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1

Watershed management in Myanmar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Watershed degradation, watershed management, background of watershed management in Myanmar (condition of watershed, manpower), discussion and recommendation (proposed administrative structure, the need for watershed survey and planning, bottom-up approach) are emphasized. Watershed management, after all can be seen that it is the interphase between the forest, agriculture, soil, wildlife and the local communities

1993-10-01

2

Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were condu...

Bewket, W.

2003-01-01

3

Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, t...

Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

2005-01-01

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Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

S. Vishnudas

2005-11-01

5

Geospatial Evaluation for Ecological Watershed Management: A Case Study of Some Chesapeake Bay Sub-Watersheds in Maryland USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geospatial technology is increasingly being used for various applications in environmental management as the need for sustainable development becomes more evident in today’s rapidly-developing world. As a decision tool, Geographic Information system (GIS and Global positioning System (GPS can support major decisions dealing with natural phenomena distributed in space and time. Such is the case for land use/cover known to impact ecosystems health in very direct ways. Our study examined one such application in managing land use of some sub-watersheds in the eastern Shore of Maryland, USA. We conducted a 20-year historical land use/cover evaluation using Landsat-TM remotely sensed images and GIS analysis and water monitoring data acquired during the period by Maryland Department of Natural Resources, including sewage discharge of some municipalities in the area. The results not only showed general trends in land use patterns, but also detailed dynamics of land use-land cover classes, impact on water quality, as well as other useful information for guiding both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems management decisions of the sub-watersheds. The use of this technology for evaluating trends in land use/cover on a decade-by-decade basis is recommended as standard practice for managing ecosystem health on a sustainable basis.

Isoken T. Aighewi

2013-07-01

6

Watershed management and the web  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Watershed analysis and watershed management are developing as tools of integrated ecological and economic study. They also assist decision-making at the regional scale. The new technology and thinking offered by the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web is highly complementary to some of the goals of watershed analysis. Services delivered by the Web are open, interactive, gas, spatially distributed, hierarchical and flexible. The Web offers the ability to display information creatively, to interact with that information and to change and modify it remotely. In this way the Internet provides a much-needed opportunity to deliver scientific findings and information to stakeholders and to link stakeholders together providing for collective decision=making. The benefits fall into two major categories: methological and educational. Methodologically the approach furthers the watershed management concept, offering an avenue for practical implementation of watershed management principles. For educational purposes the Web is a source of data and insight serving a variety of needs at all levels.

Voinov, A.; Costanza, R. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Inst. for Ecological Economics

1999-08-01

7

Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI) approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning a...

Yanli Zhang; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew McBroom; John DeGroote; Kauten, Rebecca L.; Barten, Paul K.

2011-01-01

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Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

Mark T. Brown

2012-09-01

9

Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adaptive management (AM) promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC) and apply it t...

Ignacio Porzecanski; Saunders, Lynn V.; Brown, Mark T.

2012-01-01

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WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have be...

2011-01-01

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A soft systems approach to watershed management: a road salt case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed management requires integration of social and ecological understanding. Participatory approaches to planning and management incorporate stakeholder knowledge and understanding. An action research strategy using focus groups with Michigan State University operations units helped generate a soft systems model of watershed impacts of organizational decision-making regarding road de-icing. The results reveal tensions and inconsistencies between the mission and operation of the institution. These tensions are exacerbated by inadequate communication among various elements of the campus watershed management system. The action research approach facilitated the researchers' understanding of the complex institutional system and helped identify possible areas for making improvements. Specifically, the researchers were able to facilitate improvement in some linkages between scientists developing campus watershed models and the operations staff responsible for handling many of the inputs being modeled. PMID:15517678

Habron, Geoffrey B; Kaplowitz, Michael D; Levine, Ralph L

2004-06-01

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Preliminary study on streamflow in forested and forest plantation experimental watersheds for water resources management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the discharge in C3 runoff while the delayed flow runoff dominate the discharge in the C1. (Author)

2006-04-03

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Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

Zeyuan Qiu

2013-01-01

14

Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

John Kerr

2007-10-01

15

Multiple Impact of Integrated Watershed Management in Low Rainfall Semi-Arid Region: A Case Study from Eastern Rajasthan, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agriculture in low rainfall areas of eastern Rajasthan, India is characterized by high risks from drought, degraded natural resources and pervasive poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. In this region, water is the main limiting factor for upgrading rainfed agriculture. For such areas integrated watershed management is recognized as a potential approach for agriculture growth and rehabilitation of fragile and degraded lands. At Gokulpura-Goverdhanpura village in Bundi eastern Rajasthan, India an integrated watershed project was implemented using the holistic systems approach. This paper discusses the impacts of this watershed program on bio-physical, socio-economic, environmental and ecological parameters. Results indicate that due to watershed interventions the groundwater availability has substantially increased which brought changes in cropping patterns with high value crops. Significant increases in irrigated area, cropping intensity along with diversification of crops from traditional to commercial cash crops were recorded. The watershed program also significantly improved the socio-economic status of the watershed community. It has increased the income and reduced poverty of the people in the watershed. The watershed interventions generated good employment opportunities and significantly reduced the migration of both skilled and unskilled labor from the watershed village to urban areas. It has also improved the environmental quality and ecological status in the watershed. The watershed interventions increased the vegetative index or greenery, reduced runoff, soil loss, and land degradations and improved the bio-diversity in fragile ecosystems. Overall, the integrated watershed program at Gokulpura-Goverdhanpura provided resilience by ensuring continued and sustainable multiple outputs, besides soil and water conservation and other positive environmental effects.

