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Watershed management in Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Watershed degradation, watershed management, background of watershed management in Myanmar (condition of watershed, manpower), discussion and recommendation (proposed administrative structure, the need for watershed survey and planning, bottom-up approach) are emphasized. Watershed management, after all can be seen that it is the interphase between the forest, agriculture, soil, wildlife and the local communities

1993-01-01

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Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

S. Vishnudas; H. H. G. Savenije; P. van der Zaag; K. R. Anil; K. Balan

2005-01-01

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Geospatial Evaluation for Ecological Watershed Management: A Case Study of Some Chesapeake Bay Sub-Watersheds in Maryland USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geospatial technology is increasingly being used for various applications in environmental management as the need for sustainable development becomes more evident in today’s rapidly-developing world. As a decision tool, Geographic Information system (GIS) and Global positioning System (GPS) can support major decisions dealing with natural phenomena distributed in space and time. Such is the case for land use/cover known to impact ecosystems health in very direct ways. Our study examined one such application in managing land use of some sub-watersheds in the eastern Shore of Maryland, USA. We conducted a 20-year historical land use/cover evaluation using Landsat-TM remotely sensed images and GIS analysis and water monitoring data acquired during the period by Maryland Department of Natural Resources, including sewage discharge of some municipalities in the area. The results not only showed general trends in land use patterns, but also detailed dynamics of land use-land cover classes, impact on water quality, as well as other useful information for guiding both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems management decisions of the sub-watersheds. The use of this technology for evaluating trends in land use/cover on a decade-by-decade basis is recommended as standard practice for managing ecosystem health on a sustainable basis.

Isoken T. Aighewi; Osarodion K. Nosakhare

2013-01-01

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Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds  

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Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM) promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC) and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

Ignacio Porzecanski; Lynn V. . Saunders; Mark T. Brown

2012-01-01

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Multiagent distributed watershed management  

Science.gov (United States)

Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing environmental interests). Different scenarios of distributed management are simulated, i.e. a situation where all the agents act independently, a situation in which a global coordination takes place and in-between solutions. The solutions are compared with the ones presented in Yang et al. (2009), aiming to present more general multiagent approaches to solve distributed management problems.

Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

2012-04-01

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Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to effectively manage these challenges. This presentation highlights: (a) the agricultural and environmental challenges facing developing countries like India; (b) the types of best management practices (BMPs) employed; (c) the impacts of the BMPs in the study watersheds; (d) the development of the online course and (e) the lessons and experiences of the students and faculty from their study visit to India.

Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

2011-12-01

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WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.

Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,; Dr.Mrs.Sushma Shekhar Kulkarni

2011-01-01

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Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study  

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Full Text Available In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI) approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning and it integrates land use/cover, hydrological data, soils, slope, roads, and other spatial data. The land is divided into three categories: Conservation Priority Index (CPI) land, Restoration Priority Index (RPI) land, and Stormwater Management Priority Index (SMPI) land. Within each category, spatial factors are rated based on their influence on water resources and critical areas can be identified for soil conservation, water quality protection and improvement. The WebWMPI has user-friendly client side graphical interfaces which enable the public to interactively run the server side Geographic Information System to evaluate different scenarios for watershed planning and management. The system was applied for Dry Run Creek watershed (Cedar Falls, Iowa, US) as a demonstration and it can be easily used in other watersheds to prioritize crucial areas and to increase public participation for soil and water conservation projects.

Yanli Zhang; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew McBroom; John DeGroote; Rebecca L Kauten; Paul K Barten

2011-01-01

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Identification of effective best management practices in sediment yield diminution using GeoWEPP: the Kasilian watershed case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identifying areas that are susceptible to soil erosion is crucial for water resource planning and management efforts. Furthermore, modeling has proven helpful in recognizing and monitoring high-risk areas at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) geospatial interface (GeoWEPP) software integrates GIS with the WEPP to analyze the spatial variation in soil loss, and it has been used as a modeling tool to determine the areas that are most prone to soil erosion and to evaluate best management practices for the Kasilian watershed in Iran. As much as 62.4 % of the agronomic land in the Kasilian watershed is affected by a high magnitude of erosion (>5 t/ha). On the basis of this study, by using soybeans, high fertilization levels, and the drill-no-tillage system, reductions of erosion by almost 32.68-34.02 % are perceivable in three critical subwatersheds that are located in the cultivated lands. Also, it is projected that reductions in the production of sediment in the range of about 36.7-47.1 % are achievable by structural management within two critical, upland subwatersheds. So, by utilizing the best management strategies, sediment yield can be lowered and the conservation of soil and water is feasible at the watershed scale. These results objectively indicate that GeoWEPP can be efficaciously used for evaluating effective management practices for developing watershed conservation.

Reza Meghdadi A

2013-06-01

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Integrated Watershed Management as an Effective Approach to Curb Land Degradation: A Case Study of the Enabered Watershed in Northern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated watershed management (IWM) is an advanced land-management approach that has been widely implemented in Tigray region of northern Ethiopia since 2004. The general aim of this study was to analyze to what extent the IWM approach is effective in curbing land degradation in the fragile drylands of the Enabered watershed in Tigray. This study assessed the impacts of IWM on (1) land-use and land-cover change and (2) the decrease of runoff loss and soil loss due to sheet and rill erosion and gully erosion. The watershed characteristics and implemented IWM measures were mapped in the field. Land use and land cover, runoff, and soil losses were compared before (2004) and after (2009) the IWM interventions. Plantations and exclosures increased significantly at the expense of grazing lands and bushland. Runoff and sheet and rill erosion decreased by 27 and 89 %, respectively, and gully channels were reclaimed. The decrease in sheet and rill erosion resulted from changes in crop cover (48 %) and conservation-practice (29 %) factors, as represented by C and P of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. The results showed that land degradation has been curbed as a result of IWM intervention. A key factor to this success was the effectiveness of the implementation approach for the main IWM components, including the participation of the local community in the form of a contribution of 20 days of free labor. Based on these results, IWM may be implemented in other regions with similar environmental and socioeconomic situations.

Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Berhe, Ademnur; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye

2012-12-01

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Preliminary study on streamflow in forested and forest plantation experimental watersheds for water resources management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the discharge in C3 runoff while the delayed flow runoff dominate the discharge in the C1. (Author)

2006-01-01

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Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"  

Science.gov (United States)

"Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

2012-01-01

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Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

John Kerr

2007-01-01

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Managing forests for watershed protection in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few places in the world experience the severity of watershed management problems faced by Taiwan. The island is 74% mountainous with steep slopes and weak geologic formations. Each typhoon season brings torrential rainfall, resulting in frequent flooding, debris torrents, and landslides. On the other hand, seasonal water shortages occur in parts of the island, a problem that will become more severe as Taiwan’s population expands from its current 590 people per square kilometer. Despite forest exploitation earlier in this century, Taiwan now manages its 58% forest cover primarily for watershed protection with an emphasis on slope stabilization. Watershed protection in the past has relied heavily on engineering structures on hillslopes and along stream channels, which raises some concern about unwanted downstream effects. Forest clearing for crops, road construction and various development schemes are also of concern because of reduced slope stability, increased sediment and pollutant delivery downstream, and increased peak flows. This paper discusses watershed management needs for the coming century, considering cumulative effects of past land use changes on Taiwan’s mountainous watersheds, and the issue of non-structural versus structural engineering solutions to watershed problems. Watershed management implications of institutional and policy changes related to forest lands administration are also discussed.

Lu SY; Cheng JD; Brooks KN

2001-04-01

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Socioeconomic and policy research on watershed management in India: synthesis of past experiences and needs for future research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book consists of the following chapters: Policy and institutional issues and concepts for watershed management; current policies and institutional arrangement for watershed management; watershed development programs and approaches; case studies and methods; analysis of selection case studies; lessons drawn for success of watershed development; knowledge gaps and areas for future research.

PK Joshi; Vasudha Pangare; B Shiferaw; SP Wani; J Bouma; C Scott

2006-01-01

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Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

1997-01-01

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Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after appropriate modifications. (author)

2006-01-01

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Watershed: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological gradient is often used to find the gradient of an image which is further used for the transformation. However, noise in the gradient image results in to over-segmentation which have an undesirable bad effect on resulting segmented image. For the fine segmentation results the quality of the gradient estimate has a major influence on the segmentation performance. In this paper it is shownthat different types of gradient are computed with the help of different operators and further these various gradients are used to segment the image with the help of watershed transformation. The resulting image constitute of watershed divide lines and the catchment basins. The purpose of this work is to show that the gradient obtained through different operators like Sobel, Prewitt, kirsch etc. have varying effect on watershed in terms of peak signal to noise ratio.

Shikha Manrai #; Rajiv Bansal #

2011-01-01

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The Role of Integrated Water Management in Watershed Flood Management  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study, flood management, in a system of a reservoir and ungaged sub-basins was evaluated. By means of frequency analysis and index hydrograph method, flood hydrographs with different return periods for these under study sub-basins were calculated. After determination of inflow hydrograph to dam reservoir, flood routing in reservoir and consequently in river network by three scenarios were conducted. The results have shown that dam reservoir located in one of the sub-basins, functioned well as a flood controller, but because of no watershed analysis as a hydrologic unit and comprehensive consideration in watershed studies, the flood control resultant in the out point of system is in the order of zero.

Kazem Hemadi; Abdolkarim Behnia; Ali Mohammad Akhoond-Ali; Davoud-Reza Arab

2008-01-01

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A review of watershed management experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3 appendices

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A review of watershed management experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3 appendices.

Bishop, J.; Hindley, B.; MacLaren, J.; Baber, D.W. [Beak International Inc., Brampton, ON (Canada); Kinkead, J.; Hilkene, C.; Dennis, P.

2001-01-01

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US Environmental Protection Agency Watershed Academy Web: Online Training in Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Watershed Academy offers training opportunities for ecologists, managers, and others interested in watersheds. Additionally, 20 Academy 2000 Distance Learning Modules are now available online to highlight key watershed management topics. While some modules are under construction, those currently available provide a solid backbone in many important areas such as Principles of Watershed Management, Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle, Watershed Modeling, Economics of Sustainability, and Stream Corridor Restoration. Modules vary in depth (and intended audience), but all are (co)-authored by prominent scientists in the field of watershed ecology. Designed to reach a broad audience, many modules are provided in slide format (navigable by clicking on arrows) and could be supplemented with more technical readings; others are given in .pdf format. The inclusion of color photographs throughout, such as in the Ohio's Virtual Watershed Tour module, supplements the learning experience by providing illustrations and examples of important concepts.

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A bacia hidrográfica do Tietê/Jacaré: estudo de caso em pesquisa e gerenciamento The Tietê/Jacaré watershed: a case study in research and management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A bacia do Tietê/Jacaré é uma das 22 Unidades de Gestão de Recursos Hídricos (Ugrhis) do Estado de São Paulo. Um estudo desenvolvido de 2005 a 2007 detalhou as principais características dessa bacia hidrográfica, os usos do solo, a cobertura vegetal, as fontes pontuais e não-pontuais de eutrofização e contaminação e as vulnerabilidades da bacia, que conta com 34 municípios e uma população de 1.200.000 habitantes. A montagem de um banco de dados com as informações ecológicas, hidrológicas, climatológicas e econômicas possibilitou estabelecer um programa de planejamento e gestão baseado em vulnerabilidades da bacia hidrográfica, impactos das mudanças globais e futuras perspectivas para a gestão dos recursos hídricos. Um índice de qualidade da bacia hidrográfica foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de apoiar o planejamento de longo prazo e a gestão de águas superficiais e subterrâneas.The Tietê/Jacaré watershed is one of the units of management of water resources of São Paulo State. São Paulo State has 22 units of management of water resources. A study on the characteristics of the watershed and an evaluation of its environmental situation was carried out from 2005 to 2008. With a population of 1.200.000 inhabitants distributed in 34 towns and an economic activity predominantly agribusiness and industrial activities, this watershed has an extensive hydrographic network, sufficient water resources and intense economic activity. The study considered soil uses; vegetation cover; water quality of rivers, reservoirs, underground waters, erosion processes, vulnerability of the aquatic biota to eutrophication and contamination. With the ecological, hydrological, ecological and economic data, a data bank was established and a management plan with scenarios, perspectives and integration of planning with future activities was developed. An index of watershed quality was developed as a basis for this planning and management activity.

José Galizia Tundisi; Takako Matsumura-Tundisi; Daniela Cambeses Pareschi; Anna Paula Luzia; Paulo H. Von Haeling; Eduardo H. Frollini

2008-01-01

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A bacia hidrográfica do Tietê/Jacaré: estudo de caso em pesquisa e gerenciamento/ The Tietê/Jacaré watershed: a case study in research and management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A bacia do Tietê/Jacaré é uma das 22 Unidades de Gestão de Recursos Hídricos (Ugrhis) do Estado de São Paulo. Um estudo desenvolvido de 2005 a 2007 detalhou as principais características dessa bacia hidrográfica, os usos do solo, a cobertura vegetal, as fontes pontuais e não-pontuais de eutrofização e contaminação e as vulnerabilidades da bacia, que conta com 34 municípios e uma população de 1.200.000 habitantes. A montagem de um banco de dados com as info (more) rmações ecológicas, hidrológicas, climatológicas e econômicas possibilitou estabelecer um programa de planejamento e gestão baseado em vulnerabilidades da bacia hidrográfica, impactos das mudanças globais e futuras perspectivas para a gestão dos recursos hídricos. Um índice de qualidade da bacia hidrográfica foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de apoiar o planejamento de longo prazo e a gestão de águas superficiais e subterrâneas. Abstract in english The Tietê/Jacaré watershed is one of the units of management of water resources of São Paulo State. São Paulo State has 22 units of management of water resources. A study on the characteristics of the watershed and an evaluation of its environmental situation was carried out from 2005 to 2008. With a population of 1.200.000 inhabitants distributed in 34 towns and an economic activity predominantly agribusiness and industrial activities, this watershed has an extensive (more) hydrographic network, sufficient water resources and intense economic activity. The study considered soil uses; vegetation cover; water quality of rivers, reservoirs, underground waters, erosion processes, vulnerability of the aquatic biota to eutrophication and contamination. With the ecological, hydrological, ecological and economic data, a data bank was established and a management plan with scenarios, perspectives and integration of planning with future activities was developed. An index of watershed quality was developed as a basis for this planning and management activity.

Tundisi, José Galizia; Matsumura-Tundisi, Takako; Pareschi, Daniela Cambeses; Luzia, Anna Paula; Von Haeling, Paulo H.; Frollini, Eduardo H.

2008-01-01

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PROFILE: Management of Sedimentation in Tropical Watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

/ The sedimentation of reservoirs is a serious problem throughout the tropics, yet most attempts to control sedimentation in large river basins have not been very successful. Reliable information on erosion rates and sources of sediments has been lacking. In regions where geologically unstable terrain combines with high rainfall, natural erosion rates might be so high that the effects of human activity are limited. Estimates of natural erosion in these situations often have been poor because of the episodic nature of most erosion during large storms and because mass-wasting may supply much of the sediment. The predominance of mass-wasting in some watersheds can result in an unexpectedly high ratio of bedload to suspended load, shifting sedimentation to "live" rather than "dead" storage within reservoirs. Furthermore, the inappropriate use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation to assess the effectiveness of erosion control measures has led to inaccurate estimates of the sediment reduction benefits that could accrue to watershed treatment efforts. Although reducing erosion from cultivated areas is desirable for other reasons, efforts aimed at reducing reservoir sedimentation by controlling agricultural sources of erosion may have limited benefits if the principal sources are of natural origin or are associated with construction of the dams and reservoirs and with rural roads and trails. Finally, the most appropriate locations for watershed rehabilitation depend on the magnitude of temporary storage of colluvium and alluvium within the river basin: Where storage volume is large and residence time of sediment very long, reducing agricultural erosion may have limited impacts on sedimentation within the expected life of a reservoir. Systematic development and analysis of sediment budgets for representative watersheds is needed to address these limitations and thereby improve both the planning of river basin development schemes and the allocation of resources towards reducing sedimentation. When sedimentation of reservoirs is the key issue, sediment budgets must focus especially on channel transport rates and sediment delivery from hillsides. Sediment budgets are especially critical for tropical areas where project funds and technical help are limited. Once sediment budgets are available, watershed managers will be able to direct erosion control programs towards locations where they will be most effective. KEY WORDS: Tropical watersheds; Sedimentation; Reservoirs; Erosion control

NAGLE GN; FAHEY TJ; LASSOIE JP

1999-05-01

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Community Participation in Watershed Management Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Several studies in other countries had shown the influence of socio demographic, knowledge, satisfaction and attitudinal factors in level of community participation in development programs. The question here is, whether these factors would also be effective on community participation in other countries? Determine the factors which are influence community participation in order to enhance their participation in Watershed Management Programs (WMP) in Iran. Approach: A cross sectional survey design was carried out for this study. Data were collected from 200 respondents which are randomly selected from three villages in Hable-Rud basin. Data were gathered through personal interviews by using a questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, Pearson product moment analysis and multiple regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. Results: Findings of this study showed that satisfaction of prior program had highest relationship with level of participation (r = 0.518, p = 0.000), followed by Attitude toward WMP (r = 0.489, p = 0.000) Knowledge of WMP (r = 0.435, p = 0.000), total monthly income (r = 0.177, p = 0.012 and alternative monthly income (r = 0.158, p = 0.025). However multiple regression analysis discovered that, among them four independent variables are important for explaining variation in the levels of participation. These variables were; satisfaction of prior programs, attitude toward WMP, knowledge of WMP and alternative income and explained 43.6% of variation in the level of participation. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that high level of satisfaction of prior programs, positive attitude toward WMP, high knowledge of WMP and high level of income increase the level of community participation in WMP in Iran. This study also provided a number of implications and suggestion to increase the level of participation in WMP.

Reza Bagherian; A. S. Bahaman; A. S. Asnarulkhadi; Shamsuddin Ahmad

2009-01-01

27

Capacity for Watershed Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management: Lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

Kristensen, Stephanie; Noble, Bram F.; Patrick, Robert J.

2013-08-01

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Capacity for watershed cumulative effects assessment and management: lessons from the Lower Fraser River Basin, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the capacity to support the cumulative effects assessment and management for watersheds. The research is set in the Lower Fraser River Basin, a densely populated sub-watershed in British Columbia's lower mainland. Eight requirements or requisites for the watershed cumulative effects assessment and management are applied to evaluate current capacity for implementation in the Lower Fraser, and to identify the areas in need of capacity development. Results show that advancing watershed cumulative effects assessment and management requires not only good science but also leadership in the coordination of monitoring programs, and in ensuring the appropriate incentives and penalties for engagement and nonengagement. The lack of leadership in this regard is the result of existing governance structures arranged around the political boundaries, which have produced over time multiple agencies and jurisdictional fragmentation. Notwithstanding this, we argue that the watershed is the most appropriate scale for assessing and managing the cumulative effects to complex ecosystems.

Kristensen S; Noble BF; Patrick RJ

2013-08-01

29

Apache leap watershed study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fate of rainfall once it reaches the ground surface is an important characterization parameter since precipitation is an important source term for flow of water through the subsurface. This study provides data sets which will allow estimates of the potential for infiltration, deep percolation, and recharge as the result of rainfall. 3 figs., 1 tab.

1993-01-01

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Evaluating sustainability of watershed resources management through wetland functional analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unsustainable agricultural policies and water and soil resource schemes have drained two thirds of Mediterranean wetlands since 1920. An outstanding example is Karla in Greece, a former internationally important wetland that was drained in 1962 causing environmental, social, and water and soil problems. The objective of this study was to assess the functions and values of Karla, at three periods of its history, and to relate them to major events in the management of the water and soil resources of its watershed. Information on wetland and watershed features was collected from historical records and field visits. The results showed that the wetland in its pristine state had performed five functions to a high degree, one (groundwater recharge) to a moderate degree, and one (flood storage) to a low degree. Flood-control works, uncontrolled pumping, etc., in 1936--1961 degraded all functions except microclimate modification while, the bird support function was moderately altered. Drainage works in 1962 left a very small artificially flooded wetland with only four functions performed to an insignificant degree. Value degradation followed function degradation. It was concluded that past resource management has been nonintegrated. No consideration was given to the multiple functions and values of Karla. Previous restoration proposals involved the reinstatement of one or two functions only. The appropriate restoration scheme for Karla must be multiobjective and based on the integrated resource management of its own and the neighboring watersheds.

Zalidis, G.C.; Gerakis, A. (Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Applied Soil Science)

1999-08-01

31

Watershed management: Clean water`s next act  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

Hite, R.W. [Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-09-23

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Advancing the Guánica Bay (Puerto Rico) Watershed Management Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

Consideration of stakeholder values in watershed planning and management is a necessity, but sufficiently eliciting, understanding, and organizing those values can be daunting. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of formal decision analysis to integrate expert knowledge...

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Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

Zeyuan Qiu

2013-01-01

34

Integrating Service-Learning into Watershed Management Programs: Opportunities and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article is to open a dialogue on integrating service-learning into community based watershed management programs and to discuss opportunities and challenges that a service-learning program presents to universities and communities. The article presents the concept and definition of servicelearning, and arguments concerning why institutions of higher education and university faculty and students should be involved with community based watershed management programs. The article describes a case study for developing a service-learning program for watershed management at Virginia Tech and discusses lessons learned from the case study. The paper concluded that to make a service-learning program sustainable, there should be a long term plan, regular and effective communication with the stakeholders, and some incentives for faculty and students for long term commitment to the community based watershed management programs.

Younos, Tamim; de Leon, Raymond; Lewicki, Christine

2003-02-01

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Evaluation of management strategies for the Doan Brook urban watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Doan Brook and Shaker Lakes Watershed is an impacted watershed in a highly developed setting. It faces problems common to surface waters in suburban or urban areas, namely excessive algal growth, sedimentation, and excessive velocities and volumes of flow during wet weather. EPA's Storm Water Management Model was used to model this watershed and to evaluate the effects of various management practices on the quality and quantity of flows in the system. Preliminary results show that the practices examined, nutrient reduction, downspout disconnection, increased street sweeping, and diversion of the first flush, may help to prevent further degradation of the system.

Zielinski, J.A.; Jennings, A.A.; Gardner, K.H.

1998-07-01

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Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011). Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

Tadeu Fabricio Malheiros; Mariza Guimarães Prota; Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon

2013-01-01

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Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: Tribal people perceived that water scarcity is the main reason for their physical, mental and social health problems and a major obstacle for their overall development. The perceptions of tribal participants indicate that infectious diseases, migration, alcoholism, intimate partner violence and drudgery of women are end results of water scarcity and efforts to increase water availability through watershed management may help them to achieve their right to health which is embedded in their right to access to water.

Nerkar SS; Tamhankar AJ; Johansson E; Lundborg CS

2013-10-01

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A Study of the Relationship between Landslide and Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study in Karaj Watershed Management  

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Full Text Available This research shows a noticeable comparison between slide zones produced with the results using the Nilsen method with active tectonic hazard zonation map. A determination landform of geometry or morphometry factors is one of the best methods for study and evaluation active tectonics. The first image provided is a Dem maps from GIS software showing topography, geology and tectonic maps participant with field activities. The second image provided shows an active tectonic map also generated by the same above mentioned factors into three classes A, B, C, D and a landslide hazard zonation map which shows five classes: Stable zone, generally stable zone, stable moderately stable zone, moderately stable zone and talented to liquefaction zone. The study and comparison and conformity landslide hazard zonation map with hazard zonations into active tectonic hazard zonation map showed about 79 percent (56,880 hectare) moderately unstable zone and talented for liquefaction zone settled in A zone (very high tectonic activity) and B zone (high tectonic activity) active tectonic map and 21 percent (15,130 hectare) remain unsettled sequential 12 percent (8640 hectare) and 9 percent (6480 hectare) in C (moderate tectonic activity), D (lowest tectonic activity) zone of active tectonic hazard zonation produced from above mentioned factors. This research showed a relationship between slide zones produced in landslide hazard zonations using the Nilsen method to measure active tectonic hazard zonation in the study region.

Rahman Sharifi; Ali Solgi; Mohsen Pourkermani

2013-01-01

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Framework for Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Urban Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts have been under way by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 2003 to develop a decision-support system for placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This system is called the System for Urban Stormwater Treatm...

40

Managing material transfer and nutrient flow in an agricultural watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Place-based resource management, such as watershed or ecosystem management, is being promoted to replace the media-focused approach for achieving water quality protection. We monitored the agricultural area of a 740-ha watershed to determine the nature and scale of farm material transfers, N and P balances, and farmer decisions that influenced them. Using field data and farmer interviews we found that 3 of 15 farms, emphasizing hog, dairy, or cash crops with poultry production, accounted for more than 80% of the inputs and outputs of N and P for the 362-ha agricultural area (332 ha of managed cropland and animal facilities). Feed for hogs (38% each of total N and P) and manure applied to fields as part of the cash crop and poultry operation (28 and 38% of total N and P, respectively) were the dominant inputs. No crops grown in the watershed were fed to animals in the watershed and more manure nutrients were applied from animals outside than from those in the watershed. A strategic decision by the hog farmer to begin marketing finished hogs changed the material transfers and nutrient balances more than tactical decisions by other farmers in allocating manure to cropland. Since the components of agricultural production were not all interconnected, the fundamental assumption of place-based management programs is not well-suited to this situation. Alternative approaches to managing the effect of agriculture on water quality should consider the organization of agricultural production and the role of strategic decisions in controlling farm nutrient balances.

Nord EA; Lanyon LE

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Application of the ReNuMa model in the Sha He river watershed: tools for watershed environmental management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Models and related analytical methods are critical tools for use in modern watershed management. A modeling approach for quantifying the source apportionment of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and associated tools for examining the sensitivity and uncertainty of the model estimates were assessed for the Sha He River (SHR) watershed in China. The Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) was used to infer the primary sources of DN in the SHR watershed. This model is based on the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) and the Net Anthropogenic Nutrient Input (NANI) framework, modified to improve the characterization of subsurface hydrology and septic system loads. Hydrochemical processes of the SHR watershed, including streamflow, DN load fluxes, and corresponding DN concentration responses, were simulated following calibrations against observations of streamflow and DN fluxes. Uncertainty analyses were conducted with a Monte Carlo analysis to vary model parameters for assessing the associated variations in model outputs. The model performed accurately at the watershed scale and provided estimates of monthly streamflows and nutrient loads as well as DN source apportionments. The simulations identified the dominant contribution of agricultural land use and significant monthly variations. These results provide valuable support for science-based watershed management decisions and indicate the utility of ReNuMa for such applications.

Sha J; Liu M; Wang D; Swaney DP; Wang Y

2013-07-01

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Eco-Efficiency Analysis of Green Infrastructure Based Watershed Management: A Case Study of Raionwater Harvesting in the Albemarle-Pimlico Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising world population, rapid urbanization, and land development exacerbate the global challenge of protecting watersheds and their sustainability. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has achieved significant progress in protecting and remediating national watersheds,...

43

THE IMPACT OF ATTITUDE TOWARD WATERSHED MANAGEMENT OPERATION ON LEVEL OF PEOPLE PARTICIPATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies in many countries had display the influence of many factors including: Satisfaction, Knowledge, Demographic and Attitudinal variables in level of people participation. The main question here is, whether these factors would also be effective on people participation in Iran? The purpose of this research was to investigate communication factors influencing attitudes of farmers’ application of Watershed Management Operations (WMO) in the Kushk-Abad watershed in Khorassan Razavi Province of Iran (85 km2). The general objective of this study is to assess factors that influence people’s participation in Iran. The study consist of all farmers in watershed study (N = 1500), of which 200 is selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique (n = 200). The study was a descriptive-co relational, survey research. In fact, this research was designed to assess relationship between attitude toward Watershed Management Operations (WMO) and the level of participation in WMO in Iran. In order to obtain this aim, a cross sectional survey was applied. Data for this research collected through personal interviews from three villages in Kushk-Abad sub basin in Iran. The scale of attitude toward WMO and Participation in WMO were in order 0.71 and 0.92. Findings in the study indicated that a majority of the farmers have positive attitude toward adaption of WMO. The results revealed that the level of the participation of WMO is moderate and there is a significant and positive correlation between farmers’ attitudes towards application of watershed management operations. However based on the findings, the level of economical participation of people are the more than social and environmental participation. Moreover, the results indicated that the level of the respondents’ attitude towards WMO is moderate to low. This study also proved that participation in WMO is positively and significantly correlated with attitude toward WMO (r = 0.534, p = 0.000).

B. M. Golrang; F. S. Lai; M. Rostami; M. N. Khamurudin; Kamziah Abd Kudus; M. Mashayekhi; R. Bagherian

2012-01-01

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Watershed Conservation and Groundwater Management: An Integrated Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

US natural resource policy has explicitly acknowledged the hydrological connection between forest resources and water resources from the inception of the USDA Forest Service for the dual purpose of timber and watershed management,, but it is often overlooked in short run policy decisions. In Hawaii, these closely interconnected resources led to the establishment of the Ko`olau Mountains Conservation District in the early 1900s in order to improve water supplies. This early action on the part of the state has enabled today a healthy watershed. The health of the watershed, however, is now under threat from incremental ecosystem change, particularly in the form of invasive species (e.g. pigs (Sus scrofa) and weedy shrubs (Miconia calvescens)) that change the hydrological properties of the watershed to increase runoff and reduce aquifer recharge. Economic costs of reduced recharge in the face of rising water demand from a growing population are potentially large, with preliminary estimates suggesting the losses from reduced groundwater recharge in the Pearl Harbor aquifer have a present value of 1.4 to 2.6 billion dollars (Kaiser and Roumasset, 2002). To refine and improve these preliminary estimates we use spatial analysis of the water balance in the Ko`olaus to relate land use and land cover to recharge and we simultaneously explore the risk of degradation of the forest quality for recharge purposes through a survey of watershed experts. Using this information together with a dynamic model of water pricing as a function of aquifer recharge and use, we examine how much of an economic return (in present value) forest conservation expenditures may produce in the form of protecting aquifer recharge. In conjunction, we begin to examine additional integrated benefits of reducing runoff to near-shore resources by relating upland conservation to reef quality using monitoring data from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program. Kaiser and Roumasset (2002). "Valuation of Nature's Intermediate products: The Ko`olau Forest's Contribution to the Pearl Harbor Aquifer," Environment and Development Economics 7(4): 701-714.

Kaiser, B. A.

2005-05-01

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River and watershed planning: The San Luis Rey River case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental management of our water resources requires the integration of science and politics, defining problems and solutions for physical resources within a social context. Watershed planning is a term applied to the development of long-term strategies to reconcile a community's goals for water quality, ecological resources, and economic development. Presently, little guidance is available to local governments on how to devise a watershed protection strategy. This study outlines a general approach and refers to an ongoing watershed planning effort on the San Luis Rey River as a case study. The intent is to identify a range of issues to be considered in the development of any river and watershed plan.

Micheli, E.

1994-12-01

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Assessing the value of information for water quality management: a watershed perspective from China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To tackle China's pervasive water pollution, tremendous efforts are needed to achieve more and better information. However, resources for information collection (e.g., water quality monitoring, field experiments, etc.) are very limited for large watersheds with significant nonpoint source pollution. Thus, it is crucial to identify the priority of information acquisition. Based on the theory of value of information (VOI), a stochastic optimization approach was developed in this study to evaluate the importance of information. The approach was applied to several key polluted water bodies in China (e.g., Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, and Lake Dianchi). The major findings include: (1) because of the severe pollution and large uncertainty, the VOI for the targeted water bodies is substantial; (2) when the uncertainty is significant, a stricter regulation would result in a higher VOI, and therefore provide more incentives for data collection; (3) due to the interaction among different information sources, collecting multiple types of information simultaneously could be more valuable than collecting one after another; and (4) the importance of a specific type of information could vary significantly across watersheds. The proposed approach can be readily extended to more complex models and more sophisticated watershed cases. It could effectively support watershed management in China, as well as in other countries.

Wu B; Zheng Y

2013-04-01

47

Integrated Socio-Economic and Biophysical Data to Underpin Collaborative Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Watersheds are widely accepted as a useful geography for organizing natural resource management in Australia and the United States. It is assumed that effective action needs to be underpinned by an understanding of the interactions between people and the environment. While there has been some social research as part of watershed planning, there have been few attempts to integrate socio-economic and biophysical data to improve the efficacy of watershed management. This paper explores that topic. With limited resources for social research, watershed partners in Australia chose to focus on gathering spatially referenced socio-economic data using a mail survey to private landholders that would enable them to identify and refine priority issues, develop and improve communication with private landholders, choose policy options to accomplish watershed targets, and evaluate the achievement of intermediate watershed plan objectives. Experience with seven large watershed projects provides considerable insight about the needs of watershed planners, how to effectively engage them, and how to collect and integrate social data as part of watershed management.

Curtis, Allan; Byron, Ian; Mackay, Jacinta

2005-06-01

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Watershed Management through Social Mapping - a means of Community Participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a growing need of time, today each and every person has to participate in watershed management programmes. Nearly 70% of total population of india is rural having agriculture as the main occupation. Hence at least for rural community every member has to take progressive steps in water conservation. As a part of our last year students, we selected different areas for watershed development, surveyed them, analyzed the data and finalized the proposals. But it was observed in all the projects that due to nonparticipation of local people there, the proposals remained only on papers, so we decided to develop social contacts with the local people along with carrying out socio-economic survey of the area in the best possibleway. Along with community participation, it was decided that the proposals must be easily acceptable and adoptable by the local people, so that they would not have to depend upon the Government’s financial assistance. These proposals include: 1. Simple technical constructions such as bunds on streams and around the farms, contourtrenches on sloping lands, terracing etc. 2. Agronomical measures such as strip cropping, crop rotation, economical irrigation practicesetc. 3. Clearing the wells and water bodies from silt, improving the village ponds etc. 4. Recharging ground water artificially by rain water harvesting etc. We are sure that the farmers will afford these schemes and will be encouraged as these conservation measures, if implemented, will result in their better prospects in future.

Dr.Mrs.S.S.kulkarni; Mrs.V.A.Swami; Mrs.S.S.Borchate; Mr. A.B.Sawant

2011-01-01

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Integrated watershed management through consortium approach: team building for watershed consortium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DFID-funded Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) is currently supported by a consortium of several research and development institutions led by ICRISAT. This is one of the first systematic attempts of convergence of various agencies at watershed level. To develop a common vision of the goals of the project it is important that the partners of the consortium deliberate and discuss with each other and come to know of each other's strengths and limitations. A series of team building workshops were therefore organized at different levels to facilitate the partners of the consortium to function as an effective team. This process was carried out in four rounds starting with the core team in the first round spiraling up further to include the entire network of the consortium partners. This report brings forth the output of these exercises in the form of learnings that are useful to facilitate a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team for natural resource management.

