest-cost solution, total phosphorous (TP) could be reduced by at least 76% while increasing cost by less than 2% in the entire watershed. This value represents an increase in cost of 5.49 ha-1 when compared to the baseline. Implementing all the BMP combinations proposed with the medium- and the highest-cost solutions could decrease TP drastically but will increase cost by 24,282 (7%) and $82,306 (25%), respectively.

Rodriguez, Hector German; Popp, Jennie; Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2011-01-01

92

Integrated watershed management in Quebec (Canada): a participatory approach centred on local solidarity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Quebec Water Policy was launched in November 2002 in support of reform of the water governance. One of the government commitments is to gradually implement watershed-based management for 33 major watercourses located primarily in the St. Lawrence plain. At the local and regional levels, watershed organizations are responsible for implementing integrated management, from a sustainable-development perspective, by preparing a master plan for water (MPW), which will include watercourses, lakes, wetlands and aquifers. These watershed organizations rely on public consultation, as well as local and regional expertise, on the responsibilities for water of the municipalities and regional county municipalities of the territory, as well as those of the ministries and other government agencies. They are also required to observe national priorities regarding protection, restoration, and development of water resources and to comply with relevant guidelines, directives, standards, regulations, and legislation. The role of watershed organizations is to act as planning and consultation tables. Government representatives are present, on the initial process, as the facilitator and for scientific and technical support. They do not have, at this moment, any voting or decisional rights. After two years, integrated water management mobilized water stakeholders on watersheds and they are on their way to initiating their first MPW. PMID:16838716

Baril, P; Maranda, Y; Baudrand, J

2006-01-01

93

Oued Zeroud watershed management and Sidi Saad Dam protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Government of Tunisia has decided to construct the Qued Zeroud Dam to protect Kairouan from flooding, to irrigate 4,080 ha, and to maintain the groundwater supply. To prevent silting of the dam 100,000 ha of the Qued Zeroud watershed will undergo a conservation programme. Terraces, waterways and drop structures will be constructed and forage and tree plantations will be developed using Atriplex and cactus. Cultural and grazing practices will be controlled. (author)

94

Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management  

OpenAIRE

Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Un-derstanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six si...

Teresa Cristina Tarlé Pissarra; Flavia Mazzer Rodrigues; Christiano Luna Arraes; João Antonio Galbiatti; Maurício José Borges

2010-01-01

95

The impact of water management on watershed self-organization  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal and spatial self-organization has been demonstrated for hydrologic variables including soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth across many hydrologic catchments. Previous work has demonstrated that aquifers act as low pass filters, removing high frequency variability while allowing low frequency variability to pass through. While much research has focused on connections between water management and groundwater-surface water interactions, few studies have considered the impact of water management, specifically groundwater pumping and irrigation, on the scaling behavior of the natural system. We address this gap by simulating moisture dependent groundwater fed irrigation in the Little Washita Basin (Oklahoma, USA) using the fully integrated hydrologic model ParFlow-CLM. We present results from two simulations each spanning twenty years at hourly resolution, one with irrigated agriculture and one without. The model is forced with heterogeneous historical meteorological forcings and is populated with realistic land cover and subsurface units. Model results demonstrate scaling behavior for variables like latent heat flux and water table depth similar to other studies. Additionally, gridded model outputs allow for direct analysis of spatial patterns in temporal organization not possible with previous observational studies. Analysis shows clear spatial patterns in scaling. For example, water table depth and latent heat flux have the most similar scaling coefficients along the river, where groundwater and surface water are closely interacting. While scaling behavior is also observed in the irrigated agriculture scenario, there are notable differences in frequency behavior. Pumping and irrigation attenuate low frequency (inter-annual variability) while amplifying high frequency (intra-annual variability). Water management operations increase persistence in both groundwater and surface water systems and expand the spatial area where the two are closely connected. Results highlight potential impacts of managed agriculture on natural system dynamics that go beyond traditional considerations of water availability. Feedbacks between management operations and underlying system variability are an important consideration for water managers because system reliability is largely a function of natural variance.

Condon, Laura; Maxwell, Reed

2014-05-01

96

Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity. PMID:24390081

Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles

2014-03-01

97

Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

Childs, Allen B.

2002-03-01

98

Demarcation of Drainage Network for Watershed Management of Sangamner Tahsil Using Topographical and GIS Data: A Case Study of Sangamner Tahsil of Ahemadnagar District  

OpenAIRE

Water is significant geographical resource, which need to micro level planning for the conservation. It is the fundamental need of all biotic community which is depending on the precipitation sources directly and River, lake, tank water sources circuitously. There is sensitive issue regarding water managements because of its need and availability. So the, variety of research techniques applied for the sustainable development of water resource. In most of region very less rainfall incidence...

Ms Deshmukh Pragati P; Wawale, Surindar G.; Aher, Sainath P.; Prof. Thorat Sukdeo K

2012-01-01

99

REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

Science.gov (United States)

NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...

100

Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

Walker, J.F.; Pickard, S.A.; Sonzogni, W.C.

1989-01-01

101

Evaluation of targeting methods for implementation of best management practices in the Saginaw River Watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing concerns regarding water quality in the Great Lakes region are mainly due to changes in urban and agricultural landscapes. Both point and non-point sources contribute pollution to Great Lakes surface waters. Best management practices (BMPs) are a common tool used to reduce both point and non-point source pollution and improve water quality. Meanwhile, identification of critical source areas of pollution and placement of BMPs plays an important role in pollution reduction. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of different targeting methods in 1) identifying priority areas (high, medium, and low) based on various factors such as pollutant concentration, load, and yield, 2) comparing pollutant (sediment, total nitrogen-TN, and total phosphorus-TP) reduction in priority areas defined by all targeting methods, 3) determine the BMP relative sensitivity index among all targeting methods. Ten BMPs were implemented in the Saginaw River Watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model following identification of priority areas. Each targeting method selected distinct high priority areas based on the methodology of implementation. The concentration based targeting method was most effective at reduction of TN and TP, likely because it selected the greatest area of high priority for BMP implementation. The subbasin load targeting method was most effective at reducing sediment because it tended to select large, highly agricultural subbasins for BMP implementation. When implementing BMPs, native grass and terraces were generally the most effective, while conservation tillage and residue management had limited effectiveness. The BMP relative sensitivity index revealed that most combinations of targeting methods and priority areas resulted in a proportional decrease in pollutant load from the subbasin level and watershed outlet. However, the concentration and yield methods were more effective at subbasin reduction, while the stream load method was more effective at reducing pollutants at the watershed outlet. The results of this study indicate that emphasis should be placed on selection of the proper targeting method and BMP to meet the needs and goals of a BMP implementation project because different targeting methods produce varying results. PMID:22459068

Giri, Subhasis; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A

2012-07-30

102

Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India  

Science.gov (United States)

Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

2014-02-01

103

Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

104

Losing the watershed focus: a look at complex community-managed irrigation systems in Bolivia  

OpenAIRE

Water policies tend to misrecognize the complexity of community-managed irrigation systems. This paper focuses on water allocation practices in peasant communities of the Bolivian interandean valleys. These communities manage complex irrigation systems, and tap water from several surface sources, many of them located outside the watershed boundaries, resulting in complex hydro-social networks. Historical claims, organizational capacity, resources availability, and geographical position and in...

Saldi?as, C.; Boelens, R. A.; Wegerich, K.; Speelman, S.

2012-01-01

105

WATERSHED INFORMATION - SURF YOUR WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

Surf Your Watershed is both a database of urls to world wide web pages associated with the watershed approach of environmental management and also data sets of relevant environmental information that can be queried. It is designed for citizens and decision makers across the count...

106

Application of a watershed ecological risk assessment in developing a nitrogen management strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waquoit Bay is a small estuary on the south shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Population in the watershed has increased approximately 1 5 fold in the past 50 years, and residential land use has increased tenfold from 2 percent of the watershed in 1950 to 20 percent in 1990. Of particular concern is nitrogen loading primarily via groundwater from on-site septic systems, fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. Adverse ecological impacts have included: growth of nuisance macroalgae, decreases in water quality, loss of bay scallops and loss of eel grass (Zostera marina) in Waquoit Bay and adjoining coastal ponds. A watershed-based ecological risk assessment was applied to assist in the development of management strategies for the bay. Management goals for the watershed were identified by stakeholders. Endpoints of the risk assessment were derived from the management goals and included: areal extent and patch size of eel grass beds and macroalgal mats, and habitat quality as evidenced by physical, chemical and biological water quality. Ecological response of the endpoints to the nitrogen loading was examined with a regional analysis of eel grass cover, land use, and predicted nitrogen loading in similar embayments of Cape Cod. The uncertainty analysis of the risk assessment allows prediction of the probability of success for a given management strategy; for example, what would be the probability that eel grass would return by reducing the nitrogen load through the implementation of various management strategies. This example shows the utility of the ecological risk assessment approach for developing optimal management strategies to increase the probability of achieving management goals.

Tyler, P.; Geist, M.; Dow, D.; Clark, H.; Gerritsen, J.

1995-12-31

107

Effects of watershed management practices on the relationships among rainfall, runoff, and sediment delivery in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau in China  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships among rainfall, runoff, and sediment delivery are significant in predicting soil erosion and in evaluating the benefits of watershed management practices (WMP) on the hilly-gully regions of the Loess Plateau. Hydrologic data (1987 to 2010) were analyzed for variations in precipitation, runoff, and sediment delivery at annual and event scale. These data were obtained from the Qiaozi East watershed (QE) and the Qiaozi West watershed (QW) with and without WMP, respectively. Results indicated that the runoff coefficients of the watersheds decreased significantly, although the runoff coefficient of QE was less than half of that of QW. Sediment delivery decreased more in QE than in QW mainly because of the increase in vegetation cover in both watersheds. In QE, the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery did not change significantly from 1987 to 2006, although the variation was significant from 2007 to 2010. In QW, the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery was not notably altered from 1987 to 2010. This finding suggested that vegetation practices and engineering measures on the hillslope did not strongly affect the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery in the watersheds. But the construction of check dams reduced gully erosion and the suspended sediment concentration. Hence, control practices for gully erosion significantly influenced the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery. This study suggests that a combination of hillslope and gully erosion control practices effectively reduces erosion and sediment delivery in the hilly-gully regions of the Loess Plateau.

Yan, Qinghong; Lei, Tingwu; Yuan, Cuiping; Lei, Qixiang; Yang, Xiusheng; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu; An, Leping

2015-01-01

108

Water Balance Principles: A Review of Studies on Five Watersheds in Iran  

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Full Text Available Originally, water balance models were introduced to evaluate the importance of different hydrologic parameters under a variety of hydrologic conditions but its present applications are the most common studies at water resources management. In spite of the simple concept of water balance equation, specific considerations are need to proper application. With numerous affecting factors on hydrologic processes, the parsimony trait of water balance equation can cause huge errors or complexities throughout study processes. It is beyond a general computation to create an appropriate portrait of water circumstances with a parsimonious equation that should be considered as an art. Practically, water balance computations are used in five separate categories at least: watersheds, groundwater aquifers, farms, urban water distribution networks and particular areas such as glaciers and landfills; totally, they are directed along three main lines: watershed hydrology reconstruction, evaluation of water supply and water demand systems and assessment of climatic changes impacts. This study is to concentrate on some specific hints which their ignorance leads us to less reliability on water balance results and misunderstandings of actual situations. Finally, the methods used in Iran are investigated in five separate watersheds in the north east of the country and their results are compared with two other published results.

S.M.R. Alavi Moghaddam

2011-01-01

109

Small watershed management as a tool of flood risk prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the International Disaster Database (CRED 2009) frequency of extreme hydrological situations on a global scale is constantly increasing. The most typical example of a natural risk in Europe is flood - there is a decrease in the number of victims, but a significant increase in economic damage. A decrease in the number of victims is caused by the application of current hydrological management that focuses its attention primarily on large rivers and elimination of the damages caused by major flood situations. The growing economic losses, however, are a manifestation of the increasing intensity of floods on small watercourses, which are usually not sufficiently taken into account by the management approaches. The research of small streams should focus both on the study of the watercourse itself, especially its ecomorphological properties, and in particular on the possibility of flood control measures and their effectiveness. An important part of society's access to sustainable development is also the evolution of knowledge about the river landscape area, which is perceived as a significant component of global environmental security and resilience, thanks to its high compensatory potential for mitigation of environmental change. The findings discussed under this contribution are based on data obtained during implementation of the project "GeoRISK" (Geo-analysis of landscape level degradation and natural risks formation), which takes into account the above approaches applied in different case studies - catchments of small streams in different parts of the Czech Republic. Our findings offer an opportunity for practical application of field research knowledge in decision making processes within the national level of current water management.

Jakubinsky, J.; Bacova, R.; Svobodova, E.; Kubicek, P.; Herber, V.

2014-09-01

110

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CALIBRATION METHODS OF NASH’S RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL TO AMMAMEH WATERSHED, IRAN  

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Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nash’s model parameters.

Vahid Nourani

2008-06-01

111

Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.

Hélio Nóbile Diniz

2007-08-01

112

The Estimating of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Using Regional Flood Analysis and Geomorphologic Parameters (Case Study: Kanisavaran and Marenj Watersheds, Kurdistan)  

OpenAIRE

Estimation of flood hydrograph is of necessities in hydrological studies such as flood mitigation projects. This estimation in un-gauged watersheds is usually taken place using geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. The objective of this research is to estimate synthetic unit hydrograph using regional flood frequency analysis and geomorphological parameters of watersheds. 1-hour and 2-hour hydrographs of two watersheds, Kanisavaran and Maranj Watersheds, were generated using maximum ...

A Shirzadi, K. Chapi And P. Fathi

2012-01-01

113

Tribal Watershed Management: Culture, Science, Capacity, and Collaboration  

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This research focuses on two elements of contemporary American Indian natural resource management. First, the authors explore the capacity of tribes to manage natural resources, including the merging of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with Western science. Second, they analyze tribal management in the context of local and regional…

Cronin, Amanda; Ostergren, David M.

2007-01-01

114

Legacy Phosphorus in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Restoration and Management of Wetlands and Aquatic Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechof water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.

115

A decentralized optimization algorithm for multiagent system-based watershed management  

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A watershed can be simulated as a multiagent system (MAS) composed of spatially distributed land and water users (agents) within a common defined environment. The watershed system is characterized by distributed decision processes at the agent level with a coordination mechanism organizing the interactions among individual decision processes at the system level. This paper presents a decentralized (distributed) optimization method known as constraint-based reasoning, which allows individual agents in an MAS to optimize their behaviors over various alternatives. The method incorporates the optimization of all agents' objectives through an interaction scheme, in which the ith agent optimizes its objective with a selected priority for collaboration and forwards the solution and consequences to all agents that interact with it. Agents are allowed to determine how important their own objectives are in comparison with the constraints, using a local interest factor (?i). A large ?i value indicates a selfish agent who puts high priority on its own benefit and ignores collaboration requirements. This bottom-up problem-solving approach mimics real-world watershed management problems better than conventional "top-down" optimization methods in which it is assumed that individual agents will completely comply with any recommendations that the coordinator makes. The method is applied to a steady state hypothetical watershed with three off-stream human agents, one in-stream human agent (reservoir), and two ecological agents.

Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Cai, Ximing; Stipanovi?, DušAn M.

2009-08-01

116

Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic problems caused by dams in Ethiopia and elsewhere. Dams are planned from a top-down perspective in Ethiopia, some people are relocated against their will, haphazard land-use changes can occur, and s...

Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

2007-01-01

117

Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

Kebede Wolka Wolancho

2012-01-01

118

Brooker Creek Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study about the environmental challenges facing a watershed in Florida can serve as a model for a watershed module. The study covers all aspects of the watershed, including its geography and hydrology, land use and population, plants and animals, as well as challenges to the quality of the watershed now appearing due to development and use of water from the watershed's streams and aquifers. Materials for students include a watershed quiz, a students' corner with puzzles, games, and links to online resources about watersheds, and tips on how to preserve watershed environments.

119

White matter lesions in watershed territories studied with MRI and parenchymography: a comparative study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain aging affects an increasing segment of the population and the role of chronic cerebrovascular disease is considered to be one of the main parameters involved. For this purpose we compared retrospectively MRI data with digitized subtraction angiography (DSA) data in a group of 50 patients focusing onto the watershed area of the carotid artery vascular territories. In order to evaluate the presence of white matter lesions (WML) in the hemispheric watershed areas, coronal fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery or axial T2 weighted MRI images of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular insufficiency areas were compared with the capillary phase of DSA studies in anterior-posterior projection. Presence of cerebrovascular occlusive disease was evaluated on DSA using North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial criteria and including evaluation of collateral vascular supply. Pathological MRI findings in the region of the watershed territories correlated overall in 66% of cases with a defect or delayed filling on DSA. In the case of asymmetrical MRI findings, there was a pathological finding of the capillary phase in the watershed area in 92% of DSA studies. Hypoperfusion in the capillary phase of the watershed area as seen on DSA correlated with the stenosis degree of the concerned carotid artery. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical findings of WML in the watershed areas as seen on MRI are caused by hemodynamic effect and a differentiation between small vesst and a differentiation between small vessel disease and a consequence of distant stenosis may be possible under such conditions. (orig.)

120

White matter lesions in watershed territories studied with MRI and parenchymography: a comparative study  

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Brain aging affects an increasing segment of the population and the role of chronic cerebrovascular disease is considered to be one of the main parameters involved. For this purpose we compared retrospectively MRI data with digitized subtraction angiography (DSA) data in a group of 50 patients focusing onto the watershed area of the carotid artery vascular territories. In order to evaluate the presence of white matter lesions (WML) in the hemispheric watershed areas, coronal fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery or axial T2 weighted MRI images of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular insufficiency areas were compared with the capillary phase of DSA studies in anterior-posterior projection. Presence of cerebrovascular occlusive disease was evaluated on DSA using North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial criteria and including evaluation of collateral vascular supply. Pathological MRI findings in the region of the watershed territories correlated overall in 66% of cases with a defect or delayed filling on DSA. In the case of asymmetrical MRI findings, there was a pathological finding of the capillary phase in the watershed area in 92% of DSA studies. Hypoperfusion in the capillary phase of the watershed area as seen on DSA correlated with the stenosis degree of the concerned carotid artery. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical findings of WML in the watershed areas as seen on MRI are caused by hemodynamic effect and a differentiation between small vessel disease and a consequence of distant stenosis may be possible under such conditions. (orig.)

Minkner, K; Lovblad, K.O.; Yilmaz, H; Alimenti, A.; Delavelle, J; Ruefenacht, D.A. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Sekoranja, L; Sztajzel, R [University Hospital of Geneva, Clinic of Neurology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

2005-06-01

121

Science Education for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of the Palouse Watershed  

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This study uses case study and qualitative content analysis methodologies to answer the question: What is the relationship between Washington State's k-12 science education standards and the environmental sustainability needs of the Palouse River Watershed? After defining the Palouse Watershed's attributes, the author presents a land use history…

Lyman, Samson E.

2009-01-01

122

REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY  

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The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

123

A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

Charnay, Bérengère

2011-07-01

124

FARMERS’ MOTIVATIONS FOR ADOPTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE GOODWATER CREEK EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED  

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The purpose of this work was to evaluate farm operator opinions relative to soil and water conservation practices in the Goodwater Creek Watershed in Central Missouri. This study reveals the outcome of structured interviews conducted with 25 farm operators within the Conservation Effects Assessment...

125

On the development of a coupled land surface and ground water model for use in watershed management  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of surface water quality is often complicated by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Traditional Land-Surface Models (LSM) used for numerical weather prediction, climate projection, and as inputs to water management decision support systems, do not treat the lower boundary in a fully process-based fashion. LSMs have evolved from a leaky bucket to more sophisticated land surface water and energy budgets that typically have a so-called basement term to depict the bottom model layer exchange with deeper aquifers. Nevertheless, the LSM lower boundary is often assumed zero flux or the soil moisture content is set to a constant value; an approach that while mass conservative, ignores processes that can alter surface fluxes, runoff, and water quantity and quality. Conversely, models for saturated and unsaturated water flow, while addressing important features such as subsurface heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow, often have overly simplified upper boundary conditions that ignore soil heating, runoff, snow and root-zone uptake. In the present study, a state-of-the-art LSM (CLM2.0) and a variably-saturated groundwater model (ParFlow) have been coupled as a single column model. An initial set of simulations based on data from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) and synthetic data demonstrate the temporal dynamics of both of the coupled models. Changes in soil moisture and movement of the water table are used as indicators of conservation of mass between the two models. Sensitivity studies demonstrate the affect of precipitation, evapotranspiration, radiation, subsurface geology and heterogeneity on predicted watershed flow. Studies demonstrating the effects of watershed flow in uncoupled and coupled modes will be presented. The coupled model will ultimately be used to assist in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs- a surface water quality standard) for a number of pollutants in an urban watershed in Southern California in the United States.

Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, N. L.

2003-04-01

126

Tracking the fate of watershed nitrogen: The “N-Sink” Web Tool and Two Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This product describes the application of a web-based decision support tool, N-Sink, in two case study watersheds. N-Sink is a customized ArcMap© program that provides maps of N sourcesand sinks within a watershed, and estimates the delivery efficiency of N movement from sou...

127

Fertilizer management in watersheds of two Ramsar wetlands and effects on quality of inflowing water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two field experiments were carried out in the watersheds of two Ramsar wetland areas, Lakes Koronia and Volvi (area A) and Lakes Mikri and Megali Prespa (area B), to study the effect of application of N fertilizer on wheat yields, the quality of runoff water, and the quality of stream water. The treatments were a combination of two methods of fertilizer application (total amount in fall, and 2/3 in fall + 1/3 in spring) at three rates (0, 100, and 200 kg N/ha) with four replications. Concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, P, and Cl- and pH were determined in all water samples. Runoff water quality was not influenced by fertilizer application in either area. Chemical parameters for water did not differ along the selected watercourses in area B, while in area A they were higher in the samples taken near Lake Koronia than in the samples taken upstream, indicating that the watercourses are polluted downstream by nonagricultural sources. The differences in wheat yields between the 100 and 200 kg N/ha application rates were not high. These results call for better fertilizer management in order to achieve better yields and to diminish the possibility to have negative effects to the environment. PMID:12180176

Tsiouris, S E; Mamolos, A P; Kalburtji, K L

2002-05-01

128

The impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle and on the water resource management of the Peribonka watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated the impacts of climate change on the water resource management in the Peribonka watershed by comparing the hydropower production of 3 power houses with the reliability and vulnerability associated with two climate change scenarios. The Peribonka catchment area was described along with scenarios of climate change for the watershed over a time horizon up to 2080. Synthetic time series for each scenario were then produced with a stochastic weather generator and were introduced in the HSAMI hydrological model in order to simulate future hydrological cycles. The reservoir system simulation model ResSim showed that the hydroelectric power plant Passes-Dangereuses, will experience either an increase in the annual hydroelectric production of 8 per cent or a reduction of 20 per cent, depending on the scenario considered. The simulation showed that the reliability of upstream reservoirs, namely Lakes Manouane and Peribonka, could decrease while their vulnerability could increase. This paper described the procedure used to develop the climatic change scenarios, the stages of hydrological modeling and the modeling of the hydrological cycle. The impacts of the climatic change scenarios on the flows were also presented along with a short discussion of recommendations to be considered for the next stages of the project. Subsequent stages of this water management project will relate specifically to the quantification of partial and total uncertainties associated artial and total uncertainties associated with general circulation models, methods of reduction of scale and the applied hydrological models. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

129

Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds  

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Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ? NS ? 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

Indrajeet Chaubey

2010-11-01

130

Managing watershed services of tropical forests and plantations: Can meta-analyses help?  

OpenAIRE

The watershed services provided by tropical natural and planted forests are critical to human well-being. An increasing number of valuation studies and experiences with payment for ecosystem services have dealt with the role of ecosystems in regulating the flow of water. However, several studies and experiences have been based on misconceptions about the role of forests and plantations in the hydrological cycle, despite the publication of many reviews by hydrologists. The objective of this pa...

Locatelli, Bruno; Vignola, Raffaele

2009-01-01

131

Evaluation of Best Management Practices in Millsboro Pond Watershed Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model  

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Full Text Available The Inland Bays in southern Delaware (USA are facing eutrophication due to the nutrient loading from its watershed. The source of nutrients in the watershed is predominantly agriculture. The Millsboro Pond, a sub-watershed within the Inland Bays basin, was modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. It was found that the contribution of ground water from outside the watershed had a signifi-cant impact on the hydrology of the region. Once the model was calibrated and validated, five management scenarios were implemented, one at a time, to measure its effectiveness in reducing the nutrient loading in the watershed. Among the Best Management Practices (BMPs, planting winter cover crops on the agricul-ture land was the most effective method in reducing the nutrient loads. The second most effective method was to provide grassland riparian zones. The BMPs alone were not able to achieve the nutrient load reduc-tion as required by the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs. Two extra scenarios that involved in replac-ing agriculture land with forest, first with deciduous trees and then with high yielding trees were considered. It is suggested that to achieve the required TMDL for the watershed, some parts of the agricultural land may have to be effectively converted into the managed forest with some high yielding trees such as hybrid poplar trees providing cellulose raw material for bio fuels. The remaining agriculture land should take up the prac-tice of planting winter cover crops and better nutrient management. Riparian zones, either in form of forest or grasslands, should be the final line of defense for reducing nutrient loading in the watershed.