Prabhakar Pathak

2013-01-01

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Integrated watershed management: Principles and practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive guide to developing and implementing watershed management plans. This book focuses on critical management issues such as resource planning, stakeholder involvement, decision-making methods, cost-benefit analysis, environmental and social impact assessment. The contents include: The watershed inventory; Problem definition and scoping; The consultation process; Developing workable management options; Simple assessment methods; Detailed assessment methods; Costing and financing; Legal, institutional, and administrative concerns; Environmental and social impact assessment; Choosing the best plan; Implementing the plan.

Heathcote, I.W. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1998-12-31

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Geospatial Evaluation for Ecological Watershed Management: A Case Study of Some Chesapeake Bay Sub-Watersheds in Maryland USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geospatial technology is increasingly being used for various applications in environmental management as the need for sustainable development becomes more evident in today’s rapidly-developing world. As a decision tool, Geographic Information system (GIS) and Global positioning System (GPS) can su...

Aighewi, Isoken T.; Nosakhare, Osarodion K.

2013-01-01

18

Towards sustainable integrated watershed ecosystem management: a case study in Dingxi on the loess plateau, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chinese government initiated a massive conservation program called "Grain-for-Green" in 1999 to reduce soil erosion and improve ecosystem function. Implementing practical sustainable development in the loess plateau still remains problematic, particularly in its eco-fragile areas. Here we discussed an approach for sustainable development at the watershed scale by integrating land use suitability, ecosystem services and public participation in the loess hilly area. We linked land use scenario analysis and economic modeling to compare the outcomes of three scenarios, CLU (Current Land Use), GOLU (Grain-production Oriented Land Use) and PSLU (Potential Sustainable Land Use). The results indicated that compared to PSLU, GOLU may provide a higher economic productivity in the short-term, but not in the long-term. CLU ranked lowest in terms of economic benefits and did not meet the daily needs of the local farmers. To reconcile the land use adjustments with farmers' basic needs, a labor-saving land use strategy is necessary. Since the PSLU scenario assumes that slope cropland should be converted to pastures or orchards, more time may be available for off-farm work and for more public participation in integrated ecosystem management. Financial support to the local farmers for environmental conservation should be modulated in function of their positive contribution to ecosystem management. PMID:22258032

Chen, Liding; Yang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ziting; Mo, Baoru; Cai, Guojun

2013-01-01

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INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE. Book Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a wide range of information and topics, Integrated Watershed Management Principles and Practice shows how involved the watershed management planning process can be. The book is informative, and the author obviously has researched the subject thoroughly. The book's case...

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The Role of Integrated Water Management in Watershed Flood Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study, flood management, in a system of a reservoir and ungaged sub-basins was evaluated. By means of frequency analysis and index hydrograph method, flood hydrographs with different return periods for these under study sub-basins were calculated. After determination of inflow hydrograph to dam reservoir, flood routing in reservoir and consequently in river network by three scenarios were conducted. The results have shown that dam reservoir located in one of the sub-basins, functioned well as a flood controller, but because of no watershed analysis as a hydrologic unit and comprehensive consideration in watershed studies, the flood control resultant in the out point of system is in the order of zero.

Kazem Hemadi

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A review of watershed management experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of watershed management experience was conducted by Beak International Inc., under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Executive Resource Group. The team assigned to this task conducted Internet searches, conducted interviews with targeted individuals and presented a number of examples of best practice in this field by different organizations. The selection was based on the results obtained from a questionnaire distributed to a number of organizations worldwide, and touched on the following topics: partners, types of resources/issues managed, reporting and monitoring, regulatory framework, and implementation. The short list included the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio, New Jersey, Washington, Australia, the United Kingdom as well as agencies in Ontario. The report identified the major characteristics of each of these leading jurisdictions as they relate to watershed management and how the lessons learned could be applied to the situation in Ontario. The key topics were: hydrologic cycle, biophysical units, ecosystem units, miner's canary, cumulative effects, quality of life, integrated resources management, and grass roots support. The conclusions reached indicated that an effective way of addressing issues related to water quality and allocation was through watershed management. A successful watershed planning and management program requires a clear legislative framework, as well as clear targets, monitoring programs and reporting requirements. All parties must be involved in the process of finding solutions to the problem of water quality impairment, considering the numerous causes ranging from industrial to agricultural and urban development. The support for funding and implementation relies heavily on public education and awareness programs. The use of water use surcharge on water/energy bills earmarked for watershed planning and management were successful in some jurisdictions. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 3 appendices

2001-01-01

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Adaptive management of urban watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Consent decree settlements for violations of the Clean Water Act (1972) increasingly include provisions for redress of combined sewer overflow activity through hybrid approaches that incorporate the best of both gray (e.g., storage tunnels) and green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens). Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to improve environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that can help regulated communities achieve environmental quality objectives. We are using an adaptive management approach to guide a green infrastructure retrofit of a neighborhood in the Slavic Village Development Corporation area (Cleveland, Ohio). We are in the process of gathering hydrologic and ecosystem services data and will use this data as a basis for collaboration with area citizens on a plan to use green infrastructure to contain stormflows. Monitoring data provides researchers with feedback on the impact of green infrastructure implementation and suggest where improvements can be made.