Sreenath Dixit; SP Wani

2006-01-01

50

The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study: Ground Hydrology. Volume 7.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research was a comprehensive study of the quantity and quality of groundwater discharged into the Menomonee River System, southeastern Wisconsin. The Menomonee River Watershed comprises three aquifer systems: the deep artesian sandstone, the Niagara d...

M. P. Anderson C. C. Eisen R. N. Hoffer J. G. Konrad G. Chesters

1979-01-01

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Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change in ecoregional research. The integrated farmer-participatory watershed management process involves: agro-ecological zoning, farming systems research, systems analysis to select best-bet options, upscaling research results, identification of products with competitive advantage for iocal and regional markets, and the design and implementation of a science-based action plan. The plan includes technical assistance, supervised credit, strengthening communal cohesion through women's and farmers' groups, increasing marketing opportunities by concentrating the supply in quantity and quality, quality control of the products, product development to add value, and market studies for the products developed. The impact on the production systems is briefly described.

SP Wani; HP Singh; TK Sreedevi; P Pathak; TJ Rego; B Shiferaw; SR Iyer

2006-01-01

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Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River) which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i) An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii) The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii) Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

A. M. Sène; S. Bonin; O. Soubeyran

2007-01-01

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RIVER AND WATERSHED PLANNING: THE SAN LUIS REY CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental management of our water resources requires the integration of science and politics, defining problems and solutions for physical resources within a social context. watershed planning is a term applied to the development of long-term strategies to reconcile a com...

54

Influence of watershed system management on herbicide concentrations in Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MD-MSEA) project was established in 1994 in three small watersheds (202 to 1,497 ha) that drain into oxbow lakes (Beasley, Deep Hollow, and Thighman). The primary research objective was to assess the implications of management practices on water quality. Monthly monitoring of herbicide concentrations in lake water was conducted from 2000 to 2003. Water samples were analyzed for atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, and atrazine metabolites. Herbicide concentrations observed in the lake water reflected cropping systems of the watershed, e.g., atrazine and metolachlor concentrations were associated with the level of corn and sorghum production, whereas cyanazine and fluometuron was associated with the level of glyphosate-sensitive cotton production. The dynamics of herbicide appearance and dissipation in lake samples were strongly influenced by herbicide use, lake hydrology, rainfall pattern, and land management practices. The highest maximum concentrations of atrazine (7.1 to 23.4 microg L(-1)) and metolachlor (0.7 to 14.9 microg L(-1)) were observed in Thighman Lake where significant quantities of corn were grown. Introduction of s-metolachlor and use of glyphosate-resistant cotton coincided with reduced concentration of metolachlor in lake water. Cyanazine was observed in two lakes with the highest levels (1.6 to 5.5 microg L(-1)) in 2000 and lower concentrations in 2001 and 2002 (<0.4 microg L(-1)). Reduced concentrations of fluometuron in Beasley Lake were associated with greater use of glyphosate-resistant cotton and correspondingly less need for soil-applied fluometuron herbicide. In contrast, increased levels of fluometuron were observed in lake water after Deep Hollow was converted from conservation tillage to conventional tillage, presumably due to greater runoff associated with conventional tillage. These studies indicate that herbicide concentrations observed in these three watersheds were related to crop and soil management practices.

Zablotowicz RM; Locke MA; Krutz LJ; Lerch RN; Lizotte RE; Knight SS; Gordon RE; Steinriede RW

2006-11-01

55

Influence of watershed system management on herbicide concentrations in Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MD-MSEA) project was established in 1994 in three small watersheds (202 to 1,497 ha) that drain into oxbow lakes (Beasley, Deep Hollow, and Thighman). The primary research objective was to assess the implications of management practices on water quality. Monthly monitoring of herbicide concentrations in lake water was conducted from 2000 to 2003. Water samples were analyzed for atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, and atrazine metabolites. Herbicide concentrations observed in the lake water reflected cropping systems of the watershed, e.g., atrazine and metolachlor concentrations were associated with the level of corn and sorghum production, whereas cyanazine and fluometuron was associated with the level of glyphosate-sensitive cotton production. The dynamics of herbicide appearance and dissipation in lake samples were strongly influenced by herbicide use, lake hydrology, rainfall pattern, and land management practices. The highest maximum concentrations of atrazine (7.1 to 23.4 microg L(-1)) and metolachlor (0.7 to 14.9 microg L(-1)) were observed in Thighman Lake where significant quantities of corn were grown. Introduction of s-metolachlor and use of glyphosate-resistant cotton coincided with reduced concentration of metolachlor in lake water. Cyanazine was observed in two lakes with the highest levels (1.6 to 5.5 microg L(-1)) in 2000 and lower concentrations in 2001 and 2002 (<0.4 microg L(-1)). Reduced concentrations of fluometuron in Beasley Lake were associated with greater use of glyphosate-resistant cotton and correspondingly less need for soil-applied fluometuron herbicide. In contrast, increased levels of fluometuron were observed in lake water after Deep Hollow was converted from conservation tillage to conventional tillage, presumably due to greater runoff associated with conventional tillage. These studies indicate that herbicide concentrations observed in these three watersheds were related to crop and soil management practices. PMID:17005240

Zablotowicz, Robert M; Locke, Martin A; Krutz, L Jason; Lerch, Robert N; Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Gordon, R Earl; Steinriede, R Wade

2006-09-26

56

Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

Jadson Luiz Simões Rocha; Neylor Alves Calasans Rego; José Wildes Barbosa dos Santos; Raquel Maria de Oliveira; Max de Menezes

2010-01-01

57

Emerald Lake Watershed study: Introduction and site description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Emerald Lake Watershed study was organized to investigate the effects of acidic deposition on high-elevation watersheds and surface waters of the Sierra Nevada, California. Some of the results of this comprehensive study of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at a small, headwater basin are presented in four papers in this series. The watershed study site is in Sequoia National Park, on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. This glacial cirque is located in the upper Marble Fork of the Kaweah River. This 120-ha watershed ranges from Alta Peak (3,416 m) down to Emerald Lake (2,400 m). Most of the watershed surface area is exposed granite and granodiorite rocks, with limited coverage (about 20%) by thin, acidic soils. The hydrology of the basin is dominated by snowmelt runoff during March-June. Emerald Lake, a glacial tarn, is 2.72 ha in area, with a maximum depth of 10.5 m. Surface waters are poorly buffered and dominated by calcium and bicarbonate. Most of the yearly precipitation falls as dilute snow (pH5.2-5.4), with acidic rain storms sampled during May-October.

Tonnessen, K.A. (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States))

1991-07-01

58

ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF TOXICS IN THE WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for water is beginning to outstrip the available supply of water. The truly insidious insult to freshwater supplies comes from anthropogenic impacts that pollute freshwater supplies and the surrounding watersheds, making even less water available for use. Wat...

59

Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project and site information was reviewed by a qualified archaeologist and it was determined that an archaeological survey was needed. Bruce Blackmere with NRCS conducted an intensive-complete survey of the project site and cultural resources were not identified (July 30, 2004). Based on these findings, it was recommended that the project proceed as planned. All survey findings were provided to the Idaho SHPO. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals. Public involvement has occurred as part of the Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing project. This project was coordinated through the Upper Salmon Basin Technical Team and Advisory Committee composed of representatives from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, NOAA Fisheries, Shoshone Bannock Tribe, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game. In addition, the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District holds monthly meetings that are open to the public in which this project was discussed.

N/A

2004-08-11

60

Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Model Analysis of Watershed Management Under Uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed Management planning can be assisted by the use of models that can incorporate the effect of management practices on hydrology and pollution transport under the effects of stochastic weather, including weather patterns influenced by climate change. However, such analysis is based usually on only one model (a set of equations) and the calibration of the model’s parameters to data. In this analysis we will discuss the use of two new multiobjective optimization methods for the incorporation of multiple criteria into choice of calibrated parameter values. One of these multiobjective methods (using radial basis functions) has been developed by our group, and a second new method from another group is based on Kriging. In addition we will compare these two new methods to the results obtained by the older (and widely used) NSGA-II multi-objective method on watershed models. We have developed two models and applied them to a large (1200 km2) northeastern watershed. The first model is based on SWAT2005, and the second model replaces SWAT’s Hortonian hydrology with variable source area (VSA) hydrology. In actuality a watershed’s flow paths can be expected to vary between Hortonian and VSA hydrology under different weather conditions. We present a multi-model analysis using Bayesian Model Averaging of these two types of models to obtain an improved estimate of the effects of alternative phosphorous management practices on long term sustainability of water quality in the watershed under a wide range of weather scenarios.

Shoemaker, C. A.; Akhtar, T.; Woodbury, J.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Land Use Optimization of Watershed for Soil Erosion Minimization Using Linear Programming (a Case Study of Brimvand Watershed, Kermanshah Province)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improper management of watershed land utilization has many ill effects on the available resources. Land use optimization is one of the proper strategies to achieve sustainable development and to reduce resource dissipation. Focusing on Brimvand watershed in Kermanshah province which comprises an area of 9572 ha, the present study was conducted to find out the most suitable land allocation to different land uses viz. garden, irrigated farming, dry farming and rangeland to achieve soil erosion minimization and benefit maximization. The soil erosion, net benefit and standard land capability maps were supposed as the inputs of the objective functions and to defined constraints. The multi-objective linear problem was then solved using simplex method with the help of ADBASE software package and ultimately the optimal solution was gained. Additionally, the results of the study revealed that the amount of soil erosion could reduce by 7.78% whereas the benefit increases at the rate of 118.62%, in case of implementation of optimal solution. The above mentioned optimization led to dry farming decrease and garden increase over that area. The results of sensitivity analysis also showed that objective functions were strongly susceptible to the variation of maximum constraint of irrigated farming and garden areas.

KH. Jalili; S. H. R. Sadeghi; D. Nikkami

2007-01-01

62

Menomonee River Pilot Watershed Study. Volume 1. Summary and Recommendations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project was in support of the U.S./Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The objectives are described under the reference--Pollution from Land Use Activities Reference Group. Several special study areas within the Menomonee River Watershed were...

J. G. Konrad G. V. Simsiman G. Chesters

1979-01-01

63

Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

2003-01-01

64

Selection and placement of best management practices used to reduce water quality degradation in Lincoln Lake watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

An increased loss of agricultural nutrients is a growing concern for water quality in Arkansas. Several studies have shown that best management practices (BMPs) are effective in controlling water pollution. However, those affected with water quality issues need water management plans that take into consideration BMPs selection, placement, and affordability. This study used a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). This multiobjective algorithm selects and locates BMPs that minimize nutrients pollution cost-effectively by providing trade-off curves (optimal fronts) between pollutant reduction and total net cost increase. The usefulness of this optimization framework was evaluated in the Lincoln Lake watershed. The final NSGA-II optimization model generated a number of near-optimal solutions by selecting from 35 BMPs (combinations of pasture management, buffer zones, and poultry litter application practices). Selection and placement of BMPs were analyzed under various cost solutions. The NSGA-II provides multiple solutions that could fit the water management plan for the watershed. For instance, by implementing all the BMP combinations recommended in the lowest-cost solution, total phosphorous (TP) could be reduced by at least 76% while increasing cost by less than 2% in the entire watershed. This value represents an increase in cost of 5.49 ha-1 when compared to the baseline. Implementing all the BMP combinations proposed with the medium- and the highest-cost solutions could decrease TP drastically but will increase cost by 24,282 (7%) and $82,306 (25%), respectively.

Rodriguez, Hector German; Popp, Jennie; Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2011-01-01

65

Impact of environmental policies on the adoption of manure management practices in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay is a problem and has been a focus of federal and state initiatives to reduce nutrient pollution from agriculture and other sources since 1983. In 2010 EPA established a TMDL for the watershed. Producers may voluntarily respond to intense and focused policy scrutiny by adopting best management practices. A detailed analysis of water quality best management practices by animal feeding operations inside and outside the watershed yield insight into this relationship. Our findings support the hypothesis that farmers will adopt water quality measures if links are made clear and there is an expectation of future regulations.

Savage JA; Ribaudo MO

2013-07-01

66

Impact of environmental policies on the adoption of manure management practices in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay is a problem and has been a focus of federal and state initiatives to reduce nutrient pollution from agriculture and other sources since 1983. In 2010 EPA established a TMDL for the watershed. Producers may voluntarily respond to intense and focused policy scrutiny by adopting best management practices. A detailed analysis of water quality best management practices by animal feeding operations inside and outside the watershed yield insight into this relationship. Our findings support the hypothesis that farmers will adopt water quality measures if links are made clear and there is an expectation of future regulations. PMID:23916836

Savage, Jeff A; Ribaudo, Marc O

2013-08-01

67

Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

N/A

2004-08-04

68

Effectiveness of BMPs (Best Management Practices) for stormwater management in urbanized watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator (ILLUDAS) has been modified for continuous simulation and a water-quality module has been added to it. The continuous simulation model updates the Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC) based on the rainfall information up to 120 hours prior to the beginning of a storm and the information on the number of dry days between storms is utilized to compute the pollutant build-up which also depends on the street sweeping interval. The water-quality module utilizes the dust and dirt method of STORM to compute pollutant accumulated on the watershed surface. Pollutant washoff is then computed based on the assumption of first-order kinetics. Features were added to simulate the effect of BMP structures. Infiltration trenches and detention ponds were considered in the study. An optimization scheme was adopted to optimally size and locate the detention structures within the watershed.

Kuo, C.Y.; Loganathan, G.V.; Cox, W.E.; Shrestha, S.P.; Ying, K.J.

1988-01-01

69

Oued Zeroud watershed management and Sidi Saad Dam protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Government of Tunisia has decided to construct the Qued Zeroud Dam to protect Kairouan from flooding, to irrigate 4,080 ha, and to maintain the groundwater supply. To prevent silting of the dam 100,000 ha of the Qued Zeroud watershed will undergo a conservation programme. Terraces, waterways and drop structures will be constructed and forage and tree plantations will be developed using Atriplex and cactus. Cultural and grazing practices will be controlled. (author)

1979-11-17

70

PESTICIDES AND WATERSHED-SCALE MODELING: SOLUTIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The three papers that follow in this issue of JAFC were presented at a Symposium held at the Fall 2004 American Chemical Society meeting in Philadelphia Entitled “Agrochemicals And Watershed-Scale Modeling: Solutions For Water Quality Management.” These papers show that industry pesticide scientist...

71

Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff...

Vyavahare, Nilesh

72

COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH AND IMPACTS OF MANAGEMENT OF IMPERVIOUSNESS ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Impervious surface is one of the primary agents of hydrologic change in urbanizing watersheds, and its impacts on hydrologic cycles and terrestrial ecological regimes are multifold. The mechanisms through which these impacts are manifested are not well understood, hampering effective management of ...

73

Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

Childs, Allen B.

2002-03-01

74

Monitoring, Modeling, and Emergent Toxicology in the East Fork Watershed: Developing a Test Bed for Water Quality Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overarching objectives for the development of the East Fork Watershed Test Bed in Southwestern Ohio include: 1) providing research infrastructure for integrating risk assessment and management research on the scale of a large multi-use watershed (1295 km2); 2) Focusing on process...

75

Water and poverty in two Colombian watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM).

Nancy Johnson; James Garcia; Jorge E. Rubiano; Marcela Quintero; Ruben Dario Estrada; Esther Mwangi; Adriana Morena; Alexandra Peralta; Sara Granados

2009-01-01

76

Water Balance Principles: A Review of Studies on Five Watersheds in Iran  

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Full Text Available Originally, water balance models were introduced to evaluate the importance of different hydrologic parameters under a variety of hydrologic conditions but its present applications are the most common studies at water resources management. In spite of the simple concept of water balance equation, specific considerations are need to proper application. With numerous affecting factors on hydrologic processes, the parsimony trait of water balance equation can cause huge errors or complexities throughout study processes. It is beyond a general computation to create an appropriate portrait of water circumstances with a parsimonious equation that should be considered as an art. Practically, water balance computations are used in five separate categories at least: watersheds, groundwater aquifers, farms, urban water distribution networks and particular areas such as glaciers and landfills; totally, they are directed along three main lines: watershed hydrology reconstruction, evaluation of water supply and water demand systems and assessment of climatic changes impacts. This study is to concentrate on some specific hints which their ignorance leads us to less reliability on water balance results and misunderstandings of actual situations. Finally, the methods used in Iran are investigated in five separate watersheds in the north east of the country and their results are compared with two other published results.

A. Ghandhari; S.M.R. Alavi Moghaddam

2011-01-01

77

Linking on-farm dairy management practices to storm-flow fecal coliform loading for California coastal watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How and where to improve water quality within an agricultural watershed requires data at a spatial scale that corresponds with individual management decision units on an agricultural operation. This is particularly true in the context of water quality regulations, such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), that identify agriculture as one source of non-point source pollution through larger tributary watershed scale and above and below water quality investigations. We have conducted a systems approach study of 10 coastal dairies and ranches to document fecal coliform concentration and loading to surface waters at the management decision unit scale. Water quality samples were collected on a storm event basis from loading units that included: manure management systems; gutters; storm drains; pastures; and corrals and lots. In addition, in-stream samples were collected above and below the dairy facilities and from a control watershed, managed for light grazing and without a dairy facility or human residence and corresponding septic system. Samples were analyzed for fecal coliform concentration by membrane filtration. Instantaneous discharge was measured for each collected sample. Storm runoff was also calculated using the curve number method (SCS, 1985). Results for a representative dairy as well as the entire 10 dairy data set are presented. Fecal coliform concentrations demonstrate high variability both within and between loading units. Fecal coliform concentrations for pastures range from 206 to 2,288,888 cfu/100 ml and for lots from 1,933 to 166,105,000 cfu/100 ml. Mean concentrations for pastures and lots are 121,298 (SE = 62,222) and 3,155,584 (SE = 1,902,713) cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fecal coliform load from units of concentrated animals and manure are significantly more than units such as pastures while storm flow amounts were significantly less. Compared with results from earlier tributary scale studies in the watershed, this systems approach has generated water quality data that is beneficial for management decisions because of its scale and representation of current management activities. These results are facilitating on-farm changes through the cooperative efforts of dairy managers, regulatory agency staff, and sources of technical and financial assistance.

Lewis DJ; Atwill ER; Lennox MS; Hou L; Karle B; Tate KW

2005-08-01

78

Linking on-farm dairy management practices to storm-flow fecal coliform loading for California coastal watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

How and where to improve water quality within an agricultural watershed requires data at a spatial scale that corresponds with individual management decision units on an agricultural operation. This is particularly true in the context of water quality regulations, such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), that identify agriculture as one source of non-point source pollution through larger tributary watershed scale and above and below water quality investigations. We have conducted a systems approach study of 10 coastal dairies and ranches to document fecal coliform concentration and loading to surface waters at the management decision unit scale. Water quality samples were collected on a storm event basis from loading units that included: manure management systems; gutters; storm drains; pastures; and corrals and lots. In addition, in-stream samples were collected above and below the dairy facilities and from a control watershed, managed for light grazing and without a dairy facility or human residence and corresponding septic system. Samples were analyzed for fecal coliform concentration by membrane filtration. Instantaneous discharge was measured for each collected sample. Storm runoff was also calculated using the curve number method (SCS, 1985). Results for a representative dairy as well as the entire 10 dairy data set are presented. Fecal coliform concentrations demonstrate high variability both within and between loading units. Fecal coliform concentrations for pastures range from 206 to 2,288,888 cfu/100 ml and for lots from 1,933 to 166,105,000 cfu/100 ml. Mean concentrations for pastures and lots are 121,298 (SE = 62,222) and 3,155,584 (SE = 1,902,713) cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fecal coliform load from units of concentrated animals and manure are significantly more than units such as pastures while storm flow amounts were significantly less. Compared with results from earlier tributary scale studies in the watershed, this systems approach has generated water quality data that is beneficial for management decisions because of its scale and representation of current management activities. These results are facilitating on-farm changes through the cooperative efforts of dairy managers, regulatory agency staff, and sources of technical and financial assistance. PMID:16418926

Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Hou, L; Karle, B; Tate, K W

2005-08-01

79

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CALIBRATION METHODS OF NASH’S RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL TO AMMAMEH WATERSHED, IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nash’s model parameters.

Vahid Nourani

2008-01-01

80

Demarcation of Drainage Network for Watershed Management of Sangamner Tahsil Using Topographical and GIS Data: A Case Study of Sangamner Tahsil of Ahemadnagar District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water is significant geographical resource, which need to micro level planning for the conservation. It is the fundamental need of all biotic community which is depending on the precipitation sources directly and River, lake, tank water sources circuitously. There is sensitive issue regarding water managements because of its need and availability. So the, variety of research techniques applied for the sustainable development of water resource. In most of region very less rainfall incidence, where need to conservation of water by the appropriate techniques for sustainable development. From the ancient time humans are using variety of techniques for preservation of water, which is now a day becomes a time consuming, resources wastage and less correctness. This traditional techniques replaced by advance GIS and RS techniques where obtain the precise accuracy, digital quality, fewer recourses.

Ms Deshmukh Pragati P; Mr. WAWALE Surindar G; Mr. AHER Sainath P; Prof. Thorat Sukdeo K

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Management zone delineation using a modified watershed algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Site-specific management (SSM) is a common way to manage within-field variability. This concept divides fields into site-specific management zones (SSMZ) according to one or several soil or crop characteristics. This paper proposes an original methodology for SSMZ delineation which is able to manage...

Roudier, P.; Tisseyre, B.; Poilvé, H.; Roger, J.M.

82

Effect of Nutrient Management Planning on Crop Yield, Nitrate Leaching and Sediment Loading in Thomas Brook Watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater [Formula: see text] leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., [Formula: see text] leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower [Formula: see text] leaching (P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage [Formula: see text] leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.

Amon-Armah F; Yiridoe EK; Ahmad NH; Hebb D; Jamieson R; Burton D; Madani A

2013-08-01

83

First annual post-liming monitoring report for the Western Maryland watershed liming pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Western Maryland Watershed Liming Pilot Study was initiated in 1989 to determine whether watershed liming was an appropriate, feasible, and cost-effective strategy to mitigate streams in western Maryland that were chronically acidified by acid deposition. The watershed liming method used in this pilot study involved applying limestone to the soils in ground water discharge areas located adjacent to the stream. The natural flow of water within the watershed was then relied upon to aid in dissolving the limestone and transporting it neutralizing effects to the stream.

Price, R.M.; Keating, R.W.; Morgan, R.P.

1993-07-01

84

Development of a risk-based approach for management of an estuarine watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Tampa Bay has relatively low to moderate levels of most toxicants when compared to other urban estuaries, recent assessments indicate that several groups of toxicants are found in relatively high concentrations in Tampa Bay sediments and may contribute to estuarine sediment toxicity or potential human health risks. The Toxic Contamination Sources Assessment Project for the Tampa Bay national Estuary Program evaluated potential risks associated with sediment contaminants of potential concern in priority areas of Tampa Bay. A conceptual model was developed to present representative ecological and human receptors and likely exposure scenarios. Sediment chemistry data on metals, pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs from a number of previous studies were compiled and used to calculate exposure point concentrations and receptor-specific exposure rates. The selected receptors were considered to have both direct and food-web exposure to sediment contaminants. Exposure rate calculations reflect the position of each receptor in the food web and the potential for bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of the contaminants. For ecological receptors, a hazard quotient estimate was made, while for the human receptor, both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk were calculated. The risk estimates indicated that the levels of several metals in Tampa Bay sediment appear to represent priorities for further analysis and for focusing management decisions. By evaluating sources and loadings of the contaminants of concern as well as their potential risk, a risk-based approach to management of sediment contamination is being developed for the bay and its watershed.

Schulten, J.; McConnell, R.; DeMott, R. [Parsons Engineering Science, Tampa, FL (United States)

1995-12-31

85

Social Safeguards for REDD+ in Mexico’s Watershed Management Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Case studies on environmental governance are essential to improve comprehension on howto implement international agreements. This study focuses on seven social safeguards relevant toREDD+. The existence of these social safeguards is examined in Mexico’s watershed managementprogram in La Sierra Madre...

Garduño Diaz, Philippe Youssef

86

A system method for the assessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in mountain watershed areas: the case of the "Giffre" watershed (France).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

Charnay B

2011-07-01

87

UPPER WASHITA RIVER CEAP ACTIVITIES: THE FORT COBB RESERVOIR/LITTLE WASHITA RIVER WATERSHED STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the 2002 Farm Bill, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated to assess and quantify the effects and benefits of USDA conservation programs. The Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed was selected for inclusion in the national CEAP Watershed Assessment Study because of ...

88

Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP) effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS) for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83) compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90). Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ? NS ? 0.75). Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

Margaret W. Gitau; Indrajeet Chaubey

2010-01-01

89

Runoff and dissolved organic carbon loss from a paired-watershed study of three adjacent agricultural Watersheds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organic matter plays several important roles in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems including the mobilization and transport of nutrients and pollutants. Cropping, tillage practices and vegetative buffer strip installation affect losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). While many studies show reductions in pollutant export from agroecosystems where vegetative buffers have been implemented, buffer strips may be a source of DOC and contribute to surface water pollution. Using a paired-watershed approach, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of grass and agroforestry buffers on runoff and DOC loss, compare runoff and DOC losses between the growing and fallow seasons, and investigate crop effects on runoff and DOC losses. The study design consisted of three small agricultural Watersheds in a no-till, maize-soybean rotation located in the claypan region of northeast Missouri, USA; one watershed was planted with grass buffer strips, one with agroforestry buffer strips, and one unaltered watershed served as the control. Runoff and DOC loss were measured during a six-year calibration period (1991-1997) prior to buffer installation and for a nine-year treatment period (1997-2006). The grass buffer strips significantly decreased runoff by 8.4% (p =0.015) during the treatment period while the agroforestry buffer system exhibited no significant change in runoff (p =0.207). Loss of DOC was not significantly affected by grass or agroforestry buffer installation (p =0.535 and p =0.246, respectively). Additionally, no significant difference in runoff or DOC loss was found between crops (maize and soybean) or between seasons (growing and fallow). Overall, this study indicates that grass buffer systems are effective at reducing runoff and that DOC contamination of surface waters is not exacerbated by either type of vegetative buffer strip.

Veum KristenS; Goyne KeithW; Motavalli PeterP; Udawatta RanjithP

2009-04-01

90

Tailored Watershed Assessment and Integrated Management (TWAIM): A Systems Thinking Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control of non-point source (NPS) water pollution remains elusive in the United States (US). Many US water-bodies which have been primarily impacted by NPS pollution have not achieved water quality goals set by Clean Water Act. Technological advances have been made since 1972, yet many water resources fail to meet water quality standards. Common Pool Resources Theory is considered to understand the human dimension of NPS pollution by exploring anthropogenic activities superimposed upon dynamic ecosystems. In the final analysis, priority management zones (PMZs) for best management practice (BMP) implementation must have buy-in from land managers. TWAIM is an iterative systems thinking approach to planning, collecting landscape and land use information and communicating systems understanding to stakeholders. Hydrologic pathways that link the physical, chemical and biological characteristics influence processes occurring in a watershed which drive stream health and ecological function. With better systems understanding and application by technical specialists, there is potential for improved stakeholder interaction and dialogue which could then enable better land use decisions. Issues of pollutant origin, transport, storage and hydraulic residence must be defined and communicated effectively to land managers within a watershed context to observe trends in water quality change. The TWAIM concept provides a logical framework for locally-led assessment and a means to communicate ecohydrologic systems understanding over time to the key land managers such that PMZs can be defined for BMP implementation.

Joe Magner

2011-01-01

91

Management zone delineation using a modified watershed algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Le zonage intra-parcellaire est une méthode couramment utilisée pour gérer la variabilité intra-parcellaire. Ce concept consiste à partitionner une parcelle en zones de management selon une ou plusieurs caractéristiques du sol et/ou du couvert végétal de cette parcelle. Cet article propose une métho...

Roudier, P.; Tisseyre, B.; Poilvé, H.; Roger, J.-M.

92

Targeting of Watershed Management Practices for Water Quality Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

Ensuring a clean and adequate water supply implies conservative use of water and protecting water resources from pollution. Sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses in runoff are major pollutants of surface waters in the Midwest. This publication addresses the targeting of best management practices ...

93

Methods for Environmental Management Research at Landscape and Watershed Scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture is as much as ever and perhaps more so today a landscape enterprise. And as we move into an era in which ecosystem services from agriculture are tabulated, valued, and judged by society, landscape involvement and management will become ever more important. The majority of the non-comm...

94

Using a weight-of-evidence approach for management of watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research used a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate sources of contaminants in a drinking water watershed that serves as part of the City of Boston's water supply. The approach incorporated land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring and microbial source tracking (MST) tools. Case-study tributaries were selected based on elevated faecal coliform counts. Land use analysis and sanitary surveys were used to identify suspected microbial sources, including residential septic systems, agricultural animal operations, commercial/industrial operations and wildlife activity. Sampling sites were selected to hydrologically isolate potential contamination sources. Samples were collected seasonally over 1 year and analysed for traditional and MST parameters. Results demonstrated that both septic systems and a horse stable were contributing microbial loads in the first tributary. In the second tributary, septic systems from the townhouses were contributing microbial loads while a plant nursery was contributing organic matter. This evidence was used to evaluate best management practices to mitigate the contamination.

Long SC; Plummer JD; Tauscher T; Aull M

2006-01-01

95

Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

Sprague LA; Gronberg JA

2012-11-01

96

The impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle and on the water resource management of the Peribonka watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study evaluated the impacts of climate change on the water resource management in the Peribonka watershed by comparing the hydropower production of 3 power houses with the reliability and vulnerability associated with two climate change scenarios. The Peribonka catchment area was described along with scenarios of climate change for the watershed over a time horizon up to 2080. Synthetic time series for each scenario were then produced with a stochastic weather generator and were introduced in the HSAMI hydrological model in order to simulate future hydrological cycles. The reservoir system simulation model ResSim showed that the hydroelectric power plant Passes-Dangereuses, will experience either an increase in the annual hydroelectric production of 8 per cent or a reduction of 20 per cent, depending on the scenario considered. The simulation showed that the reliability of upstream reservoirs, namely Lakes Manouane and Peribonka, could decrease while their vulnerability could increase. This paper described the procedure used to develop the climatic change scenarios, the stages of hydrological modeling and the modeling of the hydrological cycle. The impacts of the climatic change scenarios on the flows were also presented along with a short discussion of recommendations to be considered for the next stages of the project. Subsequent stages of this water management project will relate specifically to the quantification of partial and total uncertainties associated with general circulation models, methods of reduction of scale and the applied hydrological models. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

2006-10-05

97

Water quality management in the Kaoping River watershed, Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kaoping River basin is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. It is 171 km long and drains a catchment of more than 3,250 km2. Based on the current water quality analysis, the Kaoping River is heavily polluted. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. Investigation results demonstrate that both point and non-point source pollutants are now the causes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, and pathogens in the river. The main water pollution sources are livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas, and leachate from riverbank landfills. The current daily BOD, NH3-N, and TP loadings to Kaoping River are 74,700, 39,400, and 5,100 kg, respectively. However, the calculated BOD, NH3-N, and TP carrying capacities are 27,700, 4,200, and 600 kg per day. To protect public health and improve the river water quality, a comprehensive management and construction strategy is proposed. The proposed strategy includes the following measures to meet the calculated river carrying capacity: (1) a hog ban in the entire Kaoping River basin, (2) sewer system construction to achieve 30% of connection in the basin within 10 years, (3) removal of 10 riverbank landfills, and (4) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards. After the implementation of the proposed measures, the water quality should be significantly improved and the BOD and nutrient loadings can be reduced to below the calculated carrying capacities.

Kao CM; Chen KF; Liao YL; Chen CW

2003-01-01

98

Evaluation of Best Management Practices in Millsboro Pond Watershed Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Inland Bays in southern Delaware (USA) are facing eutrophication due to the nutrient loading from its watershed. The source of nutrients in the watershed is predominantly agriculture. The Millsboro Pond, a sub-watershed within the Inland Bays basin, was modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. It was found that the contribution of ground water from outside the watershed had a signifi-cant impact on the hydrology of the region. Once the model was calibrated and validated, five management scenarios were implemented, one at a time, to measure its effectiveness in reducing the nutrient loading in the watershed. Among the Best Management Practices (BMPs), planting winter cover crops on the agricul-ture land was the most effective method in reducing the nutrient loads. The second most effective method was to provide grassland riparian zones. The BMPs alone were not able to achieve the nutrient load reduc-tion as required by the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). Two extra scenarios that involved in replac-ing agriculture land with forest, first with deciduous trees and then with high yielding trees were considered. It is suggested that to achieve the required TMDL for the watershed, some parts of the agricultural land may have to be effectively converted into the managed forest with some high yielding trees such as hybrid poplar trees providing cellulose raw material for bio fuels. The remaining agriculture land should take up the prac-tice of planting winter cover crops and better nutrient management. Riparian zones, either in form of forest or grasslands, should be the final line of defense for reducing nutrient loading in the watershed.

Aditya Sood; William F. Ritter

2010-01-01

99

Rainfall Runoff Modelling Using the Principle of Maximum Entropy(Case Study: Kasilian Watershed)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate estimation of runoff for a watershed is a very important issue in water resources management. In this study, the monthly runoff was estimated using the rainfall information and conditional probability distribution model based on the principle of maximum entropy. The information of monthly rainfall and runoff data of Kasilian River basin from 1960 to 2006 were used for the development of model. The model parameters were estimated using the prior information of the watershed such as mean of rainfall, runoff and their covariance. Using the developed model, monthly runoff was estimated for different values of runoff coefficient, , return period, , at different probability levels of rainfall for the basin under study. Results showed that the developed model estimates runoff for all return periods satisfactorily if the runoff coefficient value is taken 0.6. Also, it is observed that at a particular probability level and runoff coefficient, the estimated runoff decreases as return period increases. However, the rate of change of runoff decreases slightly as return period increases.