Aditya Sood

2010-05-01

132

AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOL FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/land-sci/agwa/introduction.htm and www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa) tool is a GIS interface jointly developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, and the University ...

133

A study of some effects of urbanization on storm runoff from a small watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of the effects of urbanization on the runoff characteristics of a small watershed is a problem that can be studied by either a short-range or a long-range investigation. Because the long-range type of investigation would require several years for hydrologic data accumulation, it cannot provide any immediate information on the changes in watershed behavior arising as a result of urbanization. A short-range investigation, however, based on synthetic evaluation of present data would provide immediate answers. It is in the realm of this short-range objective that this study of a small urban watershed is directed.

Espey, William Howard, Jr.; Morgan, Carl W.; Masch, Frank D.

1966-01-01

134

Use of simulation mass balance modeling to estimate phosphorus and bacteria dynamics in watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic simulation technology is integrated with mass balance concepts and compartment-flux diagramming to create computer models that estimate contaminant export from watersheds over long and short-term futures under alternative simulated policies of watershed management. The Watershed Ecosystem Nutrient Dynamics (WEND) model, applied to developed watersheds with a mix of urban, agricultural, and forest land-uses, predicted phosphorus (P) export from three watersheds; a 275,000 ha dairy/urban watershed, a 77,000 ha poultry/urban watershed, and a 23,000 ha swine dominated watershed. Urban, agricultural, and forestry activities contribute to P export in different proportions. In all cases the P imports to the watershed exceed total export and P accumulates in watershed soils. Long-term future P export patterns are compared for several watershed management strategies that range from encouragement of rapid urban growth to aggressive environmental protection. The specific response of each watershed to imposed management is unique, but management strategies designed to reduce export of P over the long-term need to consider options that promote P input/output balance. Using this same approach, the Watershed Ecosystem Bacterial Dynamics (WEBD) model assesses the dynamics of bacterial populations in a small case-study watershed over an annual cycle as influenced by dairy farm management actions. WEND and WEBD models integrate the diversity of activities and stakeholders interested in the watershed and promote development of a more holistic understanding of watershed function. Model outputs are designed to assist watershed policy-makers, managers, and planners to explore potential future impacts of management/policy decisions. PMID:12079098

Cassell, E A; Meals, D W; Aschmann, S G; Anderson, D P; Rosen, B H; Kort, R L; Dorioz, J M

2002-01-01

135

Adapting regional watershed management to climate change in Bavaria and Québec  

Science.gov (United States)

The international research project QBic3 (Quebec-Bavarian Collaboration on Climate Change) aims at investigating the potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology of regional scale catchments in Southern Quebec (Canada) and Bavaria (Germany). For this purpose, a hydro-meteorological modeling chain has been established, applying climatic forcing from both dynamical and statistical climate model data to an ensemble of hydrological models of varying complexity. The selection of input data, process descriptions and scenarios allows for the inter-comparison of the uncertainty ranges on selected runoff indicators; a methodology to display the relative importance of each source of uncertainty is developed and results for past runoff (1971-2000) and potential future changes (2041-2070) are obtained. Finally, the impact of hydrological changes on the operational management of dams, reservoirs and transfer systems is investigated and shown for the Bavarian case studies, namely the potential change in i) hydro-power production for the Upper Isar watershed and ii) low flow augmentation and water transfer rates at the Donau-Main transfer system in Central Franconia. Two overall findings will be presented and discussed in detail: a) the climate change response of selected hydrological indicators, especially those related to low flows, is strongly affected by the choice of the hydrological model. It can be shown that an assessment of the changes in the hydrological cycle is best represented by a complex physically based hydrological model, computationally less demanding models (usually simple, lumped and conceptual) can give a significant level of trust for selected indicators. b) the major differences in the projected climate forcing stemming from the ensemble of dynamic climate models (GCM/RCM) versus the statistical-stochastical WETTREG2010 approach. While the dynamic ensemble reveals a moderate modification of the hydrological processes in the investigated catchments, the WETTREG2010 driven runs show a severe detraction for all water operations, mainly related to a strong decline in projected precipitation in all seasons (except winter).

Ludwig, Ralf; Muerth, Markus; Schmid, Josef; Jobst, Andreas; Caya, Daniel; Gauvin St-Denis, Blaise; Chaumont, Diane; Velazquez, Juan-Alberto; Turcotte, Richard; Ricard, Simon

2013-04-01

136

USING HISTORICAL BIOLOGICAL DATA TO EVALUATE STATUS AND TRENDS IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED (OHIO, USA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of watershed ecological status and trends is challenging for managers who lack randomly or consistently sampled data, or monitoring programs developed from a watershed perspective. This study investigated analytical approaches for assessment of status and trends using ...

137

3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop. Using a kriging method in Surfer tool program, have been developed data base from topographic map, Landsat TM image, climatic data and soil psychochemical properties. Using these data, the Universal Soil Loss Equation was used for spatial map of soil erosion 3D and proposed a 3D agro-ecological land use planning for sustainable land management in Sumani watershed. A 3D Agro-ecological land use planning was planned under which the land use type would not cause more than tolerable soil erosion (TER and would be economically feasible. The study revealed that the annual average soil erosion from Sumani watershed was approximately 76.70 Mg ha-1yr-1 in 2011 where more than 100 Mg ha-1yr-1 was found on the cultivated sloping lands at agricultural field, which constitutes large portion of soil erosion in the watershed. Modification of land use with high CP values to one with lower CP values such as erosion control practices by reforestation, combination of mixed garden+beef+chicken (MBC, terrace (TBC or contour cropping+beef+chicken (CBC and sawah+buffalo+chicken (SBC could reduce soil erosion rate by 83.2%, from 76.70 to 12.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with an increase in total profit from agricultural production of about 9.2% in whole Sumani watershed.

Aflizar

2013-09-01

138

Using a Watershed-Based Effluent Trading Approach to Manage Coalbed Methane Produced Water in a Cost-Effective and Environmentally Sound Manner  

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Coalbed methane (CBM) is expected to supply much of the incremental U.S. natural gas demand in the coming decades. Extraction of methane from coal seams necessitates reduction of the hydrostatic pressure in the coalbed by removal of water, called produced water. The large volume of produced water not only raises concerns about its impact on surface water quality but also negatively affects producers' profitability because of costs associated with handling the water in a manner consistent with environmental regulatory requirements imposed by the Clean Water Act. Alternatively, watershed-based effluent trading could provide a market mechanism for managing CBM produced water and more quickly improving the overall water quality in a watershed at a lower cost. However, the complexity of appraising the potential trading options in accordance with the prerequisites of implementation feasibility and the effects on environment, economy, and equity dictates an easy-to-be-implemented tool. This paper presents a decision support tool that can be used by both water resources managers and other stakeholders to evaluate various trading options. The tool consists of a database on water quality and discharge baseline determined in terms of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Total Maximum Daily Loads, algorithms to define trading types and trading and transferability rules, a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model, and a simplified economic model. These components are seamlessly integrated with ArcView GIS to facilitate use of this tool. In addition to the prototype developed for the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, this study formulates a general framework upon which similar tools can be created for other watersheds.

Wang, X.; Harju, J. A.; Bolles, B. A.

2004-12-01

139

Valuing soft components in agricultural water management interventions in meso-scale watersheds: A review and synthesis  

OpenAIRE

Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2) is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM) goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM) interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'so...

Jennie Barron; Stacey Noel

2011-01-01

140

Sustainable forest management: a challenging task in the siran watershed of district Mansehra in the NWFP of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercie local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure has led to unsustainable forest management during the past three decades in the study area. Strategic analysis of the system indicates that lack of national conservation based forest management has further aggravated the problem. Moreover, SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis show that the internal weaknesses and external threats outweigh the internal strengths and external opportunities of the Forest Department. Based on these analytical results, priority issues were evaluated in terms of their efficiency, social soundness, institutional acceptability and environmental sustainability. The proposed sustainable forest management options which fulfilled this criteria were the community based forest management, wood demand and supply management interventions, institutional restructuring and income generation opportunities using integrated forest management in the study area. (author)

141

Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model.  

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The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m(3)/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales. PMID:25553544

Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A

2015-04-01

142

Web-based decision support and visualization tools for water quality management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed  

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Federal, State, and local water quality managers charged with restoring the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem require tools to maximize the impact of their limited resources. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) are developing a suite of Web-based tools called the Chesapeake Online Assessment Support Toolkit (COAST). The goal of COAST is to help CBP partners identify geographic areas where restoration activities would have the greatest effect, select the appropriate management strategies, and improve coordination and prioritization among partners. As part of the COAST suite of tools focused on environmental restoration, a water quality management visualization component called the Nutrient Yields Mapper (NYM) tool is being developed by USGS. The NYM tool is a web application that uses watershed yield estimates from USGS SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed (SPARROW) attributes model (Schwarz et al., 2006) [6] to allow water quality managers to identify important sources of nitrogen and phosphorous within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The NYM tool utilizes new open source technologies that have become popular in geospatial web development, including components such as OpenLayers and GeoServer. This paper presents examples of water quality data analysis based on nutrient type, source, yield, and area of interest using the NYM tool for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In addition, we describe examples of map-based techniques for identifying high and low nutrient yield areas; web map engines; and data visualization and data management techniques.

Mullinix, C.; Hearn, P.; Zhang, H.; Aguinaldo, J.

2009-01-01

143

Multiobjective Optimization Combining BMP Technology and Land Preservation for Watershed-based Stormwater Management  

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Recent progress has been made developing decision-support models for optimal deployment of best management practices (BMP’s) in an urban watershed to achieve water quality goals. One example is the high-level screening model StormWISE, developed by the author (McGarity, 2006) that uses linear and nonlinear programming to narrow the search for optimal solutions to certain land use categories and drainage zones. Another example is the model SUSTAIN developed by USEPA and Tetra Tech (Lai, et al., 2006), which builds on the work of Yu, et al., 2002), that uses a detailed, computationally intensive simulation model driven by a genetic solver to select optimal BMP sites. However, a model that deals only with best management practice (BMP) site selections may fail to consider solutions that avoid future nonpoint pollutant loadings by preserving undeveloped land. This paper presents results of a recently completed research project in which water resource engineers partnered with experienced professionals at a land conservation trust to develop a multiobjective model for watershed management. The result is a revised version of StormWISE that can be used to identify optimal, cost-effective combinations of easements and similar land preservation tools for undeveloped sites along with low impact development (LID) and BMP technologies for developed sites. The goal is to achieve the watershed-wide limits on runoff volume and pollutant loads that are necessary to meet water quality goals as well as ecological benefits associated with habitat preservation and enhancement. A nonlinear programming formulation is presented for the extended StormWISE model that achieves desired levels of environmental benefits at minimum cost. Tradeoffs between different environmental benefits are generated by multiple runs of the model while varying the levels of each environmental benefit obtained. The model is solved using piecewise linearization of environmental benefit functions where each linear segment of represents a different option for reducing stormwater runoff volumes and pollutant loadings. The solutions space is comprised of optimal levels of expenditure for categories of BMP's by land use category and optimal land preservation expenditures by drainage zone. To demonstrate the usefulness of the model, results from its application to the Little Crum Creek watershed in suburban Philadelphia are presented. The model has been used to assist a watershed association and four municipalities to develop an action plan for restoration of water quality on this impaired stream. References Lai, F., J. Zhen, J. Riverson, and L. Shoemaker (2006). "SUSTAIN - An Evaluation and Cost-Optimization Tool for Placement of BMPs," ASCE World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2006. McGarity, A.E. (2006). A Cost Minimization Model to Priortize Urban Catchments for Stormwater BMP Implementation Projects. American Water Resources Association National Meeting, Baltimore, MD, November, 2006. Yu, S., J. X. Zhen, and S.Y. Zhai, (2002). Development of Stormwater Best Management Practice Placement Strategy for the Virginia Department of Transportation. Final Contract Report, VTRC 04-CR9, Virginia Transportation Research Council.

McGarity, A. E.

2009-12-01

144

Modeling Changes in Hydrology and Sedimentation for Forested Watersheds: an Approach for Land Managers  

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Hydrologic changes and sedimentation have long been recognized as critical concerns for forest management. Federal and state laws commonly require land managers to compare the cumulative effects of different forest management scenarios before management plans or policy changes can be implemented. Existing operational methods tend to be simple checklists, indices, or lumped models. Physically based, spatially explicit models are available but are not widely used because they are too data intensive, costly, and complex. Our goal is to find a middle ground by providing land managers with a suite of models that are easy-to-use, spatially and temporally explicit, and scientifically based. Delta-Q and FOREST (FORest Erosion Simulation Tools) are coupled models designed to meet these criteria. They calculate the hydrologic and sedimentary effects of roads, forest fires, and forest management using GIS. Delta-Q calculates annual changes in flow from a watershed using a simple linear recovery model. Required inputs are a GIS layer of forest management activities over time, the initial changes in flow, and the times to recovery for each activity. FOREST uses conceptual and empirical models to calculate sediment production and delivery from hillslopes and roads, and to route sediment through the stream network. Required inputs include sediment production and recovery coefficients, and GIS layers of fires, roads, streams, forest management, soils, and elevation. Online help files provide detailed instructions and summaries of published data to help users select coefficients. Model results include tables of annual changes in flow and sediment yield as well as GIS layers showing the spatial distribution of sediment production and delivery over the period being simulated. The models are now being finalized and will be validated against data from five different experimental forests across the U.S. Model results should be helpful for comparing different land management scenarios, recognizing key sediment sources, and identifying stream reaches susceptible to sedimentation or in need of restoration.

Litschert, S. E.; MacDonald, L. H.

2007-12-01

145

Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica  

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Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

2008-01-01

146

Evaluation of effective management plan for an agricultural watershed using AVSWAT model, remote sensing and GIS  

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In the present investigation, an effort has been made to identify the critical sub-watersheds for the development of best management plan for a small watershed of Eastern India using a hydrological model, namely, AVSWAT2000. A total of 180 combinations of various management treatments including crops (rice, maize ground nut and soybean), tillage (zero, conservation, field cultivator, mould board plough and conventional practices) and fertilizer levels (existing half of recommended and recommended) have been evaluated. The investigation reveled that rice cannot be replaced by other crops such as groundnut, maize, mungbean, sorghum and soybean since comparatively these crops resulted in higher sediment yield. The tillage practices with disk plough have been found to have more impact on sediment yield and nutrient losses than conventional tillage practices for the existing level of fertilizer. Sediment yield decreased in the case of zero tillage, conservation tillage, field cultivator, moldboard plough, and conservation tillage as compare to conventional tillage. Lowest NO3-N loss was observed in zero tillage in all the fertilizer treatments, whereas field cultivator, moldboard plough and disk plough resulted in increase of NO3-N loss. As compared to conventional tillage, the losses of soluble phosphorus were increased in moldboard plough. The losses of organic nitrogen were also increased as fertilizer dose increased. After zero tillage the conservation tillage preformed better in all the fertilizer treatments as per loss of organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus is concerned. It can be concluded that the sediment yield was found to be the highest in the case of disk plough followed by moldboard plough, field cultivator, conventional tillage, field cultivator and least in zero tillage practices. The nutrient losses were found to be in different order with tillage practices, resulted highest in disk plough tillage practices. In view of sediment yield and nutrient losses, the conservation tillage practice was found to be the best as the sediment yield is less than the average soil loss whereas nutrient loss is within the permissible limit.

Pandey, V. K.; Panda, S. N.; Pandey, Ashish; Sudhakar, S.

2009-01-01

147

Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide sediment to critical water bodies. Nutrients and chemicals from cropland and urban sewage are transported into the water systems. Many reservoirs which have been established for hydroelectric power, urban water supply and irrigation accumulate an alarmingly higher level of sediment than expected. Koka, Angereb, Legedadi, Gilgel Gibe I and other reservoirs are threatened by this accelerated sedimentation. Consequences of reservoir sedimentation include the loss of storage capacity and its subsequent effects. These effects include water supply shortages for human consumption, irrigation and hydropower; increased hydro-equipment maintenance and repair; a decline in water quality; the cost of removing sediment; blockage of navigational waters and loss of recreation opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are modified by increased deposition of sediments and adsorbed or dissolved nutrients and chemicals, which commonly causes eutrophication which in turn negatively influences habitats of fish and other organisms. Some of the techniques suggested to reduce reservoir sediment concentration are technically less feasible as it requires design considerations during construction (which is difficult to implement for the existing dams. Removal of sediment is also economically demanding. Among the approaches and techniques proposed and implemented, integrated participatory watershed management is strongly recommended to reduce sediment inflow in sustainable pattern.

Kebede Wolka Wolancho

2012-01-01

148

Watershed water quality modeling using integrated fuzzy modeling approach with HSPF model and radar rainfall data  

OpenAIRE

Watershed water quality modeling is very essential for watershed management activities. These modeling activities and resulting simulations were used as the main resource for several decision making processes. In this research study, uncertainties associated with the watershed water quality modeling were handled with fuzzy modeling approach in three different phases. ^ Geospatial data analysis is an integral part of watershed modeling. Several geospatial data (such as Digital elevation mode...

Narayana, Madhusudhan

2010-01-01

149

Neural networks modelling of nitrogen export: model development and application to unmonitored boreal forest watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In remotely located boreal forest watersheds, monitoring nitrogen (N) export in stream discharge often is not feasible because of high costs and site inaccessibility. Therefore, modelling tools that can predict N export in unmonitored watersheds are urgently needed to support management decisions for these watersheds. The hydrological and biogeochemical processes that regulate N export in streams draining watersheds are complex and not fully understood, which makes artificial neural network (ANN) modelling suitable for such an application. This study developed ANN models to predict N export from watersheds relying only on easily accessible climate data and remote sensing (RS) data from the public domain. The models were able to predict the daily N export (g/km2/d) in five watersheds ranging in size from 5-130 km2 with reasonable accuracy. Similarity indices were developed between any two studied watersheds to quantify watershed similarity and guide the transferability of models from monitored watersheds to unmonitored ones. To demonstrate the applicability of the ANN models to unmonitored watersheds, the calibrated ANN models were used to predict N export in different watersheds (unmonitored watersheds in this perspective) without further calibration. The similarity index based upon a rainfall index, a peatland index and a RS normalized difference water index showed the best correlation with the transferability of the models. This study represents an important first step towards transferring ANN models developed for one watershed to unmonitored watersheds using similarity indices that rely on freely available climate and RS data. PMID:20480825

Li, X; Nour, M H; Smith, D W; Prepas, E E

2010-04-14

150

Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

151

Valuing soft components in agricultural water management interventions in meso-scale watersheds: A review and synthesis  

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Full Text Available Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2 is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

Jennie Barron

2011-06-01

152

Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits  

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Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

Xinyi Xu

2014-04-01

153

The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health  

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Full Text Available The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

Alan S. Kolok

2009-01-01

154

Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management  

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To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

155

A Pilot Study of Watershed Flow Using Stable Water Isotopes in Support of the Development of the Lamprey River Watershed (Southeast New Hampshire) as a Hydrologic Observatory  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lamprey River Watershed provides a suite of ecologic, geographic, geologic, and cultural characteristics that together provide an excellent opportunity to establish a convenient, unique, instructive, and informative natural laboratory. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire are establishing the Lamprey River Watershed, located in the seacoast region of New Hampshire, as a long term hydrologic observatory, where the instrumentation, data, and results from multi-disciplinary studies can be integrated to achieve greater understanding of the hydrologic system as a whole.One component of this proposed research is the establishment of a long term record of water isotope data. The results of a 1.5-year pilot study of stable water isotopes in the Headwaters of the Lamprey River Watershed (HLRW) are the focus of this presentation. In order to better understand groundwater flowpaths and residence times within the HLRW, we used stable water isotopes as natural tracers. For the period of June 2006 through October 2007, over 200 total water samples of groundwater, surface water, precipitation, and infiltration were collected and analyzed for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Based on analysis of isotopic and hydrometric data, the groundwater system is interpreted to be comprised of three distinct but interconnected reservoirs: a shallow groundwater reservoir which does not directly contribute to stream flow at the watershed outlet and has a mean residence time greater than 9 years; a near-surface groundwater reservoir, which is fed by the shallow system, flows through surface water bodies and wetlands with a mean residence time of approximately 1.5 months, and is the primary source of baseflow in the stream network; and a deep groundwater reservoir. The findings have significant implications for the interpretation of biogeochemical mass balance models of the Lamprey River Watershed and ongoing strontium isotope and trace element tracer studies. In a broader sense the results also advance the development of the Lamprey River Watershed as a long term hydrologic observatory.

Frades, M.; Davis, J.; Bryce, J.; McDowell, W. H.

2008-12-01

156

Modelling and managing runoff processes in urban and peri-urban watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

This communication presents a physically based and spatially distributed numerical model that simulates the quantity of runoff and the quantity of rainwater infiltrated into unsaturated soil layers from any temporally-spatially varied rainfall event at any point of the peri-urban watersheds. Our numerical model simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration into different unsaturated soil layers, evapotranspiration from vegetation, groundwater flow and drainage into pipes via road gulley. Fully dynamic exchange of water between all major hydrological components is included in the model (e.g. surface water, soil water and groundwater). It is a fully distributed numerical model. The spatial and temporal variation of meteorological, hydrological, geological and hydrogeological data across the model area is described in gridded form for the input as well as the output from the model. Moreover, to evaluate the necessary precipitation inputs for given durations and a given return period to our model, we use a multifractal frequency analysis. This method has the advantage to rely on a few robust exponents that are physically meaningful and can be evaluated on discontinuous and/or low frequency samples. Thus, the study peri-urban watershed will be represented in more detail than the traditional lumped approach where hydrologic parameters are averaged over the urban subbasin. Using GIS, we visualise the resulting runoff processes together with the evolution of water table levels and the water quantity entering the sewer system via road gulley for the two case studies: a county contiguous to Paris (France) and in the Panola Area (USA).

El Tabach, E.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

2009-04-01

157

Sustainable environmental management of marine regions: the Black Sea case study  

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Full Text Available The EU Marine Strategy Directive (2008/56/EC proposes four marine regions as a political geographic framework for implementation of the Community's environmental policy. This study critically analyzes the state-based approach, which the Directive uses to outline the regions' boundaries. It suggests that environmental sustainability of marine odies strongly depends on the geographic congruence between their watersheds and the borders of the respective environmental management system, i.e., marine regions have to be environmentally managed within their watersheds. The proposed watershed-based approach also takes into consideration all elements – water, land, and air – of marine regions, which is a conditio sine qua non for their integrated and sustainable management. In the case of the Black Sea region in particular, the borders of a watershed-based environmental management system include a much wider set of stakeholder countries and enable a higher level of environmental cooperation among them.

Boian Koulov

2012-06-01

158

Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers. PMID:17203367

Franciskovi?-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zuni?, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

2007-02-01

159

Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

OpenAIRE

This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change i...

Sp, Wani; Hp, Singh; Tk, Sreedevi; Pathak, P.; Tj, Rego; Shiferaw, B.; Sr, Iyer

2006-01-01

160

Streamflow allocation in arid watersheds: a case study in Northwestern China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for allocating water resources among the upper, middle, and lower reaches of arid watersheds to meet the multiple demands for water, including rehabilitation of downstream ecosystem. The framework includes: (1 hydrologic simulation of distribution of water resources in the study watershed; (2 development of water allocation criteria; and (3 implementation of the water allocation plan. The advantages of the proposed framework are: (1 spatial integration; (2 multiple objectives; (3 incorporation of local needs through participatory decision making; and (4 dynamic evaluation.

The framework was applied to the Heihe watershed, a large inland (terminal lake watershed with a drainage area of over 128 000 km2 in Northwestern China. Simulation of the daily river flows for the period of 1990–2000 by the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model shows that Qilian Mountain in the upper reach produced most of the runoff in the watershed, and the increased withdrawals of water for agricultural irrigation, industrial development, and municipal supplies at the middles reach oasis reduced the annual mean discharge by approximately 0.18 × 109 m3 over the simulation period, making the middle reach unable to deliver the mandated amount of 0.95 × 109 m3 water downstream by the State Council, under normal climatic conditions. Changes in land use practices need to be implemented to achieve the mandated water allocation plan. The paper suggests that a participatory watershed planning approach involving multiple stakeholders in the water allocation process be undertaken to address key questions regularly, including how much water should be allocated to what uses and for whom and at what price?