Garmestani, A.; Shuster, W.; Green, O. O.

2013-12-01

23

Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management--A One Year Prospective Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV) compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV) (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081). The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05) was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Khedkar, Smita U.; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia

2014-01-01

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Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081. The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05 was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

Sandeep S. Nerkar

2014-06-01

25

A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential strategies, guidance on strategy selection in other watersheds where such detailed analyses have not been completed, and a framework for organizing information and modeled predictions to best manage wide-ranging species.

Michael Maher

2008-12-01

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Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

Zeyuan Qiu

2013-03-01

27

Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon

2013-04-01

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Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been evidenced by 1) institutional innovation for integrated watershed management; 2) real-world management practices involving multidisciplinary expertise; 3) growing role of economics in systems analysis; 4) enhanced research programs such as the CHNS program and Water, Sustainability and Climate (WSC) program at the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Furthermore, recent scientific and technological developments are expected to accommodate integrated watershed system analysis approaches, such as: 1) increasing availability of distributed digital datasets especially from remote sensing products (e.g. digital watersheds); 2) distributed and semi-distributed watershed hydrologic modeling; 3) enhanced hydroclimatic monitoring and forecast; 4) identified evidences of vulnerability and threshold behavior of watersheds; and 5) continuing improvements in computational and optimization algorithms. Managing watersheds as CHNS will be critical for watershed sustainability, which ensures that human societies will benefit forever from the watershed through development of harmonious relationships between human and natural systems. This presentation will provide a review of the research opportunities that take advantage of the concept of CHNS and associated scientific, technological and institutional innovations/developments.

Cai, X.

2011-12-01

29

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZATION OF WATERSHED FOR SOIL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN YERALA RIVER BASIN  

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Full Text Available The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of thegeometry of the drainage basins and its network. Watershed prioritization on the basis of morphometric parametersis necessary in order to develop a sustainable watershed management plan. The present study aims to assess thelinear and shape morphometric parameters and prioritization of twenty three sub-watersheds of Yerala river basinfor soil resource management. Yerala river basin has an area of 3041 km2 and lies between in 160 55' to 170 28'North and 740 20' to 740 40' East Longitude in Satara and Sangli districts. Remote Sensing (RS and GeographicalInformation System (GIS techniques and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTMDEM data was used for evaluation of morphometric parameters. Watershed boundary has been prepared using Arc-Hydro Tool. The prioritization was carried out by assigning ranks to the individual indicators and a compound valuewas calculated. Watersheds with highest compound value were of low priority while those with lowest compoundvalue were of high priority. The highest priority zone consists of eight watersheds, medium of eleven and low of fourwatersheds. High priority indicates that watersheds are much more susceptible to soil erosion hence it should beprovide with immediate soil resource management measures.

R. S. Shikalgar

2013-07-01

30

Bridging the gap between uncertainty analysis for complex watershed models and decision-making for watershed-scale water management  

Science.gov (United States)

Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye Basin has a Gobi-oasis system typical of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis.

Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.

2013-12-01

31

Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...

Vyavahare, Nilesh

2008-01-01

32

Uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of computer simulation models have increased substantially to make watershed management decisions and to develop strategies for water quality improvements. These models are often used to evaluate potential benefits of various best management practices (BMPs) for reducing losses of pollutants from sources areas into receiving waterbodies. Similarly, use of simulation models in optimizing selection and placement of best management practices under single (maximization of crop production or minimization of pollutant transport) and multiple objective functions has increased recently. One of the limitations of the currently available assessment and optimization approaches is that the BMP strategies are considered deterministic. Uncertainties in input data (e.g. precipitation, streamflow, sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses measured, land use) and model parameters may result in considerable uncertainty in watershed response under various BMP options. We have developed and evaluated options to include uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management. We have also applied these methods to evaluate uncertainty in ecosystem services from mixed land use watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss methods to to quantify uncertainties in BMP assessment and optimization solutions due to uncertainties in model inputs and parameters. We have used a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT) to simulate the hydrology and water quality in mixed land use watershed located in Midwest USA. The SWAT model was also used to represent various BMPs in the watershed needed to improve water quality. SWAT model parameters, land use change parameters, and climate change parameters were considered uncertain. It was observed that model parameters, land use and climate changes resulted in considerable uncertainties in BMP performance in reducing P, N, and sediment loads. In addition, climate change scenarios also affected uncertainties in SWAT simulated crop yields. Considerable uncertainties in the net cost and the water quality improvements resulted due to uncertainties in land use, climate change, and model parameter values.

Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Sudheer, K.; Her, Y.

2012-12-01

33

Management zone delineation using a modified watershed algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Site-specific management (SSM) is a common way to manage within-field variability. This concept divides fields into site-specific management zones (SSMZ) according to one or several soil or crop characteristics. This paper proposes an original methodology for SSMZ delineation which is able to manage different kinds of crop and/or soil images using a powerful segmentation tool: the watershed algorithm. This image analysis algorithm was adapted to the specific constraints of precision agricultu...

Roudier, P.; Tisseyre, B.; Poilve?, H.; Roger, J. M.