R. Mirabbasi Najafabadi; Y. Dinpazhoh; A. Fakheri-Fard

2012-01-01

100

Watershed management strategies to prevent and control cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tenets of watershed management--a focus on the land area linked to the water body, the incorporation of sound scientific information into the decision-making process and stakeholder involvement throughout the process--are well-suited for the management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (C-HABs). The management of C-HABs can be viewed as having two main areas of focus. First, there is mitigation--control and/or removal of the bloom. This type of crisis response is an important component to managing active C-HABs and there are several techniques that have been successfully utilized, including the application of algicides, physical removal of surface scums and the mechanical mixing of the water column. While these methods are valuable because they address the immediate problem, they do not address the conditions that exist in the system that promote and maintain C-HABs. Thus, the second component of a successful C-HAB management strategy would include a focus on prevention. C-HABs require nutrients to fuel their growth and are often favored in longer-residence time systems with vertical stratification of the water column. Consequently, nutrients and hydrology are the two factors most commonly identified as the targets for prevention of C-HABs. Management strategies to control the sources, transformation and delivery of the primary growth-limiting nutrients have been applied with success in many areas. The most effective of these include controlling land use, maintaining the integrity of the landscape and applying best management practices. In the past, notable successes in managing C-HABs have relied on the reduction of nutrients from point-sources. Because many point sources are now well-managed, current efforts are focused on non-point source nutrient reduction, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas. Non-point sources present significant challenges due to their diffuse nature. Regardless of which techniques are utilized, effective watershed management programs for decreasing the prevalence of C-HABs will require continuing efforts to integrate science and management activities. Ultimately, it is increased coordination among stakeholders and scientists that will lead to the development of the decision-making tools that managers require to effectively weigh the costs and benefits of these programs. PMID:18461773

Piehler, Michael F

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Watershed management strategies to prevent and control cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tenets of watershed management--a focus on the land area linked to the water body, the incorporation of sound scientific information into the decision-making process and stakeholder involvement throughout the process--are well-suited for the management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (C-HABs). The management of C-HABs can be viewed as having two main areas of focus. First, there is mitigation--control and/or removal of the bloom. This type of crisis response is an important component to managing active C-HABs and there are several techniques that have been successfully utilized, including the application of algicides, physical removal of surface scums and the mechanical mixing of the water column. While these methods are valuable because they address the immediate problem, they do not address the conditions that exist in the system that promote and maintain C-HABs. Thus, the second component of a successful C-HAB management strategy would include a focus on prevention. C-HABs require nutrients to fuel their growth and are often favored in longer-residence time systems with vertical stratification of the water column. Consequently, nutrients and hydrology are the two factors most commonly identified as the targets for prevention of C-HABs. Management strategies to control the sources, transformation and delivery of the primary growth-limiting nutrients have been applied with success in many areas. The most effective of these include controlling land use, maintaining the integrity of the landscape and applying best management practices. In the past, notable successes in managing C-HABs have relied on the reduction of nutrients from point-sources. Because many point sources are now well-managed, current efforts are focused on non-point source nutrient reduction, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas. Non-point sources present significant challenges due to their diffuse nature. Regardless of which techniques are utilized, effective watershed management programs for decreasing the prevalence of C-HABs will require continuing efforts to integrate science and management activities. Ultimately, it is increased coordination among stakeholders and scientists that will lead to the development of the decision-making tools that managers require to effectively weigh the costs and benefits of these programs.

Piehler MF

2008-01-01

102

Detecting Patterns of Land Use Disturbance at a Watershed Scale: A Study of the Navarro River Watershed using Hyperspectral Data Analysis Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of hyperspectral data is a particularly novel approach to investigation of the relation between anthropogenic and natural disturbances, geomorphic responses, and ecosystem patterns at the watershed scale. During July 2000, hyperspectral imagery was collected for the Navarro basin (820km2) using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). This NASA sensor covers the spectral wavelength range from 400nm - 2500nm, with spectral sampling of 10nm in 224 contiguous channels, and spatial resolution of 5m. These data are being analyzed for a variety of applications; however, their use for detecting patterns of disturbance within the watershed is intriguing, especially for the identification and delineation of mass wasting sites that deliver sediment to salmon bearing streams. Mass wasting sites were extracted from AVIRIS imagery using image processing techniques such as Minimum Noise Fraction and Tasseled Cap transformations, image segmentation and masking. These geospatial and spectral data were analyzed for the North Fork of the Navarro River, a sub-basin where spawning habitat for threatened coho salmon is effected by accelerated sediment delivery. Additionally, fieldwork verified the spatial position and dimensions of mass-wasting sites identified from aerial photography. A subset of 1066 identified sites was used for assessing feature extraction error from the AVIRIS imagery; the remaining sites were used for model verification. Augmenting these data within GIS, a multivariate analysis incorporated: proximity to salmon bearing streams; hillslope gradient; landslide position; and timber harvesting to identify patterns of disturbance. Preliminary results indicate that AVIRIS imagery can be segmented to identify exposed soil; furthermore, these identified areas are typically lower elevation, moderately steep hillslopes in constricted river valleys and correspond with mapped delivery sites. Hyperspectral data provide a means for the detection of sediment sources over large areas; however, the geometric and atmospheric corrections required to effectively process these data can be onerous. The current work is part of an interdisciplinary study at UC Davis intended to assist land use managers in development of TMDL guidelines in coastal watersheds in northern California. Our research in the North Fork indicates that similar approaches can be used for both inventorying and monitoring of disturbance patterns at the watershed scale.

Viers, J. H.; Florsheim, J.; Ramirez, C. M.; Quinn, J. F.; Johnson, M. L.; Kozlowicz, B.

2002-12-01

103

Using a Watershed-Based Effluent Trading Approach to Manage Coalbed Methane Produced Water in a Cost-Effective and Environmentally Sound Manner  

Science.gov (United States)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is expected to supply much of the incremental U.S. natural gas demand in the coming decades. Extraction of methane from coal seams necessitates reduction of the hydrostatic pressure in the coalbed by removal of water, called produced water. The large volume of produced water not only raises concerns about its impact on surface water quality but also negatively affects producers' profitability because of costs associated with handling the water in a manner consistent with environmental regulatory requirements imposed by the Clean Water Act. Alternatively, watershed-based effluent trading could provide a market mechanism for managing CBM produced water and more quickly improving the overall water quality in a watershed at a lower cost. However, the complexity of appraising the potential trading options in accordance with the prerequisites of implementation feasibility and the effects on environment, economy, and equity dictates an easy-to-be-implemented tool. This paper presents a decision support tool that can be used by both water resources managers and other stakeholders to evaluate various trading options. The tool consists of a database on water quality and discharge baseline determined in terms of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Total Maximum Daily Loads, algorithms to define trading types and trading and transferability rules, a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model, and a simplified economic model. These components are seamlessly integrated with ArcView GIS to facilitate use of this tool. In addition to the prototype developed for the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, this study formulates a general framework upon which similar tools can be created for other watersheds.

Wang, X.; Harju, J. A.; Bolles, B. A.

2004-12-01

104

DESIGN OF THE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PLACEMENT AND SELECTION OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) FOR STORMWATER CONTROL IN URBAN WATERSHEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

A decision support system for selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds is being developed. The primary objective of the system is to assist stormwater management practioners and decision makers in developing effective...

105

Multiobjective Optimization Combining BMP Technology and Land Preservation for Watershed-based Stormwater Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent progress has been made developing decision-support models for optimal deployment of best management practices (BMP’s) in an urban watershed to achieve water quality goals. One example is the high-level screening model StormWISE, developed by the author (McGarity, 2006) that uses linear and nonlinear programming to narrow the search for optimal solutions to certain land use categories and drainage zones. Another example is the model SUSTAIN developed by USEPA and Tetra Tech (Lai, et al., 2006), which builds on the work of Yu, et al., 2002), that uses a detailed, computationally intensive simulation model driven by a genetic solver to select optimal BMP sites. However, a model that deals only with best management practice (BMP) site selections may fail to consider solutions that avoid future nonpoint pollutant loadings by preserving undeveloped land. This paper presents results of a recently completed research project in which water resource engineers partnered with experienced professionals at a land conservation trust to develop a multiobjective model for watershed management. The result is a revised version of StormWISE that can be used to identify optimal, cost-effective combinations of easements and similar land preservation tools for undeveloped sites along with low impact development (LID) and BMP technologies for developed sites. The goal is to achieve the watershed-wide limits on runoff volume and pollutant loads that are necessary to meet water quality goals as well as ecological benefits associated with habitat preservation and enhancement. A nonlinear programming formulation is presented for the extended StormWISE model that achieves desired levels of environmental benefits at minimum cost. Tradeoffs between different environmental benefits are generated by multiple runs of the model while varying the levels of each environmental benefit obtained. The model is solved using piecewise linearization of environmental benefit functions where each linear segment of represents a different option for reducing stormwater runoff volumes and pollutant loadings. The solutions space is comprised of optimal levels of expenditure for categories of BMP's by land use category and optimal land preservation expenditures by drainage zone. To demonstrate the usefulness of the model, results from its application to the Little Crum Creek watershed in suburban Philadelphia are presented. The model has been used to assist a watershed association and four municipalities to develop an action plan for restoration of water quality on this impaired stream. References Lai, F., J. Zhen, J. Riverson, and L. Shoemaker (2006). "SUSTAIN - An Evaluation and Cost-Optimization Tool for Placement of BMPs," ASCE World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2006. McGarity, A.E. (2006). A Cost Minimization Model to Priortize Urban Catchments for Stormwater BMP Implementation Projects. American Water Resources Association National Meeting, Baltimore, MD, November, 2006. Yu, S., J. X. Zhen, and S.Y. Zhai, (2002). Development of Stormwater Best Management Practice Placement Strategy for the Virginia Department of Transportation. Final Contract Report, VTRC 04-CR9, Virginia Transportation Research Council.

McGarity, A. E.

2009-12-01

106

Impact of conservationpractices on soil quality indicators: case study in the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed, Oklahoma  

Science.gov (United States)

While there has been controversy amongst researchers about the concepts and terminology of soil quality, there is agreement that management has critical effects on soils and that soils can either move toward or away from a condition that is favorable for the defined use of that soil. Within watershe...

107

Sustainable forest management: a challenging task in the siran watershed of district Mansehra in the NWFP of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure has led to unsustainable forest management during the past three decades in the study area. Strategic analysis of the system indicates that lack of national conservation based forest management has further aggravated the problem. Moreover, SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis show that the internal weaknesses and external threats outweigh the internal strengths and external opportunities of the Forest Department. Based on these analytical results, priority issues were evaluated in terms of their efficiency, social soundness, institutional acceptability and environmental sustainability. The proposed sustainable forest management options which fulfilled this criteria were the community based forest management, wood demand and supply management interventions, institutional restructuring and income generation opportunities using integrated forest management in the study area. (author)

2005-01-01

108

Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

|The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

2008-01-01

109

Parcelling out the watershed: The recurring consequences of organising Columbia river management within a basin-based territory  

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Full Text Available This article examines a 75-year history of North America’s Columbia river to answer the question: what difference does a river basin territory actually make? Advocates reason that river basins and watersheds are natural and holistic water management spaces, and can avoid the fragmentations and conflicts endemic to water management within traditional political territories. However, on the Columbia, this reasoning has not played out in practice. Instead, basin management has been shaped by challenges from and negotiations with more traditional jurisdictional spaces and political districts. The recurring result has been 'parcelling out the watershed': coordinating river management to produce a few spreadable benefits, and distributing these benefits, as well as other responsibilities and policy-making influence, to jurisdictional parts and political districts. To provide generous spreadable benefits, river management has unevenly emphasised hydropower, resulting in considerable environmental losses. However, benefits have been widely spread and shared – and over time challengers have forced management to diversify. Thus a river basin territory over time produced patterns of both positive and negative environmental, social, economic, and democratic outcomes. To improve the outcomes of watershed-based water management, we need more interactive and longer-term models attentive to dynamic politics and geographies.

Eve Vogel

2012-01-01

110

USGS perspectives on an integrated approach to watershed and coastal management  

Science.gov (United States)

The writers discuss three critically important steps necessary for achieving the goal for improved integrated approaches on watershed and coastal protection and management. These steps involve modernization of monitoring networks, creation of common data and web services infrastructures, and development of modeling, assessment, and research tools. Long-term monitoring is needed for tracking the effectiveness approaches for controlling land-based sources of nutrients, contaminants, and invasive species. The integration of mapping and monitoring with conceptual and mathematical models, and multidisciplinary assessments is important in making well-informed decisions. Moreover, a better integrated data network is essential for mapping, statistical, and modeling applications, and timely dissemination of data and information products to a broad community of users.

Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Robert R. Jr.

2010-01-01

111

Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide sediment to critical water bodies. Nutrients and chemicals from cropland and urban sewage are transported into the water systems. Many reservoirs which have been established for hydroelectric power, urban water supply and irrigation accumulate an alarmingly higher level of sediment than expected. Koka, Angereb, Legedadi, Gilgel Gibe I and other reservoirs are threatened by this accelerated sedimentation. Consequences of reservoir sedimentation include the loss of storage capacity and its subsequent effects. These effects include water supply shortages for human consumption, irrigation and hydropower; increased hydro-equipment maintenance and repair; a decline in water quality; the cost of removing sediment; blockage of navigational waters and loss of recreation opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are modified by increased deposition of sediments and adsorbed or dissolved nutrients and chemicals, which commonly causes eutrophication which in turn negatively influences habitats of fish and other organisms. Some of the techniques suggested to reduce reservoir sediment concentration are technically less feasible as it requires design considerations during construction (which is difficult to implement for the existing dams). Removal of sediment is also economically demanding. Among the approaches and techniques proposed and implemented, integrated participatory watershed management is strongly recommended to reduce sediment inflow in sustainable pattern.

Kebede Wolka Wolancho

2012-01-01

112

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TWO DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED MODELS WITH APPLICATION TO A SMALL WATERSHED  

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Distributed watershed models are beneficial tools for assessment of management practices on runoff and water-induced erosion. This paper evaluates, by application to an experimental watershed, two promising distributed watershed-scale sediment models in detail: The Kinematic Runo...

113

Studies on Twin Micro-Watersheds, Melekote and Rajagatta Dodballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka State through Morphometry, Land Formation and Water Quality  

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Full Text Available The paper discusses assessment of various chemical constituents present in groundwater besides morphology, and land form characteristics of twin micro-watersheds (viz., Melekote and Rajaghatta) Dodballapur Taluk, (Karnataka) coming under semi-arid climatic zone. Farmers who are mainly depending on agricultural yields for their living are disappointed due to vagaries of monsoons and undependable rainfall. This is particularly so in arid and semi-arid regions. These regions suffer from water scarcity, soil degradation, low crop yield, high soil erosion and gradual depletion of soil fertility. All these factors culminate in planning for conservation and storage of water in small watersheds for future needs, i.e., during drought conditions. In many areas, it is observed that the water table levels are declining resulting in problems of increased concentration of solutes and deterioration of groundwater quality. All aspects of hydrological studies are covered in relation to watershed management in order to formulate strategies for sustainable agricultural development. Morphometry, landform and topography play an important role in understanding the hydrological response of any watershed. Quantitative morphometric analysis has been carried out on the watershed along with landform and topographical study.

S. G. Ramachandraiah; M. Inayathulla; P. S. Nagaraj; G. Ranganna; R. Druvashree

2012-01-01

114

Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.

S. Suyanto; Noviana Khususiyah; Beria Leimona

2007-01-01

115

The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health  

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Full Text Available The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

Alan S. Kolok; Cheryl L. Beseler; Xun-Hong Chen; Patrick J. Shea

2009-01-01

116

A framework for assessing cumulative effects in watersheds: an introduction to Canadian case studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 2008 to 2013, a series of studies supported by the Canadian Water Network were conducted in Canadian watersheds in an effort to improve methods to assess cumulative effects. These studies fit under a common framework for watershed cumulative effects assessment (CEA). This article presents an introduction to the Special Series on Watershed CEA in IEAM including the framework and its impetus, a brief introduction to each of the articles in the series, challenges, and a path forward. The framework includes a regional water monitoring program that produces 3 core outputs: an accumulated state assessment, stressor-response relationships, and development of predictive cumulative effects scenario models. The framework considers core values, indicators, thresholds, and use of consistent terminology. It emphasizes that CEA requires 2 components, accumulated state quantification and predictive scenario forecasting. It recognizes both of these components must be supported by a regional, multiscale monitoring program.

Dubé MG; Duinker P; Greig L; Carver M; Servos M; McMaster M; Noble B; Schreier H; Jackson L; Munkittrick KR

2013-07-01

117

Valuing soft components in agricultural water management interventions in meso-scale watersheds: A review and synthesis  

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Full Text Available Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2) is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM) goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM) interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

Jennie Barron; Stacey Noel

2011-01-01

118

Impediments and Solutions to Sustainable, Watershed-Scale Urban Stormwater Management: Lessons from Australia and the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

In urban and suburban areas, stormwater runoff is a primary stressor on surface waters. Conventional urban stormwater drainage systems often route runoff directly to streams and rivers, thus exacerbating pollutant inputs and hydrologic disturbance, and resulting in the degradation of ecosystem structure and function. Decentralized stormwater management tools, such as low impact development (LID) or water sensitive urban design (WSUD), may offer a more sustainable solution to stormwater management if implemented at a watershed scale. These tools are designed to pond, infiltrate, and harvest water at the source, encouraging evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, and re-use of stormwater. While there are numerous demonstrations of WSUD practices, there are few examples of widespread implementation at a watershed scale with the explicit objective of protecting or restoring a receiving stream. This article identifies seven major impediments to sustainable urban stormwater management: (1) uncertainties in performance and cost, (2) insufficient engineering standards and guidelines, (3) fragmented responsibilities, (4) lack of institutional capacity, (5) lack of legislative mandate, (6) lack of funding and effective market incentives, and (7) resistance to change. By comparing experiences from Australia and the United States, two developed countries with existing conventional stormwater infrastructure and escalating stream ecosystem degradation, we highlight challenges facing sustainable urban stormwater management and offer several examples of successful, regional WSUD implementation. We conclude by identifying solutions to each of the seven impediments that, when employed separately or in combination, should encourage widespread implementation of WSUD with watershed-based goals to protect human health and safety, and stream ecosystems.

Roy, Allison H.; Wenger, Seth J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Ladson, Anthony R.; Shuster, William D.; Thurston, Hale W.; Brown, Rebekah R.

2008-08-01

119

Assessment and management of water resources in Northeastern Algeria: case of watersheds Kebir West Safsaf and Guebli rivers, Skikda  

Science.gov (United States)

In Algeria, as in many other parts of the world, population growth, rapid urbanization, and economic development weigh heavily on water resources. In order to better manage these resources, this paper reports a detailed estimate of groundwater and superficial water of Skikda region, for an appropriate management and adequate use of this resource. Located in north east of Algeria, the study area is composed of three watersheds, covering an area of approximately 4,138 km2. The groundwater is abundant in the region, represented mainly by the alluvial deposits water. This accumulated reserve is yearly renewed thanks to the efficient infiltration of rain water. Moreover, the superficial resources are an important part of water heritage of the region catchment, with a permanent flow of various streams that carry a considerable volume, with important hydraulic structures allowing the mobilization of a certain volume. Water needs are increasing in the same direction as the development of industry and agriculture sectors in the area of study.

Samia, Titi Benrabah; Houria, Kherici Bousnoubra; Nacer, Kherici; Marc, Cote

2013-06-01

120

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scale and are important strata for framing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchical classification procedures aid in HP identification by grouping sections of river based on their hydrogeomorphic character; however, collecting data required for such procedures with field-based methods is often impractical. We developed a set of GIS-based tools that facilitate rapid, low cost riverine landscape characterization and FPZ classification. Our tools, termed RESonate, consist of a custom toolbox designed for ESRI ArcGIS®. RESonate automatically extracts 13 hydrogeomorphic variables from readily available geospatial datasets and datasets derived from modeling procedures. An advanced 2D flood model, FLDPLN, designed for MATLAB® is used to determine valley morphology by systematically flooding river networks. When used in conjunction with other modeling procedures, RESonate and FLDPLN can assess the character of large river networks quickly and at very low costs. Here we describe tool and model functions in addition to their benefits, limitations, and applications. PMID:23435849

Williams, Bradley S; D'Amico, Ellen; Kastens, Jude H; Thorp, James H; Flotemersch, Joseph E; Thoms, Martin C

2013-02-24

 
 
 
 
121

Automated riverine landscape characterization: GIS-based tools for watershed-scale research, assessment, and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

River systems consist of hydrogeomorphic patches (HPs) that emerge at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Functional process zones (FPZs) are HPs that exist at the river valley scale and are important strata for framing whole-watershed research questions and management plans. Hierarchical classification procedures aid in HP identification by grouping sections of river based on their hydrogeomorphic character; however, collecting data required for such procedures with field-based methods is often impractical. We developed a set of GIS-based tools that facilitate rapid, low cost riverine landscape characterization and FPZ classification. Our tools, termed RESonate, consist of a custom toolbox designed for ESRI ArcGIS®. RESonate automatically extracts 13 hydrogeomorphic variables from readily available geospatial datasets and datasets derived from modeling procedures. An advanced 2D flood model, FLDPLN, designed for MATLAB® is used to determine valley morphology by systematically flooding river networks. When used in conjunction with other modeling procedures, RESonate and FLDPLN can assess the character of large river networks quickly and at very low costs. Here we describe tool and model functions in addition to their benefits, limitations, and applications.

Williams BS; D'Amico E; Kastens JH; Thorp JH; Flotemersch JE; Thoms MC

2013-09-01

122

Debris flow run off simulation and verification ? case study of Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan  

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Full Text Available In 1996 typhoon Herb struck the central Taiwan area, causing severe debris flow in many subwatersheds of the Chen-You-Lan river watershed. More severe cases of debris flow occurred following Chi-Chi earthquake, 1999. In order to identify the potentially affected area and its severity, the ability to simulate the flow route of debris is desirable. In this research numerical simulation of debris flow deposition process had been carried out using FLO-2D adopting Chui-Sue river watershed as the study area. Sensitivity study of parameters used in the numerical model was conducted and adjustments were made empirically. The micro-geomorphic database of Chui-Sue river watershed was generated and analyzed to understand the terrain variations caused by the debris flow. Based on the micro-geomorphic analysis, the debris deposition in the Chui-Sue river watershed in the downstream area, and the position and volume of debris deposition were determined. The simulated results appeared to agree fairly well with the results of micro-geomorphic study of the area when not affected by other inflow rivers, and the trends of debris distribution in the study area appeared to be fairly consistent.

M.-L. Lin; K.-L. Wang; J.-J. Huang

2005-01-01

123

Watershed Restoration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

2007-09-27

124

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) at the Small Watershed Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been numerous studies of the water quantity and quality functions of stormwater BMPs at the site scale, but relatively few assessments at the watershed scale. This presentation will present an overview and initial results of projects to evaluate the effectiveness of g...

125

Payment for Environmental Services (PES) - A feasibility study for watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia  

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Full Text Available PES markets create opportunities to address environmental problems on a local scale through negotiations with stakeholders: communities that are in a position to provide an ES receive compensation from those who benefit from this service. This type of direct environmental management has the potential to set up effective systems of price setting, which can be especially beneficial in developing countries with weak histories of environmental governance. The objective of this paper is to discuss whether upland communities in mainland SEA have a suitable structure to establish PES at the local scale within the community. Data collected from two case studies in Northern Thailand and Lao PDR, are used in this purpose. The main findings of the study are summarised as follows: (i) the stakeholders’ perception of their rights on land is critical to implementation of PES, irrespective of the actual rights which support this perception; (ii) WTP is very low among local stakeholders, making any PES market unlikely to emerge without external support; (iv) the classical scheme for watershed services hardly apply in its original form at small scale because of the fuzzy difference between potential ES providers and receivers; (v) when upland stakeholders are perceived as wealthier than the lowlanders, the latter have no WTP for ES provided by the former; (vi) good governance, including a strong web of relationships at various levels between people and the authorities is a strong prerequisite for a PES market to be established, even without direct government funding.

Alana George; Alain Pierret; Arthorn Boonsaner; Valentin Christian; Olivier Planchon

2009-01-01

126

A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO MANAGING STORMWATER RUNOFF IN AN URBAN WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased impervious surface (e.g., roofs, pavement) due to urbanization can lead to excess runoff throughout a watershed, overwhelming the existing stormwater infrastructure. High volumes of runoff, delivered to receiving streams over short durations at high flow rates, negative...

127

COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACE IMPACTS ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Impervious surface is one of the primary agents of hydrologic change in urbanizing watersheds, and its impacts on hydrologic cycles and terrestrial ecological regimes are multifold. The mechanisms through which these impacts are manifested are not well understood, hampering effec...

128

COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACES IMPACTS ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

Impervious surface is one of the primary agents of hydrologic change in urbanizing watersheds, and its impacts on hydrologic cycles and terrestrial ecological regimes are multifold. The mechanisms through which these impacts are manifested are not well understood, hampering effec...

129

Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15-36-years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0-30 cm depth were studied for the period of 1939-1999 at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (<3 ha, Dystric Cambisol, Haplic Luvisol, and Haplic Alisol) near Coshocton, OH, USA. Six management treatments were: (1) no tillage continuous corn with NPK (NC); (2) no tillage continuous corn with NPK and manure (NTC-M); (3) no tillage corn?soybean rotation (NTR); (4) chisel tillage corn?soybean rotation (CTR); (5) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with improved practices (MTR-I); (6) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with prevalent practices (MTR-P). The SOC pool ranged from 24.5Mgha?1 in the 32-years moldboard tillage corn (Zea mays L.)?wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?meadow?meadow rotation with straight row farming and annual application of fertilizer (N:P:K = 5:9:17) of 56?112 kg ha?1 and cattle (Bos taurus) manure of 9Mg ha?1 as the prevalent system (MTR-P) to 65.5Mgha?1 in the 36-years no tillage continuous corn with contour row farming and annual application of 170?225 kgNha?1 and appropriate amounts of P and K, and 6?11Mgha?1 of cattle manure as the improved system (NTC-M).

Hao, Yueli; Lal, Rattan; Owens, Lloyd; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, W M.; Hothem, Daniel

2002-12-01

130

Pressures and Impacts On Water Quality: Case Study of Guadiana River Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

According to Article 5 and Annex II of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is required that Member States identify significant anthropogenic pressures on river basins and also assess the potential impact of these pressures on the water bodies. The following areas have to be identified: point and diffuse sources pollution, the wa- ter abstraction, the water flow regulation, the morphological alterations and land use patterns. This work intends to describe and analyse the application of an integrated methodology for studying the importance of pressures and impacts on water quality. The methodology integrates loads calculation and mathematical models with Geo- graphical Information Systems (GIS). First step is to identify and characterise, point and diffuse sources of pollution, then estimate loads associate to that sources. Using GIS tools it is possible mapping the most problematic zones inside of the basin, con- cerning pressures to water resources. GIS model will be applied in order to estimate loads from diffuse pollution, using watershed characteristics, namely land use and to- pography. The obtained results together with loads from point sources pollution, will be integrated in a water quality model to evaluate the impacts of this pressures on the basin. For a correct basin management, it is necessary to minimise this impacts, with action plans and monitoring programmes, to improve water quality and achieve the environmental objectives. The case study is the Guadiana river, an international basin with a total area of 66 860 km2, having it is headwaters in Spain with a basin of 55 260 km2. The national area has 11 600 km2 and a big dam is being building, Alqueva, cre- ating a reservoir basin with 250 km2 and a storage capacity of 4 150 hm3. Guadiana river has an important role in the south of Portugal, a region with drought problems. Although the poor water quality that reaches the border, the Portuguese basin also has some important pollution sources. These can be distributed as 35 per cent urban dis- charges, 39 per cent animal feedlots sector and 18 per cent food production. Many of these discharges do not have any treatment which causes a large amount of nutrients exportation to the water and soil. On the other hand, agricultural activities and animal production have a great impact in this basin as non-point pollution sources. During the last years, algae bloom occurred in several reservoirs, that are spread all over the watershed, and in even in the Guadiana river, showing that this basin has already eu- trophication problems.

Gomes, F.; Quadrado, F.

131

Spatial Analysis of Soil Erosion and Sediment Fluxes: A Paired Watershed Study of Two Rappahannock River Tributaries, Stafford County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil erosion is a serious problem in areas with expanding construction, agricultural production, and improper storm water management. It is important to understand the major processes affecting sediment delivery to surficial water bodies in order to tailor effective mitigation and outreach activities. This study analyzes how naturally occurring and anthropogenic influences, such as urbanization and soil disturbance on steep slopes, are reflected in the amount of soil erosion and sediment delivery within sub-watershed-sized areas. In this study, two sub-watersheds of the Rappahannock River, Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run, were analyzed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) to estimate annual sediment flux rates. The RUSLE/SDR analyses for Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run predicted 298 Mg/y and 234 Mg/y, respectively, but nearly identical per-unit-area sediment flux rates of 0.15 Mg/ha/y and 0.18 Mg/ha/y. Suspended sediment sampling indicated greater amounts of sediment in Little Falls Run, which is most likely due to anthropogenic influences. Field analyses also suggest that all-terrain vehicle crossings represent the majority of sediment flux derived from forested areas of Horsepen Run. The combined RUSLE/SDR and field sampling data indicate that small-scale anthropogenic disturbances (ATV trails and construction sites) play a major role in overall sediment flux rates for both basins and that these sites must be properly accounted for when evaluating sediment flux rates at a sub-watershed scale.

Ricker, Matthew C.; Odhiambo, Ben K.; Church, Joseph M.

2008-05-01

132

[Preliminary study on linking land use & landscape pattern and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Geospatial analysis and statistical analysis were integrated to link land use & landscape pattern and water quality in 2002 and 2007 at the entire watershed and buffer zone scale in the Jiulong River Watershed. Results show that the relationships between land use & landscape pattern and water quality in 2002 and 2007 were basically consistent, namely: (1) Percentage of built-up area was positively correlated with BOD5, NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index, and negatively correlated with DO; percentage of woodland area was positively correlated with NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index; percentage of cropland area was negatively correlated with NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index. (2) SHDI was positively correlated with permanganate index, TP, NH4(+)-N, and negatively correlated with DO at the entire watershed and buffer scale; LPI was negatively correlated with BOD5, permanganate index, TP and NH4(+)-N, and positively correlated with DO at the entire watershed and buffer zone scale; PD was positively correlated with BOD5, TP and NH4(+)-N; Most of the landscape pattern metrics was not the good predictors for water quality in study watershed. (3) Water quality parameters in buffer zone area have more significant correlations with percentage of land use type areas and landscape pattern metrics, because most water quality parameters in the buffer zone can be better explained with greater adjusted coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2). (4) Compared to landscape pattern metrics, percentage of land use type area can predict water quality better because most water quality parameters have more stable correlations.

Huang JL; Li QS; Hong HS; Lin J; Qu MC

2011-01-01

133

[Preliminary study on linking land use & landscape pattern and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

Science.gov (United States)

Geospatial analysis and statistical analysis were integrated to link land use & landscape pattern and water quality in 2002 and 2007 at the entire watershed and buffer zone scale in the Jiulong River Watershed. Results show that the relationships between land use & landscape pattern and water quality in 2002 and 2007 were basically consistent, namely: (1) Percentage of built-up area was positively correlated with BOD5, NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index, and negatively correlated with DO; percentage of woodland area was positively correlated with NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index; percentage of cropland area was negatively correlated with NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and permanganate index. (2) SHDI was positively correlated with permanganate index, TP, NH4(+)-N, and negatively correlated with DO at the entire watershed and buffer scale; LPI was negatively correlated with BOD5, permanganate index, TP and NH4(+)-N, and positively correlated with DO at the entire watershed and buffer zone scale; PD was positively correlated with BOD5, TP and NH4(+)-N; Most of the landscape pattern metrics was not the good predictors for water quality in study watershed. (3) Water quality parameters in buffer zone area have more significant correlations with percentage of land use type areas and landscape pattern metrics, because most water quality parameters in the buffer zone can be better explained with greater adjusted coefficient of determination (Adjusted R2). (4) Compared to landscape pattern metrics, percentage of land use type area can predict water quality better because most water quality parameters have more stable correlations. PMID:21404666

Huang, Jin-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Lin, Jie; Qu, Meng-Chao

2011-01-01

134

Movements by adult cutthroat trout in a lotic system: Implications for watershed-scale management  

Science.gov (United States)

Movements by adult cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson), were assessed from autumn to summer in the Salt River watershed, Wyoming-Idaho, USA by radio telemetry. Adult cutthroat trout were captured during September and October 2005 in the main stem of the Salt River, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked through to August 2006. Adult cutthroat trout were relatively sedentary and resided primarily in pools from October to March, but their movement rates increased during April. Higher movement rates were observed among tagged fish during May and early June. Among 43 fish residing in the Salt River during April 2006, 44% remained in the river, 37% moved into mountain tributaries and 19% moved into spring streams during the spawning season. Fish did not use segments of mountain tributaries or the upstream Salt River where fish passage was blocked by anthropogenic barriers or the channel was dewatered during summer. Almost all the fish that moved into spring streams used spring streams where pools and gravel-cobble riffles had been constructed by landowners. The results suggest that adult Snake River cutthroat move widely during May and early June to use spawning habitat in mountain tributaries and improved spring streams. Maintaining the ability of adult fish to move into mountain streams with spawning habitat, preserving spawning habitat in accessible mountain tributaries and removing barriers to upstream movements, and re-establishing summer stream flows in mountain tributaries affected by dams appear to be habitat management alternatives to preserve the Snake River cutthroat trout fishery in the Salt River. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sanderson, T. B.; Hubert, W. A.

2009-01-01

135

Avaliacao ambiental estrategica de planosde bacias hidrograficas/ Strategic environmental assessment for watershed management plans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica (AAE) é um instrumento de avaliação de impactos ambientais de Políticas, Planos e Programas (PPPs). Tendo em vista o planejamento dos recursos hídricos no Brasil, o objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar as contribuições da AAE para a elaboração de Planos de Bacias Hidrográficas no país, tendo como objeto de estudo a Bacia do Rio Pardo, no estado de São Paulo. Para tant (more) o, realizaram-se entrevistas com colaboradores do Comitê e acompanhou-se o Grupo de Trabalho do Relatório de Situação dos Recursos Hídricos. Verificou-se que a aplicação da AAE permitiria a incorporação dos princípios de sustentabilidade ambiental no desenvolvimento dos Planos; a integração com outros PPPs correlatos; o levantamento e avaliação de impactos de alternativas de desenvolvimento na Bacia e a identificação de indicadores para o monitoramento do Plano de forma contínua Abstract in english Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool for assessing environmental impacts of Policy, Plans and Programmes (PPPs). In view of the water resources planning in Brazil, this paper aimed to evaluate the contributions of the SEA for the development of Watershed Management Plans in the country, having as object the Pardoâ€(tm)s River Basin, in state of Sao Paulo. To this end, we carried out interviews with staff of the Committee and followed the Working G (more) roup of the Status Report of Water Resources. It was found that the application of SEA allowed the incorporation of the environmental sustainability principles in the development of Plans, the integration with other related PPPs, the survey and impact assessment of the development alternatives in the Basin and the identification of indicators for monitoring the Plan

Pizella, Denise Gallo; Souza, Marcelo Pereira de

2013-09-01

136

Using four capitals to assess watershed sustainability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

Pérez-Maqueo O; Martinez ML; Vázquez G; Equihua M

2013-03-01

137

Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify differences in mean Campylobacter spp. infection risks among monitoring sites for a hypothetical exposure scenario. Greater relative mean risks were obtained for sites in the controlled tile drainage watershed than in the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed in each year of monitoring with pair-wise posterior probabilities exceeding 0.699, and the lowest relative mean risks were found at a downstream drinking water intake reference site. The second-order modelling approach was used to partition sources of uncertainty, which revealed that an adequate representation of the temporal variation in Campylobacter spp. concentrations for risk assessment was achieved with as few as 10 MPN data per site. This study demonstrates for the first time how QMRA can be implemented to evaluate, in a relative sense, the public health implications of controlled tile drainage on watershed-scale water quality.