C. He

2012-07-01

161

Simulating hydrometeorological processes in large diverse watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management decisions are most often made at the scale of entire watersheds, encompassing relatively large diverse physiography. Accurate spatial representation of hydrological processes over large diverse regions is difficult. To properly quantify available water in large watersheds, spatial models that operate with modest input data are required. The GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) model, developed at the University of Lethbridge is a high resolution spatial model that operates at the daily time step over complex terrain. To appropriately represent hydrometeorological conditions, the GENESYS model uses physically based hydrology processes to simulate daily hydrometeorology for GIS defined terrain categories (TC) or hydrologic response units. This model has been applied to simulate hydrometeorological conditions over two diverse watersheds on the eastern slopes of Alberta. This study demonstrates that the GENESYS model is able to simulate watershed processes, particularly water supply, with a high degree of accuracy. The work demonstrates that GENESYS can (a) model hydrology at spatial scales relevant for water management i.e. watersheds with areas of thousands of square kilometres; and (b) transfer to other watersheds. Overall the model shows much promise for addressing the impacts of environmental change on water supplies for mountain watersheds around the globe.

Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Kienzle, S. W.

2009-12-01

162

Debris flow run off simulation and verification ? case study of Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1996 typhoon Herb struck the central Taiwan area, causing severe debris flow in many subwatersheds of the Chen-You-Lan river watershed. More severe cases of debris flow occurred following Chi-Chi earthquake, 1999. In order to identify the potentially affected area and its severity, the ability to simulate the flow route of debris is desirable. In this research numerical simulation of debris flow deposition process had been carried out using FLO-2D adopting Chui-Sue river watershed as the study area. Sensitivity study of parameters used in the numerical model was conducted and adjustments were made empirically. The micro-geomorphic database of Chui-Sue river watershed was generated and analyzed to understand the terrain variations caused by the debris flow. Based on the micro-geomorphic analysis, the debris deposition in the Chui-Sue river watershed in the downstream area, and the position and volume of debris deposition were determined. The simulated results appeared to agree fairly well with the results of micro-geomorphic study of the area when not affected by other inflow rivers, and the trends of debris distribution in the study area appeared to be fairly consistent.

M.-L. Lin

2005-01-01

163

Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation methods, and discount rates applied. Further guidance on representing uncertainty and applying uncertain results in decisionmaking would benefit both tool developers and those offices in using ecosystem services to compare management tradeoffs. Decisionmakers and Bureau of Land Management managers at the State-, district-, and field-office level would also benefit from continuing model improvements, training, and guidance on tool use that can be provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of the Interior. Tradeoffs were identified in the level of effort needed to parameterize and run tools and the amount and quality of information they provide to the decision process. We found the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, Ecosystem Services Review, and United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Centre Ecosystem Services Toolkit to be immediately feasible for application by the Bureau of Land Management, given proper guidance on their use. It is also feasible for the Bureau of Land Management to use the InVEST model, but in early 2012 the process of parameterizing the model required resources and expertise that are unlikely to be available in most Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Application of past primary valuation is feasible, but developing new primary-valuation studies is too time consuming for regular application. Value transfer approaches (aside from the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit) are best applied carefully on the basis of guidelines described in this report, to reduce transfer error. The ARIES model can provide useful information in regions modeled in the past (Arizona, California, Colorado, and Washington), but it lacks some features that will improve its usability, such as a generalized model that could be applied anywhere in the United States. Eleven other tools described in this report could become useful as the tools more fully develop, in high-profile cases for which additional resources are available for tool application or in case-st

Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

2012-01-01

164

Characterization of nested watershed hydrologic response from high-resolution rainfall and runoff data in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation reports initial results from analysis of data collected at a set of six stream gages representing three nested watershed scales (1-2 km2, 5-6 km2, 14 km2) in Dead Run, a highly impervious suburban watershed in Baltimore County, MD, USA. Streamflow data collected at 5-minute temporal resolution during the period 2007-2011 are compared with 1-km2 gridded and watershed-average precipitation data with 15-minute temporal resolution provided by the HydroNEXRAD project for the Baltimore metropolitan area. The period of overlapping precipitation and runoff data currently available for all six nested watersheds includes calendar years 2008 and 2009. Analyses include mass balance for monthly time periods as well as individual storm events; comparison of hydrologic response among nested watersheds of similar scale and across scales; and characterization of spatial and temporal patterns in storm-period rainfall, drainage network structure, watershed morphometry, and urban infrastructure as potential influences on patterns of hydrologic response. We attempted to isolate the effects of watershed characteristics by selecting a subset of storm events with a rainfall "pulse" defined by minimum accumulation of ~10 mm and >80% of storm-total rainfall arriving within a one-hour period at all six nested subwatersheds. Hydrographs were compared to assess characteristic shape, runoff ratio, and timing. We also examined several longer, more complex storm events with multiple rainfall pulses in order to observe the response at multiple watershed scales. Despite the constraints imposed on storm structure we find that even slight variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall may be associated with major differences in watershed response (volume and timing) at the 1-2 km2 and 5-6 km2 scales. Some of these variations would be difficult to explain without availability of high-resolution rainfall data. In multiple events we observe that the 5-6 km2 watersheds rise and peak at the same time as their tributaries, and in other cases the larger watersheds exhibit a double peak in response to a single rainfall pulse, with the first peak (thought to be derived from local storm drains) occurring before peaks recorded upstream in tributary watersheds. Although there are pronounced differences in patterns of development and extent of stormwater management between the different tributary watersheds, observed hydrologic response does not always conform to the expected effects of these patterns. Hydrograph behavior with the change in scale from 5-6 km2 to 14 km2 is more predictable as a combination of translation and attenuation of the tributary hydrographs.

Miller, A. J.; Lindner, G. A.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.; Miller, J.; Meierdiercks, K. L.

2011-12-01

165

Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2 Watershed, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977-2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 ?S/cm per year. During 2007-2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 ?S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.

Pophare, Anil M.; Lamsoge, Bhushan R.; Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Nawale, Vijay P.

2014-10-01

166

HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN JAIPANDA WATERSHED, WEST BENGAL STATE, INDIA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES  

OpenAIRE

To evaluate the hydrogeomorphological conditions of Jaipanda watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological studies were carried out, through visual interpretation of satellite data (LANDSAT, ETM+) with adequate ground truth. The study shows that the Jaipanda river basin is occupied by granites and gneisses of Archaean age. The recent alluvium deposits are present along the steam courses. The study area is traversed by various directional features or...

SUBODH CHANDRA PAL; GOPAL CHANDRA DEBNATH

2013-01-01

167

Assessment and simulation of biological soil conservation countermeasure (Case study: Northern Karoon River Watershed, Iran )  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of the present study are twofold: 1) to evaluate the actual capability of EUROSEM, to simulate the biological method of the soil and water conservation, and 2) to assess the effectiveness of this technique to protect the soil and water in the mentioned study area. The study area is a part of Vanak catchment in the Northern Karoon River Watershed, Southwest of Iran. Runoff and sediment data were collected over a number of periodical rainfall events from the two catchments called...

Behzad Ghorbani; Ahmad Jalalian; Reza Habibian

2012-01-01

168

Watershed Restoration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

2007-09-27

169

Fully distributed model to assess and manage runoff processes in peri-urban watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, a deeper knowledge of the extreme runoff generation requires more inclusive and interactive understanding of its numerous determining factors. This includes not only a better estimation of meteorological extremes under changing climate conditions, but also a better evaluation of infiltration and saturation excesses, of subsurface return flows, as well as, of human impacts on surface runoff. This communication presents a physically based and spatially distributed numerical model that simulates the quantity of runoff and the quantity of rainwater infiltrated into unsaturated soil layers from any temporally-spatially varied rainfall event at any point of the peri-urban watersheds. Our model simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration into soils, evapotranspiration from vegetation, groundwater flow and drainage into pipes via road gulley. Fully dynamic exchange of water between all major hydrological components is included in the model (e.g. surface water, soil water and groundwater). It is a fully distributed numerical model. The spatial and temporal variation of meteorological, hydrological, geological and hydrogeological data across the model area is described in gridded form for the input as well as the output from the model. Moreover, to evaluate the necessary precipitation inputs for given durations and a given return period to our model, we use a multifractal frequency analysis. This method has the advantage to rely on a few robust exponents that are physically meaningful and can be evaluated on discontinuous and/or low frequency samples. Thus, the study peri-urban watershed will be represented in more detail than the traditional lumped approach where hydrologic parameters are averaged over the urban subbasin. Using GIS, we visualise the resulting runoff processes together with the evolution of water table levels for the two case studies: a county contiguous to Paris (France) and in the Panola Area (USA). Comparisons with natural catchments with low urban development illustrate the impact of climate change and urbanisation on extreme runoff characteristics.

El Tabach, E.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

2009-04-01

170

ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RISK IN WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY OF PROBLEM FORMULATION IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED, OHIO, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

The Big Darby Creek watershed, a highly valued ecosystem in central Ohio, USA, threatened by intensive agriculture and suburban encroachment, served as an example of how case specifics can be applied to refine and direct the planning and problem formulation stage of the U.S. Env...

171

[Preliminary study on linking land use & landscape pattern and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

Science.gov (United States)

Geospatial analysis and statistical analysis were integrated to link land use & landscape pattern and water quality in 2002 and 2007 at the entire watershed and buffer zone scale in the Jiulong River Watershed. Results show that the relationships between land use & landscape pattern and water quality in 2002 and 2007 were basically consistent, namely: (1) Percentage of built-up area was positively correlated with BOD5, NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index, and negatively correlated with DO; percentage of woodland area was positively correlated with NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index; percentage of cropland area was negatively correlated with NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index. (2) SHDI was positively correlated with permanganate index, TP, NH4(+)-N, and negatively correlated with DO at the entire watershed and buffer scale; LPI was negatively correlated with BOD5, permanganate index, TP and NH4(+)-N, and positively correlated with DO at the entire watershed and buffer zone scale; PD was positively correlated with BOD5, TP and NH4(+)-N; Most of the landscape pattern metrics was not the good predictors for water quality in study watershed. (3) Water quality parameters in buffer zone area have more significant correlations with percentage of land use type areas and landscape pattern metrics, because most water quality parameters in the buffer zone can be better explained with greater adjusted coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2). (4) Compared to landscape pattern metrics, percentage of land use type area can predict water quality better because most water quality parameters have more stable correlations. PMID:21404666

Huang, Jin-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Lin, Jie; Qu, Meng-Chao

2011-01-01

172

Watershed Dynamics: Using Web-based GIS to Access Data and Study the Hydrosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The Watershed Dynamics project has developed online GIS tools and curriculum to provide high school earth science students with access to data and analysis tools to perform investigations on their local watershed. Using FieldScope web-based GIS tools from National Geographic, students investigate precipitation, stream discharge, and land cover data for the US. Students use the data to study water availability across the US and the world, human impacts on the watershed, and more. Curriculum developers at the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP) at Northwestern University and the GLOBE Program have created two complete units which scaffold students on their way to independent research using GIS. In the Water Availability unit, students work with precipitation, evaporation, and surface runoff to investigate the water cycle and how it varies regionally and seasonally. In the Human Impact unit, students analyze land cover change over time and investigate stream discharge to figure out how humans are impacting their watershed. These units can be used together or individually, but provide students progressively more research independence, leading them to ask their own questions about the watershed using GIS data. Both units have been pilot tested in high school classrooms and found to be successful at increasing student content knowledge about the water cycle. They are being modified for use at the undergraduate level. The web-based GIS interface has the functionality of desktop GIS, but allows for a simpler user-experience and direct links to relevant data. Students can use these tools to learn scientific content and as a stepping-stone for further GIS investigations.

Buzby, C. K.; Jona, K.

2010-12-01

173

Avaliacao ambiental estrategica de planosde bacias hidrograficas / Strategic environmental assessment for watershed management plans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica (AAE) é um instrumento de avaliação de impactos ambientais de Políticas, Planos e Programas (PPPs). Tendo em vista o planejamento dos recursos hídricos no Brasil, o objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar as contribuições da AAE para a elaboração de Planos de Bacias Hidro [...] gráficas no país, tendo como objeto de estudo a Bacia do Rio Pardo, no estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, realizaram-se entrevistas com colaboradores do Comitê e acompanhou-se o Grupo de Trabalho do Relatório de Situação dos Recursos Hídricos. Verificou-se que a aplicação da AAE permitiria a incorporação dos princípios de sustentabilidade ambiental no desenvolvimento dos Planos; a integração com outros PPPs correlatos; o levantamento e avaliação de impactos de alternativas de desenvolvimento na Bacia e a identificação de indicadores para o monitoramento do Plano de forma contínua Abstract in english Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool for assessing environmental impacts of Policy, Plans and Programmes (PPPs). In view of the water resources planning in Brazil, this paper aimed to evaluate the contributions of the SEA for the development of Watershed Management Plans in the country [...] , having as object the Pardoâ€(tm)s River Basin, in state of Sao Paulo. To this end, we carried out interviews with staff of the Committee and followed the Working Group of the Status Report of Water Resources. It was found that the application of SEA allowed the incorporation of the environmental sustainability principles in the development of Plans, the integration with other related PPPs, the survey and impact assessment of the development alternatives in the Basin and the identification of indicators for monitoring the Plan

Denise Gallo, Pizella; Marcelo Pereira de, Souza.

2013-09-01

174

Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

2011-12-01

175

Using four capitals to assess watershed sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being. PMID:23129241

Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

2013-03-01

176

Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation  

OpenAIRE

Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this ty...

Se?ne, A. M.; Bonin, S.; Soubeyran, O.

2007-01-01

177

Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mulholland, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-05-01

178

Site Suitability Analysis of Water Harvesting Structures Using Remote Sensing and GIS - A Case Study of Pisangan Watershed, Ajmer District, Rajasthan  

Science.gov (United States)

Rajasthan is a region with very limited water resources. Water is the most crucial for maintaining an environment and ecosystem conducive to sustaining all forms of life. The principle of watershed management is the proper management of all the precipitation by the way of collection, storage and efficient utilization of runoff water and to recharge the ground water. The present study aim's to identify suitable zones for water harvesting structures in Pisangan watershed of Ajmer district, Rajasthan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Evaluation (MSE). Multi criteria evaluation is carried out in Geographic Information system to help the decision makers in determining suitable zones for water harvesting structures based on the physical characteristics of the watershed. Different layers which were taken into account for multi criteria evaluation are; Soil texture, slope, rainfall data (2000-2012), land use/cover, geomorphology, lithology, lineaments, drainage network. The soil conservation service model was used to estimate the runoff depth of the study area Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) is used to find suitable water harvesting structures on the basis of rainfall. Produced suitability map will help in the selection of harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, storage tank, check dams and stop dams.

Prasad, H. C.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.

2014-12-01

179

Map your Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The students will learn to identify watersheds on topographic maps by learning how to interpret contour lines and distinguish adjacent watersheds by the ridge line between them. Required materials include laminated 7.5 topographic maps of a local city and watershed, and grease pencils. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

180

Soil Erosion Prediction Using GIS and RUSLE: Study at Sampean Watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erosionis one factor that cause soil degradation in Indonesia. RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation is widely usedto predict average annual rate of soil erosion. This research integrate the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(RUSLE and Geographic Information System (GIS to predict potential soil erosion losses. Study was conducted atSampean Watershed where located in Eastern part of East Java. Firstly, GIS layer was obtained from available databasethat cover East Java Province. All treatment of GIS layer was done using Mapwindows GIS. Furthermore, RUSLEmethod was used to predict rate of soil erosion from GIS layer treated previously. Results showed that up to 82%(102,921 ha area of the watershed have tolerable soil erosion rate.

Arif Faisol

2010-05-01

181

Watersheds in disordered media  

CERN Document Server

What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

2014-01-01

182

HSPF Toolkit: a New Tool for Stormwater Management at the Watershed Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) is a comprehensive watershed model endorsed by US EPA for simulating point and nonpoint source pollutants. The model is used for developing total maximum daily load (TMDL) plans for impaired water bodies; as such, HSPF is the c...

183

Preliminary hydrologic budget studies, Indian Creek watershed and vicinity, Western Paradox Basin, Utah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary quantitative estimates of ground-water discharge into the Colorado River System in the western Paradox Basin were prepared on the basis of existing climatological and streamflow records. Ground-water outflow to the river was deduced as a residual from hydrologic budget equations for two different study areas: (1) the region between gaging stations at Cisco, Green River, and Hite, Utah; and (2) the Indian Creek watershed. An empirical correlation between recharge rates and precipitation amounts derived for several basins in eastern Nevada was applied to estimate recharge amounts for the Indian Creek watershed. A simple Darcian flow model was then used to approximate the ground-water flux outward from the watershed for comparison. Salinity measurements in the Colorado River were also used to approximate ground-water outflow to a river reach in Cataract Canyon in order to provide another comparison with the hydrologic budget results. Although these estimates should be considered only gross approximations, all approaches used provide values of ground-water outflow that are much less than estimates of similar parameters provided by the US Geological Survey in recent hydrologic reconnaissance reports. Estimates contained herein will be refined in future numerical modeling and data collection studies

184

Grid based rainfall-runoff GIS modelling to study the anthropogenic effect on the hydrology of a small watershed  

OpenAIRE

In the Po basin urban development, land use change and variations in rain intensity have influenced watershed runoff and increased floods. In order to better study the anthropogenic effect on the basin hydrology the Olona river watershed proved to be an interesting small catchment to test. It went through a rapid change from agricultural land to urbanized and partly forest areas over the period 1954 – 1994. The Olona River is known for frequent flooding along its course and in some district...

Senes, Giulio; Greppi, Mauro

2010-01-01

185

Effects of agricultural best-management practices on total phosphorus yields in the Johnson Brook and Lovejoy Pond watersheds, Kennebec County, Maine, 1980-84  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of daily phosphorus yield and streamflow data collected before and after implementation of agricultural best management practices in the Johnson Brook watershed in south-central Maine indicated statistically significant reductions in phosphorus loading in all flow categories. Reduction of median loadings for five flow categories ranged from 26% to 90%. The annual total phosphorus yield was reduced 17% after implementation of the best management practices. The observed phosphorus yield reduction is considerable because of two streamflow factors. First, the period after implementation of the best management practices had eight more storms. Periods of storm runoff in the post-implementation period had 31 days with greater than average streamflow, and a maximum daily streamflow more than three times greater than those observed in the pre-implementation period. Second, the annual streamflow was 128% greater in the year after the management practices were implemented. Because the potential for phosphorous transport increases with runoff, and greater yields are possible when the volume of water increases, a higher phosphorus yield would be expected in the post-implementation period than during the pre-implementation period, if other factors had remained unchanged. The reductions in phosphorous yield in the study area are not expected to have a significant effect on the eutrophic conditions observed in Lovejoy Pond. Phosphorous concentrations in the pond will continue to be capable of supporting algal blooms. However, the intensity and duration of blooms are expected to be less than those observed before best management practice implementation. (Author 's abstract)

Maloney, Thomas J.; Sowles, John W.

1987-01-01

186

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF RAINFED WATERSHEDS APPLYING GIS AND RS TECHNIQUES  

OpenAIRE

Under the watershed development project of the Ministry of Rural Development, many micro watersheds have been identified for development and management. However Government is handicapped inobtaining data on the performance of these programmes due to the absence of watershed performance studies. Rainfed agriculture is clearly critical to agricultural performance in India. Nonetheless, it is difficult to precisely quantify the overall importance of the sector. The widely quoted statistic is tha...

Dhawale, Arun W.; Ullagaddi, Dr P. B.

2012-01-01

187

Estimation of watershed hydrologic processes in arid conditions with a modified watershed model  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed models play an important role in modern water resource management, increasingly demanding a robust hydrologic data framework to estimate watershed hydrochemical processes. The Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF), a typical watershed model with modest data requirements, has been applied to watershed-scale hydrochemical estimation worldwide. However, while it generally successfully estimates flows in humid regions, the model suffers from a weakness in hydrologic estimation during low-flow periods, which are projected to continue increasing with global climate change in many places. To address this issue, three algorithms describing functional responses of flows to saturated water storage, the segment function approach, linear function approach, and exponential function approach, have been proposed in this paper, integrated with a previous leakage mechanism for unsaturated water storage used in two earlier GWLF versions, and applied to a case study of Shuai Shui River watershed in China. Comparisons of this version, including new algorithms or algorithm linkages, with the earlier GWLF versions, show that all the new algorithms improve model accuracy in low-flow months; the linear function approach linking the leakage process has the best effect. This work refines the framework of GWLF model to address both humid and arid conditions that can be used as alternatives for future applications. These new functional dynamic responses should also have potential application in other similar watershed models.

Sha, Jian; Swaney, Dennis P.; Hong, Bongghi; Wang, Jinnan; Wang, Yuqiu; Wang, Zhong-Liang

2014-11-01

188

Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

2007-03-01

189

Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in sion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

190

Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate Rainfall erosivity (R factor. As many as101 sampling sites were used to investigate soil erodibility (K-factor with physico-chemical laboratory analysis. Digital elevation model (DEMof Sumani Watershed was used to calculate slope length and Steepness (LS-factor. Landsat TM imagery and field survey were used to determine crop management (C-factor and conservation practices (P-factor. Calculating soilloss and map of USLE factor were determined by Kriging method in Surfer 9. Sumani Watershed had erosion hazard in criteria as: severe to extreme severe (26.23%, moderate (24.59% and very low to low (49.18%. Annual average soil loss for Sumani watershed was 76.70 Mg ha-1 y-1 in 2011. Upland area was designated as having a severe toextreme severe erosion hazard compared to lowland which was designated as having very less to moderate. On the other land, soil eroded from upland were deposited in lowland. These results were verified by comparing one year’s sediment yield observation on the outlet of the watershed. Land use (C-factor, rainfall erosivity (R- factor, soil erodibility (K-factor, slope length and steepness (LS-factor were dominant factors that affected soil erosion. Traditional soil conservation practices were applied by farmer for a long time such as terrace in Sawah. The USLE model in Surfer was used to identify specific regions susceptible to soil erosion by water and was also applied to identify suitable sites to conduct soil conservation planning in Sumani Watershed.

Aflizar

2013-01-01

191

Temporal-spatial variability of soil fertility in karst region: a case study of Xiaojiang watershed Yunnan  

Science.gov (United States)

By sampling in the field and analyzing the soil samples in the laboratory in 1982 and 2005 the soil fertility data were obtained. Through application of geo-statistics combined with GIS, the temporal-spatial variability of the pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in soil of Xiaojiang watershed from 1982 to 2005 were analyzed. Results showed that: (1) the pH value and total potassium in soil showed an increasing trend, but the organic matter, total nitrogen and the total phosphorus in soil declined in the past 20 years in Xiaojiang watershed, (2) the parameters fitted by semivariogram models for fertility indices changed significantly in the past 20 years and (3) the result estimated by ordinary Kriging indicated the spatial pattern of the soil fertility indices changed significantly in the past 20 years. The soil pH increased in the east and southeast, but decreased in the middle of the watershed. The organic content of the soil matter decreased in the east, southeast and southwest, but increased in the northeast and middle of the watershed. The total nitrogen content of the soil decreased in the east, but increased in the middle of watershed. The total phosphorus content of the soil decreased in the whole watershed. The total potassium content of the soil increased in the southwest and southeast, but decreased in the middle of the watershed and (4) the change of land use and soil management measures was the main driving force of variability of soil properties.

Jiang, Yongjun; Li, Linli; Wu, Yuexia; Jia, Yanan; Yuan, Daoxian

2008-08-01

192

HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN JAIPANDA WATERSHED, WEST BENGAL STATE, INDIA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the hydrogeomorphological conditions of Jaipanda watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological studies were carried out, through visual interpretation of satellite data (LANDSAT, ETM+ with adequate ground truth. The study shows that the Jaipanda river basin is occupied by granites and gneisses of Archaean age. The recent alluvium deposits are present along the steam courses. The study area is traversed by various directional features or lineaments and most of them are NE-SW, ENE-WSW and EW directions. Groundwater potential of geomorphological unites viz. Denudational hill, Residual hill, Pediment, Pediplain and Valley fill is discussed.

SUBODH CHANDRA PAL

2013-05-01

193

Integrating GIS, remote sensing and mathematical modelling for surface water quality management in irrigated watersheds:  

OpenAIRE

The intensive uses of limited water resources, the growing population rates and the various increasing human activities put high and continuous stresses on these resources. Major problems affecting the water quality of rivers, streams and lakes may arise from inadequately treated sewage, poor land use practices, inadequate controls on the discharges of industrial waste waters, uncontrolled poor agricultural practices, excessive use of fertilizers, and a lack of integrated watershed managemen...

Azab, A. M.

2012-01-01

194

The Estimating of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Using Regional Flood Analysis and Geomorphologic Parameters (Case Study: Kanisavaran and Marenj Watersheds, Kurdistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimation of flood hydrograph is of necessities in hydrological studies such as flood mitigation projects. This estimation in un-gauged watersheds is usually taken place using geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. The objective of this research is to estimate synthetic unit hydrograph using regional flood frequency analysis and geomorphological parameters of watersheds. 1-hour and 2-hour hydrographs of two watersheds, Kanisavaran and Maranj Watersheds, were generated using maximum discharge data based on regional flood frequency analysis. Estimated hydrographs were compared with observed data and the efficiency of the model was evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, absolute and bias errors. The results showed that multiple regression models give more acceptable results among others for the computation of synthetic unit hydrograph (higher coefficient of determination. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.98 for 1-hour hydrograph while it was 0.93 for the 2-hour hydrograph. The absolute error in 1-hour hydrograph and 2-hour hydrograph was 0.13 and 1.2, respectively. The bias error was close to zero for both hydrographs, indicating that the proposed model is efficient. The model may be used for estimation of synthetic unit hydrograph in similar un-gauged watersheds.