2008-01-01

34

A Study of the Relationship between Landslide and Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study in Karaj Watershed Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research shows a noticeable comparison between slide zones produced with the results using the Nilsen method with active tectonic hazard zonation map. A determination landform of geometry or morphometry factors is one of the best methods for study and evaluation active tectonics. The first image provided is a Dem maps from GIS software showing topography, geology and tectonic maps participant with field activities. The second image provided shows ...

Rahman Sharifi; Ali Solgi; Mohsen Pourkermani

2013-01-01

35

A Study of the Relationship between Landslide and Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study in Karaj Watershed Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research shows a noticeable comparison between slide zones produced with the results using the Nilsen method with active tectonic hazard zonation map. A determination landform of geometry or morphometry factors is one of the best methods for study and evaluation active tectonics. The first image provided is a Dem maps from GIS software showing topography, geology and tectonic maps participant with field activities. The second image provided shows an active tectonic map also generated by the same above mentioned factors into three classes A, B, C, D and a landslide hazard zonation map which shows five classes: Stable zone, generally stable zone, stable moderately stable zone, moderately stable zone and talented to liquefaction zone. The study and comparison and conformity landslide hazard zonation map with hazard zonations into active tectonic hazard zonation map showed about 79 percent (56,880 hectare moderately unstable zone and talented for liquefaction zone settled in A zone (very high tectonic activity and B zone (high tectonic activity active tectonic map and 21 percent (15,130 hectare remain unsettled sequential 12 percent (8640 hectare and 9 percent (6480 hectare in C (moderate tectonic activity, D (lowest tectonic activity zone of active tectonic hazard zonation produced from above mentioned factors. This research showed a relationship between slide zones produced in landslide hazard zonations using the Nilsen method to measure active tectonic hazard zonation in the study region.

Rahman Sharifi

2013-07-01

36

New trends in watershed management and protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I would like to present some new environmental technologies by shoving restoration projects that are currently being implemented in the eastern United States that require this co-operation for successful implementation. The environmental technologies that will be discussed include the use of existing or constructed wetlands to treat surface and groundwater impacted in contaminants from various sources. The main goal of these type projects are to provide a low-cost and effective treatment for existing pollution problems. Many of these projects are initiated by civic associations (or NGOs) that wanted to improve the state of environment in their area. Because everyone has the responsibility to a clean environment in which they live, NGOs, state government, business, and local citizens, and local citizens worked closely together to solve problems in their watersheds. These projects are only examples of what is being done in the United States. However, I would like also to discuss what projects exist in eastern Slovakia, and others that could be started in Slovakia that improve relationships between MGOs and the state and local governmental decision-making process, with the ultimate goal to improve water quality in the Danube watershed in the future. There are severe environmental technologies that can be applied to improve the water quality of rivers throughout the Danube watershed, such as treatment of wastewater using wetland vegetation, and treatment of acid-mine drainage. In April 1996, NGO People and Water in co-operation with the village governments of the Upper Torysa River watershed started the project Villages for the 3 rd millennium in the Carpathian Euro-Region. One of the main goals of this project is to introduce new environmental technologies in the rural communities of the Upper Torysa River area. Since people trust their eyes than their ears. It is important to initiate practical, pilot projects to convince citizens and governments that these low-cost, effective technologies are applicable in Slovakia and in Central and Eastern Europe. (author)

1997-06-03

37

Opportunities for Agricultural Water Management interventions in the Nariarlé watershed in Burkina Faso | Publications at SEI  

...Opportunities for Agricultural Water Management interventions in the Nariarlé watershed in Burkina Faso | Publications at SEI Opportunities for Agricultural Water Management interventions ...in the Nariarlé watershed in Burkina Faso Opportunities for Agricultural Water Management interventions in the Nariarlé watershed in Burkina Faso | Publications at ...de BruinChristian Stein Opportunities for Agricultural Water Management interventions in the Nariarlé watershed in Burkina Faso Agricultural water management (AWM) interventions are ... These AWMs range from in-situ soil and water management improvements (conservation tillage, terraces, pitting) to supplemental and full irrigation systems,...

38

Preliminary identification of watershed management strategies for the Houjing river in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Houjing River watershed is one of the three major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Based on the recent water quality analysis, the Houjing River is heavily polluted. Both point and non-point source (NPS) pollutants are the major causes of the poor water quality in the Houjing River. Investigation results demonstrate that the main point pollution sources included municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. In this study, land use identification in the Houjing River watershed was performed by integrating the skills of geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS). Results show that the major land-use patterns in the upper catchment of the Houjing River watershed were farmlands, and land-use patterns in the mid to lower catchment were residential and industrial areas. An integrated watershed management model (IWMM) and Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2K) were applied for the hydrology and water quality modeling, watershed management, and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the calculated NH?-N carrying capacity of the Houjing River was only 31 kg/day. Thus, more than 10,518 kg/day of NH?-N needs to be reduced to meet the proposed water quality standard (0.3 mg/L). To improve the river water quality, the following remedial strategies have been developed to minimize the impacts of NPS and point source pollution on the river water quality: (1) application of BMPs [e.g. source (fertilizer) reduction, construction of grassy buffer zone, and land use management] for NPS pollution control; (2) application of river management scenarios (e.g. construction of the intercepting and sewer systems) for point source pollution control; (3) institutional control (enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards), and (4) application of on-site wastewater treatment systems for the polishment of treated wastewater for water reuse. PMID:20935386

Lin, C E; Kao, C M; Jou, C J; Lai, Y C; Wu, C Y; Liang, S H

2010-01-01

39

A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, US...