Schmidt PJ; Pintar KD; Fazil AM; Flemming CA; Lanthier M; Laprade N; Sunohara MD; Simhon A; Thomas JL; Topp E; Wilkes G; Lapen DR

2013-06-01

138

Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify differences in mean Campylobacter spp. infection risks among monitoring sites for a hypothetical exposure scenario. Greater relative mean risks were obtained for sites in the controlled tile drainage watershed than in the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed in each year of monitoring with pair-wise posterior probabilities exceeding 0.699, and the lowest relative mean risks were found at a downstream drinking water intake reference site. The second-order modelling approach was used to partition sources of uncertainty, which revealed that an adequate representation of the temporal variation in Campylobacter spp. concentrations for risk assessment was achieved with as few as 10 MPN data per site. This study demonstrates for the first time how QMRA can be implemented to evaluate, in a relative sense, the public health implications of controlled tile drainage on watershed-scale water quality. PMID:23623467

Schmidt, P J; Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A M; Flemming, C A; Lanthier, M; Laprade, N; Sunohara, M D; Simhon, A; Thomas, J L; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Lapen, D R

2013-02-26

139

Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan-Modification. A Modification of Mid-Snake TMDL and Upper Snake Rock TDML to Account for the Aquaculture Wasteload Allocation. Part One: Fish Production Facilities and Conservation Hatcheries; Part Two: Fish Processors; and Part Three: Billingsley Creek Facilties.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes the modification of three total maximum daily loads (TMDLs): the Middle Snake River Watershed Management Plan (or Mid-Snake TMDL), the Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan (or Upper Snake Rock TMDL), and the Billingsley Creek...

2005-01-01

140

Estudo da bacia hidrográfica da barragem "Monjolinho" A study of the earth dam "monjolinho" watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores estudam a bacia hidrográfica da barragem "Monjolinho". notadamente a velocidade de assoreamento. São descritas as características físicas da bacia, baseadas no levantamento planialtimétrico da área. Descrevem também, o tipo de solo e a cobertura vegetal encontrados no local, bem como as alterações ocorridas na bacia de inundação e no talude de montante do atêrro, após período de 7 anos de funcionamento do açude.In this paper the authors present the study of the "Monjolinho" earth dam watershed with particular reference of its silting problem. The physical characteristics of the watershed, based on a plane - altimetric survey, are presented. A description of the soil type, vegetative cover, as well as of the changes that took place in the reservoir flood and in the upstream side slope after 7 years of use is given.

G. B. Barreto; R. Forster; J. Bertoni

1962-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Soil Erosion Prediction Using GIS and RUSLE: Study at Sampean Watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erosionis one factor that cause soil degradation in Indonesia. RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) is widely usedto predict average annual rate of soil erosion. This research integrate the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(RUSLE) and Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict potential soil erosion losses. Study was conducted atSampean Watershed where located in Eastern part of East Java. Firstly, GIS layer was obtained from available databasethat cover East Java Province. All treatment of GIS layer was done using Mapwindows GIS. Furthermore, RUSLEmethod was used to predict rate of soil erosion from GIS layer treated previously. Results showed that up to 82%(102,921 ha) area of the watershed have tolerable soil erosion rate.

Arif Faisol; Indarto

2010-01-01

142

Holistically Evaluating the Impact of Water and Land Use Management in the Santa Cruz Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Governments, tribal leaders and citizens within the Santa Cruz watershed (United States, Mexico, the Tohono O'odham and the Pascua Yaqui Tribes) face environmental and economic issues of ensuring people have access to clean water and sanitation while vital ecosystems are protect...

143

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN THE CLARK FORK-PEND OREILLE WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) Analyze the nutrient concentration and algal standing crop trend in the Clark Fork River portion of the watershed; (2) Provide a web-based data access system for reporting Clark Fork River monitoring information; and (3) Evaluate the effectiveness of current nutrient reductio...

144

Relative effects of nitric and sulfuric acid deposition on watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of acid deposition on the chemistry of Bickford Reservoir in central Massachusetts is substantially mitigated by nearly quantitative retention of nitrate by the watershed. In contrast to other northeastern US watersheds, stream and water column nitrate levels are very low (I ..mu..eq/liter), and a nitric acid pulse accompanying spring runoff has not been observed in two years of study. Major differences in nitrogen processing among northeastern US watersheds appear to significantly alter watershed susceptibility to acid deposition, and may be of comparable importance to soil depth and mineralogy in the identification of acid-sensitive ecosystems. The routine assessment of nitrate retention in potentially vulnerable stream and lake waters is suggested, and management practices to enhance nitrate retention on potentially acid-sensitive watersheds should be explored. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Hemond, H.F.; Eshleman, K.N.

1983-01-01

145

Predictive Model of Rainfall-Runoff: A Case Study of the Sanaga Basin at Bamendjin Watershed in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to reduce the energy deficit recorded in Cameroon, management of watersheds where storage dams are situated plays a vital role. The Bamendjin dam situated upstream of the river Sanaga in Cameroon plays a significant role in regulating the flow of the river Sanaga which is used to g...

Terence Kibula Lukong; Michel Mbessa; Thomas Tamo Tatietse

146

Payments for Watershed Protection Services: Emerging Lessons from the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is growing interest on payments for ecosystem services (PES) in developing countries including the Philippines. Watersheds have been degraded through deforestation and subsequent conversion to other land cover, principally for agriculture. In the last decade, several Payments for Watershed Services schemes have been implemented and this paper is an attempt to assess the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different management leadership in the Philippines. We reviewed four cases specifically related to watershed services in the: 1) Bakun Watershed, 2) Maasin Watershed, 3) Sibuyan Watershed, and 4) Baticulan Watershed. The case studies of varying stages of implementation has shown that the chances of success of PES schemes in promoting watershed conservation and rehabilitation as well as in improving the livelihoods of upland communities is constrained by incomplete information and knowledge about the interaction between ecosystem properties and provision of services, and the difficulty in establishing voluntary participation and conditionality of payments. In this paper, we argued that institutions may enable or hinder the successful implementation of PES. The role of the local government as intermediaries is crucial in the process of establishing PES more particularly in the information dissemination and education of the key stakeholders. The case studies also showed how PES programs are reinforced by the presence of non-government organizations.

Daniel Gaitán Cremaschi; Rodel D. Lasco; Rafaela Jane P. Delfino

2012-01-01

147

Hydrological characterization of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Executive Summary Water is one of the most critical resource and constraint in the semi-arid tropics (SAT). To minimize land degradation and sustain crop productivity in the SAT, management and efficient utilization of rainwater is important. Watershed-based resource utilization involves the optimum use of the area’sprecipitation for the improvement and stabilization of agriculture on the watershed through better water, soil, and crop management. More effective utilization of water for the production of crops canbe facilitated by one or more of the following means: (i) in situ conservation of moisture; (ii) proper drainage, collection, storage, and re-utilization of runoff; and (iii) groundwater recovery from wells. For the proper development, conservation, and management of land and water resources, accurate information on surface and groundwater hydrology is crucial. Under the Asian Development Bank(ADB)-supported project on integrated watershed management we studied the hydrological behavior of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam. From the five benchmarkwatersheds, the information on topography, rainfall, runoff, groundwater, and other relevant data were collected and analyzed.The hydrological data from the five benchmark watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam clearly show the effectiveness of improved watershed technologies in reducing runoff volume and peakrunoff rate. The highest runoff volume of 433 mm (51% of seasonal rainfall) was recorded from the Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, while the lowest runoff volume of 55 mm (7% of seasonal rainfall) wasrecorded from the Adarsha watershed in Kothapally, India. The highest peak runoff rate of 0.235 m3 s-1ha-1 was recorded from the untreated watershed at Kothapally. Between the treated and untreatedwatersheds the maximum difference in runoff volume was recorded at Lalatora watershed in India(290 mm in untreated compared to 55 mm in treated watershed). Among the three locations in India, the highest runoff was recorded at Lalatora watershed followed by Ringnodia and Kothapally watersheds. The groundwater observations from the three sites in India, clearly show the effectiveness of the improved watershed technologies in increasing the groundwater recharge therebyimproving the availability of water for agricultural and other uses. Throughout the season the groundwater levels in the treated areas were significantly higher compared to the groundwater levelsin the untreated areas. In terms of prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge, the Tad Fa watershed inThailand has the highest potential followed by Lalatora watershed in India. The prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge at Ringnodia and Adarsha watersheds in India aremoderate. The region-specific hydrological data reported in this publication will be useful in the planning, design, development, and management of land and water resources in the target regions.

P Pathak; SP Wani; Piara Singh; R Sudi; Ch Srinivasa Rao

2006-01-01

148

Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP): a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru)  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i) adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii) quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii) estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi) reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i), a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and simulated river flow at 16 control points in the Rio Santa watershed. At the global scale of the watershed, the glacier retreat is correctly simulated for the period 1970/1999 with a calculated retreat equals to -23% when the observed retreat is of -24%. Having established that the model can respond to these scientific objectives, the ultimate goal of the study was to demonstrate how this integrated modelling system can be used as a decision support tool to assist in planning water management adaptation to climate change. This sort of integrated assessment is required to adapt water resources management in the Andes to a~range of future climatic conditions, improving the resilience of developing Andean economies such Peru's in the face of a major drive of global change.

Condom, T.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D.; Pouget, J. C.; Suarez, W.; Ramos, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Zapata, M.; Gomez, J.; Vergara, W.

2011-01-01

149

Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP): a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i) adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii) quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii) estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi) reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i), a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and simulated river flow at 16 control points in the Rio Santa watershed. At the global scale of the watershed, the glacier retreat is correctly simulated for the period 1970/1999 with a calculated retreat equals to ?23% when the observed retreat is of ?24%. Having established that the model can respond to these scientific objectives, the ultimate goal of the study was to demonstrate how this integrated modelling system can be used as a decision support tool to assist in planning water management adaptation to climate change. This sort of integrated assessment is required to adapt water resources management in the Andes to a~range of future climatic conditions, improving the resilience of developing Andean economies such Peru's in the face of a major drive of global change.

T. Condom; M. Escobar; D. Purkey; J. C. Pouget; W. Suarez; C. Ramos; J. Apaestegui; M. Zapata; J. Gomez; W. Vergara

2011-01-01

150

Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

2007-03-01

151

The experimental watersheds in Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

2008-11-01

152

SWITCHGRASS BIOFUELS RESEARCH WITH NATIVE GRASSES AT THE USDA-ARS PASTURE SYSTEMS AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH UNIT, UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biomass energy crop is conducted at several USDA-ARS facilities across the USA. At the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit in University Park, Pennsylvania, research on biomass energy focuses on cropping systems, environm...

153

Forestry best management practices: evaluation of alternate streamside management zones on stream water quality in Pockwock Lake and Five Mile Lake watersheds in central Nova Scotia, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of timber harvesting on stream water quality and efficiency of alternate streamside management zones were evaluated in Pockwock Lake and Five Mile Lake watersheds in central Nova Scotia, Canada. The streamside management zone (SMZ) included a 20 m no cut, 20 m select cut and a 30 m select cut buffer strips along the stream. Water quality of eight streams, six in harvested and two in not-harvested watersheds were monitored for two years before and two years after the harvesting of timber. Nonparametric statistical tests on stream water quality showed that there was significant change in the concentration of potassium in six streams, manganese in five streams, zinc in two streams and total nitrogen in one stream after timber harvesting. There was no significant change in the quality of water in two streams used as control sites in the neighboring watersheds of similar size and hydrological characteristics. The results show that forest management practices were most favorable in streams maintained with 30 m select cut followed by 20 m no cut and 20 m select cut SMZ. The streamside zone width and treatment of select cut or no cut in the zone played an important role in filtering or retaining the minerals in surface water runoff. In buffer zones of similar width, the buffer zone with no cut or forested buffer was relatively more effective at protecting stream water quality than select cut SMZ. The vegetation in the zone may have decreased the flow velocity and increased residence time and thus increased filtration and retention of minerals in the riparian soil. PMID:17929188

Vaidya, O C; Smith, T P; Fernand, H; McInnis Leek, Nancy R

2007-10-11

154

Hayward brook watershed study: Annual report, 1994-95  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hayward Brook project has developed into an integrated interdisciplinary study of both biotic and abiotic resources. The objective is to measure the responses of specific components of both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to forested stream buffers following harvest of timber on the adjacent landscape. Pretreatment inventories of breeding birds, small mammals, aquatic invertebrates, winter birds and mammals, vegetation communities and water quality and flow are near completion. Pretreatment data will be summarized and represent benchmarks with which posttreatment measurements will be compared. Two undisturbed sites will provide controls. This report describes the study area and project design. Appendices provide reports on specific projects undertaken during the year including results.

NONE

1995-12-31

155

Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)  

Science.gov (United States)

Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

2010-12-01

156

Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil): a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil). Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrological cycle (March/98-February/99). The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

Souza Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de; Tundisi José Galizia

2003-01-01

157

Developing a Framework to Measure Watershed Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that landuse (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Aditya Sood; William F. Ritter

2011-01-01

158

An integrated multi-level watershed-reservoir modeling system for examining hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eutrophication of small prairie reservoirs presents a major challenge in water quality management and has led to a need for predictive water quality modeling. Studies are lacking in effectively integrating watershed models and reservoir models to explore nutrient dynamics and eutrophication pattern. A water quality model specific to small prairie water bodies is also desired in order to highlight key biogeochemical processes with an acceptable degree of parameterization. This study presents a Multi-level Watershed-Reservoir Modeling System (MWRMS) to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds. It integrated a watershed model, a hydrodynamic model and an eutrophication model into a flexible modeling framework. It can comprehensively describe hydrological and biogeochemical processes across different spatial scales and effectively deal with the special drainage structure of small prairie watersheds. As a key component of MWRMS, a three-dimensional Willows Reservoir Eutrophication Model (WREM) is developed to addresses essential biogeochemical processes in prairie reservoirs and to generate 3D distributions of various water quality constituents; with a modest degree of parameterization, WREM is able to meet the limit of data availability that often confronts the modeling practices in small watersheds. MWRMS was applied to the Assiniboia Watershed in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Extensive efforts of field work and lab analysis were undertaken to support model calibration and validation. MWRMS demonstrated its ability to reproduce the observed watershed water yield, reservoir water levels and temperatures, and concentrations of several water constituents. Results showed that the aquatic systems in the Assiniboia Watershed were nitrogen-limited and sediment flux played a crucial role in reservoir nutrient budget and dynamics. MWRMS can provide a broad context of decision support for water resources management and water quality protection in the prairie region.

Zhang H; Huang GH; Wang D; Zhang X; Li G; An C; Cui Z; Liao R; Nie X

2012-03-01

159

Hydrological and environmental diagnostic of the Cachoeira das Pombas’s watershed, Guanhães, MG, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate hydrological and environmental issues of Cachoeira das Pombas watershed, in Guanhães, eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to support its management plan. The characterization of water springs included the definition of its types, assessment of flow persistence, conservation state, outflow values, and the hydrological and environmental conservation state of the watershed. For a detailed analysis, the watershed was studied considering each of its small watersheds. Analyzing the hydrological and environmental conservation state of the watershed, it was concluded that an integrated management of natural resources is necessary inasmuch as the flow rate showed to be irregular, with great variation between the rainy and dry seasons and several erosion and silting spots observed during the study period.

Kelly Cristina Tonello; Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro; Deuseles João Firme; Fernando Palha Leite

2009-01-01

160

GIS-Based Model to Assess Erosion Sensitivity in Northern Morocco. Laou Watershed Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This application on the Laou watershed represents the first part of study results that concerns the development of a model for mapping soil susceptibility at a regional scale in northern Morocco using spatial databases and geographic information systems (GIS). The model uses qualitative decision rules and hierarchical organization of data represented by different thematic maps. Those laters are derived from input erosion parameters which are coded according to their sensitivity to water erosion. Superposing effect of several layers: geology, geomorphology, land use and topography, allows we the obtaining of a qualitative map showing the potential sensitivity to erosion per unit area. The obtained map shows that severe erosion affects the Southern and North-western sectors of the basin, even if they present the least erodible lands of all the basin and have, as well, a relatively dense plant cover. It may be concluded that both high gradient and damaged terrain state represent the main factors of water erosion in the Laou watershed.

Ahmed Raissouni; Lamiae Khali Issa; Abdelkrim El Arrim; M. Maâtouk; Roberto Passalacqua

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D) in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate Rainfall erosivity (R) factor. As many as101 sampling sites were used to investigate soil erodibility (K-factor) with physico-chemical laboratory analysis. Digital elevation model (DEM)of Sumani Watershed was used to calculate slope length and Steepness (LS-factor). Landsat TM imagery and field survey were used to determine crop management (C-factor) and conservation practices (P-factor). Calculating soilloss and map of USLE factor were determined by Kriging method in Surfer 9. Sumani Watershed had erosion hazard in criteria as: severe to extreme severe (26.23%), moderate (24.59%) and very low to low (49.18%). Annual average soil loss for Sumani watershed was 76.70 Mg ha-1 y-1 in 2011. Upland area was designated as having a severe toextreme severe erosion hazard compared to lowland which was designated as having very less to moderate. On the other land, soil eroded from upland were deposited in lowland. These results were verified by comparing one year’s sediment yield observation on the outlet of the watershed. Land use (C-factor), rainfall erosivity (R- factor), soil erodibility (K-factor), slope length and steepness (LS-factor) were dominant factors that affected soil erosion. Traditional soil conservation practices were applied by farmer for a long time such as terrace in Sawah. The USLE model in Surfer was used to identify specific regions susceptible to soil erosion by water and was also applied to identify suitable sites to conduct soil conservation planning in Sumani Watershed.

Aflizar; Roni Afrizal; Tsugiyuki Masunaga

2013-01-01

162

Project Management Case Studies  

CERN Document Server

The revised edition of the single-best source of project management case studies Compiled by Harold Kerzner, the leading authority on project management, Project Management Case Studies, Third Edition presents the most comprehensive collection of project management case studies available today. Featuring more than 100 case studies, this essential book illustrates both successful implementation of project management by actual companies as well as the pitfalls to avoid in a variety of real-world situations. This new edition: Contains case studies illustrating successful and poor implementation

Kerzner, Harold

2010-01-01

163

Endangered ecosystem conservation: a 30-year lesson from the evolution of saline-alkali soil management in Manasi river watershed, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies on saline-alkali soil management mostly followed an instrumental 'prediction and control' approach dominated by technical end-of-pipe solutions. However, those 'integrated' instrumental solutions frequently perished due to the growing social and economic uncertainties in financial support, legal insurance, expertise service and other factors. This investigation summarizes the 30-year period of saline-alkali soil management - the social and economic and ecological (SEE) management innovation - its adoption, diffusion, adaptation and transformation in Manasi River watershed of northern Xinjiang. This area was experiencing three distinct SEE management stages from pure instrumental desalination techniques to integrated desalination technique system following the SEE supporting system. The results of GIS analysis (Fragatats 3.3) and historical documents provide data evidence for above three transition stages. The total area of saline and alkali land was increased by 32.7%, 47.6% during the first two decades but decreased by 11.9% in the recent decade. The numbers of saline land patches were 116, 129 and 121 in 1989, 2000 and 2007 respectively, a similar trend to the changes of total area. However, both perimeter-area fractal dimension (PAFD) and splitting index (SI) continued to increase, with values of 1.265, 1.272 and 1.279 for PAFD and 259.29, 269.68, 272.92 for SI in 1989, 2000 and 2007, respectively. It suggests that saline and alkaline land distribution had been fragmented, and sequestrated into salt micro-catchments within whole oasis ecosystems. This case is largely associated with effective adoption of integrated engineering and biological desalination programs as a result of local SEE saline-alkali soil management innovation. (author)

2012-01-01

164

Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Forceâ??s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

165

Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling.

Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Davis, Gary M.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Bradley, Paul M.

2013-01-01

166

Using Backcast Land-Use Change and Groundwater Travel-Time Models to Generate Land-Use Legacy Maps for Watershed Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We couple two spatial-temporal models, a backcast land-use change model and a groundwater flow model, to develop what we call “land-use legacy maps.” We quantify how a land-use legacy map, created from maps of past land use and groundwater travel times, differs from a current land-use map. We show how these map differences can affect land-use planning and watershed management decisions at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Our approach demonstrates that land-use legacy maps provide a more accurate representation of the linkage between land use/cover and current water quality compared to the current land-use map. We believe that the historical signatures of land-use impacts on current water quality should be considered in land-use planning and watershed management.

Bryan Pijanowski; Deepak K. Ray; Anthony D. Kendall; Jonah M. Duckles; David W. Hyndman

2007-01-01

167

Entering the watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological integrity of a river is a direct function of the health of its watershed. Riverine pollution, habitat degradation, and extinction of aquatic biodiversity are all issues that must be addressed at the ecosystem level. The product of a two-year project established by The Pacific Rivers Council to develop new federal riverine protection and restoration policy alternatives, this book recommends a comprehensive new approach to river protection: a nationwide, strategic community- and ecosystem-based watershed restoration initiative founded upon principles of watershed dynamics, ecosystem function, and conservation biology. The book describes in detail the existing level of damage of rivers and species. A new, intensified national emphasis on rivers is presented. The flaws and gaps in existing policy are analyzed. The scientific underpinnings and management strategies needed in new policy are outlined. Specific policy proposals are made.

Doppelt, B.; Scurlock, M.; Frissell, C.; Karr, J.

1993-01-01

168

Evaluation and management of non-point source pollutants in the Lake Tahoe watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, one of the most oligotrophic lakes in the world, is experiencing decreased water clarity and increased periphyton growth, and water supplies drawing from the lake are experiencing increased algal-related tastes and odors. The growth of algae in Lake Tahoe is primarily limited by the nitrogen (nitrate and ammonia) loads to the lake, which have been increasing over the years. The nitrogen that is causing the increased fertilization of the lake is primarily derived from atmospheric sources through precipitation onto the lake`s surface. A potentially highly significant source of atmospheric nitrogen in the Lake Tahoe Basin is automobile, bus, and truck engine exhaust discharge of NOx. The fertilization of lawns and other shrubbery, including golf courses, within the Lake Tahoe Basin is also leading to significant growths of attached algae in the nearshore waters of the lake. The fertilizers are transported via groundwater to the nearshore areas of the lake. In order to prevent further deterioration of Lake Tahoe`s eutrophication-related water quality, there is immediate need to control atmospheric input of nitrate and ammonia to the lake`s surface, and to control use of fertilizers on lawns, shrubbery, and golf courses in the watershed. The states of California and Nevada, and the Tahoe Regional Planning Authority need to focus considerable attention on the determination of whether restricting NOx emissions from vehicular traffic within the basin would have a significant beneficial impact on Lake Tahoe`s water clarity.

Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A. [G. Fred Lee and Associates, El Macero, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

169

Watershed-wide trend analysis of temperature characteristics in Karun-Dez watershed, southwestern Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Trend estimation of climatic characteristics for a watershed is required to determine developing compatible strategies related to design, development, and management of water resources. In this study, the trends of the annual maximum ( T max), minimum ( T min), and mean ( T mean) air temperature; temperature anomaly ( T anomaly); and diurnal temperature range (DTR) time series at 13 meteorological stations located in the Karun-Dez watershed were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall and linear regression trend tests. The pre-whitening method was used to eliminate the influence of serial correlation on the Mann-Kendall test. The result showed increasing trends in the T min, T mean, and T anomaly series at the majority of stations and decreasing trend in the T max and DTR series. A geographical analysis of the trends revealed a broad warming trend in most of the watershed, and the cooling trends were observed only in the southern parts. Furthermore, the geographical pattern of the trends in the T mean and T anomaly series was similar, and the T max data did not show any dominant trend for the whole watershed. This study provides temperature change scenarios that may be used for the design of future water resource projects in the watershed.

Marofi, Safar; Soleymani, Samere; Salarijazi, Meysam; Marofi, Hossein

2012-10-01

170

Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil): a case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil). Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrological cycle (March/98-February/99). The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar as influências antrópicas sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do rio Jaboatão (Pernambuco, Brasil) e fornecer subsídios ao enquadramento dos corpos d'água em classes de usos. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de água durante o período de março/98 a fevereiro/99 em oito estações de amostragem. As seguintes variáveis foram medidas: temperatura, pH, condutividade, alcalinidade, Cl, oxigênio dissolvido, DBO, coliformes fecais, nitrato, fósforo total e sólidos totais. As variáveis oxigênio dissolvido, coliformes fecais e fósforo total, foram as mais críticas para o enquadramento. Foram delimitados grupos de usos da água na bacia e sugeridas classes de qualidade para cada grupo, fornecendo, desta maneira, elementos para auxiliar o gerenciamento da qualidade da água

Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de Souza; José Galizia Tundisi

2003-01-01

171

Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

2008-02-04

172

Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-04-01

173

MULTI-SCALE, MULTI-TEMPORAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AFFECTING A LISTED NATIVE TROUT  

Science.gov (United States)

Rangeland management practices have historically sought to optimize livestock production by season-long grazing – an emphasis that resulted in environmental degradation as was acknowledge and accepted by Stoddard and Smith in their 1955 text titled, ‘Range Management.’ The degradation typically occu...

174

Criteria for evaluating sediment quality. Case study: sub-watershed of Espirito Santo Stream, affluent of the Sao Francisco river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Sediment Quality Values Guidelines' (SQVG) have been used for evaluating ecological risk associated with the sediment contamination for benthic organisms. The main objective of this work was to develop methodologies and to collect data that allowed the application of SQVG for the following metals: Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The location chosen for the case study was the sub-watershed of the Espirito Santo Stream, which is part of the Unit Planning and Hydrologic Resources Management- UPGRH SF4, of the Sao Francisco river watershed, located in the area of the city of Tres Marias. The life in the sub-watershed is significantly affected by the installation of a waste dam that controls effluents coming from the zinc-ore beneficiation plant. Our studies addressed the biogeochemical characterization of the sediments of those environments through the determination of the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), the study of the partitioning of metals is among the total sediments and interstitial waters, and the determination of the fraction of metals is associated with AVS in the total sediments. The data obtained were analyzed in association with those related to the analysis of the structure of the benthic community and eco-toxicity tests. The studies also included analysis of the physico-chemical variables and concentration of metals is in the samples of the surface water; mineralogical and granulometric analyses, quantity of organic matter and concentration of inorganic contaminants in the samples of sediments. High levels of electrical conductivity and total solids diluted were found in one surface water sample site. The results of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) showed that the chemical elements predominant in the samples were Ti, Al, V, Mn and Fe. The results of the total metal analysis in sediment samples showed that only one point located in the Lavagem stream, situated immediately downstream the dam and before flowing into the Espirito Santo stream, presented concentration values of the evaluated metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) above those of the 'background' value. The TEL limits ('Threshold Effect Level') and PEL ('Probable Effect Level') were not exceeded in any of the sampling campaigns. The Guidelines Interstitial Water Toxic Units (IWTU), established by the USEPA, was violated for all samples. The application of SQVG, based on the equilibrium partition theory, showed that metals are controlled by the sulfide-phase present in sediments. This indicates that the metals presented in the sediments may have low bio-availability. The results of the evaluation of the benthic community structure indicated a possible influence of the waste dam in the Lavagem stream and in the Espirito Santo stream, downstream the confluence with the Lavagem stream. The results of eco-toxicity tests showed that contaminated sediment can cause only chronic effects. (author)

2007-01-01

175

Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2004-01-01

176

The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study: Simulation of Pollutant Loadings and Runoff Quality. Volume 5.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulations of sediment loadings for various land uses in 48 subwatersheds of the Menomonee River Watershed are preformed using the LANDRUN model. In order to determine ratios estimated for pervious areas in each subwatershed. The Model Enhanced Unit Load...

V. Novotny D. Balsiger R. Bannerman J. G. Konrad G. V. Simsiman

1979-01-01

177

The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study: Atmospheric Chemistry of Lead and Phosphorus. Volume 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air monitoring stations were located in five different land use types of the Menomonee River Watershed. Total suspended particulate concentrations were highest in the industrial valley, decreasing to the residential, transition-urban, mixed rural and rura...

A. W. Andren T. R. Stolzenburg

1979-01-01

178

The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study: Land Use, Population and Physical Characteristics. Volume 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Menomonee River Watershed is described in order to establish a factual base upon which to draw conclusions concerning the interactions of the ecosystem and the impact of water quality. The description includes natural and cultural features such as pop...

S. G. Walesh F. Scarpace J. Goodrich-Mahoney G. V. Simsiman R. Bannerman

1979-01-01

179

Exposure risk assessment and evaluation of the best management practice for controlling pesticide runoff from paddy fields. Part 1: Paddy watershed monitoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rice pesticide concentrations in surface water along with hydrological balance and water management conditions were investigated in a paddy watershed of about 100 ha at the Sakura river basin in Tsukuba, Japan, for 3 years from April 2002. Monitoring on different hydrological scales ranging from a paddy plot up to a watershed determined the importance of water management associated with rainfall events and the cyclic irrigation for reducing pesticide discharge into aquatic environments. Surface drainage significantly increased as a response to rainfall events greater than about 1.5 cm day(-1). A total of 16 herbicides were detected in the stream water and their peak concentrations mostly occurred from early to mid-May following the pesticide application period. Two water management factors influencing the pesticide runoff from paddy fields were defined: excess water storage capacity (EWSC) and water holding period (WHP). Uncertainty analyses of pesticide discharge from a paddy plot for dymron (daimuron) and imazosulfuron (IMS) were performed using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with prescribed probability of rainfall and water management practice from observations over a period of 3 years. Application of an intermittent irrigation scheme with shallow water depth practice and high drainage gate to maintain the EWSC > 2 cm and increasing WHP from the current Japanese Agricultural Chemicals Regulation law of 3-4 days to at least 10 days were recommended for reducing the pesticide runoff from paddy fields in a monsoon region such as in Japan. The combination of good water management in field plots and small-scale water cycling is the best management practice for controlling pesticide discharge from paddy watersheds.

Vu SH; Ishihara S; Watanabe H

2006-12-01

180

Using Economic Incentives to Manage Stormwater Runoff in the Shepherd Creek Watershed, Part I  

Science.gov (United States)

Communities nationwide are facing increased responsibility for controlling stormwater runoff, and, subsequently, rising costs of stormwater management. In this report we describe and test a methodology that can be used by communities to focus limited budgets on the most efficien...

 
 
 
 
181

Analysis and adaption of tools for water system management of the Lièvre River watershed, Quebec, Canada, to the context of climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

The basin of the Lièvre River (9542 km2), Quebec, Canada, has a water system consisting of three high-capacity reservoirs. During floods, the reservoir management gives priority to flood control and hydropower generation but also tries to respect constraints associated with environmental issues. Nevertheless, the basin is subject to floods, raising the need for improved water system management tools. Since these reservoirs are also part of the Ottawa River system, the main tributary of the St. Lawrence River, reservoirs of the Lièvre River also impact floods and low flows in the Montreal Archipel, through their influence on streamflows in the Mille-Îles and Des Prairies Rivers. Low flow is an important issue in this area since a large population relies on the streamflow of the Mille-Îles River for freshwater. The effect of an anticipated increase of extreme meteorological events as a result of climate change makes the evaluation of water system capacity of the Lièvre River even more important to reduce the impacts of such hydrometeorological events. This kind of optimization problem has been studied in the past and there are many approaches to obtain, or at least to find an optimal solution, such as linear programming, nonlinear programming and dynamic programming. The later is widely used, but difficult to apply to systems with more than three reservoirs since computational time exponentially increases as the number of state variables increases. One of the goals of this study is to eventually extend the water system management to the entire Ottawa River watershed, which includes more than 40 reservoirs. A nonlinear programming approach using an interior-point algorithm has therefore been chosen for the Lievre reservoir system. Constraints related to the Montreal Archipel constitute a further challenge as the many reservoirs on the Ottawa River watershed upstream from the Lièvre River are managed by various owners. It is therefore difficult to know with precision the management of the various reservoirs. Instead of explicitly simulating these reservoirs, it was decided to approximate the overall behaviour of the entire Ottawa River system using a neural network method to produce regulated streamflow hydrographs from natural streamflows, the latter simulated using a hydrological model. As regulation on the Ottawa River is mainly dictated by the spring melt, the performance of the neural network was improved by adding variables such as snow water equivalent simulated by the hydrological model and degree days of the last ten days. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient between the observed (regulated) streamflow and the simulated streamflow with the neural network reached more than 0.84. This allowed establishing inflow constraints to the Montreal Archipel that could be entered in the Lièvre river system optimisation algorithm. The developed tool was used to simulate the management of the Lièvre reservoir system over previous years taking into account flow constraints of the Montreal Archipel. The next step will be to study the Lièvre River water system susceptibility to floods and low flow under climate change conditions and to investigate adaptation strategies to reduce adverse impacts of climate change.

Leconte, R.; Trudel, M.; Krau, S.; Côté, P.

2012-04-01

182

A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be accomplished in a virtual environment. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Norman, L. M.; Guertin, D. P.; Feller, M.

2008-01-01

183

Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better manage data resources, work more efficiently with partners, and facilitate holistic watershed science. It is now the goal of the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies to implement an enhanced and all-encompassing approach to data management. This report discusses preliminary efforts to implement a physical data management system for program data that is not replicated nationally through other USGS databases.

Ladino, Cassandra C.

2013-01-01

184

REMOTE SENSING, VISUALIZATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of satellite and airborne remote sensing, scientific visualization and decision support tools is discussed within the context of management techniques for minimizing the non-point source pollution load of inland waterways and the sustainability of food crop produc...

185

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND ARCGIS: THE RELEASE OF AGWA 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing time, energy, and money where it can be best utilized is in the best interest of managers everywhere. By making tools more widely available that facilitate the identification of potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitiga...