A. Shirzadi1*, K. Chapi1 and P. Fathi2

2012-03-01

195

Watershed Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Students conduct a regional watershed analysis of an area of their choosing. Using on-line data and their personal knowledge of the area, they determine the annual hydrologic budget and teach the class about "their" watershed.

Reinen, Linda

196

Watershed Charachterization And Prioritization Of Tulasi Subwatershed: A Geospatial Approach  

OpenAIRE

It is proficiently important to conserve the limited and precarious natural resources vis land, water and soil which should be categorically studied at watershed level. Due to improper land, soil and water management practices, land and water resources getting degraded and eroded, water getting polluted. In this regard present study is profoundly concerned to characterization and prioritization of Tulasi sub watershed which is small tributary of Bhogavati River in mega Panchganga river basin ...

Pawar-patil, V. S.; Mali, Sagar P.

2013-01-01

197

Quantifying the Fecal Coliform Loads in Urban Watersheds by Hydrologic/Hydraulic Modeling: Case Study of the Beauport River Watershed in Quebec  

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Full Text Available A three-step method for the identification of the main sources of fecal coliforms (FC in urban waters and for the analysis of remedial actions is proposed. The method is based on (1 The statistical analysis of the relationship between rainfall and FC concentrations in urban rivers; (2 The simulation of hydrology and hydraulics; and (3 Scenario analysis. The proposed method was applied to the Beauport River watershed, in Canada, covering an area of 28.7 km2. FC loads and concentrations in the river, during and following rainfall events, were computed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM hydrological/hydraulic simulation model combined with event mean concentrations. It was found that combined sewer overflows (CSOs are the main FC sources, and that FC from stormwater runoff could still impair recreational activities in the Beauport River even if retention tanks were built to contain CSOs. Thus, intervention measures should be applied in order to reduce the concentration of FC in stormwater outfalls. The proposed method could be applied to water quality components other than FC, provided that they are present in stormwater runoff and/or CSOs, and that the time of concentration of the watershed is significantly lower than their persistence in urban waters.

Amélie Thériault

2015-02-01

198

Payments for Watershed Protection Services: Emerging Lessons from the Philippines  

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Full Text Available There is growing interest on payments for ecosystem services (PES in developing countries including the Philippines. Watersheds have been degraded through deforestation and subsequent conversion to other land cover, principally for agriculture. In the last decade, several Payments for Watershed Services schemes have been implemented and this paper is an attempt to assess the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different management leadership in the Philippines. We reviewed four cases specifically related to watershed services in the: 1 Bakun Watershed, 2 Maasin Watershed, 3 Sibuyan Watershed, and 4 Baticulan Watershed. The case studies of varying stages of implementation has shown that the chances of success of PES schemes in promoting watershed conservation and rehabilitation as well as in improving the livelihoods of upland communities is constrained by incomplete information and knowledge about the interaction between ecosystem properties and provision of services, and the difficulty in establishing voluntary participation and conditionality of payments. In this paper, we argued that institutions may enable or hinder the successful implementation of PES. The role of the local government as intermediaries is crucial in the process of establishing PES more particularly in the information dissemination and education of the key stakeholders. The case studies also showed how PES programs are reinforced by the presence of non-government organizations.

Daniel Gaitán Cremaschi

2012-12-01

199

Interfaces da gestão ambiental urbana e gestão regional: análise da relação entre Planos Diretores Municipais e Planos de Bacia Hidrográfica / Interfaces of urban environmental management and regional management: analysis of the relationship between Municipal Master Plans and Watershed Plans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo relata uma pesquisa que discute como a questão ambiental vem sendo tratada nos instrumentos e práticas de gestão localizadas em dois recortes territoriais: municípios e bacias hidrográficas. Foi analisada a relação da dimensão ambiental com a gestão regional e municipal, por meio dos ins [...] trumentos Planos de Bacia Hidrográfica e Planos Diretores Municipais, tendo como locus a Unidade de Gerenciamento de Recursos Hídricos Tietê-Jacaré do Estado de São Paulo. Os objetos de pesquisa selecionados foram o Plano de Bacia Hidrográfica Tietê-Jacaré e os Planos Diretores de Araraquara e São Carlos. A pesquisa abordou as seguintes categorias de análise: unidades de planejamento, instrumentos ambientais contidos no Plano de Bacia e nos Planos Diretores, instâncias de gestão e grau de infiluência entre os planos analisados. O método se pautou em levantamentos, análises bibliográficas e documentais, entrevistas semiestruturadas e questionários. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que o Plano de Bacia Hidrográfica ainda apresenta lacunas e dificuldades para uma atuação mais ampliada. Não reconhece os confilitos de uso da terra e de organização territorial como uma vulnerabilidade que precisa ser enfrentada. Mostraram, ainda, que os Planos Diretores Municipais concentram-se na aplicação dos instrumentos voltados ao parcelamento e ao zoneamento urbano. Nesses planos, as condições e os aspectos ambientais e regionais se apresentam como uma temática periférica e pouco articulada com as demais políticas. As análises procuraram demonstrar a complexa relação entre políticas, instrumentos e instâncias de planejamento e gestão, explicitando os obstáculos que dificultam a aplicação do conceito de gestão territorial integrada. Abstract in english This article details a research work that discusses how environmental issues have been addressed in the instruments and management practices in two territorial areas: municipalities and watersheds. The environmental relationship of the regional and municipal management was analyzed using the Watersh [...] ed Plans and the Municipal Master Plans, located at the Management Unit of Tietê-Jacaré Water Resources - State of São Paulo. The research subjects selected were the Tietê-Jacaré Watershed Plan and the Master Plans of Araraquara and São Carlos. The study focused on the following analysis categories: the environmental instruments used in the Watershed Plans and the Master Plans, management events and the degree of influence of the plans analyzed. The method was based on surveys, bibliographic and documentary analysis, semistructured interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that there are still gaps and difficulties in the watershed plan to perform a more expanded management planning. It does not acknowledge the conflicts related to land use and territorial organization as a vulnerability that must be addressed. It also showed that the municipal master plans focus on the application of these instruments for urban subdivision and zoning. In these plans, the conditions and regional and environmental aspects are presented as a peripheral issue, which are rarely coordinated with the other policies. The analyses performed sought to demonstrate the complex relationship between policies, instruments and planning and management events, describing the obstacles that interfere with the application of the integrated territorial management concept.

Renata Bovo, Peres; Ricardo Siloto da, Silva.

2013-12-01

200

Hydrological characterization of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Executive Summary Water is one of the most critical resource and constraint in the semi-arid tropics (SAT. To minimize land degradation and sustain crop productivity in the SAT, management and efficient utilization of rainwater is important. Watershed-based resource utilization involves the optimum use of the area’sprecipitation for the improvement and stabilization of agriculture on the watershed through better water, soil, and crop management. More effective utilization of water for the production of crops canbe facilitated by one or more of the following means: (i in situ conservation of moisture; (ii proper drainage, collection, storage, and re-utilization of runoff; and (iii groundwater recovery from wells. For the proper development, conservation, and management of land and water resources, accurate information on surface and groundwater hydrology is crucial. Under the Asian Development Bank(ADB-supported project on integrated watershed management we studied the hydrological behavior of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam. From the five benchmarkwatersheds, the information on topography, rainfall, runoff, groundwater, and other relevant data were collected and analyzed.The hydrological data from the five benchmark watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam clearly show the effectiveness of improved watershed technologies in reducing runoff volume and peakrunoff rate. The highest runoff volume of 433 mm (51% of seasonal rainfall was recorded from the Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, while the lowest runoff volume of 55 mm (7% of seasonal rainfall wasrecorded from the Adarsha watershed in Kothapally, India. The highest peak runoff rate of 0.235 m3 s-1ha-1 was recorded from the untreated watershed at Kothapally. Between the treated and untreatedwatersheds the maximum difference in runoff volume was recorded at Lalatora watershed in India(290 mm in untreated compared to 55 mm in treated watershed. Among the three locations in India, the highest runoff was recorded at Lalatora watershed followed by Ringnodia and Kothapally watersheds. The groundwater observations from the three sites in India, clearly show the effectiveness of the improved watershed technologies in increasing the groundwater recharge therebyimproving the availability of water for agricultural and other uses. Throughout the season the groundwater levels in the treated areas were significantly higher compared to the groundwater levelsin the untreated areas. In terms of prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge, the Tad Fa watershed inThailand has the highest potential followed by Lalatora watershed in India. The prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge at Ringnodia and Adarsha watersheds in India aremoderate. The region-specific hydrological data reported in this publication will be useful in the planning, design, development, and management of land and water resources in the target regions.

P Pathak

2006-08-01

201

Watershed Seasons  

Science.gov (United States)

All schools are located in "watersheds," land that drains into bodies of water. Some watersheds, like the one which encompasses the school discussed in this article, include bodies of water that are walking distance from the school. The watershed cited in this article has a brook and wetland within a several-block walk from the school. This…

Endreny, Anna

2007-01-01

202

Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions  

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Full Text Available Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height of water depth during dry and wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 allowed the construction of the "rating curve" in four points of water quality monitoring and to reconstruct the series of water flow in these seasons. The analysis results showed that there is indication of changes in water quality parameters due to the conservation practices adopted. The water temperature parameter was the most influenced by the seasonal variation in runoff. Several physical factors may have influenced the correlation of the other parameters with runoff, especially the different environmental recovery actions implemented in the study to achieve the sustainability of the water resources.

Alexandra Andrade

2012-12-01

203

Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil: a case study  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil. Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrological cycle (March/98-February/99. The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

Souza Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de

2003-01-01

204

Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes - low, very low, uncertain, high and very high - 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Rajamanickam, G. Victor; Kumaravel, P.

2012-10-01

205

Perceiving Patagonia: An Assessment of Social Values and Perspectives Regarding Watershed Ecosystem Services and Management in Southern South America  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management.

Zagarola, Jean-Paul A.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Veteto, James R.

2014-04-01

206

Perceiving patagonia: an assessment of social values and perspectives regarding watershed ecosystem services and management in southern South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management. PMID:24477552

Zagarola, Jean-Paul A; Anderson, Christopher B; Veteto, James R

2014-04-01

207

Bridging the Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Bridging the Watershed (BTW) is an outreach program of the Alice Ferguson Foundation in partnership with the National Park Service and area schools. It promotes national parks as learning laboratories and provides a model that can be replicated in other parks and watersheds. The program is based in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. BTW partners share a fundamental goal to educate the public about the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay watersheds in order to heighten awareness and develop stewardship for these resources. Science curriculum modules have been developed for high school students studying Earth science, chemistry, and the life sciences. Each module is composed of performance-based activities in which students examine and analyze the health of their watershed by applying science, math, problem-solving and action skills. Students gather authentic data to assess and problem solve real-world issues in the parks and watershed.

208

The experimental watersheds in Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

209

Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better manage data resources, work more efficiently with partners, and facilitate holistic watershed science. It is now the goal of the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies to implement an enhanced and all-encompassing approach to data management. This report discusses preliminary efforts to implement a physical data management system for program data that is not replicated nationally through other USGS databases.

Ladino, Cassandra C.

2013-01-01

210

Developing a Framework to Measure Watershed Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that landuse (both type and location impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Aditya Sood

2011-11-01

211

Watershed Balance  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn about the water cycle and its key components. First, they learn about the concept of a watershed and why it is important in the context of engineering hydrology. Then they learn how we can use the theory of conservation of mass to estimate the amount of water that enters a watershed (precipitation, groundwater flowing in) and exits a watershed (evaporation, runoff, groundwater out). Finally, students learn about runoff and how we visualize runoff in the form of hydrographs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

212

Watershed Associations  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed groups have a national impact. The video shows that it is easy to get involved with a watershed group, without committing a lot of time, and to see the effects quickly. An expert points out the cumulative effect of efforts to clean up rivers on the overall health of the nation’s river systems. In Pennsylvania abandoned mine drainage is a challenge for watershed groups.

Wpsu

2007-04-04

213

SOIL EROSION STUDIES AND GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF ALANTHURAI WATERSHED USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Tamil Nadu, like in many other parts of India and elsewhere, a critical point has been reached so for resources like soil and water are concerned. Practically, all readily available surface and ground water resources, i.e. blue water, have already been tapped. It is time to improve allocation and co-operation with different groups to efficiently and effectively utilize and conserve the available resources. This multi-disciplinary project will benefit from the results of several studies like soil erosion studies and groundwater flow modelling carried out in the Alanthurai watershed region. The source of water for this region is Western Ghats. The project mainly deals with the groundwater modelling and soil erosion studies. Suitable measures have been recommended for the farmers in the region for conserving the water as well as soil.

C.MEIARAJ

2007-01-01

214

Hydrological and environmental diagnostic of the Cachoeira das Pombas’s watershed, Guanhães, MG, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate hydrological and environmental issues of Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, in Guanhães, eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to support its management plan. The characterization of water springs included the definition of its types, assessment of flow persistence, conservation state, outflow values, and the hydrological and environmental conservation state of the watershed. For a detailed analysis, the watershed was studied considering each of its small watersheds. Analyzing the hydrological and environmental conservation state of the watershed, it was concluded that an integrated management of natural resources is necessary inasmuch as the flow rate showed to be irregular, with great variation between the rainy and dry seasons and several erosion and silting spots observed during the study period.

Deuseles João Firme

2009-04-01

215

Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Khul Gad Micro Watershed of Kumoun Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women in the marginal areas of Uttarakhand have always played and continue to play a significant role in managing and operating most of the household and agricultural activities. They are the main subsistence provider in the hills and considered the backbone of hill agriculture. Their lives are intrinsically related to land, water, forest, which are the main components and integral parts of an eco-system. An adverse effect on any one of these components disturbs the other compo- nents due to strong linkages and interrelationship with each other and creates havoc on the life of people, especially women in the region. However, in recent years, environmental degradation, poor resource management and increased migration of men to the plains have deteriorated the livelihood options and added more workload to women of the region. The sufferings of the com- munities in these hilly areas are gradually increasing and their standard of living is declining be- cause they have been neglected at both policy and practice levels by the government. The nexus between women, environment degradation and poverty are poorly understood and rarely treated in an integrated way. Therefore, the key objective of the present paper is to analyse the work par- ticipation of women operating at different sub-systems, impact of environmental degradation and role of women in sustaining the traditional agro-ecosystem in Khul Gad micro-watershed of Ku- moun Himalaya.

Suman Singh

2014-02-01

216

A Changing Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will examine two satellite images of their local watershed taken at different points in time and use this data to learn about changes in the watershed, particularly in land cover. Next, they describe how these changes have had positive or negative impacts on water quality in the watershed. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

217

Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study  

CERN Multimedia

We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

Nathalie Dumeaux

2004-01-01

218

Characterizing a Century of Climate and Hydrological Variability of a Mediterranean and Mountainous Watersheds: the Durance River Case-Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the understanding of mountain watersheds hydrological variability is a great scientific issue, for both researchers and water resources managers, such as Electricite de France (Energy and Hydropower Company). The past and current context of climate variability enhances the interest on this topic, since multi-purposes water resources management is highly sensitive to this variability. The Durance River watershed (14000 km2), situated in the French Alps, is a good example of the complexity of this issue. It is characterized by a variety of hydrological processes (from snowy to Mediterranean regimes) and a wide range of anthropogenic influences (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, tourism and water supply), mixing potential causes of changes in its hydrological regimes. As water related stakes are numerous in this watershed, improving knowledge on the hydrological variability of the Durance River appears to be essential. In this presentation, we would like to focus on a methodology we developed to build long-term historical hydrometeorological time-series, based on atmospheric reanalysis (20CR : 20th Century Reanalysis) and historical local observations. This methodology allowed us to generate precipitation, air temperature and streamflow time-series at a daily time-step for a sample of 22 watersheds, for the 1883-2010 period. These long-term streamflow reconstructions have been validated thanks to historical searches that allowed to bring to light ten long historical series of daily streamflows, beginning on the early 20th century. Reconstructions appear to have rather good statistical properties, with good correlation (greater than 0.8) and limited mean and variance bias (less than 5%). Then, these long-term hydrometeorological time-series allowed us to characterize the past variability in terms of available water resources, droughts or hydrological regime. These analyses help water resources managers to better know the range of hydrological variabilities, which are usually greatly underestimated with classical available time-series (less than 50 years).

Mathevet, T.; Kuentz, A.; Gailhard, J.; Andreassian, V.

2013-12-01

219

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

220

Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: a north San Francisco Bay estuary case study  

Science.gov (United States)

We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid environments characterized by high topo-climatic variability, land and water managers need indicators of local watershed hydrology response to complement regional temperature and precipitation estimates. Our results also suggest that temperature forcing may generate greater drought stress affecting soils and stream flows than can be estimated by variability in precipitation alone.

Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

2012-01-01

221

Using Backcast Land-Use Change and Groundwater Travel-Time Models to Generate Land-Use Legacy Maps for Watershed Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We couple two spatial-temporal models, a backcast land-use change model and a groundwater flow model, to develop what we call “land-use legacy maps.” We quantify how a land-use legacy map, created from maps of past land use and groundwater travel times, differs from a current land-use map. We show how these map differences can affect land-use planning and watershed management decisions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Our approach demonstrates that land-use legacy maps provide a more accurate representation of the linkage between land use/cover and current water quality compared to the current land-use map. We believe that the historical signatures of land-use impacts on current water quality should be considered in land-use planning and watershed management.

Jonah M. Duckles

2007-12-01

222

Remote Sening Applications For The Management Of Water And Land Resources Of Shivannguda Watershed, Warangal District Of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing population growth has put extra pressure on land and water resources. Therefore there is an imperative need for the development and judiciary use of these resources. Accurate, timely and reliable assessment and monitoring of land and water resources and their systematic exploration and use for the sustainable development. The present study deals with the application of remote sensing of geographical information systems ( GIS ) techniques of Shivannaguda water shed for suggesting the gully control works and check dam construction with a view to control soil erosion from watershed as well as the increase the ground water recharge and identifying the ground water potential zones using remote sensing and GIS. The study area falls in the co-ordinates 160 50' 20" to 170 01' 40" latitude and 780 51' 48" to 780 57' 48" which is part of Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The satellite data used is IRS IC PAN and LISS III merged data. Thematic maps of Hydrogeomorphology, slope, drainage, transport network and village boundary are prepared with the help of 1:50000 scale, Survey of India Toposheets and satellite data. A critical examination of each one of the thematic maps is carried out to identify various land and water resources and their spatial distribution to asses the watershed for its sustainability. The information obtained from this study is then integrated to develop and action plan for land and water resources development. Based on this action plan check dams ( 3 ) and percolation tanks ( 1 ) are recommended for increase in the ground water potential. Based on the thematic maps some suitable crops are recommended for land resources purpose. Field bunds construction sites and afforestation sites are also recommended to control the soil erosion and to increase the ground water level's. This action plan can be used for the upliftment of socio-economic conditions of the study area.

Siva Sankar, A.

2002-05-01

223

Assessing the role of spatial rainfall variability on watersheds response using weather radar A case study in the Gard region, France  

Science.gov (United States)

The consideration of spatial rainfall variability in hydrological modeling is not only an important scientific issue but also, with the current development of high resolution rainfall data from weather radars, an increasing request from managers of sewerage networks and from flood forecasting services. Although the literature on this topic is already significant, at this time the conclusions remain contrasted. The impact of spatial rainfall variability on the hydrological responses appears to highly depend both on the organization of rainfall fields and on the watershed characteristics. The objective of the study presented here is to confirm and analyze the high impact of spatial rainfall variability in the specific context of flash floods. The case study presented is located in the Gard region in south east of France and focuses on four events which occurred on 13 different watersheds in 2008. The hydrological behaviors of these watersheds have been represented by the distributed rainfall - runoff model CINECAR, which already proved to well represent the hydrological responses in this region (Naulin et al., 2013). The influence of spatial rainfall variability has been studied here by considering two different rainfall inputs: radar data with a resolution of 1 km x 1 km and the spatial average rainfall over the catchment. First, the comparison between simulated and measured hydrographs confirms the good performances of the model for intense rainfall events, independently of the level of spatial rainfall variability of these events. Secondly, the simulated hydrographs obtained from radar data are taken as reference and compared to those obtained from the average rainfall inputs by computing two values: the time difference and the difference of magnitude between the simulated peaks discharge. The results highly depend on the rainfall event considered, and on the level of organization of the spatial rainfall variability. According to the model, the behavior of the studied watersheds may sometimes remain very similar with a homogeneous rainfall input, whereas for some cases the differences in the peak discharges can reach up to 80%. A detailed analysis illustrates the possible role of the watershed in enhancing the effect of rainfall spatial variability. In a further step, the objective is to test the ability of four rainfall variability indicators to identify the situations for which spatial rainfall variability has the greatest influence on the watershed response. The selected indicators include those of Zoccatelli et al. (2010), and all rely on a detailed analysis of spatial rainfall organization in function of hydrological distances (i.e. the distances measured along the stream network from one point of the watershed to the outlet). The analysis of the links between these indicators and the hydrological behaviors identified is currently in progress. Reference: Naulin, J.P., Payrastre, O., Gaume, E., 2013. Spatially distributed flood forecasting in flash flood prone areas: Application to road network supervision in Southern France. Journal of Hydrology, 486, 88-99, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.044 Zoccatelli, D., Borga, M., Zanon, F., Antonescu, B., Stancalie, G., 2010. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania. Journal of Hydrology, 394, 148-161

Anggraheni, Evi; Payrastre, Olivier; Emmanuel, Isabelle; Andrieu, Herve

2014-05-01

224

A Systems-Based Approach To Integrated Nutrient Management in Narragansett Bay and Its Watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA?s Office of Research and Development is embarking on a project to develop and demonstrate a systems-based management approach that will achieve more integrated and effective management of nutrients in southern New England. The geographic focus of this multi-year research proj...

225

Imagined Communities, Contested Watersheds: Challenges to Integrated Water Resources Management in Agricultural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated water resources management is one of the major bottom-up alternatives that emerged during the 1980s in North America as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory styles of environmental governance. It aims to protect surface and groundwater resources by focusing on the integrated and collaborative management of land and…

Ferreyra, Cecilia; de Loe, Rob C.; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.

2008-01-01

226

Study on oasis soil heterogeneity in the watersheds of Bohe and Jinghe (Xinjiang, NW-China)  

Science.gov (United States)

The change of oasis stability is essential for the investigation of oases in arid areas. Physical and chemical soil properties are the important components of oasis stability. Given identical climatic conditions, spatial heterogeneity (generally characteristic for soil resources of arid regions) is the main aspect contributing to the formation of plant patterns, and, hence, has a strong influence on oasis stability. The watersheds of Bohe and Jinghe in Xinjiang (NW-China) are representative as far as processes of eco-environmental change in the Junggar basin are concerned. So far, frequent human activities have severely affected the local eco-environment and social development. For the first time, physical and chemical soil properties of this region are analyzed, which in¬clude pH and the contents of nutrients, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, rapidly-available-potassium and salt. We have found that soil fertility is not high and even lower than that 20 years ago. This is due to the existence of large soil particles, low soil organic matter, and high alkaline levels. Regular patterns of soil fertility, based on Kriging interpolation method, have been studied leading to the result, that the soil fertility in the south-east is higher than that in the north-west. Finally, we investigated the driving factors of soil heterogeneity by grey correlation analysis. While cultivation of land and chemical fertilizer wastage are the major human-driven factors, evaporation and disaster weather are the major natural factors. Among the variety of factors which affect soil heterogeneity, the human-driven factors dominate the natural factors. Our findings will be helpful for the return and reconstruction of the eco-environment of the Bohe and Jinghe watersheds.

Wu, Zhao-Peng; Bai, Xiang; Jin, Hai-Long; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X.