Ashley Steel, E.; Aimee Fullerton; Yuko Caras; Sheer, Mindi B.; Patricia Olson; David Jensen; Jennifer Burke; Michael Maher; Paul McElhany

2008-01-01

40

DECENTRALIZED STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: RETROFITTING HOMES, RESTORING WATERSHEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and widespread stream ecosystem impairment. While centralized stormwater management can minimize large fluctuations in stream flows and flooding risk to urban areas, this approac...

 
 
 
 
41

Science, Politics, and Watershed Management: Another Task for Hydrologists  

Science.gov (United States)

The lowest common denominator in hydrology should be "common" sense. The basic concepts that need to be addressed during watershed management are tractable by the general public when presented effectively. Of course the details should be left to the professionals. An uninformed public will feel disenfranchised when "experts" pummel it with technical content beyond its comfort level. To be effective, the hydrologic professional needs to be competent to perform the required analyses and prepared to win the trust of all concerned parties. In the adversarial roles played by developers and growth opponents, distrust reigns supreme. Usually this distrust is fed first and foremost by a lack of communication between the parties. In today's litigious environment, the results can be maddening. The author's experience in high profile hydrologic projects have infused him with the knowledge that effective communication is a critical lubricant to the watershed management process. It is the hydrologic community's duty to facilitate the policy makers' genuine education on watershed processes. The former must act now, if previous problems are not to be repeated.

Wise, W. R.

2002-05-01

42

Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

King, M. D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B. T.

2006-01-01

43

Climate change and drought risk management in Mediterranean watersheds (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic forcings are key attributable factors for this increased drying, though the external signal explains only half of the drying magnitude. Climate models subjected to a uniform 0.5oC warming of the world oceans induce eastern Mediterranean drying but do not generate the observed widespread Mediterranean drying pattern. The extent to which these mechanisms and the region's overall drying since 1902 reflect similar mechanisms operating in association with external radiative forcing are summarized.

Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.

2013-12-01

44

GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management ? sample applications and current developments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS). GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant trans...

2007-01-01

45

The Role of Integrated Water Management in Watershed Flood Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study, flood management, in a system of a reservoir and ungaged sub-basins was evaluated. By means of frequency analysis and index hydrograph method, flood hydrographs with different return periods for these under study sub-basins were calculated. After determination of inflow hydrograph to dam reservoir, flood routing in reservoir and consequently in river network by three scenarios were conducted. The results have shown that dam reservoir located in one of the sub-basi...

Kazem Hemadi; Abdolkarim Behnia; Ali Mohammad Akhoond-Ali; Davoud-Reza Arab

2008-01-01

46

Assessing the value of information for water quality management: a watershed perspective from China.  

Science.gov (United States)

To tackle China's pervasive water pollution, tremendous efforts are needed to achieve more and better information. However, resources for information collection (e.g., water quality monitoring, field experiments, etc.) are very limited for large watersheds with significant nonpoint source pollution. Thus, it is crucial to identify the priority of information acquisition. Based on the theory of value of information (VOI), a stochastic optimization approach was developed in this study to evaluate the importance of information. The approach was applied to several key polluted water bodies in China (e.g., Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, and Lake Dianchi). The major findings include: (1) because of the severe pollution and large uncertainty, the VOI for the targeted water bodies is substantial; (2) when the uncertainty is significant, a stricter regulation would result in a higher VOI, and therefore provide more incentives for data collection; (3) due to the interaction among different information sources, collecting multiple types of information simultaneously could be more valuable than collecting one after another; and (4) the importance of a specific type of information could vary significantly across watersheds. The proposed approach can be readily extended to more complex models and more sophisticated watershed cases. It could effectively support watershed management in China, as well as in other countries. PMID:22814920

Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi

2013-04-01

47

Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

2013-12-01

48

Public participation in watershed management: International practices for inclusiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.

Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)

49

From Eutrophic to Mesotrophic: Modelling Watershed Management Scenarios to Change the Trophic Status of a Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive, the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

Marcos Mateus

2014-03-01

50

From eutrophic to mesotrophic: modelling watershed management scenarios to change the trophic status of a reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive), the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:24625620

Mateus, Marcos; Almeida, Carina; Brito, David; Neves, Ramiro

2014-03-01

51

From Eutrophic to Mesotrophic: Modelling Watershed Management Scenarios to Change the Trophic Status of a Reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive), the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

Mateus, Marcos; Almeida, Carina; Brito, David; Neves, Ramiro

2014-01-01

52

Analyzing the impacts of forest disturbance and regrowth on watershed hydrology: A case study from the Homochitto Watershed, Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Forests are efficient sinks and reservoirs of terrestrial carbons. They can relieve or amplify the adverse impacts of global warming and climate variability and hence, managing forests has been the most important sustainable strategy to mitigate climatic impacts. However, forest management often involves a large scale landscape transformation of land use and cover, and brings significant changes on water resources to the local community. This study is to evaluate the impacts of forest management and disturbance on water quality and quanity in the Homochitto watershed (Mississippi), where forest management and disturbance have occurred on a large scale over long time scales. Using a watershed simulation model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a long term water monitoring data from USGS and US EPA, we will investigate how the spatial heterogeneity of land use, vegetation cover, topography, and climate affect water cycles (e.g., soil water content, water yields), and water quality (e.g., nutrients and sediments) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Historic chronologies of forest disturbance maps will be generated with a number of satellite-based measurements (such as Landsat, MODIS, and aerial photographs), Geospatial datasets (including MS Gap Analysis Project (GAP), National Land Cover Database (NLCD)), field measurements from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) database, and historic records on forest land management in the region, characterizing the human induced changes in the forest landscape. This study will provide valuable information to better understand the hydrologic feedbacks to changing forests and climate system.