186

EVALUATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON OXBOW LAKE ECOLOGY AND WATER QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the worldwide loss of aquatic habitats has been attributed to draining and clearing for agriculture as well as non-point source pollution associated with agricultural runoff. Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was designed to development and test land and cul...

187

Assessment and simulation of biological soil conservation countermeasure (Case study: Northern Karoon River Watershed, Iran )  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are twofold: 1) to evaluate the actual capability of EUROSEM, to simulate the biological method of the soil and water conservation, and 2) to assess the effectiveness of this technique to protect the soil and water in the mentioned study area. The study area is a part of Vanak catchment in the Northern Karoon River Watershed, Southwest of Iran. Runoff and sediment data were collected over a number of periodical rainfall events from the two catchments called biological and control catchments. Parameterization, calibration, and validation of the model were carried out based upon the input parameters. Experimental results confirmed the capability of the model to simulate biological soil and water conservation techniques. The simulation of biological soil and water conservation technique indicated that this protection approach caused significant differences in the total runoff generated, total soil loss, peak flow rates, and time to peak flow rates as compared to the same traits of the control. The result illustrated that this conservation technique reduced both output total runoff and total sediments by 40 to 81% and 45 to 69% respectively, yielding a sustainable ecosystem in the catchment.

Behzad Ghorbani; Ahmad Jalalian; Reza Habibian

2012-01-01

188

Retrofitting for watershed drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

Bennett, D.B. (Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., Woodbury, NY (United States)); Heaney, J.P. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1991-09-01

189

Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil): a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar as influências antrópicas sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do rio Jaboatão (Pernambuco, Brasil) e fornecer subsídios ao enquadramento dos corpos d'água em classes de usos. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de água durante o período de março/98 a fevereiro/99 em oito estações de amostragem. As seguintes variáveis foram medidas: temperatura, pH, condutividade, alcalinidade, Cl, oxigênio dissolvido, DBO, coliformes (more) fecais, nitrato, fósforo total e sólidos totais. As variáveis oxigênio dissolvido, coliformes fecais e fósforo total, foram as mais críticas para o enquadramento. Foram delimitados grupos de usos da água na bacia e sugeridas classes de qualidade para cada grupo, fornecendo, desta maneira, elementos para auxiliar o gerenciamento da qualidade da água Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil). Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrological cycle (March/98-February/99). The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fec (more) al coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

Souza, Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de; Tundisi, José Galizia

2003-12-01

190

Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

Yang Q; Benoy GA; Chow TL; Daigle JL; Bourque CP; Meng FR

2012-01-01

191

Investigation of Check Dam`s Effects on Channel Morphology (Case Study: Chehel Cheshme Watershed)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is focused on morphologic changes of channels resulted from establishing check dam construction in Chehel cheshme watershed located at Fars Province. In this study, five channels with check dams were selected through the study area. Then some morphologic parameters of channels such as width/depth ratio, the maximum depth and cross section area along the channel on which check dam were constructed had been measured. These measurements were made on 6 cross section areas in 10, 50 and 90% distances from check dams at upstream and downstream. The above mentioned parameters were calculated using calculating and graphic soft wares. Then, some analytical methods were used to estimate and compare the average digital numbers of calculated parameters through different channels. The results showed that check dams have definitely influenced on width/depth ratios at their upstream and downstream. These influences are associated with higher width/depth ratios at upstream and lower width/depth ratio at downstream. Furthermore, the maximum depth of channels had significant influenced by check dams. As for cross section areas, no significant difference existed between cross sections through total channels and check dams.

K. Solaimani; E. Omidvar; A. Kelarestaghi

2008-01-01

192

Preliminary studies on occurrence of monensin antibiotic in Bosque River Watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water quality impact due to excessive nutrients has been extensively studied. In recent years, however, micro-pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and hormonal products used in animal agriculture have added an additional impact to overall water quality. Pharmaceuticals used in the poultry, swine, beef, and dairy industries have been detected in various environmental matrices such as, soil, groundwater and surface water. In this study, 26 surface water samples were collected throughout the Bosque River Watershed (BRW) with samples representing a range of land use conditions and locations of major dairy operations. Samples were analyzed using commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test. Of the 26 samples, three samples consistently tested positive for monensin antibiotic with concentration ranging from 0.30 to 3.41 microg/L. These three samples were collected from sites that received varying amount of agriculture wastes (11.7% to 31.3%) and located downstream from sites associated with moderate levels of animal agriculture. The preliminary results suggest that there is a potential for monensin occurrence in the BRW, although initial findings indicate only very low levels.

Kurwadkar S; Sicking V; Lambert B; McFarland A; Mitchell F

2013-02-01

193

Ecosystem health assessment of the Jinghe River Watershed on the Huangtu Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved Costanza model was developed to assess the health of the Jinhe River Watershed ecosystem. The watershed is located at the center of the Huangtu Plateau in China and has suffered a severe disturbance in the last few decades. Three indicators including vigor, organization, and resilience were calculated respectively by merging ground-based observations with remotely sensed data on a watershed scale. Health indices of 12 topographic sub-watersheds were calculated using a modified Costanza formula. Health evaluated results indicated that sub-watersheds in the Huangtu mountain region were relatively healthy ecosystems with scores over 0.673. The sub-watersheds in the loess mountain and the loess gully regions, e.g., Jinghe, Heihe, and Honghe regions, scored moderately; their evaluated value ranged from 0.505 to 0.606. The two sub-watersheds in the loess gully region and all sub-watersheds in the loess hilly region scored the lowest, less than 0.50 and were considered unhealthy ecosystems. It can be argued that the loess hilly region and the loess gully regions should be in primary consideration for ecological protection and rehabilitation. This study provided a possible quantitative model for ecological planning and landscape management with respect to topographic conditions in this area. PMID:18787916

Suo, An-Ning; Xiong, You-Cai; Wang, Tian-Ming; Yue, Dong-Xia; Ge, Jian-Ping

2008-03-22

194

Tracking the Primary Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Tropical Watershed in a One-Year Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n = 534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo (RGA) watershed were collected mostly on a weekly basis (54 sampling events) during 13 months. DNA extracts from water samples were used in PCR assays to determine the occurrence of fecal bacteria (Bacteroidales, Clostridium coccoides, and enterococci) and human-, cattle-, swine-, and chicken-specific fecal sources. Feces from 12 different animals (n = 340) and wastewater treatment samples (n = 16) were analyzed to determine the specificity and distribution of host-specific assays. The human-specific assay (HF183) was found to be highly specific, as it did not cross-react with nontarget samples. The cattle marker (CF128) cross-reacted to some extent with swine, chicken, and turkeys and was present in 64% of the cattle samples tested. The swine assays showed poor host specificity, while the three chicken assays showed poor host distribution. Differences in the detection of host-specific markers were noted per site. While human and cattle assays showed moderate average detection rates throughout the watershed, areas impacted by wastewater treatment plants and cattle exhibited the highest prevalence of these markers. When conditional probability for positive signals was determined for each of the markers, the results indicated higher confidence levels for the human assay and lower levels for all the other assays. Overall, the results from this study suggest that additional assays are needed, particularly to track cattle, chicken, and swine fecal pollution sources in the RGA watershed. The results also suggest that the geographic stability of genetic markers needs to be determined prior to conducting applied source tracking studies in tropical settings.

Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Ryu, Hodon; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel; Huertas, Evelyn; Toranzos, Gary A.

2013-01-01

195

Tracking the primary sources of fecal pollution in a tropical watershed in a one-year study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine the primary sources of fecal pollution in a subtropical watershed using host-specific assays developed in temperate regions. Water samples (n = 534) from 10 different sites along the Rio Grande de Arecibo (RGA) watershed were collected mostly on a weekly basis (54 sampling events) during 13 months. DNA extracts from water samples were used in PCR assays to determine the occurrence of fecal bacteria (Bacteroidales, Clostridium coccoides, and enterococci) and human-, cattle-, swine-, and chicken-specific fecal sources. Feces from 12 different animals (n = 340) and wastewater treatment samples (n = 16) were analyzed to determine the specificity and distribution of host-specific assays. The human-specific assay (HF183) was found to be highly specific, as it did not cross-react with nontarget samples. The cattle marker (CF128) cross-reacted to some extent with swine, chicken, and turkeys and was present in 64% of the cattle samples tested. The swine assays showed poor host specificity, while the three chicken assays showed poor host distribution. Differences in the detection of host-specific markers were noted per site. While human and cattle assays showed moderate average detection rates throughout the watershed, areas impacted by wastewater treatment plants and cattle exhibited the highest prevalence of these markers. When conditional probability for positive signals was determined for each of the markers, the results indicated higher confidence levels for the human assay and lower levels for all the other assays. Overall, the results from this study suggest that additional assays are needed, particularly to track cattle, chicken, and swine fecal pollution sources in the RGA watershed. The results also suggest that the geographic stability of genetic markers needs to be determined prior to conducting applied source tracking studies in tropical settings.

Toledo-Hernandez C; Ryu H; Gonzalez-Nieves J; Huertas E; Toranzos GA; Santo Domingo JW

2013-03-01

196

Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS). Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

Manoj Kumar Jha

2011-01-01

197

Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin): spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil) was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth) showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.

Marques Paulo Henrique C.; Oliveira Haydée Torres de; Machado Eunice da Costa

2003-01-01

198

The impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle and on the water resource management of the Peribonka watershed; Impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique et la gestion du systeme hydrique du bassin versant de la Riviere Peribonka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluated the impacts of climate change on the water resource management in the Peribonka watershed by comparing the hydropower production of 3 power houses with the reliability and vulnerability associated with two climate change scenarios. The Peribonka catchment area was described along with scenarios of climate change for the watershed over a time horizon up to 2080. Synthetic time series for each scenario were then produced with a stochastic weather generator and were introduced in the HSAMI hydrological model in order to simulate future hydrological cycles. The reservoir system simulation model ResSim showed that the hydroelectric power plant Passes-Dangereuses, will experience either an increase in the annual hydroelectric production of 8 per cent or a reduction of 20 per cent, depending on the scenario considered. The simulation showed that the reliability of upstream reservoirs, namely Lakes Manouane and Peribonka, could decrease while their vulnerability could increase. This paper described the procedure used to develop the climatic change scenarios, the stages of hydrological modeling and the modeling of the hydrological cycle. The impacts of the climatic change scenarios on the flows were also presented along with a short discussion of recommendations to be considered for the next stages of the project. Subsequent stages of this water management project will relate specifically to the quantification of partial and total uncertainties associated with general circulation models, methods of reduction of scale and the applied hydrological models. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

Minville, M.; Leconte, R. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada)]|[Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering; Brissette, F. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering; Larouche, B. [Alcan Arvida Research and Development Centre, Jonquiere, PQ (Canada)

2006-07-01

199

Hidrogeochemical comparative study of the Jaú and Jacaré-Guaçu River watersheds, São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main subject of the present work was to carry out a hydrochemistry comparative study between two river basins in São Paulo State: the Jacaré-Guaçu Basin (21°37'-22°22'S and 47°43'-48°57'W) and the Jaú Basin (22°09'-22°28'S and 48°16'-48°47'W). Nine sampling points in the Jacaré-Guaçu River and eight in the Jaú River were established. The water sampling was performed once each two months from March/95 to September/95. The following variables were analyzed: temperature (°C), pH, conductivity (muScm--1), dissolved oxygen (mg/L) and ionic water composition. Comparatively the Jaú River showed higher spatial variability, less oxygenated water and higher mineralization, due to high pedological and geological substrate richness, point sources existence and less riparian forests. The Jacaré-Guaçu River showed less spatial variability, more oxygenated water with lower ionic concentration due to the lower geological and pedological watershed richness, absence of pollution from point sources and higher riparian forest protection.

SOUZA A. D. G. de; TUNDISI J. G.

2000-01-01

200

Evaluation of an operational streamflow forecasting system driven by ensemble precipitation forecasts : a case study for the Gatineau watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the various sources of uncertainty for hydrological forecasts, the uncertainty linked to meteorological inputs prevail. Precipitation is particularly difficult to forecast and observed values are often poor representation of the true precipitation field. In order to account for the uncertainty related to precipitation data, it can be interesting to produce ensemble streamflow forecasts by feeding a hydrological model with ensemble precipitation forecasts issued by atmospheric models. In this study, we use ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive Hydrotel, a distributed hydrological model. We concentrate on the Gatineau watershed, which serves as an experimental watershed for Hydro-Québec, the major hydropower producer in Quebec. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate that ensemble precipitation forecasts can improve streamflow forecasting for the watershed of interest. The ensemble precipitation forecasts were produced by Environnement Canada from march first of 2002 to december 31st of 2003. They were obtained using two atmospheric models, SEF (8 members plus the control deterministic forecast) and GEM (8 members). The corresponding deterministic precipitation forecast issued by SEF model is also used with Hydrotel in order to compare ensemble streamflow forecasts with their deterministic counterparts. The quality of the precipitation forecasts is first assessed, using the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the logarithmic score, rank histograms and reliability diagrams. The performance of the corresponding streamflow forecasts obtained at the end of the process is also evaluated using the same quality assessment tools.

Boucher, M.-A.; Perreault, L.; Tremblay, D.; Gaudet, J.; Minville, M.; Anctil, F.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Watershed management and farmer conservation investments in the semi-arid tropics of India: analysis of determinants of resource use decisions and land productivity benefits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated watershed management has been promoted as a suitable strategy for improving productivity and sustainable intensification of agriculture in rainfed drought-prone regions. The paper examines the socioeconomic and biophysical factors influencing farmers' soil and water conservation investment decisions and the resulting economic incentives (productivity benefits) from watershed management interventions in the semi-arid tropics of India. The paper develops a theoretical framework to test hypotheses and to explore (a) the interlinkages between land productivity, soil quality, input use and conservation investments, and (b) the influence of local market imperfections on production and conservation decisions. These relationships are analyzed using plot-level data in six semi-arid villages. A systems approach (3SLS) is used for the joint estimation of structural equations related to land productivity, input use, resource investments and land values. The results show that after controlling for input use and germplasm technologies, soil quality and access to supplemental irrigation significantly affect the productivity of land. Off-farm income is negatively associated with resource investments and land productivity. The watershed program seems to have a greater impact on dryland crops (cereals and pulses) than on other crop not supported by the project. A plot-wise analysis found some degree of substitution between private and public investments in land and water management. Differential effects of family labor on the decision to invest in agriculture revealed that male labor plays a key role in this decision while female workers significantly influence the level of labor use in production and resource conservation. This indicates that labor market imperfections, especially for female labor, are most likely to affect production and conservation investment.

Bekele A Shiferaw; V Ratna Reddy; SP Wani; GD Nageswara Rao

2006-01-01

202

Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

Swift, Ralph

1995-11-01

203

Participação comunitária e implementação dos instrumentos de gestão da água em bacias hidrográficas/ Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O modelo atual de gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é descentralizado, participativo e integrado, e tem como unidade de planejamento a bacia hidrográfica. Baseia-se na atuação de comitês de bacia, sendo que cada comitê possui composição e regras de funcionamento próprias, regidas por seu estatuto, os quais apresentam semelhanças básicas. Os princípios básicos desta gestão foram ditados pela Constituição Brasileira de 1988 e detalhados pela Política (more) Nacional de Recursos Hídricos em 1997. Em nível estadual, São Paulo promulgou sua Política Estadual de Recursos Hídricos em 1991. Este artigo faz análise do processo de participação nos comitês de bacia do Estado de São Paulo e suas implicações na implementação dos instrumentos de gestão de recursos hídricos, por meio de um estudo de caso no Comitê da Bacia Hidrográfica do Tietê - Jacaré, adotando como metodologia a aplicação de questionários aos seus membros titulares da gestão 2009-2011. Observou-se engajamento e integração entre seus diversos integrantes. Mesmo assim, os resultados encontrados apontam para a necessidade de revisão do estatuto deste comitê, sendo evidenciadas distorções causadas pelas divergências entre a legislação estadual e a federal, principalmente quanto aos segmentos participantes e atores envolvidos. Mostraram também a necessidade de uma maior divulgação das questões de recursos hídricos nesta bacia e no Estado de São Paulo, como um todo. Ao mesmo tempo, recomenda-se colocar esforços para ampliar o exercício da representatividade das instituições no comitê e fortalecer os resultados dos trabalhos desenvolvidos nas câmaras técnicas no espaço de tomada de decisão do comitê de bacia hidrográfica. Abstract in english The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State leve (more) l, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee's members (2009 - 2011). Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews' results have shown that the Committee's statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

Malheiros, Tadeu Fabrício; Prota, Mariza Guimarães; Perez Rincón, Mario Alejandro

2013-04-01

204

MesoHABSIM: an effective tool for river and watershed management; MesoHABSIM: una herramienta eficaz para la gestion de rios y cuencas fluviales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MesoHABSIM is an approach to modelling in stream habitats. It allows a user to compute how much habitat is available for selected aquatic fauna under specific environmental circumstances. It overcomes the classical physical habitat models, since it is designed to work in a catchment scale. For this reason it is a very efficient tool for the decision making in the management of rivers and watersheds. MesoHABSIM has applications in Environmental Impact Assessment, in the design of Ecological Flow Regimes or in river restoration planning. (Author) 19 refs.

Parasiewicz, P.; Gortazar rubial, J.; Mateo Sanchez, M.; Garcia de Jalon Lastra, D.

2009-07-01

205

Managing Managerialism in Management Studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper addresses the dominance of an instrumental or “managerialist” conception of rationality within management. Many critics have made clear that this conception of rationality is reductionist, but the critique often dismisses rationality altogether as the failed project of the Enlightenment. My paper will argue that rationality should be seriously engaged with as a concept, but that such a serious engagement will illuminate rationality as a multi-faceted concept. This conception allows us to engage with rationality in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see rationality as a form of activity or labor.

Lystbæk, Christian Tang

206

Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos in riparian wetlands in agricultural watersheds: implications for wetland management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biodegradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate) in sediments from wetlands and agricultural drains in San Joaquin Valley, CA was investigated. Sediments were collected monthly, spiked with chlorpyrifos, and rates of chlorpyrifos degradation were measured using a standardized aerobic biodegradation assay. Phosphoesterase enzyme activities were measured and phosphotriesterase activity was related to observed biodegradation kinetics. First-order biodegradation rates varied between 0.02 and 0.69 day(-1), after accounting for abiotic losses. The average rate of abiotic chlorpyrifos hydrolysis was 0.02 d(-1) at pH 7.2 and 30 °C. Sediments from the site exhibiting the highest chlorpyrifos degradation capacity were incubated under anaerobic conditions to assess the effect of redox conditions on degradation rates. Half-lives were 5 and 92 days under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. There was a consistent decrease in observed biodegradation rates at one site due to permanently flooded conditions prevailing during one sampling year. These results suggest that wetland management strategies such as allowing a wet-dry cycle could enhance degradation rates. There was significant correlation between phosphotriesterase (PTE) activity and the chlorpyrifos biotransformation rates, with this relationship varying among sites. PTE activities may be useful as an indicator of biodegradation potential with reference to the previously established site-specific correlations.

Karpuzcu ME; Sedlak DL; Stringfellow WT

2013-01-01

207

Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

N/A

2004-07-29

208

Runoff Estimation for Darewadi Watershed using RS and GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An accurate understanding of the hydrologicalbehavior of a watershed is important for effective management.Runoff is the most basic and important data needed whenplanning water control strategies/ practices, such as, waterways,storage facilities or erosion control structures. The most popularmethod used for runoff estimation is SCS runoff curve numbermethod. In the present study Darewadi watershed was taken ascase study for highlighting the role of GIS and RS in estimation ofrunoff from the watershed by SCS curve number method usingOVERLAY techniques. 20 years daily rainfall data was acquiredfrom Indian Metrological Department (IMD), Pune. The studyreveals that the SCS-CN model can be used to estimate surfacerunoff depth when adequate hydrological information is notavailable.

Dr. Arun W. Dhawale

2013-01-01

209

Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study  

CERN Multimedia

We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

Nathalie Dumeaux

2004-01-01

210

Tree-ring research in an integrated watershed study of acid-deposition effects. Research report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tree-ring study was conducted in conjunction with the integrated watershed study of acid deposition effects at Emerald Lake. Tree cores were collected from western white pine and lodgepole pine. Age trends were removed from crossdated ring-width series, which were then combined into chronologies. Both chronologies revealed historical periods of reduced growth within the last four centuries, but no evidence of an obvious decline currently occurring. However, it is possible that there are subtle effects of air pollution present that are masked by the currently more-limiting influence of climate. Recommendations for further study were made.

Kincaid, W.B.; Nash, T.H.

1986-05-10

211

Watershed-based survey designs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

Detenbeck NE; Cincotta D; Denver JM; Greenlee SK; Olsen AR; Pitchford AM

2005-04-01

212

Protecting water quality in the watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. (Montgomery Watson, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stewart, E.H. (San Francisco Water Dept., Millbrae, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

213

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, US  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the observed data. The strategy is implemented in Clear Creek Watershed (CCW), which is located in the upper Mississippi River basin. Results show that most of the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to the basin partition scheme and that the relative relevance of physical processes, described by the model, change depending on watershed subdivision. In particular, our results show that parameters derived from different model implementations attribute losses in the system to completely different physical phenomena without a notable effect on the model's performance. Our work adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that automatically calibrated parameters in hydrological models can lead to an incorrect prescription of the internal dynamics of runoff production and transport. Furthermore, it demonstrates that model implementation adds a new dimension to the problem of non-uniqueness in hydrological models.

H. L. Zhang; Y. J. Wang; Y. Q. Wang; D. X. Li; X. K. Wang

2013-01-01

214

Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

Udawatta RP; Garrett HE; Kallenbach R

2011-05-01

215

Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.

2013-09-01

216

A study of large scaled landslide susceptibility by using Weight-of-Evidence method: A case study from the Laonung River Watershed, Southern Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Laonung River watershed which covered an area 1367 km2 is selected as the study area to construct large scaled landslides susceptibility model by using Weight-of-Evidence method. Within the study area, 950 landslides with an area more than 10 ha are identified from FORMOSAT 2 images, aerial photos, and LiDAR derived 1 m high resolution Digital-Elevation-Model (DEM) taken after typhoon Moratko in 2009. Among these, 271 landslides occurred recently and they show bare ground in aerial photos and satellite images. 318 landslides are vegetation recovery, and they are inferred from their topographic characteristics by using aerial photos with topographic map. Additionally, 361 landslides with topographic features of deep seated landslide such as crown main escarpment, down slop scarp, up slop scarp, and transverse cracks are identified from 1m resolution LiDAR derived DEM. Weight-of-Evidence method is a bivariate statistical approach which uses the concept of Bayes' theorem and odds ratio to calculate the weighting of each evaluation parameter. In this study, ten parameters including slope gradient, slope aspect, landform, elevation, lithology, dip-slope, undercut slope, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the distance from geological structure and the distance from stream are selected as evaluation factors. For each parameter, the weighting for landslide susceptibility is calculated, and the weighting of all parameters are then summed to generate the landslide susceptibility map. The study results show the area under the success rate curves reaching 80%, and 70% of large scaled landslides falls within top 30% susceptibility index. It implies that the susceptibility model constructed by this study can effectively predict the location of large scaled landslides in the study area. The results can benefit to the management of mitigation plan of the large scaled landslides in southern Taiwan.

Chen, Chih-Hao; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming

2013-04-01

217

Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis - a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis) landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR) of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

Lahousse, T.; Chang, K. T.; Lin, Y. H.

2011-10-01

218

Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis – a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis) landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR) of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

T. Lahousse; K. T. Chang; Y. H. Lin

2011-01-01

219

Possible Scenarios of Impacts of Climatic Change on Potential Evapotranspiration in the Watershed of the Conchos River, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The watershed of the Conchos River is the main watershed of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, and it is the main source of water of the watershed of the Grande river downstream El Paso, Texas. Such part of the watershed of the Grande River is also the border between Mexico and the United States of America, from El Paso-Ciudad Juarez up to Brownsville-Matamoros. It is very important for the state of Chihuahua and Mexico as a whole, to construct possible scenarios of the effects of the global climatic change in the potential evapotranspiration in such watershed and to construct likely scenarios which results will help to define an integrated watershed management to mitigate those global climate change impacts. The results of a recent study sponsored by the alliance between WWF-Fundacion Gonzalo Rio Arronte, are presented in the paper. The study was conducted to construct possible scenarios on the effects of the global climatic change on the potential evapotranspiration in the watershed of the Conchos River in Mexico. Three watershed characteristic meteorological stations were selected to conduct such study. The predictions of change of the surface air temperature and the change of the rainfall produced by the global climatic change, by the end of the XXI Century, were those published by the Hadley Center. The results show that air temperature increment of one degree centigrade increases evapotranspiration values between 3 and 3.5% with respect current values. As a consequence moisture deficiency increases from 9% to 40%. With an air temperature increment of three degrees centigrades, the potential evapotranspiration increases between 8.8% and 10% increasing moisture deficiency from 27.5% up to 116%. The expected rainfall increment values show a negligible contribution for the potential evapotranspiration reduction in the Rio Conchos watershed. These results conclude that immediate actions need to be taken to mitigate climate change impacts all along the watershed.

Raynal-Villasenor, J. A.; Rodriguez-Pineda, J. A.

2007-12-01

220

Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

Davies JM; Mazumder A

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

222

Técnicas avanzadas para la evaluación de caudales ecológicos en el ordenamiento sostenible de cuencas hidrográficas Advanced techniques for evaluating instream flows in sustainable watershed management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La potencialidad de las corrientes fluviales ha fascinado al hombre por su capacidad para satisfacer las demandas crecientes del recurso hídrico superficial a escala temporal y espacial. Actualmente la idea de que los caudales naturales de un río deban reservarse para preservar el funcionamiento prístino del ecosistema resulta utópica, al menos en sociedades que progresan. Una ordenación eficaz del recurso hídrico se caracteriza por ser racional y ecosistémica, con una gestión fundamentada en un régimen de caudales ecológicos (RCE) que compagina los usos del agua asegurando una condición aceptable del ecosistema. Este trabajo analiza la problemática de la regulación de caudales y aborda la necesidad de filiar los RCE para salvaguardar la integridad ambiental. Se presentan los métodos para calcular caudales ecológicos y las pautas especificadas en la legislación colombiana. Con la pretensión de estipular un procedimiento para determinar los RCE en Colombia, se resume la metodología IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology), ampliamente utilizada en el mundo, y que consideramos aplicable en los sistemas fluviales locales. Finalmente, se concretan las pautas operativas básicas de IFIM y el procedimiento que optimiza el balance entre el coste y la confiabilidad de un estudio convencional de caudales ecológicos.Rivers’ potential for satisfying growing water demands has always fascinated human beings. The current idea that a river’s natural flow should be reserved to conserve pristine dynamics is a utopian ideal, at least in countries having established a certain level of progress. Effective watershed planning is characterised by being rational and ecological, employing management based on instream flows (IF), combining water use and ensuring acceptable ecosystem conditions. This work addresses the environmental consequences of regulating rivers and focuses on the need to fix IFs to protect fluvial systems’ ecological integrity. The methods for calculating instream flows are presented as well as approaches provisionally specified in Colombia’s legislative framework. Instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM), which is widely used around the world, is summarised to provide a basis for developing a procedure for determining IFs in Colombia as it would seem applicable to local streams. IFIM basic operative rules are then summed up, as is the procedure optimising the balance between a conventional instream flow study’s costs and reliability.

Diez Hernández Juan Manuel; Burbano Burbano Liliana

2006-01-01

223

Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10-12% to 39-42% for deep lakes and from 10-12% to 21-23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a "delivery" mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes. Hence, the whole watershed should be considered when managing nutrient loadings to lakes, and future policies should ideally target measures that reduce the proportion of cultivated land in the watershed to successfully improve lake water quality.

Nielsen A; Trolle D; Søndergaard M; Lauridsen TL; Bjerring R; Olesen JE; Jeppesen E

2012-06-01

224

Soil organic carbon under different land uses and its storage in two typical watersheds of the Loess Plateau, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organic carbon distribution and soil organic carbon storage were estimated in two classical small watersheds that based on 163 samples under different land uses and slope positions. Land use conversion would alter land cover, which results in carbon stock changes in biomass as well as in the soil. After the Grain for Green project initiated in 1999, most land of China's loess plateau has been completed vegetation restoration as same as the comprehensive managed watershed (Shanghuang) which with spread vegetation-covered area and lower slope farmland. However, it is not clear how effective the newly initiated project will be. In this study, we found a reference area, original and untreated watershed (Sidigou). It is an area which has not any restore vegetation projects that kept primitive farming management. We found that there were significant differences between two study areas either soil organic carbon concentration or its distribution. The soil organic carbon content in the comprehensive managed watershed (Shanghuang) was higher than the untreated watershed's (Sidigou). As the soil depth increases, the soil organic carbon content gradually decreases. Soil organic carbon concentration and distribution were significantly influenced by land uses and slope positions. More specifically, the soil organic carbon for the shrub land and natural grassland were significantly higher than for the other land uses. In different slope positions, valley's soil organic carbon content was greater than that for the top of mound crests and mound slope. The total soil organic carbon storage of untreated watershed and comprehensively managed watershed were 20099.42 t and 46527.12 t, respectively. The area proportion of land uses is the significant reason for income gap of two study areas. Land use conversion from farmland to shrub land and manmade grassland in Shanghuang watershed played an important role in ecological restoration. It was found that vigorously developing Grain for Green project is of benefit for the Loess Plateau.

Xue, Zhijing; An, Shaoshan; Cheng, Man

2013-04-01

225

Liquid Assets: Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students will understand what a watershed is, the factors which can pollute it, the modern-day problems facing watersheds (including pollution) and the ways in which they can be protected.

Wpsu

2008-11-20

226

Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur.In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availability of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

René Zúñiga; Enrique Muñoz; José Luis Arumí

2012-01-01

227

Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín/ Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. (more) Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur. Abstract in english In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availability of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources (more) it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

Zúñiga, René; Muñoz, Enrique; Arumí, José Luis

2012-01-01

228

Assessing Watershed-Wildfire Risks on National Forest System Lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial risk assessment methods can be brought to bear to identify and prioritize at-risk watersheds for risk mitigation treatments, in both pre-fire and post-fire planning contexts. Risk assessment results can be particularly useful for prioritizing management of hazardous fuels to lessen the severity and likely impacts of future wildfires, where budgetary and other constraints limit the amount of area that can be treated. Specifically we generate spatially resolved estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity, and couple that information with spatial data on watershed location and watershed erosion potential to quantify watershed exposure and risk. For a case study location we focus on National Forest System lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The Region houses numerous watersheds that are critically important to drinking water supplies and that have been impacted or threatened by large wildfires in recent years. Assessment results are the culmination of a broader multi-year science-management partnership intended to have direct bearing on wildfire management decision processes in the Region. Our results suggest substantial variation in the exposure of and likely effects to highly valued watersheds throughout the Region, which carry significant implications for prioritization. In particular we identified the San Juan National Forest as having the highest concentration of at-risk highly valued watersheds, as well as the greatest amount of risk that can be mitigated via hazardous fuel reduction treatments. To conclude we describe future opportunities and challenges for management of wildfire-watershed interactions.

Matthew P. Thompson; Joe Scott; Paul G. Langowski; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Jessica R. Haas; Elise M. Bowne

2013-01-01

229

Integrated watershed study: An investigation of the biota in the Emerald Lake system and stream-channel experiments. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the Integrated Watershed Study in the vicinity of Emerald Lake, Sequoia National Park, investigators conducted baseline monitoring of benthic invertebrates in the inflow streams and the outflow stream. During summer 1986 they carried out a series of acidification experiments in artificial stream channels located in the drainage of the Marble Fork of the Kaweah River. Twelve channels (2.4 m x 20 cm x 20 cm) were stocked with natural substrates, algae and invertebrates. In the treatment channels the pH was reduced to 4.6 and 5.2, using a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. Measurements of benthic densities, drift rates and algal densities were made before, during and after each acid treatment of 8 hours duration. Diatom populations declined in the acidified channels, while other periphyton species actually increased with the treatment.

Cooper, S.D.; Kratz, K.; Holmes, R.W.; Melack, J.M.

1988-05-05

230

Estimation of the peak factor based on watershed characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydraulic modeling and dam structure design require the river flood flow as a primary input. For a given flood event, the ratio of peak flow over mean daily flow defines the peak factor. The peak factor value is dependent on the watershed and location along the river. The main goal of this study consisted in finding a relationship between watershed characteristics and this peak factor. Regression analyses were carried out on 53 natural watersheds located in the southern part of the province of Quebec using data from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). The watershed characteristics included in the analyses were the watershed area, the maximum flow length, the mean slope, the lake proportion and the mean elevation. The results showed that watershed area and length are the major parameters influencing the peak factor. Nine natural watersheds were also used to test the use of a multivariable model in order to determine the peak factor for ungauged watersheds.

Gauthier, Jean; Nolin, Simon; Ruest, Benoit [BPR Inc., Quebec, (Canada)

2010-07-01

231

Modeling subsurface contaminant reactions and transport at the watershed scale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this research are: (1) to numerically examine the multiscale effects of physical and chemical mass transfer processes on watershed scale, variably saturated subsurface contaminant transport, and (2) to conduct numerical simulations on watershed scale reactive solute transport and evaluate their implications to uncertainty characterization and cost benefit analysis. Concurrent physical and chemical nonequilibrium caused by inter aggregate gradients of pressure head and solute concentration and intra-aggregate geochemical and microbiological processes, respectively, may arise at various scales and flowpaths. To this date, experimental investigations of these complex processes at watershed scale remain a challenge and numerical studies are often needed for guidance of water resources management and decision making. This research integrates the knowledge bases developed during previous experimental and numerical investigations at a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the concurrent effects of physical and chemical nonequilibrium. Comparison of numerical results with field data indicates that: (1) multiregion, preferential flow and solute transport exist under partially saturated condition and can be confirmed theoretically, and that (2) mass transfer between pore regions is an important process influencing contaminant movement in the subsurface. Simulations of watershed scale, multi species reactive solute transport suggest that dominance of geochemistry and hydrodynamics may occur simultaneously at different locales and influence the movement of one species relative to another. Execution times on the simulations of the reactive solute transport model also indicate that the model is ready to assist the selection of important parameters for site characterization.

Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; D`Azevedo, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Desert Research Inst., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

1997-12-01

232

Hydrological year 2009 in the small watersheds ?ervík and Malá Ráztoka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unique experiment, not only with respect to time, is ongoing within the two small watersheds in Beskid Mts. The year 2009 represents already the 56-th year of this long-term forestry-hydrological research. Experimental watershed ?ervík (CE) is situated near the village Staré Hamry, watershed Malá Ráztoka (MR) near Trojanovice. The aim of the research is to study the impact of forest on the water runoff from the watershed, and the impact of forest management on water balance in the headwater regions. Compared to the long-term time series, the data measured in 2009 seems to be relatively balanced. In 2009 the year precipitation amount within two watersheds was only slightly higher than the long-term average. Snowing had started in the middle of November; more intensive snow fall was registered in February, March, and also at the end of the hydrological year (mid-October). The average year temperatures within the two watersheds are again much higher than the averages of the last 56 years. During the vegetation season only few short period without precipitation was recorded, forest vegetation was not threatened by dryness in this year.

Milan Bíba; Kate?ina Janová; Zden?k Vícha

2011-01-01

233

Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10–12% to 39–42% for deep lakes and from 10–12% to 21–23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a “delivery” mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes. Hence, the whole watershed should be considered whenmanaging nutrient loadings to lakes, and future policies should ideally target measures that reduce the proportion of cultivated land in the watershed to successfully improve lake water quality. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-1831.1

Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis

2012-01-01

234

Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin): spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil) was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth) showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.A bacia hidrográfica do rio Piraquara (Bacia do Alto Rio Iguaçu - PR) foi estudada como sistema ecológico ao longo de um ciclo sazonal completo, abrangendo os períodos seco e chuvoso. Análises de 16 variáveis físicas e químicas da água (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade, DBO5, temperatura, nitrogênio total, fósforo total, ortofosfato, nitrito, nitrato, amônio, silicato, sólidos totais em suspensão, clorofila-a, profundidade e velocidade da corrente) demonstraram correlações entre a composição da água e as características fisiográficas da bacia. Os gradiente espaciais e as diferenças sazonais foram evidenciadas pela Análise de Componentes Principais, e a bacia foi dividida em trechos de comportamento homogêneo, sendo identificadas descontinuidades seriais: Trecho 1, com forte influência da Serra do Mar; Trecho 2, curso médio do rio, sob influência da Represa do Piraquara e Trecho 3, sob influência das várzeas. O trabalho Pretende subsidiar ações de pesquisa, planejamento e biomonitoramento para este manancial público.

Paulo Henrique C. Marques; Haydée Torres de Oliveira; Eunice da Costa Machado

2003-01-01

235

The Watershed Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners interact with a 3-D model of a watershed to better understand the interconnectedness of terrestrial and aquatic environments. The instructions contain suggestions for "polluting" the watershed (with shredded paper âlitterâ and chocolate sprinkle âanimal droppingsâ), and for modeling how the watershed cleans itself (using sponges for wetlands). Questions are included for discussing watersheds, how they get polluted, the water cycle, and "actions I can take" based in part on identifying potential pollutants on a real map of the local watershed. The commercial model from EnviroScape is expensive ($800), but the instructions could be used with a more homemade model using bowls and plastic bags.

Center, Liberty S.

2009-01-01

236

The typology, frequency and magnitude of some behaviour events in case of torrential hydrographical management works in the upper Tarlung watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the 20-25 years from their startup, the torrential hydrographical management works carried out in the upper T?rlung Watershed (55 dams, 22 sills, 25 traverses and 4 outlet canals) have exposed a number of 24 behaviour event types: 13 out of them reduce the safety of exploitation and the sustainability of the works (hereinafter called damages), while the other 11 reduce the functionality of the works (hereinafter called disfunctionalities). The following behaviour events have the highest frequency:(i) damages caused by water and alluvia erosion (erosive damages), followed by breakages, in the category of damages, and (ii) unsupervised installation of forest vegetation on the managed torrential hydrographical network and apron siltation, in the category of disfunctionalities. For methodological reasons, only the erosive damage of works was successively analysed, according to two criteria: the average depth (cm) in the eroded area and the percentage of the erosive area out of the total surface. Further on, by combining the two criteria for analysis, five representation areas with the same damage intensity were defined (very low, low, medium, high and very high intensity). With the aid of the event frequency values recorded in these areas and of the coefficients attributed to each intensity class (from 1 for very low intensity to 5 for very high intensity), the author reached the conclusion that the level of the recorded intensity of the damage caused by water and alluvia erosion ranged from very low to low.

Ioan Clinciu; Ion C?t?lin Petri?an; Mihai Daniel Ni??; Nicu Constantin Tudose

2010-01-01

237

Assessing the effectiveness of green infrastructure stormwater best management practices in New England at the small watershed scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development and to predict the relative effectiveness of proposed stormwater management plans in maintaining the habitat and biotic integrity of streams in New ...

238

Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria) - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

Lubenov Todor; Marinov Ivan; Velizarova Emiliya

2009-01-01

239

Estimating Nitrogen Loading in the Wabash River Subwatershed Using a GIS Schematic Processing Network in Support of Sustainable Watershed Management Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wabash River is a tributary of the Ohio River. This river system consists of headwaters and small streams, medium river reaches in the upper Wabash watershed, and large river reaches in the lower Wabash watershed. A large part of the river system is situated in agricultural a...

240

Effects of best-management practices in Bower Creek in the East River priority watershed, Wisconsin, 1991-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at Bower Creek during the periods before best-management practices (BMPs), and after BMPs were installed for evaluation of water-quality improvements. The monitoring was done between 1990 and 2009 with the pre-BMP period ending in July 1994 and the post-BMP period beginning in October 2006. BMPs installed in this basin included streambank protection and fencing, stream crossings, grade stabilization, buffer strips, various barnyard-runoff controls, nutrient management, and a low degree of upland BMPs. Water-quality evaluations included base-flow concentrations and storm loads for total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen. The only reductions detected between the base-flow samples of the pre- and post-BMP periods were in median concentrations of total phosphorus from base-flow samples, but not for total suspended solids or dissolved ammonia nitrogen. Differences in storm loads for the three water-quality constituents monitored were not observed during the study period.

Corsi, Steven R.; Horwatich, Judy A.; Rutter, Troy D.; Bannerman, Roger T.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

2000-01-01

242

GTWS: Georgia Tech Watershed Simulation Model. Part I. The Model, Part II. Parameter Optimization, Part III. Model Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Georgia Tech Watershed Simulation Model provides a continuous deterministic simulation of streamflow from precipitation data and was specifically developed to help students better comprehend the complex interaction of flow processes and storages in th...

A. M. Lumb F. L. Currie T. D. Hassett J. Zorich

1975-01-01

243

Effects of conservation reserve program on runoff and lake water quality in an oxbow lake watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment and its associated pollutants entering a water body can be destructive to the ecological health of the system. Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to reduce these pollutants, but understanding the most effective practices is difficult. A case study of Beasley Lake Watershed, typica...

244

Lawns: One piece of the nutrient puzzle in urban watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diffuse nature of nonpoint source pollution presents a challenge to effectively control the nitrogen sources entering surface waters. Typically, landuse-based pollutant loading factors are used to estimate the amount of pollution generated from urban watersheds with relatively homogeneous land cover/use. In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), a Long-term Ecological Research Site, the residential study watersheds have a varied history of development and infrastructure that creates a heterogeneous landscape form and structure within a single residential land use type. It is hypothesized that water quality within an urban watershed is a function of the linkages between the spatial distribution of the nitrogen inputs and hydrologic flowpaths. As turfgrass is a dominant landcover type in suburban watersheds, surface water quality may be affected by the application of nitrogen fertilizers or through their misuse. Further, the hydrologic flowpath (e.g. sewers, overland flow) taken by nitrate will affect its impact on surface water. A summary of nitrogen input from lawn care practices is presented based on a household survey of two suburban BES watersheds. Survey results indicate that nitrogen input from lawn care practices is a dominant source of nitrogen. Analysis suggests that the nitrogen loading from lawns is spatially variable and is a function of the type of stormwater infrastructure, turfgrass and soil characteristics. As a result of this survey and continued field and modeling studies, the management of nonpoint source pollution will be improved from the ability to determine the sources, pathways and processes that affect nitrate flux within urban catchments.

Law, N. L.; Band, L. E.

2002-05-01

245

Substation asset management study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will present an overview of our recent findings in the area of substation asset management and will describe how several utilities, in response to the issues listed above, are re-examining their present maintenance practices in search of more cost-effective programs.

Conroy, M.W.; Conidi, J. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-03-01

246

USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Laboratory at Tifton, GA:Index Site Design for the Suwannee Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southeast Watershed Hydrology Research Center (SEWHRC) was established in 1966 by order of the U.S. Senate "to identify and characterize those elements that control the flow of water from watersheds in the southeast". A 129 sq.mi. area within the headwaters of Little River Watershed (LRW) in central south Georgia was instrumented to provide data for evaluating and characterizing Coastal Plain hydrologic processes and for development and testing of prediction methodologies for use in ungaged watersheds in regions of low topographic relief. Pesticide analytical capabilities were added in 1976, and inorganic chemistry and sediment transport research were expanded. In 1980, the Center was renamed as the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL), and laboratories were constructed for nutrient analysis and soil physics. A pesticide analysis laboratory was constructed in 1987. In the early 1990s, a hydraulics laboratory was established for sediment and chemical transport studies, and research on riparian buffers was expanded. The SEWRL research program continues to focus on hydrologic and environmental concerns. Major components of the program are hydrology, pesticides behavior, buffer systems, animal waste management, erosion, remote sensing of watershed condition, and relationships between site-specific agricultural management (BMPs) and small-to-large watershed response. SEWRL's program will be expanded over the next five years to include two additional watersheds comparable in size and instrumentation to the LRW; nesting the LRW within the full Little River drainage and subsequently...all three watersheds within the full Suwannee Basin; and mapping and quantifying irrigation water removals within the Suwannee Basin. We will instrument the three intensive study watersheds and the full Suwannee Basin to provide real-time characterization of precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic flow, and water quality at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We will couple this information with research on BMP improvement in order to evaluate the relationships between land use, weather and climate, water quantity, water quality, and the impacts of BMP implementation on agricultural profitability. The specific objectives of this expansion are to develop: (a) conceptual understanding of responses in natural resource and environmental systems based on physical, chemical, and biological processes; (b) methodologies to direct optimal use of soil and water resources in the production of quality food and fiber while maintaining short- and long-term productivity requirements, ecosystem stability, and environmental quality; and (c) models and information based systems to guide responsible management decisions for action and regulatory agencies at field, farm, and small and large watershed scales.

Bosch, D.; Strickland, T.; Sheridan, J.; Lowrance, R.; Truman, C.; Hubbard, R.; Potter, T.; Wauchope, D.; Vellidis, G.; Thomas, D.

2001-12-01

247

Integrated flash flood analysis in ungauged watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstruction of flash flood events processes in ungauged basins requires a synthesis of alternative information sources to compensate for the absence data. The present study presents the combination of information from very high resolution Digital Elevation Models (VHR-DEM), intensive post event surveys and rainfall-runoff modeling in order to reconstruct the flash flood processes for the event of October 17, 2006 in Almirida basin. The VHR-DEM produced by a GeoEye-1 0.5 m resolution satellite stereo-pair is assessed for flood plain management applications such as watershed delineation and river cross-section extraction. The procedure is applied at the 25km2 watershed of Almirida. Cross sections and watershed boundary extracted based on the generated high resolution DEM used for rainfall-runoff and hydraulic modelling. The synoptic meteorological analysis shows the dynamic evolution and the path of the storm that led to the flash flood event, while METEOSAT imagery reveals critical information about the structure and timing of the storm. Precipitation time series is generated from neighbouring rain-gauges and C-Band weather radar data. A post flood event field study produced evidence for peak flood stage and allowed for key cross section measurements, while interviews with eye witnesses revealed the exact timing of the peak stage. Semi-distributed and lumped hydrological/hydraulic models are applied to simulate the runoff and are calibrated on the witnessed peak stage values. Results shows, that the combination of information from post event surveys, VHR-DEMs and rainfall-runoff modeling can decrease the uncertainty in peak discharge estimation and event interpretation.

Grillakis, M. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

2010-09-01

248

Community responses to government defunding of watershed projects: a comparative study in India and the USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

Koontz TM; Sen S

2013-03-01

249

Investigating public health impacts of deer in a protected drinking water supply watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Water Safety Plans highlight the need for preventative risk management when managing water contamination risks. As part of this approach, a management framework incorporating multiple barriers is necessary and there is a need to validate those barriers through scientific evidence. This paper reports on a study undertaken to validate the effectiveness, in terms of pathogen numbers, of having protected watersheds. The study aimed to determine if the deer population in a protected watershed carried Cryptosporidium and whether or not it was human infectious. Deer faecal samples were collected from the protected watersheds over a 12 month period and analysed using a new method, developed as part of this project, for genotyping Cryptosporidium. Early results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium, but following a refinement in the method no human infectious Cryptosporidium was detected. The results give some confidence that having protected watersheds is an effective barrier against pathogen contamination. They do not, however, imply that continued monitoring and management of the deer should cease. To maintain compliance with the Water Safety Plans, continual validation of barrier effectiveness is required. PMID:18653946

Cinque, K; Stevens, M A; Haydon, S R; Jex, A R; Gasser, R B; Campbell, B E

2008-01-01

250

Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

Robinson, George B.; And Others

251

Efficiency of Evolutionary Algorithms for Calibration of Watershed Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the promulgation of the Clean Water Act in the U.S. and other similar legislations around the world over the past three decades, watershed management programs have focused on the nexus of pollution prevention and mitigation. In this context, hydrologic/water quality models have been increasingly embedded in the decision making process. Simulation models are now commonly used to investigate the hydrologic response of watershed systems under varying climatic and land use conditions, and also to study the fate and transport of contaminants at various spatiotemporal scales. Adequate calibration and corroboration of models for various outputs at varying scales is an essential component of watershed modeling. The parameter estimation process could be challenging when multiple objectives are important. For example, improving streamflow predictions of the model at a stream location may result in degradation of model predictions for sediments and/or nutrient at the same location or other outlets. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of single and multi objective evolutionary algorithms for parameter estimation of complex watershed models. To this end, the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm, a single-objective genetic algorithm (GA), and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (i.e., NSGA-II) were reconciled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to calibrate the model at various locations within the Wildcat Creek Watershed, Indiana. The efficiency of these methods were investigated using different error statistics including root mean square error, coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for the output variables as well as the baseflow component of the stream discharge. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to screening model parameters that bear significant uncertainties. Results indicated that while flow processes can be reasonably ascertained, parameterization of nutrient and pesticide processes of SWAT at multiple locations presents a challenge. Also, it became evident that the multi objective algorithm consistently outperforms the single objective methods.

Ahmadi, M.; Arabi, M.

2009-12-01

252

McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Fiscal Year 1998.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes accomplishments made by the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 1998. Coordination and administration consists of tasks associated with Focus Watershed Council staffing, project management, and public outreach.

Runyon, John; Davis-Born, Renee

1998-01-01

253

Sizing mitigation wetlands in agricultural watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we investigated use of microcosms to supplement field studies for establishing the size of wetlands required to mitigate nitrate pollution in agricultural watersheds. Wetlands investigated in this study were located in San Joaquin Valley (California, USA) and demonstrated mean nitrate-nitrogen mass removal efficiencies ranging between 10 and 34%. Mean areal nitrate removal rates (J) ranged from 142 to 380 mg-N m(-2) d(-1). First-order rate constants determined from field data had a high variance, with confidence intervals greater than 57% of mean values. Sediments and rooted plants from one site were placed in a flow-through microcosm and measurements of nitrate removal kinetics were made and compared with field results. The apparent half-saturation constant (K(m)) and maximum removal rate (J(max)) for nitrate-nitrogen were 43.8 mg/L and 4.11 g m(-2) d(-1) in the microcosm. The first-order rate constant from the microcosm (10.4 cm d(-1)) was in close agreement with the value for the field site (11.9 cm d(-1)) and had a confidence interval of less than 16%. Using this improved first-order rate constant, it was determined that between 1.3 and 3.6% of the land in the watershed should be managed as mitigation wetland, with the area required dependent on the level of nitrate reduction desired and how closely the wetland design approximates plug-flow.

Stringfellow WT; Karpuzcu ME; Spier C; Hanlon JS; Graham J

2013-01-01

254

Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April) and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September) dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007) is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is to augment stream runoff during the years of low summer discharge. This paper intends to highlight the importance of creating credible knowledge on the Himalayan cryospheric processes to develop a more representative global view on river flow response to cryospheric changes and locally sustainable water resources management strategies.

R. J. Thayyen; J. T. Gergan

2010-01-01

255

Paleoecological assessment of watershed history in PRIMENet watersheds at Acadia National Park, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paleoecological reconstructions of forest stand histories for two upland watersheds at Acadia National Park in Maine were completed to support related watershed chemistry studies. The project hypothesis was that forest type and fire history influence long-term cycling and storage of atmospheric mercury and nitrogen within watersheds. The reconstructions document differences in major vegetation composition and disturbance between the burned and unburned watersheds during the past several centuries. Pollen and charcoal stratigraphies from organic sediment accumulations in forested wet depressions indicate that the present experimental design of contrasting disturbance and forest histories has persisted during recent centuries. The unburned watershed has been dominated by spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies balsamea) for 500 years or more and has not recently burned or been substantially cleared. The burned watershed is dominated by a heterogeneous forest of patchy hardwood, mixed wood, and softwood stands. A large portion of this watershed burned severely in 1947 and probably more than once in the 1800s, and has supported heterogeneous successional forests for 200 years or longer. Overall, these results support the underlying premise that the experimental design of this watershed research can be used to infer landscape controls on biogeochemical processes.

Schauffler M; Nelson SJ; Kahl JS; Jacobson GL Jr; Haines TA; Patterson WA 3rd; Johnson KB

2007-03-01

256

Hydrologic data from the integrated lake-watershed acidification study in the west-central Adirondack Mountains, New York - October 1977 through January 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrologic data were collected from three forested headwater lake watersheds in Herkimer and Hamilton Counties from October 1977 through early January 1982 as part of the Integrated Lake-Watersheds Acidification Study (ILWAS). ILWAS was established in 1977 to determine why these lakes differ in pH when all receive equal amounts of acidic atmospheric deposition. Woods Lake is acidic, Panther Lake is neutral, and Sagamore Lake is intermediate. The data tabulated herein include discharge as the three lake outlets and in a tributary to each lake; lake-water stage at each lake; chemical quality of lake water, including total concentrations of zinc, iron, manganese, and lead, at each lake outlet and at Lost Brook, groundwater stage from 29 wells; major ion concentrations of groundwater from 22 of these wells; temperature of soil from three depths at one site in each watershed; soil-moisture tension at three depths at eight sites - four in the neutral-lake basin, three in the acidic-lake basin, and one in the intermediate-lake basin; and average snowpack depths and water equivalents at approximately 20 snow-course sites in each basin for three sampling periods during the 1979-80 winter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Peters, N.E.; Murdoch, P.S.; Dalton, F.N.

1987-01-01

257

The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within smaller land units that have a clear catchment scale benefit. This will provide the evidence base for future policy which is of use to all location in the UK. Hence, the need to have suite of parameters that can be evaluated has given rise to specific experimental design. Fundamental to this is to use continuous telemetered sampling at as many location as possible, including field laboratories capable of measuring, Nitrate, Ammonia, Total Phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, suspended sediment and chlorophyll a. Standard hydro-metrological equipment is also fully telemetered. The goal is to allow all the data to be freely available to all end users via an internet data portal. The long term goal is to invite experts from many environmental and social sciences to work at the established research platform and ultimately give a better understanding of what a healthy catchment should be like. Being able to communicate this point to both local and national audiences will also be made and will link closely to the UK Virtual Observatory project funded by the NERC.

Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.

2010-12-01

258

Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale. PMID:23474339

Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2013-03-08

259

Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale.

Ahiablame LM; Engel BA; Chaubey I

2013-04-01

260

Use of USLE/GIS methodology for predicting soil loss in a semiarid agricultural watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is an erosion model to estimate average soil loss that would generally result from splash, sheet, and rill erosion from agricultural plots. Recently, use of USLE has been extended as a useful tool predicting soil losses and planning control practices in agricultural watersheds by the effective integration of the GIS-based procedures to estimate the factor values in a grid cell basis. This study was performed in the Kazan Watershed located in the central Anatolia, Turkey, to predict soil erosion risk by the USLE/GIS methodology for planning conservation measures in the site. Rain erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), and cover management factor (C) values of the model were calculated from erosivity map, soil map, and land use map of Turkey, respectively. R values were site-specifically corrected using DEM and climatic data. The topographical and hydrological effects on the soil loss were characterized by LS factor evaluated by the flow accumulation tool using DEM and watershed delineation techniques. From resulting soil loss map of the watershed, the magnitude of the soil erosion was estimated in terms of the different soil units and land uses and the most erosion-prone areas where irreversible soil losses occurred were reasonably located in the Kazan watershed. This could be very useful for deciding restoration practices to control the soil erosion of the sites to be severely influenced.

Erdogan EH; Erpul G; Bayramin I

2007-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Use of USLE/GIS methodology for predicting soil loss in a semiarid agricultural watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is an erosion model to estimate average soil loss that would generally result from splash, sheet, and rill erosion from agricultural plots. Recently, use of USLE has been extended as a useful tool predicting soil losses and planning control practices in agricultural watersheds by the effective integration of the GIS-based procedures to estimate the factor values in a grid cell basis. This study was performed in the Kazan Watershed located in the central Anatolia, Turkey, to predict soil erosion risk by the USLE/GIS methodology for planning conservation measures in the site. Rain erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), and cover management factor (C) values of the model were calculated from erosivity map, soil map, and land use map of Turkey, respectively. R values were site-specifically corrected using DEM and climatic data. The topographical and hydrological effects on the soil loss were characterized by LS factor evaluated by the flow accumulation tool using DEM and watershed delineation techniques. From resulting soil loss map of the watershed, the magnitude of the soil erosion was estimated in terms of the different soil units and land uses and the most erosion-prone areas where irreversible soil losses occurred were reasonably located in the Kazan watershed. This could be very useful for deciding restoration practices to control the soil erosion of the sites to be severely influenced. PMID:17171276

Erdogan, Emrah H; Erpul, Günay; Bayramin, Ilhami

2006-12-14

262

Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

2009-07-01

263

Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

2009-01-01

264

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants utilised by Hani ethnicity in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve to identify and analyse knowledge and use of wild plants for medicinal purposes by Hani ethnicity and to search out culturally as well as economically important plant species and land use types. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data was collected using freelisting interviews with randomly selected informants and semi-structured as well as field interviews. Plant specimens were collected, identified and deposited at the Herbarium of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Mengla, Yunnan Province, China. Data were analysed by use-reports, in addition important indices like relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated. Smith's salience index was assessed using Anthropac 4.08. Consensus analysis was applied to measure informant agreement on plants used in different medicinal use categories. RESULTS: A total of 199 medicinal plants belonging to 73 families were recorded. Dominant families are Asteraceae (5.5%), Piperaceae and Verbenaceae (4.5%), Fabaceae, Liliaceae (4.0%) and Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae and Solanaceae (3.5%). Most culturally salient species from freelisting analysis were Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl. ex Paxt. (Smith's SI=0.41), Aristolochia sp. (0.306), Microstegium ciliatum (Trin.) A. Camus (0.129), Eupatorium coelestinum L. (0.119), Litsea martabanica (Kurz) Hook. F. (0.116) and Psidium guajava L. (0.103). The majority of the utilised species were collected from forest (51.9%), followed by fallow land (22.52%), arable fields (14.5%), and homegardens (11.08%). CONCLUSIONS: It became clear that the knowledge of medicinal plants is not homogenously distributed among Hani. Based on the percentage of collected medicinal plants from four habitat types, forest is the most important source of medicinal plants for Hani but when considering the cultural importance of species it seems that homegardens are slightly more important than other habitats.

Ghorbani A; Langenberger G; Feng L; Sauerborn J

2011-04-01

265

Application of SWAT2000 Model for Estimating Runoff and Sediment in Beheshtabad Watershed, a Sub-basin of Northern Karun  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil erosion is an important economical, social and environmental problem requiring intensive watershed management for its control. In recent years, modeling has become a useful approach for assessing the impact of various erosion-reduction approaches. ?Due to limited hydrologic data in mountainous watersheds, watershed modeling is, however, subject to large uncertainties. In this study, SWAT2000 was applied to simulate runoff and sediment discharge in Beheshtabad watershed, a sub-basin of Northern Karun catchment in central Iran, with an area of 3860 km2. Model calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed with SUFI-2. Four indices were used to assess the goodness of calibration, viz., P-factor, d-factor, R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe (NS). Runoff data (1996-2004) of six hydrometery stations were used for calibration and validation of this watershed. The results of monthly calibration p-factor, d-factor, R2 and NS values for runoff at the watershed outlet were 0.61, 0.48, 0.85 and 0.75, respectively, and for the validation, these statistics were 0.53, 0.38, 0.85 and 0.57, respectively. The values for calibration of sediment concentration at the watershed outlet were 0.55, 0.41, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively, and for the validation, these statistics were 0.69, 0.29, 0.60 and 0.27, respectively. In general, SWAT simulated runoff much better than sediment. Weak simulation of runoff at some months of the year might be due to under-prediction of snowmelt in this mountainous watershed, model’s assumptions in frozen and saturated soil layers, and lack of sufficient data. Improper simulation of sediment load could be attributed to weak simulation of runoff, insufficient data and periodicity of sediment data.

R Rostamian; S.F Mousavi; M Heidarpour; M Afyuni; K Abaspour

2009-01-01

266

Does stream water chemistry reflect watershed characteristics?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we investigated the relationships between stream water chemistry and watershed characteristics (topography--mean altitude and slope; climate--mean annual temperature and precipitation; geology--geochemical reactivity; land cover; inhabitation--population density, road density and number of municipalities). We analyzed the concentrations of the major anions (Cl, F, NO3, SO4, SiO2), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, Al), trace elements (Li, Sr, Cu), ABS245, TDP (total dissolved phosphorus), pH, and conductivity at 3,220 diverse watersheds covering a wide variety of watershed characteristics in the Czech Republic. We used marginal and partial multivariate analyses to reveal the most important variables. The partial analysis showed that only 14% of the variance could be assigned to a specific factor and that 41% of the variance is shared among the factors, which indicated complex interactions between the watershed characteristics.

Chuman T; Hruška J; Oulehle F; Gürtlerová P; Majer V

2013-07-01

267

Does stream water chemistry reflect watershed characteristics?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the relationships between stream water chemistry and watershed characteristics (topography--mean altitude and slope; climate--mean annual temperature and precipitation; geology--geochemical reactivity; land cover; inhabitation--population density, road density and number of municipalities). We analyzed the concentrations of the major anions (Cl, F, NO3, SO4, SiO2), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe, Al), trace elements (Li, Sr, Cu), ABS245, TDP (total dissolved phosphorus), pH, and conductivity at 3,220 diverse watersheds covering a wide variety of watershed characteristics in the Czech Republic. We used marginal and partial multivariate analyses to reveal the most important variables. The partial analysis showed that only 14% of the variance could be assigned to a specific factor and that 41% of the variance is shared among the factors, which indicated complex interactions between the watershed characteristics. PMID:23142877

Chuman, Tomáš; Hruška, Jakub; Oulehle, Filip; Gürtlerová, Pavla; Majer, Vladimír

2012-11-11

268

Choosing Different Contour Interval on a Fully Raster-Based Erosion Modeling: Case Study at Merawu Watershed, Banjarnegara, Central Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was aimed to study the efect of choosing different contour interval to produce Digital Elevation Model on a fully raster-based erosion modeling of The Universal Soil Loss Equation using remote sensing data and a geographical information system technique. Methods were applied by analyzing all factors that affecting erosion in GIS environment such data were in the form of raster. Those data were R , K, LS, C and P factors. LS factor was derived from Digital Elevation Model by taking flow direction from each pixel into consideration. Research used 3 contour intervals to produce Digital Elevation Model, i.e. 12.5, 25 and 50 meter. C factor was derived from the formula after applying linearly regression analysis between Normalized Difference Vegetation index of remote sensing data and C factor measured directly on the field. Another analysis was the creation of map of Bulk Density used to convert erosion unit as from Mg ha-1mo-1 to mm mo-1. To know the model accuracy, validation of the model was done by applying statistical analysis and by comparing the result of erosion model (Emodel) with actual erosion (Eactual) which was measured regularly in Merawu watershed. A threshold value of > 0.80 or > 80% was chosen to justify whether the model was accurate or not. The results showed that all Emodel using 3 countour intervals have correlation value of > 0.8. These results were strenghtened with the result of analysis of variance which showing there were no difference between Emodel and Eactual. Among the 3 models, only Emodel using 50 meter countour interval reached the accuracy of 81.13% while the other only had 50.87% (using countour interval 25 meter) and 32.92% (using countour interval 12.5 meter).

Bambang Sulistyo

2011-01-01

269

Nuclear materials management storage study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

Becker, G.W. Jr.

1994-02-01

270

Nuclear materials management storage study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

1994-01-01

271

Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of Nairobi. A dam was constructed in 1994 with a water reservoir of 70 million m3. Thika River also supplies water to Masinga Reservoir to supply the seven forks dams, which together supply 75% of the nation's electricity. The quantity of water in rivers and reservoirs is decreased due to sedimentation while water quality is degraded by sediments, and sediment-borne nutrients and pesticides. The focus of this pilot twinning project is watershed erosion and reservoir sedimentation assessment. This will be accomplished by (1) a rapid watershed/catchment erosion assessment using ground based measurements and remote sensing/GIS techniques, 2) use of Acoustic Profiling Systems (APS) for reservoir sedimentation measurement studies, and 3) advanced water quality modeling using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. Data acquired will be used for sediment transport modeling to1) determine sediment "hot spots" and management practices that will minimize sediments into reservoirs in order to 2) maintain the reservoirs on which many farmers depend for their livelihood and a cleaner environment. This project will provide an opportunity for 1) sharing knowledge and experience among the stakeholders, 2) building capacity through formal and informal education opportunities through reciprocal hosting of decision makers and water experts, and 3) technology transfer of pilot results with recommended management practices to reduce reservoir sedimentation rates.

Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

2007-12-01

272

Water quality assessment of coastal Caloosahatchee River watershed, Florida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Caloosahatchee River watershed and estuary has experienced a general decline in the water quality over the last several decades due to agriculture practices, development, and other human activities. The objective of this study is to assess the water quality condition in coastal Caloosahatchee River watershed by analyzing the data collected by South Florida Water Management District and Lee County. Results indicated that during 1995 to 2006, averaged annually, Lake Okeechobee released 1124 million m3 of freshwater into the Caloosahatchee River, whereas the average annual freshwater discharge out of the Caloosahatchee River was approximately 2277 million m3. Lake Okeechobee might have more impacts on the water quality condition of Caloosahatchee River in dry season than wet season. The loads ratios of Lake Okeechobee to those out of Caloosahatchee River were much higher in dry season than wet season for flow (72% to 36%), total phosphorus (63% to 20%), total nitrogen (72% to 41%), organic nitrogen (85% to 47%), and NH3 (78% to 39%). In the coastal watershed area where the urban area is concentrated, of the total 5453 water samples, 74% of them have dissolved oxygen concentration less than 5 mg L(-1), the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Florida Department of Environmental Protection water quality standard. Only in January is the average monthly dissolved oxygen concentration higher than 5 mg L(-1).

Liu Z; Choudhury SH; Xia M; Holt J; Wallen CM; Yuk S; Sanborn SC

2009-08-01

273

The IJC Menomonee River Watershed Study: Dispersibility of Soils and Elemental Composition of Soils, Sediments, and Dust and Dirt from the Menomonee River Watershed. Volume 6.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project was in support of the U.S./Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to direct the International Joint Commission to conduct studies of the impact of land use activities on the water quality of the Great Lakes Basin and to recommend remedial...

A. Dong G. Chesters G. V. Simsiman

1979-01-01

274

Land use influence in the Cerrado biome water quality: a comparative study between watersheds in the Goiás State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the assumption that the water quality in a watershed is directly related to the degree of equilibrium between the natural and anthropic factors, in this paper we examined the effects of the land cover changes in areas of savanna (Cerrado biome) over the watersheds ecological viability (expressed here as Water Quality Index). Thus, we analyzed two middle-sized basins located in the Goiás State (a representative area of this biome), with different characteristics regarding both the physical aspects (soil, topography and remnant vegetation) and human aspects (environmental degradation level and economic development index): (1) João Leite basin, located in the Center-South State (anthropic level = 88%), and (2) São Domingos basin, in the Northern State (anthropic level = 25%). Chemical analyses have indicated that the water in the São Domingos basin presents, in general, a better quality for human consumption and for the ecosystem maintaining, reflecting the high conservation state of this basin as well.

Clarisse Guimarães Rabelo; Manuel Eduardo Ferreira; José Vicente Granato de Araújo; Luis Fernando Stone; Silvando Carlos da Silva; Marisa Prado Gomes

2009-01-01

275

ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor) and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978) formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil erodibility attribute controlled by parent material. High amount of soil erodibility in southwest area of given study area showed need to more attention for conservation the soil and control erosion.

Ayoubi, S.A; M. H. Alizadeh

2005-01-01

276

Multi-Layer Assessment of Land Use and Related Changes for Decision Support in a Coastal Zone Watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to address the challenges in coastal regions, there is the need to understand the extent and impacts of past changes and their implications for future management. Land use data and remotely-sensed imagery are often used to provide insights into these changes. Often, however, existing land use data are inconsistent, thus differences observed through their analyses could also be attributable to error. The use of multiple layers of data, in addition and as related to basic land use layers, has been suggested in the literature as a method to mitigate such error. This study used existing land use data, population, stream flow, climate and water quality data with a view to determining what information could be discerned from multi-layer analyses and whether or how it could be used in watershed-level management decision making. Results showed that all the datasets provided useful, but not necessarily complemental, insights into spatial and temporal changes occurring in the watershed. The information obtained did, however, provide a broader perspective on watershed dynamics, which would be useful for watershed-level decision making. Overall, the multi-layer approach was found suitable in the absence of consistent land use data, provided results were interpreted in context, considering the historical perspective and with a working knowledge of the watershed.

Margaret Gitau; Nathaniel Bailey

2012-01-01

277

Quantification of diffuse and concentrated pollutant loads at the watershed-scale: an Italian case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, diffuse and point source pollutant loads were evaluated using an Italian case study: the Nocella catchment, which has been subject to extensive monitoring. The Nocella catchment is located in Sicily (Italy) and has an area of about 60 km(2). The river receives wastewater and stormwater from two urban areas drained by combined sewers. The two sewer systems, two wastewater treatment plants and a river reach were monitored during both dry and wet weather periods. Thereafter, an integrated catchment-scale model was applied to simulate point pollutant sources, i.e., pollution coming from the urban drainage system, and nonpoint pollutant sources, i.e., pollution coming from agricultural and wildlife activities. Different models were combined and long-term simulations were carried out in order to reconstruct the total pollutant loads discharged into the receiving water body and identify the roles of the different pollutant sources. This study demonstrates the complexity of water quality assessment in partially urbanised natural basins where neither point nor nonpoint sources can be neglected. Point sources are mainly responsible for acute oxygen demanding polluting impact during wet weather periods, and both point and nonpoint sources are responsible for the impact of nutrients on the receiving water body.