2010-05-01

227

Criteria for evaluating sediment quality. Case study: sub-watershed of Espirito Santo Stream, affluent of the Sao Francisco river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Sediment Quality Values Guidelines' (SQVG) have been used for evaluating ecological risk associated with the sediment contamination for benthic organisms. The main objective of this work was to develop methodologies and to collect data that allowed the application of SQVG for the following metals: Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The location chosen for the case study was the sub-watershed of the Espirito Santo Stream, which is part of the Unit Planning and Hydrologic Resources Management- UPGRH SF4, of the Sao Francisco river watershed, located in the area of the city of Tres Marias. The life in the sub-watershed is significantly affected by the installation of a waste dam that controls effluents coming from the zinc-ore beneficiation plant. Our studies addressed the biogeochemical characterization of the sediments of those environments through the determination of the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), the study of the partitioning of metals is among the total sediments and interstitial waters, and the determination of the fraction of metals is associated with AVS in the total sediments. The data obtained were analyzed in association with those related to the analysis of the structure of the benthic community and eco-toxicity tests. The studies also included analysis of the physico-chemical variables and concentration of metals is in the samples of the surface water; mineralogical and granulometric analyses, quantity of organic matter and concentration of inorganrganic matter and concentration of inorganic contaminants in the samples of sediments. High levels of electrical conductivity and total solids diluted were found in one surface water sample site. The results of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) showed that the chemical elements predominant in the samples were Ti, Al, V, Mn and Fe. The results of the total metal analysis in sediment samples showed that only one point located in the Lavagem stream, situated immediately downstream the dam and before flowing into the Espirito Santo stream, presented concentration values of the evaluated metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) above those of the 'background' value. The TEL limits ('Threshold Effect Level') and PEL ('Probable Effect Level') were not exceeded in any of the sampling campaigns. The Guidelines Interstitial Water Toxic Units (IWTU), established by the USEPA, was violated for all samples. The application of SQVG, based on the equilibrium partition theory, showed that metals are controlled by the sulfide-phase present in sediments. This indicates that the metals presented in the sediments may have low bio-availability. The results of the evaluation of the benthic community structure indicated a possible influence of the waste dam in the Lavagem stream and in the Espirito Santo stream, downstream the confluence with the Lavagem stream. The results of eco-toxicity tests showed that contaminated sediment can cause only chronic effects. (author)

228

Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling.

Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Davis, Gary M.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Bradley, Paul M.

2013-01-01

229

Effects of grassed buffer strip management on potential denitrification in a belgian agricultural watershed  

OpenAIRE

Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with nitrate uptake by plant growth- that reduces nitrate input in surface water. We investigated the Denitrifier Enzyme Activity (DEA) to test how the buffer strip management modifies the denitrification process. The experimental site is composed of a crop field and a 11 m wide grassed buffer st...

Cors, Marie; Tychon, Bernard

2003-01-01

230

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HEMAVATHI WATERSHED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzed the Morphometric parameters of the Hemavathi watershed, this watershed is one of the main tributary of river Cauvery. SRTM data and toposheets was used for generating the maps, this was done by using GIS and ERDAS software. This article is study on basin parameters, derived parameters and shape parameters of the Hemavathi watershed. Elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio and all quantitative analysis has been done by using Horton and Straher method.

BINDUMATHI.S

2013-05-01

231

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HEMAVATHI WATERSHED  

OpenAIRE

This article analyzed the Morphometric parameters of the Hemavathi watershed, this watershed is one of the main tributary of river Cauvery. SRTM data and toposheets was used for generating the maps, this was done by using GIS and ERDAS software. This article is study on basin parameters, derived parameters and shape parameters of the Hemavathi watershed. Elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio and all quantitative analysis has been done by using Horton and Straher method.

Bindumathi, S.; Sannashiddannavar, Subash S.

2013-01-01

232

Baseline Studies of Selected Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Air of the Nandamojo Watershed, Costa Rica  

Science.gov (United States)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a number of common household and commercial products around the world. PBDEs enter the environment in a variety of ways, such as through emissions, leaching from end-of-life electronics in landfills, and incineration. While many countries have phased out the manufacturing of penta-, octa-, and deca-PBDEs or have banned the manufacture and use of these congeners altogether, these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to be detected in humans and the environment. This study investigates spatial and temporal variations of selected PBDEs in the air of the Nandamojo watershed area in Costa Rica by comparing air concentrations of PBDEs in the dry winter vs. wet summer seasons and rural vs. urban areas and also investigates the impact of anthropogenic activities on air concentration of PBDEs. This study is significant to the field, because there are no baseline studies nor are there currently any monitoring programs to assess the environmental levels of PBDEs or other POPs for this region of the Guanacaste province. Baseline information is needed to track spatial and temporal trends as well as evaluate the effectiveness of control measures employed nationally and internationally. Samples obtained from passive air sampling devices were analyzed via GC/MS for a number of congeners. PBDE-47 and -99 were found to be the congeners present in greatest concentration in air samples from the Nandamojo watershed area. Air concentrations were estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day and ranged as follows: SigmaPBDE5 35.20-1549.25 pg/m3 over the entire study. The presence of PBDEs in remote and pristine environments indicates that PBDEs are now a global concern. This study suggests that the spatial and temporal distribution patterns observed are strongly related to anthropogenic activities and presence of a population similar to that observed in other studies. The presence of PBDEs has become a global issue and, as such, these results provide background information on air concentrations of PBDEs for use in a global-scale multimedia model. In order to monitor PBDEs globally, it is imperative to implement and/or expand surveillance programs internationally.

Geesey, Mary Sophia

233

Índice simplificado de gestión de la cuenca del río Naranjo, municipio Majibacoa, provincia Las Tunas / Watershed management simplified index of Naranjo river, Majibacoa municipality, Las Tunas province  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sostenibilidad de las cuencas es de vital importancia para el desarrollo de las comunidades que conviven en ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la gestión ambiental de la cuenca del río Naranjo a través de un índice. Para ello se empleó el Índice simplificado de Gestión de Cuenca [...] s (IsGC) propuesto por especialistas del Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidráulicos. Se convocó a 14 expertos para definir el peso de cada variable utilizada. Los valores del IsGC obtenidos para los años 2009-2011, indican que la gestión se clasifica como Media, lo que implica el desarrollo e implementación de estrategias por parte de todos los actores sociales y las comunidades. Abstract in english Watershed sustainability is very important for communities’ development that cohabits in them. The objective of this research was to evaluate the environmental management of the watershed Naranjo River through an index. For it was used the watershed management simplified index (IsGC, for its initial [...] s in Spanish) proposed by specialists of the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources. It was consulted 14 experts to define the weight of each used variable. The values of the IsGC obtained for the years 2009-2011, indicate that the administration is classified Moderate, what implies the development and implementation of strategies on the part of all the social actors and the communities.

Yoandris, García Hidalgo; Carlos E, Balmaseda Espinosa.

2013-03-01

234

A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be accomplished in a virtual environment. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

2008-01-01

235

Documentation of Precipitation Runoff Modeling System modules for the Modular Modeling System modified for the Watershed and River Systems Management Program  

Science.gov (United States)

A decision support system is being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation as part of a long-term project, the Watershed and River Systems Management Program. The goal of the program is to apply the decision support system to U.S. Bureau of Reclamation projects in the western United States. An important component of the decision support system is the physical hydrology modeling, which consists of watershed models using the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System within the Modular Modeling System. To construct models and to enhance the tools for the application of the decision support system, selected Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System modules were modified or developed. These modules are documented in this report.

Mastin, Mark C.; Vaccaro, J.J.

2002-01-01

236

Synthesizing Drainage Morphology of Tectonic Watershed in Upper Ing Watershed (Kwan Phayao Wetland Watershed)  

OpenAIRE

The study was aimed to synthesize drainage morphology of tectonic watershed in upper Ing Watershed in Phayao province, northern Thailand. The morphometric analysis of 12 sub-watersheds was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS) software-ArcGIS 9.3 for analysing drainage pattern and calculating the 16 theoretical values of drainage morphometric parameters in 3 aspects including linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect. The geologic formation and structure are also overla...

Rangsan Ket-ord; Nipon Tangtham; Veerasak Udomchoke

2012-01-01

237

Effects of water management on hydrology and water quality of a semi-arid watershed in the Northeast of Brazil Effects of water management on hydrology and water quality of a semi-arid watershed in the Northeast of Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Water resource management based on dam construction, diversion, and other engineered hydraulic structures improves conditions for humans living in arid and semi-arid areas. However, the effects of damming on fluvial and coastal ecosystems are well-know, as it is the fact that economic and social development based on water management might enhance the pressure on such environments. This study gives a first basin scale representation of the possible effects of water resource management on hydro...

Molisani, M. M.; Lisieux, R.; Cavalcante, M. D.; Maia, L. P.

2007-01-01

238

Analysing the Effects of Climate, Land Use, and Management Changes in a Chesapeake Bay Watershed [ Slide  

Science.gov (United States)

EPA presented this subject matter at an external meeting and following management review and approval have released parts of the presentation for the public access. For more information about this event/presentation please email or phone the Technical Information Staff listed und...

239

Watershed Charachterization And Prioritization Of Tulasi Subwatershed: A Geospatial Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is proficiently important to conserve the limited and precarious natural resources vis land, water and soil which should be categorically studied at watershed level. Due to improper land, soil and water management practices, land and water resources getting degraded and eroded, water getting polluted. In this regard present study is profoundly concerned to characterization and prioritization of Tulasi sub watershed which is small tributary of Bhogavati River in mega Panchganga river basin of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. The prioritization of this small watershed has been carried out on the basis of morphometric analysis for land reclamation and soil erosion prevention. Database has been prepared in ArcGIS 9.3 desktop application, ARCSWAT extension tool for sub-watershed demarcation and other analysis carried out for certain significant areal, linear morphometric parameters vis stream length, stream frequency, bifurcation ratio, Length of overland flow, perimeter of basin, drainage density etc. have been assessed. Cartosat data used for preparation DEM and delineation of watershed. Above said parameters obtained by using Arc Gis ver.9.3 software and appropriate weightage assigned to them in order to assess the priority of sub watershed. The result reveals that, sub-basin TB-2, TB-3 and TB-4 has comes under the high risk for soil erosion and need to give a high priority for land conservation practices. These studies are significant for soil erosion prevention and surface rainwater harvesting.

V.S.PAWAR-PATIL

2013-06-01

240

Overall uncertainty study of the hydrological impacts of climate change for a Canadian watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

General circulation models (GCMs) and greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (GGES) are generally considered to be the two major sources of uncertainty in quantifying the climate change impacts on hydrology. Other sources of uncertainty have been given less attention. This study considers overall uncertainty by combining results from an ensemble of two GGES, six GCMs, five GCM initial conditions, four downscaling techniques, three hydrological model structures, and 10 sets of hydrological model parameters. Each climate projection is equally weighted to predict the hydrology on a Canadian watershed for the 2081-2100 horizon. The results show that the choice of GCM is consistently a major contributor to uncertainty. However, other sources of uncertainty, such as the choice of a downscaling method and the GCM initial conditions, also have a comparable or even larger uncertainty for some hydrological variables. Uncertainties linked to GGES and the hydrological model structure are somewhat less than those related to GCMs and downscaling techniques. Uncertainty due to the hydrological model parameter selection has the least important contribution among all the variables considered. Overall, this research underlines the importance of adequately covering all sources of uncertainty. A failure to do so may result in moderately to severely biased climate change impact studies. Results further indicate that the major contributors to uncertainty vary depending on the hydrological variables selected, and that the methodology presented in this paper is successful at identifying the key sources of uncertainty to consider for a climate change impact study.

Chen, Jie; Brissette, FrançOis P.; Poulin, Annie; Leconte, Robert

2011-12-01

241

Assessment and simulation of biological soil conservation countermeasure (Case study: Northern Karoon River Watershed, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are twofold: 1 to evaluate the actual capability of EUROSEM, to simulate the biological method of the soil and water conservation, and 2 to assess the effectiveness of this technique to protect the soil and water in the mentioned study area. The study area is a part of Vanak catchment in the Northern Karoon River Watershed, Southwest of Iran. Runoff and sediment data were collected over a number of periodical rainfall events from the two catchments called biological and control catchments. Parameterization, calibration, and validation of the model were carried out based upon the input parameters. Experimental results confirmed the capability of the model to simulate biological soil and water conservation techniques. The simulation of biological soil and water conservation technique indicated that this protection approach caused significant differences in the total runoff generated, total soil loss, peak flow rates, and time to peak flow rates as compared to the same traits of the control. The result illustrated that this conservation technique reduced both output total runoff and total sediments by 40 to 81% and 45 to 69% respectively, yielding a sustainable ecosystem in the catchment.

Behzad Ghorbani

2012-11-01

242

Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture representative hydrological conditions in both the sample watershed case and an initial test case that utilized base data from a watershed with minimal land disturbance. Results from this study provide valuable insight into the effects of water use through a variety of climactic conditions and provide potential strategies for policy makers, regulators, and stakeholders to strengthen adaptive capacity to achieve sustainable water use within coastal watersheds.

Alford, C.

2009-12-01

243

Impact of drainage water management on watershed nitrate load in west central Indiana  

OpenAIRE

Subsurface drainage, popularly known as tile drainage, is an essential water management practice in the Midwestern region of the United States to convert poorly drained areas into highly productive crop land. Despite many agronomic and environmental benefits, subsurface drainage also increases nitrate losses to the receiving streams. Development of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nitrate loading from the Midwest. The concern about negative environmental effects of subsurf...

Ale, Srinivasulu

2009-01-01

244

Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil): a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar as influências antrópicas sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do rio Jaboatão (Pernambuco, Brasil) e fornecer subsídios ao enquadramento dos corpos d'água em classes de usos. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de água durante o período de março/98 a feverei [...] ro/99 em oito estações de amostragem. As seguintes variáveis foram medidas: temperatura, pH, condutividade, alcalinidade, Cl, oxigênio dissolvido, DBO, coliformes fecais, nitrato, fósforo total e sólidos totais. As variáveis oxigênio dissolvido, coliformes fecais e fósforo total, foram as mais críticas para o enquadramento. Foram delimitados grupos de usos da água na bacia e sugeridas classes de qualidade para cada grupo, fornecendo, desta maneira, elementos para auxiliar o gerenciamento da qualidade da água Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil). Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrolog [...] ical cycle (March/98-February/99). The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de, Souza; José Galizia, Tundisi.

2003-12-01

245

Comparative study of inorganic and organic components of soil formation in two watersheds of Alabama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geochemical mass balances of two forested stream ecosystems in AL (Collier Creek watershed (CCw) and Choccolocco Creek watershed (ChC)) were calculated to evaluate soil formation as a solute source for stream water chemistry. For each watershed, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of soil sampled to 48 inches of depth were compared to the XRD analyses of the weathered and unweathered rock samples collected along and within the stream channel to qualitatively determine the weathering products and possible weathering reactions. Petrographic and SEM data provided verification. Exact chemical compositions of the primary and secondary minerals were determined by electron microprobe analysis. Similar mineral species were identified in the rock samples of both watersheds. The dominant clay mineral species in the rock samples of both watersheds was kaolinite. The major source of calcium and additional source of bicarbonate in streamwater appears to be from the dissolution of calcite. Iron released by the weathering of chlorite and phengite is oxidized to form hematite and/or goethite in the weathered rock samples and at depths of two to three feet in the soil of both watersheds, explaining the deficiency of iron in the stream water chemistry. Alteration of chlorite in the soil of CCw appears to produce a mixed-layer chlorite/vermiculite, which requires slow weathering. These factors may be attributed to organic interaction. The phengitic illite in the ChC soil alters to a mixed-layer illite/vermiculite. ChC has streamwater higher in alkalinity, pH, and total dissolved solute concentrations than CCw because of differences in bedrock chemistry and alteration. The stream water chemistry in both watersheds appears to be influenced mainly by the inorganic weathering of the bedrock and soil formation.

Kornegay, C.; Donahoe, R. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

246

Understanding groundwater systems and their functioning through the study of stable water isotopes in a hard-rock aquifer (Maheshwaram watershed, India)  

OpenAIRE

Groundwater degradation through abstraction, contamination, etc., shows a world-wide increase and has been of growing concern for the past decades. In this light, the stable isotopes of the water molecule (d18O and d2H) from a hard-rock aquifer in the Maheshwaram watershed (Andhra Pradesh, India) were studied. This small watershed (53 km2) underlain by granite, is endorheic and representative of agricultural landuse in India, with more than 700 bore wells in use. In such a watershed, the effe...

Ne?grel, Philippe; Pauwels, He?le?ne; Dewandel, Benoit; Gandolfi, Jean-marie; Mascre?, C.; Ahmed, S.

2011-01-01

247

Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

2014-11-01

248

Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the course of 2009-2010, student teams carried out two independent research projects focused on the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The first investigated the threat of invasive species to forests in Maryland. The second investigated the detection of winter cover crops throughout the watershed from satellite data.

Moore, Rachel

2011-01-01

249

EFFECT OF CROPLAND MANAGEMENT AND SLOPE POSITION ON SOIL ORGANIC CARBON POOL AT THE NORTH APPALACHIAN EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15-36 years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0-30 cm depth were studied for the period of 1939-1999 at the North ...

250

Participação comunitária e implementação dos instrumentos de gestão da água em bacias hidrográficas / Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O modelo atual de gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é descentralizado, participativo e integrado, e tem como unidade de planejamento a bacia hidrográfica. Baseia-se na atuação de comitês de bacia, sendo que cada comitê possui composição e regras de funcionamento próprias, regidas por seu estatu [...] to, os quais apresentam semelhanças básicas. Os princípios básicos desta gestão foram ditados pela Constituição Brasileira de 1988 e detalhados pela Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos em 1997. Em nível estadual, São Paulo promulgou sua Política Estadual de Recursos Hídricos em 1991. Este artigo faz análise do processo de participação nos comitês de bacia do Estado de São Paulo e suas implicações na implementação dos instrumentos de gestão de recursos hídricos, por meio de um estudo de caso no Comitê da Bacia Hidrográfica do Tietê - Jacaré, adotando como metodologia a aplicação de questionários aos seus membros titulares da gestão 2009-2011. Observou-se engajamento e integração entre seus diversos integrantes. Mesmo assim, os resultados encontrados apontam para a necessidade de revisão do estatuto deste comitê, sendo evidenciadas distorções causadas pelas divergências entre a legislação estadual e a federal, principalmente quanto aos segmentos participantes e atores envolvidos. Mostraram também a necessidade de uma maior divulgação das questões de recursos hídricos nesta bacia e no Estado de São Paulo, como um todo. Ao mesmo tempo, recomenda-se colocar esforços para ampliar o exercício da representatividade das instituições no comitê e fortalecer os resultados dos trabalhos desenvolvidos nas câmaras técnicas no espaço de tomada de decisão do comitê de bacia hidrográfica. Abstract in english The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. Th [...] e basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee's members (2009 - 2011). Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews' results have shown that the Committee's statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

Tadeu Fabrício, Malheiros; Mariza Guimarães, Prota; Mario Alejandro, Perez Rincón.

2013-04-01

251

Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin: spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.

Marques Paulo Henrique C.

2003-01-01

252

Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

S. M. Hsu

2012-06-01

253

Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

Hsu, S. M.; Wen, H. Y.; Chen, N. C.; Hsu, S. Y.; Chi, S. Y.

2012-06-01

254

Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

Swift, Ralph

1995-11-01

255

Streamflow, sediment and carbon transport from a Himalayan watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Rivers indeed serve an important role in the carbon fluxes being recognized as a major component to regional and global environmental change. The present study focuses the sediment and carbon transports in a Himalayan watershed (elevational range 300-2650 m asl, area of 3014 ha) at Sikkim, India. The watershed has five perennial streams, all attain significant size during rainy season. The micro-watershed for each perennial stream has a mosaic distribution of land-use practices, viz. forests, agroforestry, agriculture and wastelands. The average discharge in the Rinjikhola, the watershed outlet was 840-850 l s -1 in summer season that increased by 5-6 times in rainy season. Sediment concentration varied distinctly with seasons in different streams and the outlet of the watershed. The soil loss rate from the total watershed ranged from 6 to 7 t ha -1 yr -1 that accounts to a net loss of 833 t yr -1 organic carbon, and 2025 t yr -1 dissolved organic carbon from the watershed, and more than 90% of soil losses were attributable to open cropped area. The stream discharge, soil and carbon loss and precipitation partitioning through different pathways in forest and agroforestry land-use suggest that these land-uses promote conservation of soil and carbon. It is emphasized that a good understanding of carbon transfer through overland flow and discharge is important for policy decisions and management of soil and carbon loss of a Himalayan watershed as it is very sensitive to land-use/cover changes. Therefore, the conversion of forest to agricultural land should be reversed. Agroforestry systems should be included in agricultural land in mountainous regions.

Sharma, P.; Rai, S. C.

2004-04-01

256

Using Backcast Land-Use Change and Groundwater Travel-Time Models to Generate Land-Use Legacy Maps for Watershed Management  

OpenAIRE

We couple two spatial-temporal models, a backcast land-use change model and a groundwater flow model, to develop what we call “land-use legacy maps.” We quantify how a land-use legacy map, created from maps of past land use and groundwater travel times, differs from a current land-use map. We show how these map differences can affect land-use planning and watershed management decisions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Our approach demonstrates that land-use legacy maps...

Duckles, Jonah M.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Ray, Deepak K.; Bryan Pijanowski; Hyndman, David W.

2007-01-01

257

Watershed Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

Students use skills gained from the Web-based GIS tutorial to explore the Willamette Watershed in Oregon. A correlation will be found between types of trees and the riparian zone along the McKenzie River. Population in the Willamette Valley and annual rainfall in the Coast Range and the Cascades will be evaluated. Due to the recent downward trend in rainfall, students will be expected to propose a new site for water collection, similar to PortlandâÂÂs Bull Run watershed. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Costello, Vickie

2011-09-14

258

NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

1991-01-01

259

NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

260

Study and Test of Fitting Natural and Synthetic Unit Hydrographs in Zayandehrud-dam Watershed (Pelasjan Sub-basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As unit hydrograph is an important item in flood estimation of the rivers and since flood hydrograph and simultaneous rainfall hyetograph is needed to derive a unit hydrograph, hydrologists recommend synthetic unit hydrographs for areas lacking these hydrometeorological data. A research was conducted in the Zayandehrud-dam watershed (Pelasjan sub-basin to test the efficiency of synthetic unit hydrographs (Snyder, SCS, and Triangular methods in hydrological evaluations. For the purposes of this study, natural and synthetic unit hydrographs were determined and compared, using all morphologic, hydrometric and rainfall data. The results showed that Triangular and SCS methods fit natural unit hydrographs better than Snyder method does, but peak instantaneous flow is estimated to be higher than the observed flow. So, the constant 2.083 in peak flow equation is recommended to be changed to 1.74 in this watershed. The Snyder method predicts good peak flows, compared with the other two methods. Generally, it is concluded that Triangular, SCS, and Snyder methods are ranked 1 to 3 for determination of synthetic unit hydrographs in this watershed.

Mohammad Mahdavi

1998-07-01

261

Runoff processes and small watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Small watersheds are a fundamental landscape unit for quantifying inputs and outputs of water, sediment and nutrients. Small watersheds have been used historically for defining runoff processes and flood response to storm precipitation. Early conceptualizations of runoff production during the International Hydrological Decade in the 1960s focused on the importance and movement of event water as overland flow to the stream channel. Use of mass balance mixing models using stable isotope tracers in the 1970s and 1980s directly challenged early ideas of where water goes when it rains, residence time of catchment waters and flow paths of subsurface runoff towards the stream. These data showed that the majority of water in the stream during a precipitation event was water that existed in the watershed prior to the event. While credible physical mechanisms of old water mobilization have only been defined in the past decade, stable isotope tracer approaches are now mature enough to offer new potential for informing new model structures of how small watersheds work. Isotope tracer data in small watersheds and mass balance separations also represent new ways of validating and calibrating watershed models. This presentation will chronicle the use of isotope tracers in small watersheds and provide examples of how these data can be used in models of runoff processes and for providing valuable input for water resource management at larger basin scales. (author)at larger basin scales. (author)

262

Developing A Geospatial Data Model To Derive Watershed Characteristics For Low Streamflow Prediction  

Science.gov (United States)

Low streamflow estimates are required for a variety of water resource management purposes. Low streamflow statistics are commonly estimated from a frequency analysis when a historic streamflow record is available, and from a regional regression model when no historic record is available. A regional regression model is developed from low streamflow estimates and watershed characteristics at gauged sites in a region. The developed model is then applied to a hydrologically similar ungauged watershed to estimate low streamflow statistics at that watershed. Watershed characteristics can be derived from digital geospatial data using geoprocessing tools embedded within GIS packages. It has been shown that digitally derived watershed characteristics can lead to model improvements. In order to obtain further improvements on a regional regression model, newly available digital geospatial data (meteorology, topography, geology, etc.) may be used. It is desirable to efficiently process those newly available data. To accomplish this, a common framework and toolset to digitally derive watershed characteristics has been developed in an ArcGIS desktop platform. A relational database has been developed to derive watershed characteristics as a function of attributes of various digital grids. A case study is currently being performed in a region centered on eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, and includes an assessment of the impact of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution on derived watershed characteristics.

Hirabayashi, S.; Kroll, C. N.