Yeo, I.; Islam, A.; Huang, C.

2009-12-01

53

Longitudinal patterns in carbon and nutrient export from urban watersheds with contrasting headwater management  

Science.gov (United States)

Stormwater management in urban areas presents challenges and opportunities to enhance water quality while simultaneously protecting property and infrastructure. Through several generations, stormwater management practices have evolved from 'gray infrastructure' such as pipes and ditches designed to quickly transport water away from the landscape, to more 'green infrastructure' projects meant to allow for biological processing and retention of urban runoff. Implementation of these practices has replaced traditional stream burial with bioretention cells, wetlands, and ponds. We hypothesize that these contrasting green versus gray strategies for headwater management may have significant consequences for the delivery and processing of dissolved carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. To address this hypothesis, we compared two paired urbanized watersheds with different stormwater management by measuring the longitudinal export of DOC, DIC, TDN, PO4+, and major anions, and characterizing dissolved organic matter using Fluorescence Index (FI) and Spectral Slope. Both watersheds were located in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Dead Run is an urbanized catchment with prevalent stream burial and minimal stormwater management which was implemented after initial development. Red Run is a similarly sized watershed with more recent development and comprehensive stormwater management (wetlands, ponds, bioretention cells, sand filters) and 100m wide stream buffer areas. In each of these contrasting watersheds, we chose two headwater streams which drain SWM features and one stream that terminates at a storm drain. We measured longitudinal changes in export by conducting a synoptic survey of both watersheds in which flow and water chemistry were measured every 500m in the main stem and approximately every 250m in the selected tributaries. Within watersheds, we found differences in the C, N and P loads from SWM and non-SWM streams. In Red Run, DOC and DIC were higher in SWM streams, while TDN was higher in non-SWM streams. In contrast, Dead Run SWM streams had lower DIC and PO4+ concentrations than non-SWM, but DOC and TDN were comparable for this single sampling date. Overall, Red Run had lower C export with 4.6 Kg day-1 of DOC and 83 Kg day-1 of DIC, than Dead Run which exported 28.7 Kg day-1 of TOC and 174.2 Kg day-1 of DIC. The instantaneous TDN load was very similar with 5.5 Kg day-1 in Red Run and 5.4 Kg day-1 in Dead Run. Dead Run had an overall longitudinal increase in DOC and decline in DIC concentrations from the headwaters to the mainstem. Red Run showed an overall longitudinal increase in both DIC and DOC concentrations with distance downstream. Future work will investigate biogeochemical processing rates within these contrasting watersheds to explain the longitudinal patterns along stream networks. This work will connect how headwater management strategies alter downstream transport and transformation of carbon and nutrients across the urban watershed continuum.

Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.

2012-12-01

54

Integrated watershed management through consortium approach: team building for watershed consortium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DFID-funded Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP is currently supported by a consortium of several research and development institutions led by ICRISAT. This is one of the first systematic attempts of convergence of various agencies at watershed level. To develop a common vision of the goals of the project it is important that the partners of the consortium deliberate and discuss with each other and come to know of each other's strengths and limitations. A series of team building workshops were therefore organized at different levels to facilitate the partners of the consortium to function as an effective team. This process was carried out in four rounds starting with the core team in the first round spiraling up further to include the entire network of the consortium partners. This report brings forth the output of these exercises in the form of learnings that are useful to facilitate a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team for natural resource management.

Sreenath Dixit

2006-08-01

55

Morphometric Analysis Of The Vidarbha River Basin, Amravati District, Maharashtra With Reference To Watershed Management.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this present study, an attempt has been made to understand the groundwater regime of the Vidarbha sub-watershed of Wardha River basin exposed Amravati District, Maharashtra using an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques with Arc GIS Desktop 9.3 and ERDAS Imagine 9.2 software for the sustainable watershed management. The remote sensing data combined with field survey details has provided a unique and hybrid database for the optimal planning and management of the watershed. Morphometry is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth's surface shape and dimension of its lard forms. The Vidarbha River is a tributary of Wardha River and spread over the 252.10 sq. km area in Amravati district, Maharashtra which have been determine by the morphometry analysis. The results indicate the presence of 6th order drainage basin with dendritic drainage pattern showing uniform lithology. The study area is covered by 98% of Deccan trap which is highly jointed and fractured Basalt.

Khadri S. F. R

2013-09-01

56

COST-EFFECTIVE ALLOCATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...

57

Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

A. M. Sène

2007-06-01

58

A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH FOR ANALYSIS OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE EVALUATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

Science.gov (United States)

A computational framework is presented for analyzing the uncertainty in model estimates of water quality benefits of best management practices (BMPs) in two small (2) watersheds in Indiana. The analysis specifically recognizes the significance of the difference b...