Candela A; Freni G; Mannina G; Viviani G

2009-01-01

278

Study of environmental degradation of the Bodocongó Watershed, at Campina Grande, State of Paraiba, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study area is located in the western region paraiban marsh at the county of Campina Grande. The study aimed to develop thematic maps that depict the expansion space-temporal of the vegetation and degradation of the Bodocongó stream basin, for the period from 1989 to 2007, through the analysis of TM/Landsat-5, CCD / CBERS - 2 images and data from fieldwork. The digital processing of Landsat imagery was conducted at SPRING - 4.3. The results showed that the area presented classes of dense vegetation ranging from the exposed soil and levels of degradation ranging from very low to severe. In the period between the years 1989 and 2007, the classes of semi-dense vegetation, semi-sparse and sparse had this areas of occurrence decreased to 23.6%, 3.22% and 25.3% of the total area of the basin, respectively. From opposite way, the classes of dense vegetation and soil exposed increased in the period, and will occupy 7.13% and 39.9% of the total area of the basin, respectively. The levels of degradation low, moderate and moderately severe had their areas of occurrence decreased to 13.8%, 10.24% and 40.24% of the total area of the basin. From opposite way, the areas of low and very serious degradation increased in the period, going to occupy, respectively, 5.15% and 29.81% of the total area of the basin.

Silvana Silva de Medeiros; João Miguel de Moraes Neto

2008-01-01

279

Water Quality, Contamination, and Wetlands in the Croton Watershed, New York, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Croton Watershed (New York State, USA) is a semi-urban region that provides 10% of the drinking water for the City of New York. Nonpoint source contamination in the watershed is a major concern for managers because the water supply is currently unfiltered water. Results are reported from three synoptic studies of surface water quality from 98 wetland-containing sub-catchments in the Croton Watershed designed to broadly characterize, at a reconnaissance level, the geochemical controls on water quality, in particular as it relates to wetlands. Total dissolved organic carbon concentrations in surface waters draining wetlands correlated well (average R2 of 0.93) with standard Gelbstoff (g440) color measurements, although there is very little correlation between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and wetland areas in the sub-catchments. This may be a potential indication of other sources of colored organic material. Concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride, while related to road length, stochiometrically had more chloride than expected for pure road-salt dissolution. This offset is likely due to cation exchange and sorbtion of sodium by wetlands in the Croton watershed. The results show contamination in the Croton hydrologic system that should addressed in ongoing management policies and decision-making.

Jeffrey M. McKenzie; Donald I. Siegel; Laura K. Lautz; Martin H. Otz; James Hassett; Ines Otz

2012-01-01

280

Outage management: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Outage management: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

1992-09-01

282

Outage management: A case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

1992-01-01

283

Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

Tu, Jun

2013-01-01

284

Spatial variations in the relationships between land use and water quality across an urbanization gradient in the watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

Tu J

2013-01-01

285

Modeling nitrogen loading in a small watershed in southwest China using a DNDC model with hydrological enhancements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The degradation of water quality has been observed worldwide, and inputs of nitrogen (N), along with other nutrients, play a key role in the process of contamination. The quantification of N loading from non-point sources at a watershed scale has long been a challenge. Process-based models have been developed to address this problem. Because N loading from non-point sources result from interactions between biogeochemical and hydrological processes, a model framework must include both types of processes if it is to be useful. This paper reports the results of a study in which we integrated two fundamental hydrologic features, the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) curve function and the MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss), into a biogeochemical model, the DNDC. The SCS curve equation and the MUSLE are widely used in hydrological models for calculating surface runoff and soil erosion. Equipped with the new added hydrologic features, DNDC was substantially enhanced with the new capacity of simulating both vertical and horizontal movements of water and N at a watershed scale. A long-term experimental watershed in Southwest China was selected to test the new version of the DNDC. The target watershed's 35.1 ha of territory encompass 19.3 ha of croplands, 11.0 ha of forest lands, 1.1 ha of grassplots, and 3.7 ha of residential areas. An input database containing topographic data, meteorological conditions, soil properties, vegetation information, and management applications was established and linked to the enhanced DNDC. Driven by the input database, the DNDC simulated the surface runoff flow, the subsurface leaching flow, the soil erosion, and the N loadings from the target watershed. The modeled water flow, sediment yield, and N loading from the entire watershed were compared with observations from the watershed and yielded encouraging results. The sources of N loading were identified by using the results of the model. In 2008, the modeled runoff-induced loss of total N from the watershed was 904 kg N yr?1, of which approximately 67 % came from the croplands. The enhanced DNDC model also estimated the watershed-scale N losses (1391 kg N yr?1) from the emissions of the N-containing gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and dinitrogen). Ammonia volatilization (1299 kg N yr?1) dominated the gaseous N losses. The study indicated that process-based biogeochemical models such as the DNDC could contribute more effectively to watershed N loading studies if the hydrological components of the models were appropriately enhanced.

J. Deng; Z. Zhou; B. Zhu; X. Zheng; C. Li; X. Wang; Z. Jian

2011-01-01

286

Modeling nitrogen loading in a small watershed in Southwest China using a DNDC model with hydrological enhancements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The degradation of water quality has been observed worldwide, and inputs of nitrogen (N), along with other nutrients, play a key role in the process of contamination. The quantification of N loading from non-point sources at a watershed scale has long been a challenge. Process-based models have been developed to address this problem. Because N loading from non-point sources result from interactions between biogeochemical and hydrological processes, a model framework must include both types of processes if it is to be useful. This paper reports the results of a study in which we integrated two fundamental hydrologic features, the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) curve function and the MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss), into a biogeochemical model, the DNDC. The SCS curve equation and the MUSLE are widely used in hydrological models for calculating surface runoff and soil erosion. Equipped with the new added hydrologic features, DNDC was substantially enhanced with the new capacity of simulating both vertical and horizontal movements of water and N at a watershed scale. A long-term experimental watershed in Southwest China was selected to test the new version of the DNDC. The target watershed's 35.1 ha of territory encompass 19.3 ha of croplands, 11.0 ha of forest lands, 1.1 ha of grassplots, and 3.7 ha of residential areas. An input database containing topographic data, meteorological conditions, soil properties, vegetation information, and management applications was established and linked to the enhanced DNDC. Driven by the input database, the DNDC simulated the surface runoff flow, the subsurface leaching flow, the soil erosion, and the N loadings from the target watershed. The modeled water flow, sediment yield, and N loading from the entire watershed were compared with observations from the watershed and yielded encouraging results. The sources of N loading were identified by using the results of the model. In 2008, the modeled runoff-induced loss of total N from the watershed was 904 kg N yr?1, of which approximately 67 % came from the croplands. The enhanced DNDC model also estimated the watershed-scale N losses (1391 kg N yr?1) from the emissions of the N-containing gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and dinitrogen). Ammonia volatilization (1299 kg N yr?1) dominated the gaseous N losses. The study indicated that process-based biogeochemical models such as the DNDC could contribute more effectively to watershed N loading studies if the hydrological components of the models were appropriately enhanced.

J. Deng; Z. Zhou; B. Zhu; X. Zheng; C. Li; X. Wang; Z. Jian

2011-01-01

287

Heat Management Strategy Trade Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

2009-09-01

288

[Study on the linkage between urban built-up land and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Band grouping indices combined with single band characteristic were used to extract urban built-up land based on satellite image in the Jiulong River Watershed. Landscape ecology method and statistical analysis were employed to explore the relationship between urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations. There were significantly positive correlations between the proportion of urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP (r = 0.701, 0.695, 0.789). It indicates the proportion of urban built-up land areas in the sub-watershed could be an effective indicator of water quality. The largest patch index (LPI) was positively correlated to permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.555, 0.643, 0.722). The landscape shape index(LSI) was positively correlated to permanganate index and TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.564, 0.553). These means the impacts of urban built-up land on water quality are influenced not only by urban built-up land areas but also by spatial patterns. The seasonally linear correlation results show that water quality deteriorates quickly with urban built-up land during the flood season and dry season, and the water is susceptible to eutrophication in both flood and dry seasons. The water quality in most sub-watersheds are impacted by urban built-up land, while the urban built-up land areas of Longmen stream, Su stream and Xiao stream located in headstreams are intensive, which need to be adjusted and controlled to protect the water quality.

Sun QQ; Huang JL; Hong HS; Feng Y

2011-10-01

289

[Study on the linkage between urban built-up land and water quality in the Jiulong River watershed].  

Science.gov (United States)

Band grouping indices combined with single band characteristic were used to extract urban built-up land based on satellite image in the Jiulong River Watershed. Landscape ecology method and statistical analysis were employed to explore the relationship between urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations. There were significantly positive correlations between the proportion of urban built-up land and permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP (r = 0.701, 0.695, 0.789). It indicates the proportion of urban built-up land areas in the sub-watershed could be an effective indicator of water quality. The largest patch index (LPI) was positively correlated to permanganate index, NH4(+) -N, TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.555, 0.643, 0.722). The landscape shape index(LSI) was positively correlated to permanganate index and TP concentrations in the water (r = 0.564, 0.553). These means the impacts of urban built-up land on water quality are influenced not only by urban built-up land areas but also by spatial patterns. The seasonally linear correlation results show that water quality deteriorates quickly with urban built-up land during the flood season and dry season, and the water is susceptible to eutrophication in both flood and dry seasons. The water quality in most sub-watersheds are impacted by urban built-up land, while the urban built-up land areas of Longmen stream, Su stream and Xiao stream located in headstreams are intensive, which need to be adjusted and controlled to protect the water quality. PMID:22279891

Sun, Qin-Qin; Huang, Jin-Liang; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Feng, Yuan

2011-10-01

290

Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. Designs for culvert replacements are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. 20 miles of roads were decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2006-08-01

291

Water fluxes and their control on the terrestrial carbon balance: Results from a stable isotope study on the Clyde Watershed (Scotland)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The gradients between precipitation and runoff quantities as well as their water isotopes were used to establish a water balance in the Clyde River Basin (Scotland). This study serves as an example for a European extreme with poorly vegetated land cover and high annual rainfall and presents novel water stable isotope techniques to separate evaporation, interception and transpiration with annual averages of 0.029 km3 a-1, 0.220 km3 a-1 and 0.489 km3 a-1, respectively. Transpiration was further used to determine CO2 uptake of the entire basin and yielded an annual net primary production (NPP) of 352 x 109 g C (Giga gram) or 185.2 g C m-2. Compared to other temperate areas in the world, the Clyde Basin has only half the expected NPP. This lower value likely results from the type of vegetation cover, which consists mostly of grasslands. Subtracting the annual heterotrophic soil respiration flux (Rh) of 392 Gg (206.1 g C m-2 a-1) from the NPP yielded an annual Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of -40 Gg C, thus showing the Clyde Watershed as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite the unusual character of the Clyde Watershed, the study shows that areas with predominant grass and scrub vegetation still have transpirational water losses that by far exceed those of pure evaporation and interception. This infers that vegetation can influence the continental water balances on time scales of years to decades

2007-01-01

292

MULTIDISCIPLINARY MANAGEMENT OF STORMWATER RUNOFF - THE SHEPHERD CREEK WATERSHED PILOT STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased stormwater runoff from urbanized areas is a primary degrading influence on environmental quality. In addition to ecological, hydrological, and consideration of soils and land cover, we find that economics and legal concepts play an important role in creating a sustainab...

293

Mid-level synoptic analysis of flood-generating systems in South-west of Iran (case study: Dalaki watershed river basin)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flood is known as one of the most distractive natural disaster worldwide. Therefore, its prediction is of great importance from the socio-economical point of view. Despite the great improvement in computational techniques and numerical weather prediction approaches, so far, in Iran, an acceptable flood prediction method has not yet been introduced. The main aim of this study is to recognize and classify the patterns of synoptic systems leading to torrential rainfalls in a watershed basin located in south-west of Iran. In this research, 20 major floods characterized by high rainfall intensities and severe damage were selected. The pattern, extension, and the direction of movement of the selected synoptic maps from surface to 500 hPa pressure levels were identified. Furthermore, the position of cyclones, anti-cyclones and mid-level trough lines were carefully tracked and classified into different groups. The results show that the major severe floods occurring in Dalaki watershed river basin are mainly influenced by strengthening of the center of Sudan heat low (SHL) and the coincidence moisture feeding by the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. It was found that simultaneous merging of the SHL system and Mediterranean frontal system would intensify the flood intensities over the basin. The mean positions of high pressures, low pressures, the Red Sea trough lines and 1015 hPa isobars of the major floods are also discussed.

A. A. Sabziparvar; A. Parandeh; H. Lashkari; H. Yazdanpanah

2010-01-01

294

Mid-level synoptic analysis of flood-generating systems in South-west of Iran (case study: Dalaki watershed river basin)  

Science.gov (United States)

Flood is known as one of the most distractive natural disaster worldwide. Therefore, its prediction is of great importance from the socio-economical point of view. Despite the great improvement in computational techniques and numerical weather prediction approaches, so far, in Iran, an acceptable flood prediction method has not yet been introduced. The main aim of this study is to recognize and classify the patterns of synoptic systems leading to torrential rainfalls in a watershed basin located in south-west of Iran. In this research, 20 major floods characterized by high rainfall intensities and severe damage were selected. The pattern, extension, and the direction of movement of the selected synoptic maps from surface to 500 hPa pressure levels were identified. Furthermore, the position of cyclones, anti-cyclones and mid-level trough lines were carefully tracked and classified into different groups. The results show that the major severe floods occurring in Dalaki watershed river basin are mainly influenced by strengthening of the center of Sudan heat low (SHL) and the coincidence moisture feeding by the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. It was found that simultaneous merging of the SHL system and Mediterranean frontal system would intensify the flood intensities over the basin. The mean positions of high pressures, low pressures, the Red Sea trough lines and 1015 hPa isobars of the major floods are also discussed.

Sabziparvar, A. A.; Parandeh, A.; Lashkari, H.; Yazdanpanah, H.

2010-11-01

295

Hydrological response of a High-Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years: a case study of Bayelva watershed, Svalbard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our study considers climate change and its influence upon the hydrology and water balance of the glacierized Bayelva watershed in Svalbard. We find that changes are most noticeable within the last 10 years, when winters have become warmer and wetter. The change is most significant during the shoulder months, especially September, when the transition from summer ablation to winter accumulation is taking place. Winter rainfalls, when extreme, produce ground icings and runoff outside the summer period. Dependent upon summer air temperatures, these icings may either melt and produce additional runoff or persist until the following hydrological year. These processes have a direct influence upon the water budget. They represent sources of error for water-balance calculations that either ignore winter runoff events and/or assume water storage is negligible. We show that even when the watershed is underlain by permafrost and accommodates cold-based glaciers, storage can no longer be ignored. Furthermore, we find that the use of a precipitation gradient correction of 19% per 100 m, a gauge catch correction and glacier mass-balance data (for snow accumulation and icemelt runoff) should be used for accurate water-balance calculations. We also find that despite sustained glacier retreat, annual runoff volume showed no trend during 1989–2010. Discharge is more variable and longer during the last decade due to the winter rainfalls. Finally, flow recession analyses reveal increasingly efficient evacuation of meltwater from the catchment and the increasing occurrence of a delayed flowpath through the glaciers’ forefield.

Aga Nowak; Andy Hodson

2013-01-01

296

Hospital facilities management: Case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of energy management at the Mayo Foundation Rochester is a multifaceted process involving several divisions and Mayo Foundation Committees. This gives several opportunities to impact the energy consumption of a given building. The processes used are: (1) Facilities Engineering Services: The design and construction are the responsibility of another division and input is sought from operations to optimize the energy efficiency of the building systems during that process. (2) Operations Energy Management: After a building is placed on-line, the systems to be operated and maintained become the responsibility of the Operations Division. (3) Energy Conservation Measurements: A number of energy audits were performed using data from the energy management team to establish the opportunities in each major building. From that list, projects with a simple payback of five years or less are brought forward to funding committees for consideration. (4) Infrastructure Analysis: A team of Facilities Operations and Facilities Engineering staff developed a needs list for each building that is a part of the nearly 10,000,000 square feet owned by Mayo in Rochester, Minnesota. This list was prioritized by, one, life safety needs; two, maintenance needs; and three, economics payback opportunities. (5) Strategic Planning: After a building has been in service for many years, evaluation of the use of the building and its systems yields an opportunity for change that may reduce energy consumption. For the purposes of this case study, only the following elements of energy conservation at Mayo will be reviewed, namely, the impact of the Operation Energy Management Team, and the infrastructure analysis process.

Olson, R.W. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

297

AN ARCGIS TOOL FOR CREATING POPULATIONS OF WATERSHEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

For the Landscape Investigations for Pesticides Study in the Midwest, the goal is to sample a representative subset of watersheds selected statistically from a target population of watersheds within the glaciated corn belt. This area stretches from Ohio to Iowa and includes parts...

298

Little River Experimental Watershed, Tifton, GA, United States: A Geographic Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The Little River Experimental Watershed is located in the headwaters of the Upper Suwannee River basin and is one of twelve national benchmark watersheds participating in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Watershed Assessment Studies. A geographic database has been established to inc...

299

Experimental Study of Splash Erosion and Its Relation With Some Soil Properties in Three Adjacent Land Uses (A Case Study: Kasilian Watershed)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the first event in soil erosion, rain splash erosion causes movement of soil fragments. Splash is an important process in interrill erosion. The amount of soil particles detached from the surface is associated with soil and rain characteristics and may be affected by rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility. Therefore, in this study, splash erosion rate and its relation with some soil properties were studied. 120 soil samples were collected from three adjacent land uses including forest, rangeland and agriculture in two depths of 0-10 and10-20 cm in Kasilian Watershed. Soil samples were investigated under the experimental condition using splash cup and rainfall simulator. Results showed no significant differences between splash erosion in different land uses. Cultivated and rangeland soils were found to show a significantly lower organic matter (OM) by 59.93% and 33.62% in depth (0-10cm) and 33.33% and 25.59% in depth (10-20cm), respectively. We also found significance positive correlation between percent of silt and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.69, p=0.018) and significance negative correlation between soil organic matter and splash erosion rate in rangeland (r=0.767, p=0.001) and significance positive correlation between K-USLE and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.00, p=0.758).

M. Rezaie Pasha; A. Kavian; GH. Vahabzade

2012-01-01

300

Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Critical Management Studies: Some Reflections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to challenge some assumptions associated with Critical Management Studies (CMS). This is done based on insights originating from the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), an approach that can be considered as an empirical form of post-structuralism and that has gained prominence in social sciences. Fundamentally, this paper broadly reviews some key CMS ideas associated with this perspective ontology to argue that what CMS usually tends to take as explanation is exactly what has to be explained. Moreover, it discusses CMS’ problematic view of objects and its tendency to neglect how existence is kept and maintained.

Christine McLean; Rafael Alcadipani

2008-01-01

302

Hydrological Modeling in a watershed of the Lower Araguaia River Basin, TO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrological simulation is an important tool for water resources management since it allows for practitioners toevaluate the impacts of anthropic activities and climatic changes on water availability. The Lontra River watershedis situated in the Lower Araguaia River Basin which is an important economic region of Northern Tocantins State.The understanding of its hydrological features is fundamental for the development of environmental studies forsupporting the decision-making related to the water resources management as strong pressure has been observeddue to both the agricultural frontier expansion and installed economic center. The LASH hydrological model (standsfor Lavras Simulation of Hydrology) is characterized as a deterministic, semi conceptual and spatially distributedmodel and has been successfully applied in watersheds located in Southeastern Brazil. It was found in this study thatthe model was able to adequately capture the overall hydrological regime in the studied watershed. Three statisticalcoefficients used for measuring the model goodness-of-fit, Nash-Sutcliffe (CNS), Log (CNS) and determinationcoefficient (R²), have shown values greater than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.90, respectively. The simulated flow duration curvepresented a good fit in relation to the observed one, with small errors for prediction of minimum and maximumstream flows. Thus, we can be conclude that LASH model simulated properly the hydrological regime in the LontraRiver Watershed and it can be applied for either evaluation water availability or planning and management ofwater resources in the Lower Araguaia River Basin.

Marcelo Ribeiro Viola; Carlos Rogério de Mello; Marcos Giongo; Samuel Beskow; André Ferreira dos Santos

2012-01-01

303

Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The soil C balance is determined by the difference between inputs (e.g., plant litter, organic amendments, depositional C) and outputs (e.g., soil respiration, dissolved organic C leaching, and eroded C). There is a need to improve our understanding of whether soil erosion is a sink or a source of atmospheric CO2. The objective of this paper is to discover the long-term influence of soil erosion on the C cycle of managed watersheds near Coshocton, OH. We hypothesize that the amount of eroded C that is deposited in or out of a watershed compares in magnitude to the soil C changes induced via microbial respiration. We applied the erosion productivity impact calculator (EPIC) model to evaluate the role of erosion-deposition processes on the C balance of three small watersheds ({approx}1 ha). Experimental records from the USDA North Appalachian Experimental Watershed facility north of Coshocton, OH were used in the study. Soils are predominantly silt loam and have developed from loess-like deposits over residual bedrock. Management practices in the three watersheds have changed over time. Currently, watershed 118 (W118) is under a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) no till rotation, W128 is under conventional till continuous corn, and W188 is under no till continuous corn. Simulations of a comprehensive set of ecosystem processes including plant growth, runoff, and water erosion were used to quantify sediment C yields. A simulated sediment C yield of 43 {+-} 22 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} compared favorably against the observed 31 {+-} 12 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} in W118. EPIC overestimated the soil C stock in the top 30-cm soil depth in W118 by 21% of the measured value (36.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}). Simulations of soil C stocks in the other two watersheds (42.3 Mg C ha{sup -1} in W128 and 50.4 Mg C ha{sup -1} in W188) were off by <1 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Simulated eroded C re-deposited inside (30-212 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) or outside (73{sup -1}79 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}) watershed boundaries compared in magnitude to a simulated soil C sequestration rate of 225 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and to literature values. An analysis of net ecosystem carbon balance revealed that the watershed currently under a plow till system (W128) was a source of C to the atmosphere while the watersheds currently under a no till system (W118 and W188) behaved as C sinks of atmospheric CO2. Our results demonstrate a clear need for documenting and modeling the proportion of eroded soil C that is transported outside watershed boundaries and the proportion that evolves as CO2 to the atmosphere.

Izaurralde, R.C.; Thomson, A.M. [The Joint Global Change Research Institute, 8400 Baltimore Avenue, Suite 201, College Park, MD 20740-2496 (United States); Williams, J.R. [Blacklands Research Center, Texas A and M University, 808 East Blacklands Road, Temple, TX 76502 (United States); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 1509, Bethel Valley Road, PO Box 2008 MS6335, Oak Ridge, TN 537831-6335 (United States); McGill, W.B. [College of Science and Management, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Owens, L.B. [North Appalachian Experimental Watershed, USDA-Agricultural Research Station, 28850 SR 621, Coshocton, OH 43812-0488 (United States); Lal, R. [School of Natural Resources Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, 422B Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2007-01-15

304

Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment loading at watershed outlet were reduced with bioenergy scenarios except for stover removal scenarios with reduction ranging between 2.4% to 30.5%. Based on the simulation results for different bioenergy crop production scenario, we have also developed a multi-level spatial optimization framework (MLSOPT) to optimize production of food and energy crops under various sustainability objective functions. The method works in two levels, first level divides large watershed into small subareas and optimum solutions for individually for these subareas are identified. The second level uses these optimum solutions from the first level to identify watershed scale optimum solutions. The framework is tested with a complex spatial optimization case study designed to maximize crop residue (corn stover) harvest with minimum environmental impacts in a 2000 km2 watershed, located in Indiana, USA. In this presentation, results related to optimize sustainability of bioenergy crops will also be discussed.

Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

2013-04-01

305

Simulation of Runoff and Sediment Yield for a Himalayan Watershed Using SWAT Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Watershed is considered to be the ideal unit for management of the natural resources. Extraction of water-shed parameters using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) and use of mathematical models is the current trend for hydrologic evaluation of watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) having an interface with ArcView GIS software (AVSWAT2000/X) was selected for the estimation of runoff and sediment yield from an area of Suni to Kasol, an intermediate watershed of Satluj river, located in Western Himalayan region. The model was calibrated for the years 1993 & 1994 and validated with the observed runoff and sediment yield for the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the run-off and sediment yield from the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the daily and monthly runoff was obtained as 0.53 and 0.90 respectively for the calibration period and 0.33 and 0.62 respectively for the validation period. The R2 value in estimating the daily and monthly sediment yield during calibration was computed as 0.33 and 0.38 respectively. The R2 for daily and monthly sediment yield values for 1995 to 1997 was observed to be 0.26 and 0.47.

Sanjay K. Jain; Jaivir Tyagi; Vishal Singh

2010-01-01

306

Geochemical baseline level and function and contamination of phosphorus in Liao River Watershed sediments of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quantitative assessment of P contamination in sediments is a challenge due to sediment heterogeneity and the lacking of geochemical background or baseline levels. In this study, a procedure was proposed to determine the average P background level and P geochemical baseline level (GBL) and develop P geochemical baseline functions (GBF) for riverbed sediments of the Liao River Watershed (LRW). The LRW has two river systems - the Liao River System (LRS) and the Daliao River System (DRS). Eighty-eight samples were collected and analyzed for P, Al, Fe, Ca, organic matter, pH, and texture. The results show that Fe can be used as a better particle-size proxy to construct the GBF of P (P (mg/kg) = 39.98 + 166.19 × Fe (%), R(2) = 0.835, n = 66). The GBL of P was 675 mg/kg, while the average background level of P was 355 mg/kg. Noting that many large cities are located in the DRS watershed, most of the contaminated sites were located within the DRS and the riverbed sediments were more contaminated by P in the DRS watershed than in the LRS watershed. The geochemical background and baseline information of P are of great importance in managing P levels within the LRW.

Liu S; Wang J; Lin C; He M; Liu X

2013-10-01

307

Geochemical baseline level and function and contamination of phosphorus in Liao River Watershed sediments of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative assessment of P contamination in sediments is a challenge due to sediment heterogeneity and the lacking of geochemical background or baseline levels. In this study, a procedure was proposed to determine the average P background level and P geochemical baseline level (GBL) and develop P geochemical baseline functions (GBF) for riverbed sediments of the Liao River Watershed (LRW). The LRW has two river systems - the Liao River System (LRS) and the Daliao River System (DRS). Eighty-eight samples were collected and analyzed for P, Al, Fe, Ca, organic matter, pH, and texture. The results show that Fe can be used as a better particle-size proxy to construct the GBF of P (P (mg/kg) = 39.98 + 166.19 × Fe (%), R(2) = 0.835, n = 66). The GBL of P was 675 mg/kg, while the average background level of P was 355 mg/kg. Noting that many large cities are located in the DRS watershed, most of the contaminated sites were located within the DRS and the riverbed sediments were more contaminated by P in the DRS watershed than in the LRS watershed. The geochemical background and baseline information of P are of great importance in managing P levels within the LRW. PMID:23732192

Liu, Shaoqing; Wang, Jing; Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao

2013-06-01

308

Application of the SWAT model to the Xiangjiang river watershed in subtropical central China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to simulate the water balance in the Xiangjiang river watershed for current and planning scenarios of land uses. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1998 to 2002 and then validated for the period from 2003 to 2007 using the observed stream flow data from four monitoring gages within the watershed. The determination coefficient of linear regression of the observed and simulated monthly stream flows (R(2)) and their Nash-Sutcliffe Index (NSI) was used to evaluate model performance. All values of R(2) and NSI were above 0.8 and ranged from 0.82 to 0.92, which indicates that the SWAT model was capable of simulating the stream flow in the Xiangjiang river watershed. The calibrated and validated SWAT model was then applied to study the hydrological response of three land use change scenarios. Runoff was reduced by increasing the areas of forest and grassland while simultaneously decreasing the areas of agricultural and urban land. In the recent and future land use planning for the Xiangjiang river watershed, the hydrological effect should be considered in regional water management and erosion control. PMID:23656956

Luo, Qiao; Li, Yong; Wang, Kelin; Wu, Jinshui

2013-01-01

309

Application of the SWAT model to the Xiangjiang river watershed in subtropical central China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to simulate the water balance in the Xiangjiang river watershed for current and planning scenarios of land uses. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1998 to 2002 and then validated for the period from 2003 to 2007 using the observed stream flow data from four monitoring gages within the watershed. The determination coefficient of linear regression of the observed and simulated monthly stream flows (R(2)) and their Nash-Sutcliffe Index (NSI) was used to evaluate model performance. All values of R(2) and NSI were above 0.8 and ranged from 0.82 to 0.92, which indicates that the SWAT model was capable of simulating the stream flow in the Xiangjiang river watershed. The calibrated and validated SWAT model was then applied to study the hydrological response of three land use change scenarios. Runoff was reduced by increasing the areas of forest and grassland while simultaneously decreasing the areas of agricultural and urban land. In the recent and future land use planning for the Xiangjiang river watershed, the hydrological effect should be considered in regional water management and erosion control.

Luo Q; Li Y; Wang K; Wu J

2013-01-01

310

Analysis of Hydrologic Flowpaths in Two Meso-scale Watersheds, Mt. Mansfield, VT  

Science.gov (United States)

The various paths by which water moves through forested watersheds are complex and not well understood. Much of our insight into runoff production processes and the effects of landuse are drawn from studies in small watersheds and on experiments involving traditional forest management activities (timber harvesting, road construction). The purpose of this research is to better understand stream water generation processes under varying seasonal and land-use conditions in two meso-scale basins in northern Vermont. An additional aspect of this research is an analysis of the impact of ski resort development on hydrologic flowpaths. We are utilizing stream and potential source water chemistries to characterize the flowpaths within the Ranch Brook (9.6 km2) and West Branch (11.7 km2) watersheds on the eastern slope of Mt. Mansfield. The West Branch basin encompasses an alpine ski resort while the Ranch Brook basin serves as our forested control site. Event-based samples of stream water have been collected since October 2000, and precipitation, soilwater, groundwater and snowpack samples were collected beginning in late spring of 2004. All were analyzed for their basic solute chemistry and oxygen isotopic signatures. Chemical data and principal components analysis have revealed dynamic systems of stream water generation in both watersheds. Our results provide new insights into runoff production and the effects of landuse activities in meso-scale basins.

Zinni, B. J.; Wemple, B. C.; Lini, A.; Shanley, J. B.

2004-12-01

311

Debris Flow Associated Sediment Entrainment Thresholds in Small Watersheds in the Central Klamath Mountains, NW California  

Science.gov (United States)

Five small watersheds, averaging 14 square kilometers, in The Central Klamath Mountains in Northern California will be examined to estimate the streams' ability to entrain debris flow associated sediment. A better understanding of the ability of the streams to deal with an inundation of sediment is imperative to ensure effective watershed management. The debris flow histories of the basins, developed using air photos and field inventories, show that multiple debris flow events occurred between 1944 and 1997 in the watersheds. Debris flows related to fire, roads, timber harvest or natural events may negatively influence water quality and the biological characteristics of a stream system. The debris flow sediment choking the stream channel may not be a permanent impairment of the system, however. Anecdotal evidence indicates that sediment introduced by debris flows in these watersheds was often appreciably removed within a few years. This study will quantify the discharge conditions needed to remove sediment from the stream channel. The bed material, as well as the material making up terraces, will be analyzed to determine the size distribution of the sediment introduced into the system by debris flows. Stream competency calculations will be used to determine the discharge that is required to entrain such sediment. This information will be used to estimate the rate and timing of delivery of debris flow related sediment to larger streams, such as the Klamath and Scott Rivers.

Bell, A. L.; de La Fuente, J.

2008-12-01

312

Land suitability assessment on a watershed of Loess Plateau using the analytic hierarchy process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to reduce soil erosion and desertification, the Sloping Land Conversion Program has been conducted in China for more than 15 years, and large areas of farmland have been converted to forest and grassland. However, this large-scale vegetation-restoration project has faced some key problems (e.g. soil drying) that have limited the successful development of the current ecological-recovery policy. Therefore, it is necessary to know about the land use, vegetation, and soil, and their inter-relationships in order to identify the suitability of vegetation restoration. This study was conducted at the watershed level in the ecologically vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau, to evaluate the land suitability using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that (1) the area unsuitable for crops accounted for 73.3% of the watershed, and the main factors restricting cropland development were soil physical properties and soil nutrients; (2) the area suitable for grassland was about 86.7% of the watershed, with the remaining 13.3% being unsuitable; (3) an area of 3.95 km(2), accounting for 66.7% of the watershed, was unsuitable for forest. Overall, the grassland was found to be the most suitable land-use to support the aims of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in the Liudaogou watershed. Under the constraints of soil water shortage and nutrient deficits, crops and forests were considered to be inappropriate land uses in the study area, especially on sloping land. When selecting species for re-vegetation, non-native grass species with high water requirements should be avoided so as to guarantee the sustainable development of grassland and effective ecological functioning. Our study provides local land managers and farmers with valuable information about the inappropriateness of growing trees in the study area along with some information on species selection for planting in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau.

Yi X; Wang L

2013-01-01

313

A STUDY OF MANAGING LIQUIDITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since privatisation, to ensure swift economic development it was deemed essential that a sound steel production program on a formidable basis must be formulated. Accordingly, the private sector has set up many more integrated steel plants and enhanced the existing plants to increase current production capacity. To some extent the priority given by the country failed to flourish due to poor capacity, under-utilisation and poor consumption. Working capital is accountable for poor capacity, under-utilisation and poor consumption. The competence of the working capital in terms of short-term liquidity is of foremost significance in the case where we examine performs and guiding principle presently overcoming in an industry with a view to finding out whether they are reasonable or require enhancement. The effectiveness of working capital is of crucial importance if short-term liquidity position as well as short-term solvency position is very acceptable and at the same time, if judgement is made with its standard or benchmark. The overall efficiency is vital from the viewpoint of short-term liquidity and at the same time proper plane of profitability is required for the business enterprises. Consequently, the affiliation between short-term liquidity and profitability is one of the most imperative areas necessitating management analysis. Keeping this in view, a study of liquidity management of the selected private sector steel companies is undertaken in the present work.