2005-05-01

263

A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

264

Development of cost effective nutrient management strategies for a watershed with the DSS FyrisCOST  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an application of the FyrisCOST model to calculate the cost efficiency of alternative scenarios for nitrogen management in a small agricultural catchment in Southern Sweden. The scenarios include the spatial distribution by sub-catchment of a set of nitrogen abatement measures that have been identified as eligible for financial support under the Swedish Rural Development Program (wetlands, catch crops, spring plowing and a combination of these) with alternative crop distributions. The model FyrisCOST is a catchment scale DSS that has been developed for the evaluation of alternative nutrient mitigation strategies. This model is able to evaluate a range of mitigation approaches for phosphorous and nitrogen from several sources (point and diffuse). This allows cost efficiency to be estimated for a catchment based on a combination of measures. The model is currently being used to develop a data base for the Swedish Water Authorities on the cost efficiency of buffer zones for all small catchments in Sweden. Hydrological flows in the FyrisCOST model are built on the dynamic model FyrisNP and nutrient losses are derived from simulations from the Nutrient Leaching Coefficient Calculation System (NLeCCS) which includes the ICECREAMDB model for estimating phosphorus losses and the SOILNDB model for soil nitrogen leaching. FyrisCOST calculates nitrogen concentrations in effluent water for each sub-catchment. The concentration of nitrogen is dependent on the current land use and geographical conditions. In order to evaluate agricultural scenarios in FyrisCOST a method for calculating N leaching from agricultural land was constructed. The calculation includes crop rotations and tillage systems and differentiates between annual and perennial crops. The model is able to take into account the probability that a primary crop is followed by a specific crop/tillage system and the effect on nutrient losses estimated using a specially developed leaching concentration calculator. Each measure or combination of measures in a scenario is evaluated based on reduction effects and costs for each sub-catchment. The measures can be ranked by gross cost efficiency in a sub-catchment or on net cost efficiency in a recipient. The recipient may be a lake, a coastline or a sub-catchment. An important feature in calculating cost efficiency is downstream retention. In the application described in this paper, the scenarios illustrate how comparative costs of abatement measures can be used to support informational campaigns for individual sub-catchments based on the expected change in loads to the Baltic Sea. Sub-catchment targeted informational campaigns would promote adoption of voluntary measures where they have the highest cost efficiency to achieve environmental targets.

Collentine, D.; Johnsson, H.; Larsson, P.; Markensten, H.; Widén Nilsson, E.

2012-12-01

265

A machine-to-machine architecture for the real-time study of urban watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex patterns of water quality across urban watersheds are driven by yet to be understood dynamics between natural and human-induced phenomena. More spatiotemporally representative data are required to improve our understanding of the contributions of various land-use patterns on water quality. This is particular true of the Great Lakes watersheds in the mid-western United States, where significant stream nutrient loading is adversely affecting ecosystem health. We discuss the development of a machine-to-machine architecture to enable the long-term, reliable, real-time measurement of water parameters across large, urbanized watersheds. Our sensor network is presently being deployed in a 2300km2 watershed in southeastern Michigan, where temperature fluctuations between -10C to 32C and annual precipitation of up to 750mm impose significant challenges on deployed hardware. Exploiting the cellular coverage of urban environments enables the use of ultra-low-power, low-cost, embedded wireless modules for measurement, computation and communication. Bi-directional links between sensor nodes and cloud-based services permit extreme network configurability and ease of deployment, while permitting seamless access to sensors via an IP-based addressing scheme. We show how hardware and software selection will enable years of battery life without sacrificing temporal data resolutions. Initial results indicate that the system provides a reliable means by which to collect and analyze real-time water quantity and water quality data.

Kerkez, B.; Zhao, Y.

2013-12-01

266

Soil erosion and sediment fluxes analysis: a watershed study of the Ni Reservoir, Spotsylvania County, VA, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic forces that alter the physical landscape are known to cause significant soil erosion, which has negative impact on surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes/reservoirs, and coastal zones, and thus sediment control has become one of the central aspects of catchment management planning. The revised universal soil loss equation empirical model, erosion pins, and isotopic sediment core analyses were used to evaluate watershed erosion, stream bank erosion, and reservoir sediment accumulation rates for Ni Reservoir, in central Virginia. Land-use and land cover seems to be dominant control in watershed soil erosion, with barren land and human-disturbed areas contributing the most sediment, and forest and herbaceous areas contributing the least. Results show a 7 % increase in human development from 2001 (14 %) to 2009 (21.6 %), corresponding to an increase in soil loss of 0.82 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) in the same time period. (210)Pb-based sediment accumulation rates at three locations in Ni Reservoir were 1.020, 0.364, and 0.543 g cm(-2) year(-1) respectively, indicating that sediment accumulation and distribution in the reservoir is influenced by reservoir configuration and significant contributions from bedload. All three locations indicate an increase in modern sediment accumulation rates. Erosion pin results show variability in stream bank erosion with values ranging from 4.7 to 11.3 cm year(-1). These results indicate that urban growth and the decline in vegetative cover has increased sediment fluxes from the watershed and poses a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of the Ni Reservoir as urbanization continues to increase. PMID:24141485

Pope, Ian C; Odhiambo, Ben K

2014-03-01

267

Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

Manoj Kumar Jha

2011-06-01

268

Your Watershed's Story  

Science.gov (United States)

Students describe the interaction between the river, its quality and the lives of people in the watershed where they live. Students will design a questionnaire, interview local people, and compile the oral histories collected to establish the recent history of a river and its watershed. Suggested equipment for the activity are notebooks and audio or video recording instruments. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

269

WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT It’s IMPACT ON AREA, PRODUCTION, PRODUCTIVITY, EMPLOYMENTAND INCOME OF PESEANTS (A Case Study of Prakasam District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principal objective of the paper is to analyze the Watershed Development and its impact on area, production, productivity, employment and income generation between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries in the study area. This paper is based on primary data, such data was collected through a sample survey conducted in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in all, and one hundred and fifty six sample beneficiaries are covered by this study. The equal number of non-beneficiaries has been covered by this study as a control group. This paper is covered only 2006-08.

N. Suresh

2014-12-01

270

Biogeochemistry of forested watersheds in the Southeastern U.S. prior to conversion to short-rotation pine for bioenergy  

Science.gov (United States)

In the southeastern U.S., intensively-managed pine plantations are projected to be a significant source of feedstocks for bioenergy, and the environmental sustainability (water quality, quantity) of this practice needs to be addressed at the watershed scale. In the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we are examining water quality in 3 forested watersheds (1 reference [R], 2 treatment watersheds [B, C]) before and after the conversion to loblolly pine for bioenergy. We collected pre-treatment water quality data (nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], herbicides) from all watersheds for two years (2009-2011) to determine baseline conditions. In May 2012, 40% of the extant forest in the two treatment watersheds was harvested and planting of loblolly pine will begin in early 2013. We will discuss our pre-treatment water quality results from the 3 study watersheds in context with our watershed-scale experiment. Baseline stream chemistry differed among the three watersheds, with higher mean concentrations of ammonium (59 ?g/L) and DOC (8.1 mg/L) in Watershed R than in Watersheds B (ammonium = 17 ?g/L, DOC = 6.9 ?g/L) and C (ammonium = 17 ?g/L, DOC = 6.1 ?g/L), suggesting that anaerobic conditions in Watershed R may influence stream chemistry. Stream nitrate concentrations were higher in Watershed B (111 ?g/L) than in Watersheds R (29 ?g/L) and C (30 ?g/L), suggesting that shallower flowpaths may be contributing to stream water chemistry. Dual isotope analysis of nitrate (15N, 18O) suggests that riparian groundwater is the source of nitrate in streams. However, nitrate in precipitation can be an important source to these watersheds during storms, as nitrate in flowing soil water had similar ?18O-NO3 values to precipitation. Nitrate may travel more conservatively in these watersheds than ammonium or phosphorus, as an irrigation experiment which simulated nutrient deposition from rainwater showed that the majority of added ammonium and phosphorus is removed (via uptake and/or sorption) compared to nitrate. Overall, quantifying baseline water chemistry among the three watersheds prior to the establishment of loblolly pine is necessary in order to determine any potential effects that short-rotation pine management may have on water quality.

Griffiths, N. A.; Mulholland, P. J.; Jackson, C. R.; McDonnell, J. J.; Blake, J. I.; Du, E.; Klaus, J.; Langholtz, M.

2012-12-01

271

Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of a Semi-Distributed Model in a Semi-Arid Region, Case Study: Nishabour Watershed  

OpenAIRE

Application of conceptual hydrological models is an important issue in watersheds for researchers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The hydrological behaviors are complicated in such watersheds and their calibration is more difficult. In this article, the conceptual and semi-distributed SWAT model is used for a semi-arid Nishabour watershed with 9350 km2 area. Streamflow simulation is considered for 8 years. Nishabour watershed modeling led to 22 subbasins and 146 Hydrologic response...

Davari, K.; Ansari, H.; Shafiei, M.; Ghahraman, B.

2013-01-01

272

Consideration of Experimental Approaches in the Physical and Biological Sciences in Designing Long-Term Watershed Studies in Forested Landscapes  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of biological processes in controlling weathering, erosion, stream-water composition, soil formation, and overall landscape development is generally accepted. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Project in eastern Puerto Rico and Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Panama Canal Watershed Experiment (PCWE) are landscape-scale studies based in the humid tropics where the warm temperatures, moist conditions, and luxuriant vegetation promote especially rapid biological and chemical processes - photosynthesis, respiration, decay, and chemical weathering. In both studies features of small-watershed, large-watershed, and landscape-scale-biology experiments are blended to satisfy the research needs of the physical and biological sciences. The WEBB Project has successfully synthesized its first fifteen years of data, and has addressed the influence of land cover, geologic, topographic, and hydrologic variability, including huge storms on a wide range of hydrologic, physical, and biogeochemical processes. The ongoing PCWE should provide a similar synthesis of a moderate-sized humid tropical watershed. The PCWE and the Agua Salud Project (ASP) within the PCWE are now addressing the role of land cover (mature forests, pasture, invasive-grass dominated, secondary succession, native species plantation, and teak) at scales ranging from small watersheds to the whole Panama Canal watershed. Biologists have participated in the experimental design at both watershed scales, and small (0.1 ha) to large (50 ha) forest-dynamic plots have a central role in interfacing between physical scientists and biologists. In these plots, repeated, high-resolution mapping of all woody plants greater than 1-cm diameter provides a description of population changes through time presumably reflecting individual life histories, interactions with other organisms and the influence of landscape processes and climate, thereby bridging the research needs and conceptual scales of hydrologists and biogeochemists with those of biologists. Both experiments are embedded in larger data-collection networks: the WEBB within the hydrological and meteorological monitoring programs of the USGS and other federal agencies, and the PCWE in the long-term monitoring conducted by the Panama Canal Authority (ACP), its antecedents, and STRI. Examination of landscape-scale processes in a changing world requires the development of detailed landscape-scale data sets, including a formulation of reference states that can act as surrogate experimental controls. For example, the concept of a landscape steady state provides a convenient reference in which present-day observations can be interpreted. Extreme hydrological states must also be described, and both WEBB and PCWE have successfully examined the role of droughts and large storms and their impact on geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and biology. These experiments also have provided platforms for research endeavors never contemplated in the original objectives, a testament to the importance of developing approaches that consider the needs of physical and biological sciences.

Stallard, R. F.

2011-12-01

273

Rapid Assessment of Logging-Associated Sediment-Delivery Pathways in an Intensively-Managed Forested Watershed in the Southern Cascades, Northern California  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential for water-quality impacts in intensively-managed forested watersheds depends partly upon the frequency of overland flow paths linking logging-related hillslope sediment sources to the channel network, as well as the volume of sediment delivered along these flow paths. In response to public concerns over perceived water-quality impacts from clearcut timber harvesting, the Battle Creek Task Force, composed of subject-matter experts from 4 different state agencies, performed a rapid assessment for visible evidence of sediment delivery pathways from multiple logging-associated features in the upper Battle Creek watershed - an area underlain predominantly by Holocene- and Late Pleistocene-aged volcanic rock types, with highly permeable soils, and relatively few streams. Logging-associated features were selected for assessment based on erosion potential and proximity to stream channels. Identified sediment-delivery pathways were then characterized by dominant erosion process and the relative magnitude of sediment delivery (i.e., low, moderate, and high) was estimated. Approximately 26 km of stream buffers adjacent to 55 clearcut harvest units were assessed, and the single detected instance of sediment delivery was found to be of low magnitude and the result of illegal encroachment by logging equipment into a 5-m wide stream-adjacent equipment-limitation zone. The proportion of sampled sites delivering sediment was found to be highest for tractor-stream crossings, followed by road-stream crossings, stream-adjacent road segments, stream-adjacent landings, and clearcut harvest units, respectively. All 5 tractor-stream crossings delivered sediment, but were generally delivering a low magnitude of sediment derived from sheetwash and rilling. Road-stream crossings (n=39) and stream-adjacent road segments (n=24) delivered observable sediment 69 and 67 percent of the time, respectively. The highest magnitudes of sediment delivery from roads were associated with substandard design or maintenance practices (e.g., poor road drainage) and/or poor location (e.g., roads less than 15 m from a stream), but the magnitude of sediment delivery was generally low or unobservable where Best Management Practices (BMPs) had been implemented. Conceptually, water-quality impacts are limited by the low density of streams in the watershed, relatively low hillslope gradients, relatively high permeability of the soils, and the implementation of BMPs. Assessment results suggest that direct water-quality impacts from overland flow paths in these types of watersheds are best minimized by disconnecting flow paths linking roads to streams, and by implementing BMPs.

Coe, D. B.; Wopat, M. A.; Lindsay, D.; Stanish, S.; Boone, M.; Beck, B.; Wyman, A.; Bull, J.

2012-12-01

274

Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria  

OpenAIRE

An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria) - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been d...

Lubenov Todor; Marinov Ivan; Velizarova Emiliya

2009-01-01

275

Teaching Practical Watershed Science to non-Watershed Science Majors  

Science.gov (United States)

The Warner College of Natural Resources (WCNR) at Colorado State University (CSU) has had a long tradition of integrating field measurements into the classroom, dating back to the first forestry summer camp held in 1917 at the CSU Pingree Park mountain campus. In the early 1960s, the Cooperative Watershed Management Unit coordinated efforts to understand and analyse the basic resources of the area, with an emphasis on the geology, hydrology, and climate. Much of this understand is now used as the Abiotic (Geology and Watershed) component of a five-credit, four-week course offered twice each summer at Pingree Park. With the exception of Geology students who have their own field course, this Natural Resources Ecology and Measurements course (NR 220) is required for all WCNR undergraduate students. These majors include Watershed Science, Forestry, Rangeland Ecology, Fisheries, Wildlife Biology, Conservation Biology, and Recreation and Tourism. Since most of these are students are much better trained in biological and/or social sciences rather than physical sciences, a challenge for the Watershed professor is to teaching practical Watershed Science to non-Watershed Science majors. This presentation describes how this challenge is met and how this course helps broaden the knowledge base of Natural Resources students.

Fassnacht, S. R.; Laituri, M.; Layden, P.; Coleman, R.

2008-12-01

276

ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results showed that using Toutin's Model, enabling Wallis filter and specifying high DEM detail, along with restricting the holes filling option gave the best position accuracy and the least number of failure values. This is mainly due to the ruggedness of the studying area. Comparing GPS heights with the extract DEM showed a Minimum and a maximum error of (-11.9 m, 10.56 m), Mean error (1.32 m) and RMSE of (4.7 m). While extracting the drainage lines showed 80 to 90 % of coincidence of the upper water heads and an order of less than one pixel for the main river course and mountainous road intersection.

Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

2014-05-01

277

Environmental and deteriorating state analyses of the watershed Riacho do Tronco, Boa Vista, PB, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes, from the subdivision of the watershed of Riacho do Tronco in eight sub-watersheds, to diagnose their potential for land use and occupation, determine the areas of conflicts in land use and the level of environmental deterioration of the watershed as a whole, to support planning and the consequent reduction of the expansion of desertification. Based on GIS analysis and field work, the environmental parameters that allowed the establishment of the roughness coefficient of each sub-watershed were calculated, following the methodology proposed by Rocha (1997 for the classification of the natural potential use of each watershed. The results showed that four sub-watersheds are suitable for agriculture, three for livestock and reforestation and one for reforestation only. It was also possible to diagnose land use and occupation of each one and to determine land use conflicts. This represented by inappropriate use of soil considering the natural vocation of some sub-watershed, as well as the occurrence of bare soil and mining activities that occur in some sub-watersheds. Thus, from the analysis of conflict in land use, areas to be afforested, availability for or intense use of agricultural lands and the estimate of areas where correct management practices have to be implemented, it was observed that the watershed of Riacho do Tronco has 42.7% of its area in deteriorated stage. Therefore, the high level of environmental deterioration is evident, with consequent risk of desertification. In addition, considering that this area is located in the Brazilian semi-arid region with economic activities practiced without conservation concerns, it is necessary that the government and organized society foster sustainable principles in the economic activities in this watershed.

Ronildo Alcântara Pereira

2010-04-01

278

Management systems research study  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a Monte Carlo simulation of procurement activities at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. Data cover: simulation of the procurement cycle, construction of a performance evaluation model, examination of employee development, procedures and review of evaluation criteria for divisional and individual performance evaluation. Determination of the influences and apparent impact of contract type and structure and development of a management control system for planning and controlling manpower requirements.

Bruno, A. V.

1975-01-01

279

Watershed Dynamics (Student Edition)  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether you're a stream studies novice or a veteran aquatic monitor, Watershed Dynamics gives you abundant practical resources to extend your students' investigations into local water quality and land-use issues. This two-part set is ideal for teaching biological and ecological concepts and research techniques. It also shows how the interplay between scientific data and human judgment can shape public policy decisions on zoning, flood control, and agricultural practices. The Student Edition is organized into four parts: (1) an introduction to watersheds, land use, streams, and related research; (2) 10 protocols with specific instruction on research techniques related to watersheds; (3) field studies and experiments that guide students through interactive research projects using the protocols; and (4) an engineering design challenge in which students develop a device to treat simulated stormwater runoff. Included throughout are plentiful forms that provide both structure and flexibility as they guide students through each research step. Watershed Dynamics is the final volume in the four-part Cornell Scientific Inquiry Series, designed to guide students in designing and conducting experiments, presenting their results, and exchanging feedback with their peers. See the other titles in the series: Decay and Renewal , Assessing Toxic Risk , and Invasion Ecology .

Nancy M. Trautmann

2004-01-01

280

Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1-3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14-15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

2015-01-01

281

Sustainable environmental management of marine regions: the Black Sea case study  

OpenAIRE

The EU Marine Strategy Directive (2008/56/EC) proposes four marine regions as a political geographic framework for implementation of the Community's environmental policy. This study critically analyzes the state-based approach, which the Directive uses to outline the regions' boundaries. It suggests that environmental sustainability of marine odies strongly depends on the geographic congruence between their watersheds and the borders of the respective environmental management system, i.e., ma...

Boian Koulov

2012-01-01

282

Nitrate in watersheds: straight from soils to streams?  

Science.gov (United States)

Human activities are rapidly increasing the global supply of reactive N and substantially altering the structure and hydrologic connectivity of managed ecosystems. There is long-standing recognition that N must be removed along hydrologic flowpaths from uplands to streams, yet it has proven difficult to assess the generality of this removal across ecosystem types, and whether these patterns are influenced by land-use change. To assess how well upland nitrate (NO3-) loss is reflected in stream export, we gathered information from >50 watershed biogeochemical studies that reported nitrate concentrations ([NO3-]) for stream water and for either upslope soil solution or groundwater NO3- to examine whether stream export of NO3- accurately reflects upland NO3- losses. In this dataset, soil solution and streamwater [NO3-] were correlated across 40 undisturbed forest watersheds, with streamwater [NO3-] typically half (median = 50%) soil solution [NO3-]. A similar relationship was seen in 10 disturbed forest watersheds. However, for 12 watersheds with significant agricultural or urban development, the intercept and slope were both significantly higher than the relationship seen in forest watersheds. Differences in concentration between soil solution or groundwater and stream water may be attributed to biological uptake, microbial processes including denitrification, and/or preferential flow routing. The results of this synthesis are consistent with the hypotheses that undisturbed watersheds have a significant capacity to remove nitrate after it passes below the rooting zone and that land use changes tend to alter the efficiency or the length of watershed flowpaths, leading to reductions in nitrate removal and increased stream nitrate concentrations.

Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Perakis, Steven S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

2013-01-01

283

a Study on the Comprehensive Simulation of Nonpoint Source Pollution for Er-Hai Lake's Watershed in Dali of China  

Science.gov (United States)

Er-hai Lake lies in state of Dali of Yunnan Province in China, which is so important to the local people that they revere her as the Mother Lake. Unfortunately, she is threatened by the more serious pollution of water. And from the water quality assessment of Er-hai Lake over the years, it is indicated that the major water pollution source come from nonpoint source pollution. The argument is that what has formed the nonpoint source pollution? As we known, the land use and cover change of watershed called LUCC is deemed as the major reason for Non-point pollution of water. However, what has made the land use and cover changes? It is another important question we should give an answer for water pollution. Many evidences have given that the change of LUCC is more due to the human activities in watershed, especially those for agriculture production. Thereby, there is a chain process for water pollution formation in Er-hai Lake Watershed, which could be described like this: Human activities (more in agriculture) have changed LUCC, and LUCC leads non-point source pollution. As a result, in this paper, those have been discussed according to the driving mechanism of nonpoint source water pollution in Er-hai Lake, which include three explorations. The first is how to build a ABM-LUCC model by using Repast and GIS technology, and the second is the method and implementation for hydrological and water quality model by using SWAT model and GIS, as well as Remote Sensing technology. And establishing a platform for comprehensively simulating the whole process of water pollution by integrating GIS, ABM-LUCC models and hydrological models is the last work for this study.

Yang, K.; Xu, Q. L.; Ye, L. Y.

2012-07-01

284

Make a Watershed Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will create a three-dimensional model from a two-dimensional topographic map. They will use the model to trace the path that a water droplet takes across the watershed and into the watercourse, and will describe the relationship between the physical features of the watershed and the location of human activities. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals.

285

A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations  

Science.gov (United States)

High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also have limited availability of effects-based data, an important consideration as expanding human activities impact water resources in less densely monitored regions.

Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

2014-11-01

286

Hydromorphologic Recession Analysis: Accounting for Human Influences in Watershed Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated management of ground and surface waters has generally relied on baseflow characterization to understand the temporal variability in the contribution of watershed storage to streamflow. Recent research, however, indicates that small disturbances attributed to humans can impact our ability to characterize baseflow behaviors. In this study, we present an approach to account for human impacts on the estimation of baseflow recession parameters in California's Central Valley. The framework assesses how baseflow characterization is impacted by the combination of groundwater abstractions and surface water management strategies used to meet both residential and agricultural water demands. The results highlight the importance of accounting for human influences to characterize watershed properties by evaluating traditional (i.e. natural) and human-corrected recession parameters. Such results can influence studies ranging from water resources management to stream restoration projects that rely on accurate accounting of baseflow, especially during low flows.

Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

287

A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 ahe sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210ex. (author)

288

Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis - a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis) landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR) of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

Lahousse, T.; Chang, K. T.; Lin, Y. H.

2011-10-01

289

Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis – a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

T. Lahousse

2011-10-01

290

Hydrological Study of Watersheds Arid and Semi-Arid South-Eastern Algeria (Chott Melghir, Chott El Hodna and Highlands Constantine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study is to establish the hydrological characteristics, the hydrological behavior of river basins in arid and semi-arid south-eastern Algeria (establish of methodologies and necessary working tools for planning the development and management of water resources. The study on floods in Algeria is established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm. The duration of the flood is in the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damages caused by these floods are still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid, arid south and Algeria. There are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2, highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2 and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2. The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2. Studies of protection against floods and design studies of hydraulic structures (spillway, storm basin, etc. require the raw data which are often unknown in several places particularly at ungauged wadis of these areas.

Fares Belagoune

2013-12-01

291

Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over 30 years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic change in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of evapotranspiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.

2014-03-01

292

Community Capacity for Watershed Conservation: A Quantitative Assessment of Indicators and Core Dimensions  

Science.gov (United States)

Community capacity for watershed management has emerged as an important topic for the conservation of water resources. While much of the literature on community capacity has focused primarily on theory construction, there have been few efforts to quantitatively assess community capacity variables and constructs, particularly for watershed management and conservation. This study seeks to identify predictors of community capacity for watershed conservation in southwestern Illinois. A subwatershed-scale survey of residents from four communities located within the Lower Kaskaskia River watershed of southwestern Illinois was administered to measure three specific capacity variables: community empowerment, shared vision and collective action. Principal component analysis revealed key dimensions of each variable. Specifically, collective action was characterized by items relating to collaborative governance and social networks, community empowerment was characterized by items relating to community competency and a sense of responsibility and shared vision was characterized by items relating to perceptions of environmental threats, issues with development, environmental sense of place and quality of life. From the emerging factors, composite measures were calculated to determine the extent to which each variable contributed to community capacity. A stepwise regression revealed that community empowerment explained most of the variability in the composite measure of community capacity for watershed conservation. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of community capacity by quantifying the role of collective action, community empowerment and shared vision in community capacity, highlighting the need for multilevel interaction to address watershed issues.

Brinkman, Elliot; Seekamp, Erin; Davenport, Mae A.; Brehm, Joan M.

2012-10-01

293

Effect of Rock Check Dams on Flood Reducing in Arid and Semi Arid Regions (Case Study: Darjazin Watershed in Semnan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Check dams are considered as main measures for flood and sediment control in watersheds, and their uses have been rapidly increased from 1990 onward in Iran. This research is done in Darjazin watershed in north of semnan city. The check dams have been constructed from 15 years ago in two sub basins of the watershed for flood control in Mahdishar. More than 650 check dams were evaluated for effects on flood. The collected data in the field was fed to ArcGIS software. The effects of these structures on flood reduction were evaluated by HEC-GeoHMS extension and HEC-HMS model. Because of homogeneity of watershed management projects in the basin due to building more check-dams in different watercourses, any flood discharge is related to check dams. Evaluating the effects of check dams on flood by t-test showed significant differences between flood discharge before and after construction of check dams at 5 percent level. So, check dams have been able to reduce flood discharge by 16.7 percent on average.