59

Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

2009-12-15

60

Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Land Use Optimization of Watershed for Soil Erosion Minimization Using Linear Programming (a Case Study of Brimvand Watershed, Kermanshah Province  

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Full Text Available Improper management of watershed land utilization has many ill effects on the available resources. Land use optimization is one of the proper strategies to achieve sustainable development and to reduce resource dissipation. Focusing on Brimvand watershed in Kermanshah province which comprises an area of 9572 ha, the present study was conducted to find out the most suitable land allocation to different land uses viz. garden, irrigated farming, dry farming and rangeland to achieve soil erosion minimization and benefit maximization. The soil erosion, net benefit and standard land capability maps were supposed as the inputs of the objective functions and to defined constraints. The multi-objective linear problem was then solved using simplex method with the help of ADBASE software package and ultimately the optimal solution was gained. Additionally, the results of the study revealed that the amount of soil erosion could reduce by 7.78% whereas the benefit increases at the rate of 118.62%, in case of implementation of optimal solution. The above mentioned optimization led to dry farming decrease and garden increase over that area. The results of sensitivity analysis also showed that objective functions were strongly susceptible to the variation of maximum constraint of irrigated farming and garden areas.

D. Nikkami

2007-01-01

62

Impact of environmental policies on the adoption of manure management practices in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay is a problem and has been a focus of federal and state initiatives to reduce nutrient pollution from agriculture and other sources since 1983. In 2010 EPA established a TMDL for the watershed. Producers may voluntarily respond to intense and focused policy scrutiny by adopting best management practices. A detailed analysis of water quality best management practices by animal feeding operations inside and outside the watershed yield insight into this relationship. Our findings support the hypothesis that farmers will adopt water quality measures if links are made clear and there is an expectation of future regulations. PMID:23916836

Savage, Jeff A; Ribaudo, Marc O

2013-11-15

63

Effectiveness of BMPs (Best Management Practices) for stormwater management in urbanized watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator (ILLUDAS) has been modified for continuous simulation and a water-quality module has been added to it. The continuous simulation model updates the Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC) based on the rainfall information up to 120 hours prior to the beginning of a storm and the information on the number of dry days between storms is utilized to compute the pollutant build-up which also depends on the street sweeping interval. The water-quality module utilizes the dust and dirt method of STORM to compute pollutant accumulated on the watershed surface. Pollutant washoff is then computed based on the assumption of first-order kinetics. Features were added to simulate the effect of BMP structures. Infiltration trenches and detention ponds were considered in the study. An optimization scheme was adopted to optimally size and locate the detention structures within the watershed.

Kuo, C.Y.; Loganathan, G.V.; Cox, W.E.; Shrestha, S.P.; Ying, K.J.

1988-01-01

64

The impact of water management on watershed self-organization  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal and spatial self-organization has been demonstrated for hydrologic variables including soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth across many hydrologic catchments. Previous work has demonstrated that aquifers act as low pass filters, removing high frequency variability while allowing low frequency variability to pass through. While much research has focused on connections between water management and groundwater-surface water interactions, few studies have considered the impact of water management, specifically groundwater pumping and irrigation, on the scaling behavior of the natural system. We address this gap by simulating moisture dependent groundwater fed irrigation in the Little Washita Basin (Oklahoma, USA) using the fully integrated hydrologic model ParFlow-CLM. We present results from two simulations each spanning twenty years at hourly resolution, one with irrigated agriculture and one without. The model is forced with heterogeneous historical meteorological forcings and is populated with realistic land cover and subsurface units. Model results demonstrate scaling behavior for variables like latent heat flux and water table depth similar to other studies. Additionally, gridded model outputs allow for direct analysis of spatial patterns in temporal organization not possible with previous observational studies. Analysis shows clear spatial patterns in scaling. For example, water table depth and latent heat flux have the most similar scaling coefficients along the river, where groundwater and surface water are closely interacting. While scaling behavior is also observed in the irrigated agriculture scenario, there are notable differences in frequency behavior. Pumping and irrigation attenuate low frequency (inter-annual variability) while amplifying high frequency (intra-annual variability). Water management operations increase persistence in both groundwater and surface water systems and expand the spatial area where the two are closely connected. Results highlight potential impacts of managed agriculture on natural system dynamics that go beyond traditional considerations of water availability. Feedbacks between management operations and underlying system variability are an important consideration for water managers because system reliability is largely a function of natural variance.

Condon, Laura; Maxwell, Reed

2014-05-01

65

Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.  

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This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources. The Rainwater project is much more than a wildlife project--it is a watershed project with potential to benefit resources at the watershed scale. Goals and objectives presented in the following sections include both mitigation and non-mitigation related goals and objectives.

Childs, Allen B.

2002-03-01

66

Spreadsheet WATERSHED modeling for nonpoint-source pollution management in a Wisconsin basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Although several sophisticated nonpoint pollution models exist, few are available that are easy to use, cover a variety of conditions, and integrate a wide range of information to allow managers and planners to assess different control strategies. Here, a straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.A straightforward pollutant input accounting approach is presented in the form of an existing model (WATERSHED) that has been adapted to run on modern electronic spreadsheets. As an application, WATERSHED is used to assess options to improve the quality of highly eutrophic Delavan Lake in Wisconsin. WATERSHED is flexible in that several techniques, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation or unit-area loadings, can be used to estimate nonpoint-source inputs. Once the model parameters are determined (and calibrated, if possible), the spreadsheet features can be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of management options. In the case of Delavan Lake, it was concluded that, although some nonpoint controls were cost-effective, the overall reduction in phosphorus would be insufficient to measurably improve water quality.