Amalendu Bhunia; Islamuddin Khan; Somnath MuKhuti

2011-01-01

314

Study on spent fuel management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the storage proplem of spent fuel at nuclear power plants which may occur sometime in early 1990's and to fine out the best option for spent fuel management by the evaluating both technical and ecomomical aspects. In this study 3 scenaios have been evaluated: 1) once-through fuel cycle, 2) reprocessing outside our country and 3) reprocessing inside our country. Spent fuel arisings from nuclear power plants by 2000 have been calculated by using SCENARIOS program which was obtained from IAEA. Various storage options inculding rod consolidation at reactor and away from reactor storage have been analyzed mainly based on information which has been supplied U.S. DOE and Pacific Northwest Lab(PNL). This study has been performed as a part of U.S./Korea Joint Spent Fuel Study which was agreed between MOST of Korea and U.S. DOS/DOE in June, 1982. As an agreement, U.S. PNL and KAERI will primary carry out joint study under the guidance of both governments by the end of 1983. As a result of first yesr study, thermal recycle option with domestic reprocessing at around 2000 will be economically feasible comparing with once-through option. Due to the uncertainties and storage of reprocessing facilities in the world, thermal recycle option will toll reprocessing will not be feasible and most expensive, according to examination carried out by KEPCO and KAERI through this year. (Author)

1983-01-01

315

Implementation of BMP strategies for adaptation to climate change and land use change in a pasture-dominated watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs) can reduce non-point source (NPS) pollutants from various land use activities. Watershed models are generally used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMP performance in improving water quality as the basis for watershed management recommendations. This study evaluates 171 management practice combinations that incorporate nutrient management, vegetated filter strips (VFS) and grazing management for their performances in improving water quality in a pasture-dominated watershed with dynamic land use changes during 1992–2007 by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). These selected BMPs were further examined with future climate conditions (2010–2069) downscaled from three general circulation models (GCMs) for understanding how climate change may impact BMP performance. Simulation results indicate that total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) losses increase with increasing litter application rates. Alum-treated litter applications resulted in greater TN losses, and fewer TP losses than the losses from untreated poultry litter applications. For the same litter application rates, sediment and TP losses are greater for summer applications than fall and spring applications, while TN losses are greater for fall applications. Overgrazing management resulted in the greatest sediment and phosphorus losses, and VFS is the most influential management practice in reducing pollutant losses. Simulations also indicate that climate change impacts TSS losses the most, resulting in a larger magnitude of TSS losses. However, the performance of selected BMPs in reducing TN and TP losses was more stable in future climate change conditions than in the BMP performance in the historical climate condition. We recommend that selection of BMPs to reduce TSS losses should be a priority concern when multiple uses of BMPs that benefit nutrient reductions are considered in a watershed. Therefore, the BMP combination of spring litter application, optimum grazing management and filter strip with a VFS ratio of 42 could be a promising alternative for use in mitigating future climate change.

Chiang LC; Chaubey I; Hong NM; Lin YP; Huang T

2012-10-01

316

Historical sources and watershed evolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historical data, including structures, documents, photographs and eyewitness reports, allow changes in some drainage basins to be documented in fine detail over time periods ranging from a few days to several decades. The USA is rich in data sources that are freely available. Rates of bank erosion, meander migration, channel width, riparian vegetation and watershed land use and cover conditions can be assessed, which are especially valuable where there is controversy over the human contribution to erosion and deposition. Studies of Coon Creek and the southern Piedmont of the USA have yielded results that sometimes contradict established views.

Trimble SW

2012-05-01

317

Segmentation of Medical Image using Clustering and Watershed Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging. Segmentation of an image is the division or separation of the image into dissimilar regions of similar attribute. In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates clustering algorithm and marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm for medical image segmentation. The use of the conservative watershed algorithm for medical image analysis is pervasive because of its advantages, such as always being able to construct an entire division of the image. On the other hand, its disadvantages include over segmentation and sensitivity to false edges. Approach: In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates K-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm and integrates Fuzzy C-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm separately for medical image segmentation. The Clustering algorithms are unsupervised learning algorithms, while the marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm makes use of automated thresholding on the gradient magnitude map and post-segmentation merging on the initial partitions to reduce the number of false edges and over-segmentation. Results: In this study, we compared K-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm with Fuzzy C-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm. And also we showed that our proposed method produced segmentation maps which gave fewer partitions than the segmentation maps produced by the conservative watershed algorithm. Conclusion: Integration of K-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm gave better segmentation than integration of Fuzzy C-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm. By reducing the amount of over segmentation, we obtained a segmentation map which is more diplomats of the several anatomies in the medical images.

M. C.J. Christ; R. M.S. Parvathi

2011-01-01

318

Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The soil C balance is determined by the difference between inputs (e.g. litter, crop residues, decaying roots, organic amendments, depositional C) and outputs (e.g. soil respiration, dissolved organic C leaching and eroded C). Two competing hypotheses suggest erosion may either increase or decrease output. One hypothesis states that C from eroded fields becomes “sequestered” in depressional areas and thus is rendered unavailable for decomposition. An alternative hypothesis argues that due to aggregate breakdown during erosion events, physically-protected C becomes accessible, thereby increasing oxidation of C and emission of CO2. This study applied the EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) model to evaluate the role of erosion-deposition processes on the C balance at the small watershed scale. The experimental records of three small watersheds (~1 ha) from the USDA North Appalachian Experimental Watershed facility north of Coshocton, OH were used in the study. Predominant silt loam soils in the area have developed from loess-like deposits over residual bedrock. Soil and crop management in the three watersheds has changed over time. Currently, watershed 118 (W118) is under a corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) no till rotation, W128 is under conventional till continuous corn, and W188 is under no till continuous corn. Predictions of sediment C yields were made through simulation of an entire range of ecosystem processes including plant growth, runoff, and water erosion. A simulated sediment C yield of 39 kg C ha-1 y-1 compared well against an observed value of 31 kg C ha-1 y-1 in W118. EPIC overpredicted the soil C stock in the top 30-cm soil depth in W188 by 21% of the measured value (36.8 Mg C ha-1). Predictions of soil C stocks in the other two watersheds (42.3 Mg C ha-1 in W128 and 50.4 Mg C ha-1 in W188) were off by <1 Mg C ha-1. Although these results do not directly answer any of the two prevailing hypotheses, they do provide insight as to the importance of erosion-deposition processes in the C cycle at the small watershed scale. In future work, the APEX model, the landscape version of EPIC, will be used to study the role of erosion and deposition as sources or sinks of atmospheric C.

Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Mcgill, William B.; Owens, Lloyd; Lal, Rattan

2007-01-01

319

STUDY OF A RISK MANAGEMENT MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk management has become an important issue in the information security area. This study proposes a Semi-Markov chain model to manage the information security risk. When the state information is not recognized as a normal state, the model can send a warning signal to the manager. A simulated model was used to validate the semi-Markov chain model.

Marn-Ling Shing; Chen-chi Shing; Kuo Lane Chen; Huei Lee

2011-01-01

320

Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students’ ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial management.

Zhenghong Che; Zhengmei Che

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Implementing sustainable forest management: some case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Case studies are presented to illustrate the variability surrounding the change from the traditional fibre-production under sustained-yield management approach to a broader strategy of sustainable management of all forest values. Examples selected and discussed in detail include: (1) the Lac Duparquet Research and Teaching Forest, which is an example of forest management where research and natural disturbance-based management are fully balanced, (2) the Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Woodlands Management Program, also based on natural disturbances, (3) the Louisiana-Pacific Canada's Swan Valley Forest Resources Division Agreement, a ten-year development plan to achieve sustainable management in an adaptive management context, (4) the Bas-Saint-Laurent Model Forest, committed to sustainable forest management program, with the additional objective of achieving sustainability and economic development in a forest tenant farming environment, and (5) Mistik Management Ltd, a forest management company in Saskatchewan that has made a strong commitment over the past 10 years to local involvement in forestry planning and operations, active multiple resource management, and adaptive forest management principles. In-depth analysis and detailed description of the management principles underlying the operations in each of the five cases are provided. The case studies illustrate the wide variety of options available for conserving biodiversity and highlight the difficulties involved in attaining a broad set of forest values, including wild life, habitat, rural lifestyles, community stability, corporate and provincial revenue objectives. 81 refs., 7 figs.

Hebert, D. [Encompass Strategic Resources Inc., Creston, BC (Canada); Harvey, B. [Universite du Quebec en Abitibi-Temiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, PQ (Canada); Wasel, S.; Dzus, E. H. [Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Inc., Boyle, AB (Canada); Donnelly, M. [Louisiana-Pacific Canada Ltd., Swan River, MB (Canada); Robert, J. [Service canadien des forets, Programme des forets modeles, Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Chambers, F. H. [Victoria Univ., School of Environmental Studies, Victoria, BC (Canada)

2003-07-01

322

EFFECT OF URBANIZATION ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES IN THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the effects of population growth and urbanization on the hydrologic balance of the watershed is of paramount importance for sustainable water resources management. The 120 km2 Pocono Creek watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania that drains into one of the main...

323

Conservation Practices Impacts Within The South Georgia Little River Experimental Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality data collected from the Little River Watershed from 1974 to 2003 were related to changes in precipitation and land management within the watershed. Prior research indicated there are few strong temporal trends in the streamflow water quality data over time. There was a statistically ...

324

FLOW ANALYSIS AT THE PORSUK WATERSHED STREAMS WITH USING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining low-flows and their periodicities is very important for sustainably using and managing streams which are one of the most important water resources. In this study, EPA’s DFLOW software has been used for the analysis of the main stream and tributaries of the Porsuk watershed. Flow data sets from selected stream flow gauge stations located in the Porsuk Watershed have been provided by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. Hydrologically and biologically based low-flow criteria like 7Q10, 4B3 have been calculated by using the DFLOW software and how these stream tributaries have been affected over the last 45 years has been determined. Also temporal trends of low-flow periods and 7-day average low flows whose return period is a year (7Q1) have been examined. As a result of this study, increasing trends have been determined on some tributaries used for irrigation purposes and after reservoir construction. Undisturbed tributaries have decreasing low-flow patterns. Increases in temperature and precipitation changes due to climate change should be consideredwith more care. In addition, in the planning and use of water control structures, such as hydroelectrical power plant dams, such studies are important for the more efficient use and sustainabilityof the limited surface water resources in our country.

Serdar GÖNCÜ

2011-01-01

325

Pollution in Our Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

By building a simple watershed with paper and markers and then using a spray bottle to simulate precipitation, learners will understand how pollution accumulates in our water sources, especially from pesticides used in agriculture. This activity is great way for learners to visualize how pollution can contaminate distant lands by getting into the water cycle and then can be carried to the nearby ecosystems. This lesson includes background information, wrap up questions, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2007-01-01

326

Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management/ Características topográficas y evaluación del agua en el manejo de cuencas hidrográficas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron características topográficas y muestras de agua en un cauce de la hacienda Gloria, municipio Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil. Las características morfométricas del relieve y del agua fueron estudiadas en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica, considerando zonas protegidas con bosque nativo y aquellas que presentaban uso agrícola de la tierra para ajustar la hipótesis de que el uso de ella afecta la calidad del agua y ayuda a predecir cómo se producen los c (more) ambios en este y en el local paisaje circundante. La calidad del agua fue evaluada en seis sitios y se analizaron los cambios de los parámetros físicos y químicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas el mismo día de cada mes, durante un año, mediante un equipo de Horiba. Para determinar diferencias entre los sitios estudiados se realizó el análisis de varianza (Anova). El análisis de los datos presentó diferencias significativas de pH, conductividad eléctrica, turbidez, oxígeno disuelto y temperatura. Las características topográficas han sido influenciadas por las actividades agrícolas, impactando el medio ambiente. La escorrentía superficial es predominante en las laderas pronunciadas, sobre todo en las zonas altas de la cuenca. Los resultados indican la fragilidad de la cuenca agrícola a la exposición de contaminantes o agentes tóxicos, debido a la turbidez en el agua causada por la erosión de los suelos, la deposición de residuos agrícolas y por la escorrentía superficial. Abstract in english Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil . Understanding the relief?s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality w (more) as sampled at six sites and physical and chemical changes were analysed. Monthly water samples were collected from the streams on the same day of each month during the course of a year; Horiba equipment was used for recording data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for determining differences between the sites being investigated. Analysing the data revealed significant differences in pH, electric conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Topographical characteristics have been influenced by agricultural activity, thereby having an environmental impact. Surface runoff was predominant on steep slopes, mainly in areas near the top of the watershed. Land-use has had a significant impact on many physical parameters, including stream turbidity and temperature which increased with deforestation. The results indicated the agricultural watershed?s fragility to pollutant exposure and/ or toxicity, mainly due to turbidity in the streams caused by soil erosion, waste discharge and runoff.

Tarlé Pissarra, Teresa Cristina; Mazzer Rodrigues, Flavia; Luna Arraes, Christiano; Galbiatti, João Antonio; Borges, Maurício José

2008-12-01

327

Características topográficas y evaluación del agua en el manejo de cuencas hidrográficas Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluaron características topográficas y muestras de agua en un cauce de la hacienda Gloria, municipio Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil. Las características morfométricas del relieve y del agua fueron estudiadas en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica, considerando zonas protegidas con bosque nativo y aquellas que presentaban uso agrícola de la tierra para ajustar la hipótesis de que el uso de ella afecta la calidad del agua y ayuda a predecir cómo se producen los cambios en este y en el local paisaje circundante. La calidad del agua fue evaluada en seis sitios y se analizaron los cambios de los parámetros físicos y químicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas el mismo día de cada mes, durante un año, mediante un equipo de Horiba. Para determinar dife-rencias entre los sitios estudiados se realizó el análisis de varianza (Anova). El análisis de los datos presentó diferencias significa-tivas de pH, conductividad eléctrica, turbidez, oxígeno disuelto y temperatura. Las características topográficas han sido influen-ciadas por las actividades agrícolas, impactando el medio ambiente. La escorrentía superficial es predominante en las laderas pronunciadas, sobre todo en las zonas altas de la cuenca. Los resultados indican la fragilidad de la cuenca agrícola a la exposi-ción de contaminantes o agentes tóxicos, debido a la turbidez en el agua causada por la erosión de los suelos, la deposición de residuos agrícolas y por la escorrentía superficial.Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Un-derstanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six sites and physical and chemical changes were analysed. Monthly water samples were collected from the streams on the same day of each month during the course of a year; Horiba equipment was used for recording data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for determining differences between the sites being investigated. Analysing the data revealed significant differences in pH, electric conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Topographical characteristics have been influenced by agricultural activity, thereby having an environmental impact. Surface runoff was predominant on steep slopes, mainly in areas near the top of the watershed. Land-use has had a significant impact on many physical parameters, including stream turbidity and tem-perature which increased with deforestation. The results indicated the agricultural watershed’s fragility to pollutant exposure and/ or toxicity, mainly due to turbidity in the streams caused by soil erosion, waste discharge and runoff.

Tarlé Pissarra Teresa Cristina; Mazzer Rodrigues Flavia; Luna Arraes Christiano; Antonio Galbiatti João; Borges Maurício José

2008-01-01

328

Information Management in Communication Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An introduction to the concept of Information Management. Its close relation to other disciplines, the tasks it covers and its impact in Information Society. Digital citizens and Information Literacy.

Alemany Martínez, Dolores

329

Simulation of Stream Flow for Upper Lam Takongsub-Watershed Using SWAT Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Watershed is considered to be the idea unit for water management. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with ArcGIS 9.3 software (ArcSWAT2009) was selected for stream flow estimation from Upper Lam Takong, a part of the Moolbasin, in Northeastern region of Thailand. This sub-watershed has a total area of 581 km2. The model was calibrated for the year 2007-2008 and validated with observed stream flow for the year 2009. Then the model performance was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess model simulation capability for the study area. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) coefficient and the regression correlation coefficient (R2) for monthly stream flow were obtained as 0.85 and 0.86 for calibration period and 0.63 and 0.92 for validation period, which showed that SWAT model can be a useful tool for water resource management in Upper Lam Takongand the bigger Lam Takong watershed.

Netnapa Pongpetch; Netnapa Pongpetch

2013-01-01

330

Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

331

Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

1993-01-01

332

Reservoir Sedimentation and Flood Control: Using a Geographical Information System to Estimate Sediment Yield of the Songwe River Watershed in Malawi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Severe watershed degradation continues to occur in the tropical regions of southern Africa. This has raised interest to harness and manipulate the potential of the watershed resources for human benefit as the populations grow. Songwe River is one such degrading watershed causing biennial flooding among other problems. In this study, climatic, land use, topographic and physiographic properties were assembled for this watershed and used in a process-based Geographical Information System (GIS) with the aim of determining the hydrological sediment potential of Songwe River watershed and quantifying possibilities of reservoir sedimentation. The study further aimed at determining the critical sediment generating areas for prioritized conservation management and the relationship between the increasing flood events in the floodplains and the rainfall trends. Based on hydrological runoff processes using the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA) model, the estimated amount of sediment transported downstream is potentially huge. Most of the sediment generation was established to be occurring in the upper sub-basin and specifically from built up village and degraded natural land. These trends have not only caused the increased flooding events in the lower sub-basin, but also pose a great sustainability risk of sedimentation to the proposed reservoir.

Kondwani G. Munthali; Brian J. Irvine; Yuji Murayama

2011-01-01

333

Hydrologic Modeling of the Bouregreg Watershed (Morocco) Using GIS and SWAT Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of water resources at watershed scale is widely adopted as approach to manage, assess and simulate these important natural resources. The development of remote sensing and GIS techniques has allowed the use of spatially and physically based hydrologic models to simulate as simply and realistically as possible the functioning of watershed systems. Indeed, the major constraint that has hindered the expansion use of these tools was the unavailability or scarcity of data especially in the developing countries. In this context, the objective of this study is to model the hydrology in the Bouregreg basin, located at the north-central of Morocco, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in order to understand and determine the different watershed hydrological processes. Thus, it aims to simulate the stream flow, establish the water balance and estimate the monthly volume inflow to SMBA dam situated at the basin outlet. The ArcSWAT interface implemented in the ArcGIS software was used to delineate the basin and its sub-components, combine the data layers and edit the model database. The model parameters were analyzed, ranked and adjusted for hydrologic modeling purposes using daily temporal data series. They were calibrated using an auto-calibration method based on a Shuffled Complex Evolution Algorithm from 1989 to 1997 and validated from 1998 to 2005. Based on statistical indicators, the evaluation indicates that SWAT model had a good performance for both calibration and validation periods in Bouregreg Watershed. In fact, the model showed a good correlation between the observed and simulated monthly average river discharge with R² and Nash coefficient of about 0.8. The water balance components were correctly estimated and the SMBA dam inflow was successfully reproduced with R² of 0.9. These results revealed that if properly calibrated, SWAT model can be used efficiently in semi-arid regions to support water management policies.

Abdelhamid Fadil; Hassan Rhinane; Abdelhadi Kaoukaya; Youness Kharchaf; Omar Alami Bachir

2011-01-01

334

Phosphorus run-off assessment in a watershed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Watershed Assessment Model was used to simulate the runoff volume, peak flows, and non-point source phosphorus loadings from the 5870 km(2) Lake Okeechobee watershed as a case study. The results were compared to on-site monitoring to verify the accuracy of the method and to estimate the observed/simulated error. In 2008, the total simulated phosphorus contribution was 9634, 6524 and 3908 kg (P) y(-1) from sod farms, citrus farms and row crop farmlands, respectively. Although the dairies represent less than 1% of the total area of Kissimmee basin, the simulated P load from the dairies (9283 kg (P) y(-1) in 2008) made up 5.4% of the total P load during 2008. On average, the modeled P yield rates from dairies, sod farms and row crop farmlands are 3.85, 2.01 and 0.86 kg (P) ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. The maximum sediment simulated phosphorus yield rate is about 2 kg (P) ha(-1) and the particulate simulated phosphorus contribution from urban, improved pastures and dairies to the total phosphorus load was estimated at 9%, 3.5%, and 1%, respectively. Land parcels with P oversaturated soil as well as the land parcels with high phosphorus assimilation and high total phosphorus contribution were located. The most critical sub-basin was identified for eventual targeting by enforced agricultural best management practices. Phosphorus load, including stream assimilation, incoming to Lake Okeechobee from two selected dairies was also determined.

Chebud Y; Naja GM; Rivero R

2011-01-01

335

A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Sediments: A Case Study from Wailpalli Watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study, focuses on investigation of heavy metal distribution in sediments of the Wailpalli watershed located in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India, and to study different causes of enrichment by applying multivariate statistics on the studied elements, including correlation and factor analyses, and to identify possible sources of sediment bound heavy metals. Sediment samples were collected along the streams from a depth of 0-10 cm and were analyzed for Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn and Zr by using Philips PW 2440 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The concentration ranges were Ba 128.5 to 929.4 mg/kg, Co 0.4 to 36.2 m g/kg, C r 15.8 to 107.8 mg/kg, Cu 1.6 to 43.1 mg/kg, Ni 0.2 to 69.8 mg/kg, Pb 2.3 to 14.1 mg/kg, Rb 8.0 to 446.2 mg/kg, Sr 73.0 to 360.6 mg/kg, V 7.9 to 240.8 mg/kg, Zn 24.5 to 130.1 mg/kg, and Zr 108.4 to 2668 mg/kg. Distribution maps metal concentrations in sediments were plotted by Golden Software’s SURFER program. Using multivariate statistical analysis (correlation coefficients, factor analysis), the interrelationships among elements, and Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to differentiate the origin of metals between anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The results of median EF indicate no significant enrichment of the metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn) except for high Pb and Ni possibly indicating some point source input to the stream sediments. However, systematic and continuous monitoring of the study area for heavy metals is necessary as most of the area in Wailpalli watershed is under active irrigation and these elements may enter the food chain, and could be hazardous to human health.

A. Keshav Krishna; K. Rama Mohan and N.N. Murthy

2011-01-01

336

Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of prevailing climate. This suggests that the conditions that define current agroecosystems are likely to migrate under a changing climate, requiring adaptive management strategies. These agroecosystems show a remarkable degree of differentiation in terms of production orientation and socio-economic characteristics of the farming communities suggesting different options and interventions towards building resilience to climate change.

Belay Simane; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Mutlu Ozdogan

2013-01-01

337

Simulation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Load Runoff by a GIS-based Distributed Model for Chikugo River Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

A distributed model was developed in order to simulate the process of nitrogen and phosphorus load runoff in the semi-urban watershed of the Chikugo River, Japan. A grid of cells 1km in size was laid over the study area, and several input variables for each cell area including DEM, land use and statistical data were extracted by GIS. In the process of water runoff, hydrograph calculated at Chikugo Barrage was in close agreement with the observed one, which achieved Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.90. In addition, the model simulated reasonably well the movement of TN and TP at each station. The model was also used to analyze three scenarios based on the watershed management: (1) reduction of nutrient loads from livestock farm, (2) improvement of septic tanks' wastewater treatment system and (3) application of purification function of paddy fields. As a result, effectiveness of management strategy in each scenario depended on land use patterns. The reduction rates of nutrient load effluent in scenarios (1) and (3) were higher than that in scenario (2). The present result suggests that an appropriate management of livestock farm together with the effective use of paddy environment would have significant effects on the reduction of nutrient loads. A suitable management strategy should be planned based on the land use pattern in the watershed.

Iseri, Haruka; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Harada, Masayoshi

338

Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds  

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Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%). All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

Irwan Sukri Banuwa; Naik Sinukaban; Suria Darma Tarigan; Dudung Darusman

2008-01-01

339

Leaf area index of ground covers in a subtropical watershed  

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Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI), an important structural variable descriptive of vegetation, is directly related to evapotranspiration and productivity. The objective of this work was to measure and analyze monthly LAI of different ground covers in a subtropical watershed. A field campaign to collect monthly LAI data was carried out during the year 2001, with a LAI-2000 (plant canopy analyzer) device, in sugarcane, pasture, corn, eucalypt, and riparian forest patches. Riparian forest presented a maximum LAI of 4.90; LAI values decreased as precipitation decreased, as it is a characteristic of this type of semideciduous vegetation. LAI for sugar cane presented the greatest variability throughout the year, related to plant characteristics and crop management in the study area. Results represent an initial step for the understanding of LAI dynamics in the study area and areas under similar conditions.

Xavier Alexandre Cândido; Vettorazzi Carlos Alberto

2003-01-01

340

Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals, such as the total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements. Targeting critical source areas (CSAs) that generate disproportionately high pollutant loads within a watershed is a crucial step in successfully controlling nonpoint source pollution. The importance of watershed simulation models in assisting with the quantitative assessments of CSAs of pollution (relative to their magnitudes and extents) and of the effectiveness of associated BMPs has been well recognized. However, due to the distinct disconnect between the hydrological scale in which these models conduct their evaluation and the farm scale at which feasible BMPs are actually selected and implemented, and due to the difficulty and uncertainty involved in transferring watershed model data to farm fields, there are limited practical applications of these tools in the current nonpoint source pollution control efforts by conservation specialists for delineating CSAs and planning targeting measures. There are also limited approaches developed that can assess impacts of CSA-targeted BMPs on farm productivity and profitability together with the assessment of water quality improvements expected from applying these measures. This study developed a modeling framework that integrates farm economics and environmental aspects (such as identification and mitigation of CSAs) through joint use of watershed- and farm-scale models in a closed feedback loop. The integration of models in a closed feedback loop provides a way for environmental changes to be evaluated with regard to the impact on the practical aspects of farm management and economics, adjusted or reformulated as necessary, and revaluated with respect to effectiveness of environmental mitigation at the farm- and watershed-levels. This paper also outlines steps needed to extract important CSA-related information from a watershed model to help inform targeting decisions at the farm scale. The modeling framework is demonstrated with two unique case studies in the northeastern United States (New York and Vermont), with supporting data from numerous published, location-specific studies at both the watershed and farm scales. Using the integrated modeling framework, it can be possible to compare the costs (in terms of changes required in farm system components or financial compensations for retiring crop lands) and benefits (in terms of measurable water quality improvement goals) of implementing targeted BMPs. This multi-scale modeling approach can be used in the multi-objective task of mitigating CSAs of pollution to meet water quality goals while maintaining farm-level economic viability.

Ghebremichael LT; Veith TL; Hamlett JM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nitrate export from forested watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region, USA  

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Current levels of nitrogen inputs to the Chesapeake Bay exceed the ecological demand, resulting in eutrophication and algal blooms which degrade water quality. The Chesapeake Bay receives nitrogen compounds from a variety of sources. Previously, much attention had been focused on point source contributions such as sewage treatment plants and industrial discharges. More recently, however, inputs from atmospheric deposition and non-point sources have been considered. Land use practices vary widely within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, the largest portion is forested. Given that forested watersheds occupy a large area of the Chesapeake Bay drainage system, export of nitrogen from forested watersheds could potentially play an important role in the nitrogen balance. Here, examine the nitrate input/output budgets for eight forested headwater watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay drainage, several of which have a 10-year record of chemical data. The authors explore annual and seasonal input/output budgets for these watersheds and, at several sites, define the variability in nitrate export during episodic events Seasonal and episodic information on nitrate export may be useful to watershed managers in designing and applying techniques for minimizing nitrate export from these systems. Comparison of the behavior of nitrate in these systems, and with forested watersheds in other regions across a deposition gradient, will help to elucidate the factors that control nitrate export from forested watersheds. This information will better define the expected nitrate exports from forested watersheds and contribute to improving the confidence limits of models of nutrient loading to the Chesapeake Bay.

Bricker, O.P.; Kuebler, A.; Rice, K.C.; Anderson, R.T.; Kennedy, M.M.

1994-12-31

342

Risk management: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Workover operations with a jack-up drilling rig at a NAM production platform, situated in the Dutch sector of the North Sea, required that the rig had to be positioned much closer to the platform than usual. This paper discusses the potential risks and its management. It shows at the same time what can be achieved when the imagination of engineers is stimulated beyond the constraints of normal practice. (author)

Visser, M. [Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Offshore Structures Engineering Dept., Velsen (Netherlands)

1997-12-31

343

Measuring variability in trophic status in the Lake Waco/Bosque River Watershed  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrient management in rivers and streams is difficult due to the spatial and temporal variability of algal growth responses. The objectives of this project were to determine the spatial and seasonal in situ variability of trophic status in the Lake Waco/Bosque River watershed, determine the variability in the lotic ecosystem trophic status index (LETSI) at each site as indicators of the system's nutrient sensitivity, and determine if passive diffusion periphytometers could provide threshold algal responses to nutrient enrichment. Methods We used the passive diffusion periphytometer to measure in-situ nutrient limitation and trophic status at eight sites in five streams in the Lake Waco/Bosque River Watershed in north-central Texas from July 1997 through October 1998. The chlorophyll a production in the periphytometers was used as an indicator of baseline chlorophyll a productivity and of maximum primary productivity (MPP) in response to nutrient enrichment (nitrogen and phosphorus). We evaluated the lotic ecosystem trophic status index (LETSI) using the ratio of baseline primary productivity to MPP, and evaluated the trophic class of each site. Results The rivers and streams in the Lake Waco/Bosque River Watershed exhibited varying degrees of nutrient enrichment over the 18-month sampling period. The North Bosque River at the headwaters (NB-02) located below the Stephenville, Texas wastewater treatment outfall consistently exhibited the highest degree of water quality impact due to nutrient enrichment. Sites at the outlet of the watershed (NB-04 and NB-05) were the next most enriched sites. Trophic class varied for enriched sites over seasons. Conclusion Seasonality played a significant role in the trophic class and sensitivity of each site to nutrients. Managing rivers and streams for nutrients will require methods for measuring in situ responses and sensitivities to nutrient enrichment. Nutrient enrichment periphytometers show significant potential for use in nutrient gradient studies.

Rodriguez Angela D; Matlock Marty D

2008-01-01

344

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SANTA BÁRBARA RIVER WATERSHED, GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIBEIRÃO SANTA BÁRBARA, GOIÁS  

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Full Text Available A watershed is the place where every water or soil use made upstream reflects downstream. Because of that, it is the best geographic space for water resources management and planning. It is crucial to identify the geographic and topographic characteristics of a watershed, because those aspects affect its hydrological behavior. In this study, the main Santa Bárbara River watershed characteristics were obtained by using a Geographic Information System (GIS), on a 1:100,000 scale digital map, and satellite images. The procedure showed to be appropriate to obtain physiographic characteristics and average rainfall levels in small watersheds. KEY-WORDS: Watershed; average rainfall; Geographic Information System. Bacia hidrográfica é a unidade de gestão dos recursos hídricos, uma vez que, nela, todos os usos da água e do solo existentes à montante refletem-se nas condições de uso e preservação dos recursos hídricos à jusante. As características físicas de uma bacia afetam diretamente seu comportamento hidrológico e seu conhecimento é necessário à adequada gestão dos recursos hídricos. Este estudo procurou obter as principais características físicas que descrevem a bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão Santa Bárbara, sub-bacia do Rio Paranaíba, ao sul de Goiás, Brasil. Foi empregado um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG) sobre cartas digitalizadas, na escala 1:100.000, e imagens geradas por satélite, o que se mostrou adequado à obtenção das características fisiográficas e precipitações médias em bacias de dimensões reduzidas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bacia hidrográfica; precipitação média; Sistema de Informações Geográficas.

Ana Paula Fioreze; Luiz Fernando Coutinho Oliveira; Alexandre Puglisi Barbosa Franco

2010-01-01

345

Nitrogen balance in a hilly semi-agricultural watershed in Northern Italy  

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Full Text Available The research was carried out for 7 years, 1998-2005, in a semi-agricultural watershed, called Centonara, set within a natural regional park and situated in the hills surrounding Bologna, northern Italy. This area is characterized by one of the most interesting badlands complexes in Europe and represents one of the main points of naturalistic interest. The watershed is partially cultivated (about 30% of the total area) with arable crops, mostly cereals and alfalfa. To evaluate the impact of agricultural activity on the eco-sustainability of this area, the nitrogen (N) balance was computed. Although it is only an estimation of the potential environmental damage, the nitrogen balance is a useful indicator of the risk posed to the environment from excessive nitrogen and can be useful to understand the possible effects of a certain type of agricultural and environmental management and policy. The balance was calculated by computing the difference between all inputs and all outputs. The nitrogen balance of the watershed was found to be sustainable, with an annual nitrogen balance ranging between –2.3 and +4.4 kg ha–1. Despite the limited presence of arable lands, the agricultural management played the main role in determining the sustainability of the watershed, strongly influencing both the principal N sources and sinks. In fact, major N inputs derived from inorganic fertilization (8.1-15.5 kg ha–1yr–1) and biological fixation (8.3-14.3 kg ha–1yr–1). On the other hand, plant removal constituted the most important output (17.7-25.6 kg ha–1yr–1). N losses in the drainage water were limited (3.0-9.5 kg ha–1yr–1) and the Centonara stream water was found to be unpolluted, with a nitrate concentration always below the EU limit for drinking water. The similar magnitude of total N inputs and outputs indicated that the crop management, especially the crop rotation and the N fertilization, in the Centonara watershed has reached a good level of ecological sustainability. Finally, the computation of the N fertilizer-use efficiency index resulted to be useful to identify which crop and which type of management (organic or conventional) were more suitable for the pedo-climatic condition of the studied area.

Linda Pieri; Francesca Ventura; Marco Vignudelli; Paola Rossi

2011-01-01

346

Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide-associated toxicity in two coastal watersheds (California, USA).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Portions of the Santa Maria River and Oso Flaco Creek watersheds in central California, USA, are listed as impaired under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and require development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) allocations. These listings are for general pesticide contamination, but are largely based on historic monitoring of sediment and fish tissue samples that showed contamination by organochlorine pesticides. Recent studies have shown that toxicity in these watersheds is caused by organophosphate pesticides (water and sediment) and pyrethroid pesticides (sediment). The present study was designed to provide information on the temporal and spatial variability of toxicity associated with these pesticides to better inform the TMDL process. Ten stations were sampled in four study areas, one with urban influences, and the remaining in agriculture production areas. Water toxicity was assessed with the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and sediment toxicity was assessed with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Stations in the lower Santa Maria River had the highest incidence of toxicity, followed by stations influenced by urban inputs. Toxicity identification evaluations and chemical analysis demonstrated that the majority of the observed water toxicity was attributed to organophosphate pesticides, particularly chlorpyrifos, and that sediment toxicity was caused by mixtures of pyrethroid pesticides. The results demonstrate that both agriculture and urban land uses are contributing toxic concentrations of these pesticides to adjacent watersheds, and regional water quality regulators are now using this information to develop management objectives.

Phillips BM; Anderson BS; Hunt JW; Siegler K; Voorhees JP; Tjeerdema RS; McNeill K

2012-07-01

347