S. A. A. Hashemi

2014-02-01

294

Watershed management planning for a pre-alpine river in Switzerland - River 'Kleine Emme' in Canton Lucerne  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A watershed planning system is presented which considers for the first time new European and Swiss guidelines and recommendations. The principles and procedures for integrated protection and sustainable use of water resources in a river basin are proposed. The existing survey data in water use, hydrology, water quality, biology, eco morphology and barriers preventing upstream migration are interpreted and evaluated. Based on a deficiency analysis, the need for action and measures as rehabilitation, restoration, construction of fish bypass and improvement of the water habitat are recommended in order to ensure the ecological function of the whole river system

295

Analysis Of Leakage In Carbon Sequestration Projects In Forestry:A Case Study Of Upper Magat Watershed, Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of forestry projects in carbon conservation andsequestration is receiving much attention because of their role in themitigation of climate change. The main objective of the study is toanalyze the potential of the Upper Magat Watershed for a carbonsequestration project. The three main development components of theproject are forest conservation, tree plantations, and agroforestry farmdevelopment. At Year 30, the watershed can attain a net carbon benefit of19.5 M tC at a cost of US$ 34.5 M. The potential leakage of the projectis estimated using historical experience in technology adoption inwatershed areas in the Philippines and a high adoption rate. Two leakagescenarios were used: baseline and project leakage scenarios. Most of theleakage occurs in the first 10 years of the project as displacement oflivelihood occurs during this time. The carbon lost via leakage isestimated to be 3.7 M tC in the historical adoption scenario, and 8.1 MtC under the enhanced adoption scenario.

Lasco, Rodel D.; Pulhin, Florencia B.; Sales, Renezita F.

2007-06-01

296

Optimization of the Relationship Between Water and Sediment Discharge Rates (Case Study; Amameh Indicator Watershed of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, first by using Smirnov-Kolmogorov method, the consistency of data was applied in order to optimize the relationship between water and sediment discharge rates in Amameh indicator watershed of Iran. After the consistency and authenticity of data were confirmed, by means of daily mean discharge and a software called Technical Hydrology (TH, monthly hydrograph was sketched for total period of 1969-2000 in Kamarkhani station in Amameh watershed outlet. Then, different models were tested using the equation of sediment transport and considering hydrological, climatic and biological parameters such as hydrograph situation, classification of discharge rate and the time of flow measurement. In all models, the regression relationships between the rates of water and sediment discharges were established. To choose an optimized model, the sum of the error sum of squares index was used. According to the index, the least sum of squares shows the optimized model. The results showed that the common model in which only one equation is used as a sediment rating equation has the highest error in estimation of suspended sediment. But, a model in which the data are separated based on wet and dry months and classification of the discharge rates, has the lowest error sum of squares and is considered as the optimized model.

Mahmud Habibnejad Roshan

2007-01-01

297

A preliminary study of the Hg flux from selected Ohio watersheds to Lake Erie  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New measurements of riverine dissolved and particulate Hg fluxes into Lake Erie from 12 northern Ohio watersheds have been determined from samples collected in April 2002 and analyzed using ultra-clean techniques with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total Hg concentrations ranged through 2.5-18.5 ng L-1, with a mean of 10.4 ng L-1 with most Hg in particulate form. Dissolved Hg concentrations ranged through 0.8-4.3 ng L-1, with a mean of 2.5 ng L-1. Highest total Hg concentrations were observed in western rivers with primarily agricultural land use and eastern rivers with mixed land use in their watersheds. Total suspended solid concentrations ranged through 10-180 mg L-1 with particulate Hg concentrations ranging through 47-170 ng g-1, with a mean of 99 ng g-1. Particulate Hg was similar to published data for central Lake Erie bottom sediments but much lower than for bottom sediments in western Lake Erie. Total Hg concentrations were positively correlated with suspended sediment concentrations and negatively with dissolved NO3- concentrations. The total estimated annual Hg fluxes from these rivers into Lake Erie is estimated to be 85 kg, but because only one event was sampled during high flow conditions, this may be an overestimate. This is much lower than previous published estimates of riverine Hg input into Lake Erierie

298

Geomorphologic characteristics and responses of Indiana watersheds  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the relationship between the geomorphology and the hydrology of Indiana watersheds. This relationship is illustrated in the prediction of runoff hydrographs based on the hillslope and stream channel configuration within a watershed. Twelve Indiana basins ranging in size from 3.0 square miles to 58.0 square miles were selected for this study. Stream network maps were obtained for these watersheds by scanning existing paper maps and then manuall...

Schuller, Daniel Joseph

1999-01-01

299

Does social capital improve watershed environmental governance?  

OpenAIRE

In Brazil, water management has been both sectored and centralized. In the 1990s, a series of state level reforms granted substantial participation to civil society and water users' organizations by incorporating Integrated Water Resourse Management principles and Watershed Committees as its guideline. However, its full implementation should produce quite different outcomes, understood as improved or poorer watershed environmental governance. That means that the key reason why some of these n...

Monteiro, Fernando

2006-01-01

300

Locate Your Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Watersheds are those land areas that catch rain or snow and drain to specific marshes, streams, rivers, lakes, or to ground water. This site allows users to locate their watershed by city, county, state, or region. Links provide information about stream flow, water use, conservation efforts, demographics, forest riparian habitats, science in your watershed, water discharges, and assessment of watershed health.

301

Data management for toxicological studies.  

OpenAIRE

Organized data management increases the reliability of statistical analysis. The basic purpose of data management is to assure the integrity and the quality of data. To assure data validity, establishing a checking system, such as data audit, would be desirable at the following points: protocol design, supervision of study schedule, definition of data, data collection, choice of tests and procedures, verification, data checking, data recording, data handling, data analysis, and data validatio...

Horii, I.

1994-01-01

302

Modeling Watershed Mercury Response to Atmospheric Loadings: Response Times and Simulation Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between sources of mercury to watersheds and its fate in surface waters is invariably complex. Large scale monitoring studies, such as the METAALICUS project, have advanced current understanding of the links between atmospheric deposition of mercury and accumulation of methyl mercury in fish tissue. However, effective watershed-scale models simulating the effects of changes in mercury deposition on surface soil mercury concentrations and watershed mercury loadings are currently lacking. As a result, numerous default assumptions - such as steady state relationships between atmospheric loading of total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in surface waters - are required for management purposes (e.g, total maximum daily loads (TMDLs)). We use a spatially distributed watershed fate and transport model to simulate historic and future patterns of watershed soil mercury concentrations and associated watershed loadings in two watersheds within the Cape Fear River Basin, North Carolina. Simulations were initiated using background soil concentrations and constant atmospheric mercury deposition rates. We also simulate watershed mercury response (soil concentrations and loadings) during a period of locally-increased emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali facility (in operation from 1963-1999 using the mercury cell chlorine production process) and estimate the length of time for watershed mercury loading to return to baseline conditions after plant closure. All model simulations are performed using a recently developed spatially distributed grid-based watershed mercury (Hg) model (GBMM v2.0, Tetra Tech, 2006) that computes daily mass balances for hydrology, sediment, and mercury within each GIS grid cell and produces daily flux estimates of each to a tributary network. We present preliminary results suggesting that after more than 150 years, watershed response to atmospheric loading does not reach a steady-state condition, which is potentially attributed to lack of extreme overland runoff events during the simulation period and increased storage due to low soil mercury reduction rates. We discuss the implications of this for managing mercury in aquatic ecosystems. Further, we explore the time lag between decreasing emissions near the chlor-alkali facility and return of soil mercury concentrations and watershed mercury loadings to baseline conditions.

Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.

2008-12-01

303

Prediction of stream flow by utilizing artificial neural network in flood plain (Case study: Sepidroud watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For knowing the hydrological behavior and water management of Sepidroud River (North of Iran-Gilan the present study focused on stream flow forecasting with artificial neural network. Ten years (2000-2009 historical inflow data, observed from the Sepidroud River, were selected ; then 10 years inflow of the Sepidroud River have been forecasted by neural network. Finally, the results obtained from forecasted data compared with observed data. The results showed that neural network could predict stream flow with high precision and the maximum error between predicted and observed data was 3% approximately.

Alireza Mardookhpour

2013-02-01

304

Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

2014-06-01

305

Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín / Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la [...] disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur. Abstract in english In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availabilit [...] y of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

René, Zúñiga; Enrique, Muñoz; José Luis, Arumí.

306

Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed  

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Full Text Available En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur.In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availability of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

René Zúñiga

2012-01-01

307

Calibration of SWAT2009 using crop biomass, evapotranspiration, and deep recharge: Calera watershed in Zacatecas, Mexico case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater is the main source of water in the semi-arid Calera watershed, located in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Due to increasing population, rapid industrial growth, and increased irrigation to meet growing food demand, groundwater extraction in the Calera watershed are exceeding recharge rat...

308

Simulação da expectativa de perdas de solo em microbacia sob diferentes manejos florestais / Soil loss expectancy in a watershed under different forest managements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi designado a avaliar, por meio de simulação cartográfica em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG), o impacto de diferentes estratégias de manejo florestal na escala de uma microbacia hidrográfica. O projeto foi desenvolvido em uma pequena microbacia (2,8 km²), localizada na porção [...] norte do litoral capixaba (Estado do Espírito Santo), inserida em um a área de plantação industrial de eucalipto pertencente ao complexo agroindustrial da Aracruz Celulose S.A. A avaliação dos impactos potenciais foi efetuada por meio da aplicação da equação universal de perdas de solo (EUPS), sendo diferentes cenários simulados com base no processamento digital da base primária de dados (dados ancilares relativos a cobertura pedológica, relevo, clima e vegetação). A simulação considerou quatro diferentes estratégias de manejo, variando de uma situação mais crítica (completa ausência de qualquer técnica conservacionista) até uma abordagem mais próxima da situação atualmente observada (onde diferentes técnicas de manejo têm sido empregadas). Os primeiros resultados permitem denotar a adequacidade do uso dessas técnicas de investigação prospectiva em suporte ao manejo operacional de florestas de produção. Todavia, alguns cuidados devem ser adotados quanto ao alcance desta abordagem, especificamente quanto ao modelo EUPS e, ainda, a uma tendência à dispersão multiplicativa de erros detectada durante o processamento digital. Abstract in english A cartographic simulation in a Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of different forest management strategies on a watershed scale. The project was conducted in a small (2 km²) watershed located at northern coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, [...] which is inserted in an area of eucalypt-clone plantation comprised by the agro-industrial complex Aracruz Celulose S.A. Potential impacts were assessed by applying the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in a GIS, where different scenarios were simulated by primary data processing (auxiliary data relating to the surface soil, relief, climate and vegetation). The simulation considered four different management strategies: from the worst possible situation, such as the complete absence of any conservation practice, to a more realistic assumption where management techniques are currently applied. First results demonstrated the adequacy of these technologies for prospective investigations and as guidelines to operational management of forest plantations. Nevertheless, caution must be taken concerning the scope of this approach, specially regarding the USLE model, and the multiplicative error dispersion trend during data processing.

A.G., Castro; M., Valério Filho.

1997-09-01

309

Nuclear materials management storage study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

310

A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of “self-/peer-appraisal” of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: ? We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. ? It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. ? The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. ? The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

311

A groundwater management tool for solving the pumping cost minimization problem for the Tahtali watershed (Izmir-Turkey) using hybrid HS-Solver optimization algorithm  

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SummaryThis study proposes a linked simulation-optimization model to solve the groundwater pumping cost minimization problem for existing and new wells to satisfy any given water demand. The proposed model integrates MODFLOW-2000 with HS-Solver which is a recently proposed global-local hybrid optimization algorithm that integrates heuristic harmony search (HS) algorithm with the spreadsheet Solver add-in. Using the proposed model, a pumping cost minimization problem is solved for different number of wells by considering the pumping rates as well as the locations of additional new wells as the decision variables. Some physical and managerial constraints are defined for this problem. These constraints that need to be satisfied in the optimization process are set up using the penalty function approach. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated on the groundwater flow model of the Tahtal? watershed (Izmir-Turkey), an urban watershed which is a key component of Izmir's water supply system. Also, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate the model results for different sets of HS solution parameters. Results indicate that the proposed simulation-optimization model is found to be efficient in identifying the optimal numbers, locations, and pumping rates of the pumping wells for satisfying the given constraints. Results also show that the model is not only capable of obtaining just any mathematically plausible solution but a realistic one that can be confirmed by repetitive runs of the model.

Ayvaz, M. Tamer; Elçi, Alper

2013-01-01

312

Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India  

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Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

2014-11-01

313

Assessing the effectiveness of green infrastructure stormwater best management practices in New England at the small watershed scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development and to predict the relative effectiveness of proposed stormwater management plans in maintaining the habitat and biotic integrity of streams in New ...

314

Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin): spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A bacia hidrográfica do rio Piraquara (Bacia do Alto Rio Iguaçu - PR) foi estudada como sistema ecológico ao longo de um ciclo sazonal completo, abrangendo os períodos seco e chuvoso. Análises de 16 variáveis físicas e químicas da água (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade, DBO5, temperatura, nitr [...] ogênio total, fósforo total, ortofosfato, nitrito, nitrato, amônio, silicato, sólidos totais em suspensão, clorofila-a, profundidade e velocidade da corrente) demonstraram correlações entre a composição da água e as características fisiográficas da bacia. Os gradiente espaciais e as diferenças sazonais foram evidenciadas pela Análise de Componentes Principais, e a bacia foi dividida em trechos de comportamento homogêneo, sendo identificadas descontinuidades seriais: Trecho 1, com forte influência da Serra do Mar; Trecho 2, curso médio do rio, sob influência da Represa do Piraquara e Trecho 3, sob influência das várzeas. O trabalho Pretende subsidiar ações de pesquisa, planejamento e biomonitoramento para este manancial público. Abstract in english The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil) was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivit [...] y, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth) showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.

Paulo Henrique C., Marques; Haydée Torres de, Oliveira; Eunice da Costa, Machado.

2003-06-01

315

The typology, frequency and magnitude of some behaviour events in case of torrential hydrographical management works in the upper Tarlung watershed  

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Full Text Available During the 20-25 years from their startup, the torrential hydrographical management works carried out in the upper T?rlung Watershed (55 dams, 22 sills, 25 traverses and 4 outlet canals have exposed a number of 24 behaviour event types: 13 out of them reduce the safety of exploitation and the sustainability of the works (hereinafter called damages, while the other 11 reduce the functionality of the works (hereinafter called disfunctionalities. The following behaviour events have the highest frequency:(i damages caused by water and alluvia erosion (erosive damages, followed by breakages, in the category of damages, and (ii unsupervised installation of forest vegetation on the managed torrential hydrographical network and apron siltation, in the category of disfunctionalities. For methodological reasons, only the erosive damage of works was successively analysed, according to two criteria: the average depth (cm in the eroded area and the percentage of the erosive area out of the total surface. Further on, by combining the two criteria for analysis, five representation areas with the same damage intensity were defined (very low, low, medium, high and very high intensity. With the aid of the event frequency values recorded in these areas and of the coefficients attributed to each intensity class (from 1 for very low intensity to 5 for very high intensity, the author reached the conclusion that the level of the recorded intensity of the damage caused by water and alluvia erosion ranged from very low to low.

Ioan Clinciu

2010-09-01

316

Simulating Multi-Scale Mercury Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed  

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Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often highly spatially variable. In this study, we applied a linked watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (VELMA, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment) to simulate daily flow, fluxes, and soil and stream concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at multiple spatial scales in McTier Creek, a Coastal Plain watershed within the Edisto River basin of South Carolina, USA. Our goals were to (1) calibrate and simulate Hg fate and transport processes at a focused reach scale (0.1 km2) and (2) assess how representative the reach-scale parameters and processes are when multi-scale watershed information is included in Hg cycling simulations. Thus, reach-scale parameterization was applied to multi-scaled watersheds, including two headwater sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) nested within the McTier Creek watershed (79 km2), to evaluate model performance and how well reach-scale parameterization and processes characterize nested watersheds with increasing drainage areas. The current VELMA simulations suggest that stream water column THg concentration predictions perform reasonably well at different scales based on reach-scale calibrations, but the model simulations of MeHg reach, sub-watershed, and watershed stream concentrations are out-of-phase with observed MeHg concentrations. This result suggests that processes governing MeHg loading to the main channel may be under-represented in the current model structure and underscores the complexity of simulating MeHg dynamics in watershed models. This work supports the importance of hydrology in understanding transport and transformation of Hg in watersheds and streams, as well as the influence of out-of-channel versus in-channel processes.

Knightes, C. D.; Davis, G. M.; Golden, H. E.; Conrads, P. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.

2012-12-01

317

Using Linked Models to Study Interactions Between Water Use Decisions and Climate Change-Driven Watershed Processes in the Pacific Northwest Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers a total drainage area of about 670,000 km2 of the Pacific Northwest and is managed to satisfy multiple human objectives. The availability of surface water for irrigation in the basin is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Previous climate change studies in the CRB region suggest a likelihood of increasing temperatures and a shift in precipitation patterns, with precipitation higher in the winter and lower in the summer. For better management and decision making in the face of climate change, earth system models must explicitly account for natural resource and agricultural management activities. Our goal is to study the impacts of climate change on CRB water availability at multiple scales and how stakeholders will respond to these changes in an altered climate. Towards this goal, it is essential that we have process-based knowledge of biophysical and biogeochemical systems and the future responses of these systems to change. Furthermore, assessment of water-system vulnerability requires directly modeling human and environmental system feedbacks, and interactions between economic and social entities heterogeneously across space. Only then will it be possible to model how changing incentives faced by individuals alter decisions, preferences, and beliefs that aggregate to affect institutional change. For example, under moisture-limited conditions or during seasons when changing climate conditions drive a transition from predominately moisture-limited conditions to predominately energy-limited conditions, the coupled water and energy balance at the land surface is strongly dependent on groundwater and land surface feedbacks. Inclusion or exclusion of groundwater in surface water models of future climate scenarios can lead to differing estimations of surface water availability and dilution capacity. Scientific uncertainty is often used as a reason to not react to problems concerning water quality or quantity. Stakeholder processes that openly discuss the range of potential futures are helpful for mitigating the paralysis of water management policy caused by scientific and social uncertainty. The Palouse Basin bordering SE Washington and NW Idaho used collaborative modeling as to explore scientific uncertainty and potential futures in a sole source aquifer system with negligible recharge. In the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, a stakeholder exercise revealed that measurement uncertainty inclined stakeholders were inclined to pass up a costly Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process and go directly to mitigation. Both cases revealed feedbacks to the physical system that are the result of decisions, preferences, and beliefs. This modeling framework is part of a larger development effort Watershed Integrated Systems Dynamics Model or "WISDM" to construct linked models to study interactions between water use decisions and climate change-driven watershed processes, and then to explore how participant / stakeholder involvement in the modeling could both improve understanding of the systems and lay the groundwork for adaptive changes in institutional arrangements.

Orr, C. H.; Adam, J. C.; Beall, A. M.; Barber, M. E.; Nguyen, T. T.

2012-12-01

318

Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria  

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Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

Lubenov Todor

2009-01-01

319

Outage management: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

1992-01-01

320

Outage management: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

1992-09-01

321

Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

McRoberts, Heidi

2006-03-01

322

The effect of forest harvesting and climatic variability on runoff in a large watershed: The case study in the Upper Minjiang River of Yangtze River basin  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryForest disturbance (or land cover change) and climatic variability are commonly recognized as two major drivers interactively influencing hydrology in forested watersheds. However, separating their relative contributions to hydrology is rarely examined, particularly in large watersheds (>1000 km2). This study used a large watershed, the Upper Zagunao River watershed, situated in the upper reach of the Minjiang River, the Yangtze River basin, China as an example to demonstrate how the effects of forest harvesting and climatic variability on hydrology can be quantitatively separated. Long-term data on climate, hydrology and forest harvesting history are available from1953 to 1996. Time series cross-correlation analysis and non-parametric tests were performed first to identify possible responses of annual and seasonal runoff to forest harvesting, and to determine breakpoints of runoff change over its long-term time series. Then, modified double mass curve of accumulated annual effective precipitation (the residual of precipitation and evapotranspiration) and accumulated annual runoff was used to quantify the relative contributions of forest harvesting and climatic variability to annual runoff variation. Our analysis showed that the breakpoint of significant annual runoff change occurred in1969, about 10 yrs after the intensive harvesting period of 1955-1962, suggesting the delayed hydrological response in the studied large watershed. Over the period of 1970-1996, the average annual runoff increment attributed to forest harvesting was 38 mm/yr, while the annual runoff variation attributed to climatic variability was -38.3 mm/yr, clearly demonstrating that forest harvesting and climatic variability had offsetting effects on annual runoff. Our results also disclosed that the positive effect of forest harvesting on runoff decreased with forest recovery and eventually diminished about 20 yrs after intensive harvesting period.

Zhang, Mingfang; Wei, Xiaohua; Sun, Pengsen; Liu, Shirong

2012-09-01

323

Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method  

Science.gov (United States)

Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris

2014-05-01

324

Can functional gene abundance predict N-fluxes? Examples from a well-studied hydrological flow path in a forested watershed in SW China  

Science.gov (United States)

Edaphic, climatic and management factors shape soil microbial communities taxonomically and functionally, resulting in spatial separation of nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes along hydrological flowpaths. In a recent study, we investigated N-cycling processes and N2O emissions along a mesic hillslope (HS) and a hydrologically connected groundwater discharge zone (GDZ) in a forested headwater catchment dominated by acid soils (pH 4.0 - 4.5) in subtropical China (Chongqing). The watershed receives 50 kg N ha-1 a-1 through atmogenic deposition (2/3 as ammonium), most of which is removed before discharge. Surprisingly, N2O emissions were found to be greatest on the well-drained HS, whereas a drop of NO3- concentrations along the flow path indicated that N removal was highest in the moist GDZ. Nitrification was assumed to be none-limiting as the total flux of NO3- leaving the hill slope soils roughly equalled the input of NH4+. To understand watershed N-cycling and removal in more detail, we studied the abundance of functional genes involved in ammonium oxidation (amoA of AOB and AOA), nitrite oxidation (nxrB) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ) in top soils from 8 locations along the flow path spanning from the hilltop to the outlet of the GDZ. 16S rRNA gene abundance was assessed as a general marker for bacterial abundance. All genes showed highest abundance per gram soil in the heavily disturbed GDZ (formerly cultivated terraces), despite lower soil organic carbon content (1-4% w/w as opposed to 10-20% w/w in HS topsoil) and periodically stagnant conditions due to high water tables after monsoonal rainfalls. Ratios of nosZ/nirS+nirK, commonly used to predict denitrification product stoichiometry (N2O/N2), yielded counterintuitive results with higher values for HS than for GDZ. However, comparing nir gene with 16S rRNA gene abundance revealed that denitrifiers accounted for up to 10% of the bacterial community in the GDZ soils whereas this value was only 1% in HS soils. Even though GDZ soils harbour less nosZ relative to nirS+nirK denitrifiers (i.e. has a lower nos/nir gene copy ratio), the high relative abundance of denitrifiers in the GDZ communities may still provide sufficient N2O reducing capacity to explain lower N2O emission. High N2O reduction capacity in the GDZ is further supported by higher soil pH (4.5 versus 4.0 at the HS) and diffusion limitation in the denser GDZ soil resulting in high dissolved N2O concentrations promoting nosZ expression. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) were about 5000 times more abundant than bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOB) which is in line with the low pH of these soils, and amounted to up to 3% of 16S rRNA gene counts. Again, abundances were highest in the GDZ despite periodical waterlogging. Abundance of nitrite oxidizers was similar to that of AOA. Our results show that copy numbers of functional genes in complex landscapes cannot be readily interpreted with respect to ecosystem N fluxes, but need to be analysed in a spatially explicit manner in the context of watershed hydrology.

Liu, Binbin; Muzammil, Bushra; Dörsch, Peter; Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Frostegård, Åsa

2014-05-01

325

Liquid Assets: Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students will understand what a watershed is, the factors which can pollute it, the modern-day problems facing watersheds (including pollution) and the ways in which they can be protected.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

326

The impact of topographical characteristics and land use change on the quality of Umbaniun micro-watershed water resources, Meghalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A watershed is a geohydrological unit draining at a common point. Such natural unit has evolved through rain water interaction with land mass, typically comprising arable land, non-arable land and natural drainage lines in rain-fed areas. Sustainable production depends on the health, vitality and purity of a particular environment in which land and water are important constituents. A pilot study was thus undertaken to study the geomorphology, land-use systems and their impact on water resource management on the Meghalaya Umbaniun micro-watershed. In this Micro-watershed (3951.18 ha, water body covers an area of 5.69ha (0.14%. The paper highlights the linkage between geomorphology, land use systems and its impact on quality of water resources on the Umbaniun Micro-Watershed, Meghalaya. Topographical and physical-chemical characteristics, such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and water temperature, were used as environmental degradation indicators

Phyllbor Rymbai

2012-03-01

327

Ultrametric watersheds: a bijection theorem for hierarchical edge-segmentation  

CERN Document Server

We study hierachical segmentation in the framework of edge-weighted graphs. We define ultrametric watersheds as topological watersheds null on the minima. We prove that there exists a bijection between the set of ultrametric watersheds and the set of hierarchical edgesegmentations. We end this paper by showing how the proposed framework allows to see constrained connectivity as a classical watershed-based morphological scheme, which provides an efficient algorithm to compute the whole hierarchy.

Najman, Laurent

2010-01-01

328

Hydrological year 2009 in the small watersheds ?ervík and Malá Ráztoka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unique experiment, not only with respect to time, is ongoing within the two small watersheds in Beskid Mts. The year 2009 represents already the 56-th year of this long-term forestry-hydrological research. Experimental watershed ?ervík (CE is situated near the village Staré Hamry, watershed Malá Ráztoka (MR near Trojanovice. The aim of the research is to study the impact of forest on the water runoff from the watershed, and the impact of forest management on water balance in the headwater regions. Compared to the long-term time series, the data measured in 2009 seems to be relatively balanced. In 2009 the year precipitation amount within two watersheds was only slightly higher than the long-term average. Snowing had started in the middle of November; more intensive snow fall was registered in February, March, and also at the end of the hydrological year (mid-October. The average year temperatures within the two watersheds are again much higher than the averages of the last 56 years. During the vegetation season only few short period without precipitation was recorded, forest vegetation was not threatened by dryness in this year.

Zden?k Vícha

2011-06-01

329

Critical Management Studies: Some Reflections  

OpenAIRE

This paper seeks to challenge some assumptions associated with Critical Management Studies (CMS). This is done based on insights originating from the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), an approach that can be considered as an empirical form of post-structuralism and that has gained prominence in social sciences. Fundamentally, this paper broadly reviews some key CMS ideas associated with this perspective ontology to argue that what CMS usually tends to take as explanation is exactly what has to be e...

Rafael Alcadipani; Christine McLean

2008-01-01

330

Sediment Budgets and Source Determinations Using Fallout Caesium-137 in a Semiarid Rangeland Watershed, Arizona, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of soil redistribution patterns and sediment sources in semiarid and arid watersheds provides information for understanding watershed sediment budgets and for implementing management practices to improve rangeland conditions and reduce sediment loads in streams. The purpose of this research was to develop sediment budgets and to identify potential sediment sources using 137Caesium (137Cs) and other soil properties in a series of small semiarid subwatersheds on the USDA ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed near Tombstone, Arizona, USA. Soils were sampled in a grid pattern on two small subwatersheds and along transects associated with soils and geomorphology on six larger subwatersheds. Soil samples were analyzed for 137Cs and selected physical and chemical properties (i.e. bulk density, rocks, particle size, soil organic carbon). Suspended sediment samples collected at flume sites on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were also analyzed for the same properties. Sediment budgets measured using 137Cs inventories for a small shrub and a small grass subwatersheds found eroding areas in these watersheds were losing 5.6 and 3.2 t ha-1 a-1, respectively; however, a sediment budget for each of the small subwatersheds, including depositional areas, found net soil loss to be 4.3 t ha-1 a-1 from the shrub watershed and near zero t ha-1 a-1 from the grass up>-1 a-1 from the grass subwatershed. The suspended sediments collected at the flumes of the larger subwatersheds were enriched in silt, clay, and 40K, but not for 137Cs. Using multivariate mixing models to determine sediment source indicated that the shrub dominated subwatersheds were contributing most of the suspended sediments measured at the outlet flume of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Both methodologies (sediment budgets and sediment source analyses) indicate that shrub dominated systems provide more suspended sediments to the stream systems. These studies also suggest that sediment yields measured at the outlet of a watershed may be a poor indicator of actual soil redistribution within a watershed. Using 137Cs provided useful information on soil redistribution within watersheds and sediment source areas for developing management strategies. Management of these semiarid rangelands must consider techniques that will protect grass dominated areas from shrub invasion. (author)

331

Build Your Own Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource has students construct a model watershed in order to understand its operation. Students will observe how water flows from higher elevations to lower elevations, and the interconnectivity of watersheds. They will understand how the placement of buildings, roads, and parking lots can be important to watershed runoff, and how careless use and disposal of harmful contaminants can have a serious effect on downstream watershed denizens.

332

Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10–12% to 39–42% for deep lakes and from 10–12% to 21–23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a “delivery” mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes. Hence, the whole watershed should be considered whenmanaging nutrient loadings to lakes, and future policies should ideally target measures that reduce the proportion of cultivated land in the watershed to successfully improve lake water quality. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-1831.1

Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis

2012-01-01

333

Heat Management Strategy Trade Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

2009-09-01

334

Study on Irrational Strategic Management  

OpenAIRE

With the development of economy, original pure rational strategic management could not adapt to the complex andever-changing environment now. A kind of irrational strategic management is emerging quietly. This passage introduces the development of irrational strategic management and its function in strategic management, and discusses the way of irrational factor playing an active role in strategic management.

Yongbo Guo

2009-01-01

335

Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and afcomparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems

336

Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

2000-02-01

337

Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is to augment stream runoff during the years of low summer discharge. This paper intends to highlight the importance of creating credible knowledge on the Himalayan cryospheric processes to develop a more representative global view on river flow response to cryospheric changes and locally sustainable water resources management strategies.

R. J. Thayyen

2010-02-01

338

Management by Values: A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable manage...

Liu, Zhen

2012-01-01

339

Artificial neural networks applied to flow prediction scenarios in Tomebamba River - Paute watershed, for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this research is to create a model of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) that allows predicting the flow in Tomebamba River both, at real time and in a certain day of year. As inputs we are using information of rainfall and flow of the stations along of the river. This information is organized in scenarios and each scenario is prepared to a specific area. The information is acquired from the hydrological stations placed in the watershed using an electronic system developed at real time and it supports any kind or brands of this type of sensors. The prediction works very good three days in advance This research includes two ANN models: Back propagation and a hybrid model between back propagation and OWO-HWO. These last two models have been tested in a preliminary research. To validate the results we are using some error indicators such as: MSE, RMSE, EF, CD and BIAS. The results of this research reached high levels of reliability and the level of error are minimal. These predictions are useful for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador

Cisneros, Felipe; Veintimilla, Jaime

2013-04-01

340

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

341

Practices, awareness and attitudes of Maranao farmers in three watershed barangays in Masiu, Lanao Del Sur, Philippines towards the protection and conservation of the Lake Lanao Watershed  

OpenAIRE

The study determined the practices, awareness and attitudes of Maranao farmers in the LakeLanao Watershed in three watershed barangays namely: Gabar Sawer, Lanco Dimapatoy and Lacadun inMasiu, Lanao Del Sur, Philippines and their implications to the protection and conservation of Lake LanaoWatershed. The awareness and attitudes of the farmers are geared towards the conservation andprotection of the said watershed to serve the needs of the people living within the watershed. The sociodemograph...

Rascal, Gatocod M.; Aranico, Rodolfo C.; Bracamonte, Nimfa L.; Amparado Jr, Ruben F.

2012-01-01

342

The Watershed Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners interact with a 3-D model of a watershed to better understand the interconnectedness of terrestrial and aquatic environments. The instructions contain suggestions for "polluting" the watershed (with shredded paper âlitterâ and chocolate sprinkle âanimal droppingsâ), and for modeling how the watershed cleans itself (using sponges for wetlands). Questions are included for discussing watersheds, how they get polluted, the water cycle, and "actions I can take" based in part on identifying potential pollutants on a real map of the local watershed. The commercial model from EnviroScape is expensive ($800), but the instructions could be used with a more homemade model using bowls and plastic bags.

Center, Liberty S.

2009-01-01

343

Introducing critical management studies: Key dimensions  

OpenAIRE

Critical Management Studies (CMS) comprises a range of alternatives to mainstream management theory with a view to radically transforming management practice. At its core is a deep scepticism regarding the moral defensibility and the social and ecological sustainability of prevailing conceptions and forms of management and organization. Why is the interest in Critical Management Studies growing and what does CMS refer to? What kinds of critiques does CMS develop and how are these legitimized ...

Taskin, Laurent; Willmott, Hugh

2008-01-01

344

Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

2013-12-01

345

Watershed Hydrologic Response and Drainage Network Topology Across a Spectrum of Urban Development Patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gwynns Falls is the primary study watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER and is the site of a nested set of 15 current and formerly active stream gages at drainage areas ranging from 40% impervious area, buried headwater tributaries, channelized streams and no stormwater management; to 1990's-2000's suburban development with forested riparian zones, limited impervious area and extensive stormwater management. Spatial data sets used to characterize these watersheds include aerial photography and LiDAR topography at ~1 m horizontal resolution, as well as surface hydrography, land cover, buildings, roads, storm drains, stormwater management facilities, soil types, and bedrock geology. Hydrologic analysis, including storm-period mass balance, is supported by the availability of a HydroNEXRAD gridded precipitation data set with 1 km2 spatial and 15-minute temporal resolution covering the period from 2000-2011, as well as a set of 8 pairs of tipping-bucket rain gages. The goal of this study is to compare watershed storm response across the spectrum of development ages and patterns. In order to assess characteristic response signatures we have developed a library of quickflow hydrographs, and we have extracted unit hydrographs for short-duration rainfall pulses and for simple storms of longer duration that activate a larger fraction of the available contributing area. We present analyses of hydrograph shape and precipitation-runoff mass balance. Potential controls include watershed size and shape, impervious cover, natural and artificial drainage density, dominant soil types, spatial distribution of saturated surfaces, and percent of drainage area controlled by stormwater management. We employ simplifying assumptions to investigate the extent to which comparative patterns of storm response can be explained by the topology of the augmented urban drainage network before invoking other controlling factors. In order to assess the role of watershed size, shape and urban drainage network properties, we have developed binary hydrography layers that incorporate storm drains and paved surfaces as part of the channel network. We use the augmented drainage network in order to derive width functions, or probability density functions for flowpath distance upstream of the watershed outlet. The width functions provide idealized representations of hydrologic response for watersheds of similar size and different development pattern by using ratios of channel to hillslope velocity similar to those used by Rinaldo et al. (1995), D'Odorico and Rigon (2002) and Smith et al. (2005). These are compared with the empirically derived hydrologic response signatures. Initial results suggest that the width function is able to mimic differences in hydrograph shape across a set of watersheds with distinctive patterns of hydrologic response. Additional work will include simplified approaches to account for the effect of stormwater management.

Miller, A. J.; Lindner, G. A.; Shamer, S. Z.; Schmidt, K. M.; Kather, M. J.; Jones, D.; Baker, M. E.; Welty, C.

2012-12-01

346

Hydrogeologic investigation of the Middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona: a project of the Rural Watershed Initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an investigation of the hydrogeology of the middle San Pedro watershed in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). This project is part of the Rural Watershed Initiative (RWI), which is a program established by the State of Arizona and managed by the ADWR. The primary objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the middle San Pedro watershed.

Thomas, Blakemore E.

2006-01-01

347

An Analysis of the Variance of Discharged TOC from watershed according to Climate Change Scenarios  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is variance of the current climate by the natural factors and anthropogenic factors. Now, climate change is rapidly changed by industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the change of hydrological structures in watershed is caused by variance of meteorological factor due to climate change. In addition, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from watershed is affected changes of hydrological structures. In this study, it uses new climate change scenarios, RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways). It is contained by the effects of greenhouse gases and aerosols as well as to the impact of landuse change. Using hydrological structure altered by RCP scenarios, it is researched to variation of TOC. Firstly, using meteorological and hydrological components, it can be estimated to equation about TOC. Using this equation, it calculated quantity of TOC and can be checked change of TOC from watershed. Through result of previous studies, it was checked that the discharged TOC from watershed is affected vegetation as well as hydrological and meteorological elements. Therefore, the equation for calculating TOC will empirically be estimated by meteorological component, hydrological component and characteristic of watershed. Applying to future climate data, it will be calculated TOC in future by estimated equation and check change of TOC pattern. Secondly, combining elasticity theory, it can be confirmed to changes of discharged TOC from watershed. The elasticity is defined to changed pattern of one factor caused by variation of others. In hydrological aspects, elasticity has already been the focus of numerous studies. When estimating the variance of the change of certain weather elements associated with meteorological factors, it also is calculated to variation of hydrological elements simpler than other methods. These studies of variance of discharged TOC from watershed according to climate change scenarios can be used by reference data to studies of global carbon cycle. And it is a help to decision-making process of water environment resource planning and management. Result of rainfall elasticity on river discharges for Nakdong river in Rep. of Korea ;

Park, Y.; Choi, D.; Jo, D.; Kim, S.

2012-12-01

348

Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

349

Impacts of land use change scenarios on hydrology and land use patterns in the Wu-Tu watershed in Northern Taiwan  

OpenAIRE

Developing an approach for simulating and assessing land use changes and their effects on land use patterns and hydrological processes at the watershed level is essential in land use and water resource planning and management. This study provided a novel approach that combines a land use change model, landscape metrics and a watershed hydrological model with an analysis of impacts of future land use scenarios on land use pattern and hydrology. The proposed models were applied to assess the im...

Lin Yu-Pin; Hong Nien-Ming; Wu Pei-Jung; Wu Chen-Fa; Verburg, P. H.

2007-01-01

350

Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them. PMID:21853280

Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

2011-10-01

351

The Role of Agency Partnerships in Collaborative Watershed Groups: Lessons from the Pacific Northwest Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

Chaffin, Brian C.; Mahler, Robert L.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Shafii, Bahman

2015-01-01

352

The role of agency partnerships in collaborative watershed groups: lessons from the pacific northwest experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships. PMID:25252839

Chaffin, Brian C; Mahler, Robert L; Wulfhorst, J D; Shafii, Bahman

2015-01-01

353

Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Khul Gad Micro Watershed of Kumoun Himalaya  

OpenAIRE

Women in the marginal areas of Uttarakhand have always played and continue to play a significant role in managing and operating most of the household and agricultural activities. They are the main subsistence provider in the hills and considered the backbone of hill agriculture. Their lives are intrinsically related to land, water, forest, which are the main components and integral parts of an eco-system. An adverse effect on any one of these components disturbs the other compo- nents due to ...

Suman Singh

2014-01-01

354

Watershed Based, Institutional Approaches to Developing Clean Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to clean and sufficient amounts of water is a critical problem in many countries. A watershed approach is vital in understanding pollution pathways affecting water resources and in developing participatory solutions. Such integration of information with participatory approaches can lead to more sustainable solutions than traditional "crisis-to-crisis" management approaches. This study aims at applying a watershed based joint action approach to manage water resources. Since most watersheds have urban and rural sources of pollution and a wide disparity in access to and use of water, alternative solutions need to take an integrated approach through cooperative actions. An institutional model was applied to seven subwatersheds in Honduras to evaluate various sources and effects of water contamination and water shortages. Two specific pathways of water resources degradation were studied (contamination from coffee pulp manufacturing and urban nonpoint sources) to develop alternative solutions that mitigate downstream impacts of access to clean water. A locally driven joint mechanism to reuse coffee pulp in farming systems is proposed. Such an institutional solution can maximize benefits to both farms and the coffee pulp industry. A combination of education and investment in sanitary facilities in urbanizing areas is proposed to minimize urban sources of water contamination.

Randhir, Timothy; Genge, Cole

2005-04-01

355

Modeling reservoir sedimentation in the Agno watershed, Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exceptionally high sedimentation rate in the mountainous Agno River Watershed in the Philippines has affected dam operations on the Ambuklao and Binga reservoirs which were built in the late 1950s. In addition, sediment inflow scenarios have revealed that sedimentation will significantly reduce the total storage volume in the new San Roque facility which has been constructed downstream of those reservoirs. As such, watershed management plans will need to address conditions in the entire basin, not just the portion downstream of Binga Dam. Sediment will be deposited in the reservoir in the form of a delta front that will advance from the head of the reservoir towards the dam. Sedimentation in water reservoirs affects the utility to sustain power production, water supply and flood control objectives. It will likely be very difficult to reduce the sediment yield to any great degree by watershed restoration such as re-vegetation or tree planting. However, since sediment production from road-related slope failures appears to the main contributor to reservoir sedimentation, future developments in the basin related to road construction, mining activity and construction of new towns will need to adopt best management practices to avoid increased erosion or land disturbance. Empirical and analytic techniques were used in this study to assess sedimentation volumes and patterns, with particular emphasis on a GIS-based sediment yield model. The GIS model identified where sediment yield is greatest within the watershed, providing a means for developing sediment management and mitigation strategies that focus limited resources on key areas that give the highest rates of return. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Ham, D.; Vasque, P. [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, North Vancouver, BC (Canada); McLean, D. [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, Nanaimo, BC (Canada); Valdez, T. [San Roque Power Corp., Makati City (Philippines)

2008-07-01

356

Study on spent fuel management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the storage proplem of spent fuel at nuclear power plants which may occur sometime in early 1990's and to fine out the best option for spent fuel management by the evaluating both technical and ecomomical aspects. In this study 3 scenaios have been evaluated: 1) once-through fuel cycle, 2) reprocessing outside our country and 3) reprocessing inside our country. Spent fuel arisings from nuclear power plants by 2000 have been calculated by using SCENARIOS program which was obtained from IAEA. Various storage options inculding rod consolidation at reactor and away from reactor storage have been analyzed mainly based on information which has been supplied U.S. DOE and Pacific Northwest Lab(PNL). This study has been performed as a part of U.S./Korea Joint Spent Fuel Study which was agreed between MOST of Korea and U.S. DOS/DOE in June, 1982. As an agreement, U.S. PNL and KAERI will primary carry out joint study under the guidance of both governments by the end of 1983. As a result of first yesr study, thermal recycle option with domestic reprocessing at around 2000 will be economically feasible comparing with once-through option. Due to the uncertainties and storage of reprocessing facilities in the world, thermal recycle option will toll reprocessing will not be feasible and most expensive, according to examination carried out by KEPCO and KAERI through this year. (Author)

357

Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk. PMID:20471668

Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Yunyan; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Haiying; Wu, Xie

2010-07-15

358

Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk.

359

The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within smaller land units that have a clear catchment scale benefit. This will provide the evidence base for future policy which is of use to all location in the UK. Hence, the need to have suite of parameters that can be evaluated has given rise to specific experimental design. Fundamental to this is to use continuous telemetered sampling at as many location as possible, including field laboratories capable of measuring, Nitrate, Ammonia, Total Phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, suspended sediment and chlorophyll a. Standard hydro-metrological equipment is also fully telemetered. The goal is to allow all the data to be freely available to all end users via an internet data portal. The long term goal is to invite experts from many environmental and social sciences to work at the established research platform and ultimately give a better understanding of what a healthy catchment should be like. Being able to communicate this point to both local and national audiences will also be made and will link closely to the UK Virtual Observatory project funded by the NERC.

Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.

2010-12-01

360

Study of industry safety management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book introduces outline of disaster, measures for disaster prevention, frequency and strength of disaster occurrence, and safety and safety management in companies. It also deals with responsible system for safety management, measures for machinery safety disaster such as placement of machinery, environmental safety in working places including disaster relationship according to temperature and humidity, measures for electricity safety disaster such as electric shock, safety management of facilities, examination of safe works including gas explosion, and safety management of construction places.

361

Platforms and Terraces : Bridging participation and GIS in joint-learning for watershed management with the Ifugaos of the Philippines  

OpenAIRE

Complex multi-actor problem situations in natural resource management (NRM) need the convergence of different knowledge processes, first of all, in understanding and agreeing what the problem is before aspiring for joint-action. This is a joint-learning approach in NRM. Geographic information systems (GIS), with their integrative, analytic, and visualization capabilities, offer promising means to facilitate this approach. However, using GIS relies heavily on specialists that develop and inter...

Gonzalez, R. M.

2000-01-01

362

Collaborative environmental planning in river management: An application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont  

Science.gov (United States)

Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hermans, C.; Erickson, J.; Noordewier, T.; Sheldon, A.; Kline, M.

2007-01-01

363

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

OpenAIRE

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisati...

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

364

A gestão integrada de recursos hídricos e do uso do solo em bacias urbano-metropolitanas: o controle de inundações na bacia dos rios Iguaçu/Sarapuí, na Baixada Fluminense The integrated water resources management and land use in urban-metropolitan watersheds: flood control in the Iguaçu/Sarapuí watershed, Baixada Fluminense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo trata da necessidade de integração do planejamento do uso do solo à gestão dos recursos hídricos, buscando estabelecer relações entre as formas de uso e ocupação do solo urbano e os problemas envolvendo as inundações urbanas. Que novos paradigmas de planejamento e gestão poderão emergir da articulação dos marcos regulatórios recentemente aprovados? O artigo traz essas questões para o debate.This research concerns the integration of urban land use planning to water resources management, focusing on flood control. What new planning and management paradigms may emerge from the articulation of recent regulatory frameworks? This paper brings up theseissues, proposing alternatives that lead to an integrated management in urban watersheds.

Paulo Roberto Ferreira Carneiro

2010-06-01

365

Identifying major sources of uncertainty in watershed water quality modeling: an application of the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM)  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed water quality models are widely used in management practices such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). However, the modeling often involves significant uncertainty, especially in addressing non-conventional pollutants on which both knowledge and data are very limited. In this study, the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM), incorporating the Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), is used as an efficient alternative to conventional Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) for uncertainty analysis. DEMM is one of the Response Surface Methods (RSMs) which calculates uncertainty in output variables based on the direct effect of every uncertain input parameter. This study aims to 1) examine the applicability of DEMM to complex watershed models; 2) develop strategies for identifying major uncertainty sources in watershed water quality modeling. A case study of watershed diazinon (an organophosphorus pesticide) pollution modeling is explored. The results demonstrate that the stochastic response of the output variables to the uncertain input parameters can be adequately approximated by DEMM. A low-order DEMM can save a great amount of CPU time, compared to MCS. Also, DEMM can be used for parameter sensitivity analysis and preliminary model validation without a full calibration of the watershed model. Overall, if designed appropriately, DEMM can be used to identify major sources of uncertainty in watershed water quality modeling, and provides useful information on improving the modeling.

Zheng, Y.; Wang, W.

2009-12-01

366

Optimization of the Conceptual Model of Green-Ampt Using Artificial Neural Network Model (ANN) and WMS to Estimate Infiltration Rate of Soil (Case Study: Kakasharaf Watershed, Khorram Abad, Iran)  

OpenAIRE

Determination of the infiltration rate in a watershed is not easy and in empirical and theoretical point of view, it is important to access average value of infiltration. Infiltration models has main role in managing water sources. Therefore different types of models with various degrees of complexity were developed to reach this aim. Most of the estimating methods of soi...

Ali Haghizadeh; Leila Soleimani; Hossein Zeinivand

2014-01-01

367

Impact of Statistical Disaggregation of Precipitation in Physically-Based Distributed Hydrological Modeling. Case Study: June 2002 Flood on the Des Anglais Watershed, Quebec, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Physically-based distributed hydrological models (PBDHM) can simulate streamflow at local scale. When an extreme precipitation event is imminent, meteorological forecasts may be used as input in a PBDHM to estimate the resulting peak flow. However, meteorological forecasts are generally available on mesoscale grids (102 - 103 km2), which might not be accurate enough to simulate local scale stream flows. Statistical disaggregation models can rapidly provide several series of high-resolution precipitation data while preserving the total amount of precipitation of the mesoscale grid. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the potential of using disaggregated precipitation series in a PBDHM to predict local stream flows within a watershed. As a case study, we analyze the June 2002 flood on the Des Anglais watershed (730 km2), located in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada, using the PBDHM HYDROTEL. A recently developed Gibbs sampling disaggregation model is used to downscale a 52-km precipitation field onto a 4-km precipitation grid. Results from the watershed's 182 relatively homogeneous hydrological units (RHHU) show that disaggregated precipitation series produce a large spectrum of runoff estimations, especially on the smaller units. The physical processes simulated by HYDROTEL leading to these different runoff estimations are analyzed to understand the impact of disaggregation and provide guidelines for its application in local flood forecasting.

Gagnon, P.; Rousseau, A. N.; Mailhot, A.

2011-12-01

368

Surf Your Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Surf Your Watershed is a service to help you locate, use, and share environmental information about your state and watershed. There are four components to the site. Clickable maps, zipcode look-ups and plance name searches provide access to local watershed information. A searchable database offers information on the Adopt a Watershed campaign, a project that challenges citizens and organizations to work to protect valuable watersources through local and regional activities such as volunteer monitoring, cleanups and restoration projects. The Watershed Atlas is a catalog of geo-spatial displays and analyses of information and data important for watershed protection and restoration. You can use the catalog by geography, theme, key word, and source/organization or your own words. Finally, the Environmental Website database contains hundreds of URLs about environmental information.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

2007-12-12

369

Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned  

Science.gov (United States)

Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and l