Walker, J. F.; Pickard, S. A.; Sonzogni, W. C.

1989-01-01

67

Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

2003-04-01

68

The effects of watershed physical properties on bed load morphometric and sedimentologic characteristics along downstream: a case study from Ghalesar watershed in Mazandaran Province  

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Full Text Available Litnology and sedimentology factors affect on downstream changes in bed load shape and can be useful to detect watershed hydrological processes as they are very important to design hydraulic structures and reservoir management. This research was conducted in Qalesar River in Mazandaran Province with main river length of 24 Kilometers. After recognition of the study area, 11 sections were selected toward downstream for bed load sampling. Laboratory analysis were done using gravel meter and sieving method to measure and calculate some bed load shape characteristics. Also physical properties of each sub-watershed were extracted using Arc/GIS 9.2 software. Finally, in order to determine most effective physical characteristics on bed load shape, data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results of statistical analysis indicate the best model between D50 and length of 1 order channel in bivariate regression equations and between D50 and distance from upstream in multi-variate regression equations.

F., Adineh,

2012-01-01

69

Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently. PMID:18547938

Choi, J-Y

2008-01-01

70

Policy Windows, Policy Change, and Organizational Learning: Watersheds in the Evolution of Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Employing in-depth, elite interviews, this empirical research contributes to understanding the dynamics among policy windows, policy change, and organizational learning. First, although much of the research on agenda setting—how issues attract enough attention that action is taken to address them—has been conducted at the national scale, this work explores the subnational, regional scale. With decentralization, regional-scale environmental decision-making has become increasingly important. Second, this research highlights the role of policy windows and instances of related organizational learning identified by natural resources managers. Having practitioners identify focusing events contrasts with the more typical approach of the researcher identifying a particular focusing event or events to investigate. A focusing event is a sudden, exceptional experience that, because of how it leads to harm or exposes the prospect for great devastation, is perceived as the impetus for policy change.

Michaels, Sarah; Goucher, Nancy P.; McCarthy, Dan

2006-12-01

71

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CALIBRATION METHODS OF NASH’S RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL TO AMMAMEH WATERSHED, IRAN  

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Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nash’s model parameters.

Vahid Nourani

2008-06-01

72

Legacy Phosphorus in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Restoration and Management of Wetlands and Aquatic Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.

2012-02-01

73

Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic problems caused by dams in Ethiopia and elsewhere. Dams are planned from a top-down perspective in Ethiopia, some people are relocated against their will, haphazard land-use changes can occur, and s...

2007-01-01

74

Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

Kebede Wolka Wolancho

2012-01-01

75

Integrated coastal management in the Venice lagoon and its watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Venice Lagoon (VL) is a complex ecosystem in which public participation and area-based management has often been neglected by administrative bodies involved in the planning of coastal projects and public works. In this area, the analysis of the local situation highlighted a substantial absence of coordination among the various administrative bodies in charge of planning and management at various governmental levels and in different regulated economic sectors. This paper analyses public pa...

Suman, Daniel; Guerzoni, Stefano; Molinaroli, Emanuela

2005-01-01

76

Calibration of SWAT2009 Using Crop Biomass, Evapotranspiration, and Deep Recharge: Calera Watershed in Zacatecas, Mexico Case Study  

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Full Text Available Groundwater is the main source of water in the semi-arid Calera watershed, located in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Due to increasing population, rapid industrial growth, and increased irrigation to meet growing food demand, groundwater extraction in the Calera watershed are exceeding recharge rates. Therefore, development and evaluation of alter-native water management strategies are needed for sustainable development of the region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was selected for this purpose as it has been used to simulate a wide range of agricultural production, the extensive testing and application in diverse watersheds worldwide, and the potential for future linkage of this model to groundwater models. However, crucial flow data which are commonly used for calibrating hydrologic models are not available in this watershed. This paper describes a novel calibration methodology that uses biomass and water balance approach which has potential for calibration of hydrologic models in ungauged or data-scarce watersheds, which are prevalent in many parts of the world. Estimated long-term annual average actual evapotranspiration (AET, and deep aquifer recharge rates and plant biomass values based on the expert knowledge of researchers and managers in the watershed were used as targets for calibration. The model performance was assessed using the Nash-Sutcliffe effi-ciency coefficient (NSE, coefficient of determination (R2, and percent bias (PBIAS, % statistics. On average, the calibrated SWAT model yielded annual Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.85 for AET, recharge, and biomass, respectively. The coefficient of determination, values for AET, recharge, and biomass were 0.95, 0.94, and 0.99 respectively. The percent bias values of ±2.21%, ±0.18%, and ±0.96% for AET, recharge, and biomass, respectively, indicated that the model reproduced the calibration target values of the three water budget variables within an acceptable value of ± 10.0%. Therefore, it is concluded that the calibrated SWAT model can be used in evaluating alternative water management scenarios for the Calera watershed without further validation. Considering the relative ease in developing calibration data and excellent performance statistics, the calibration methodology proposed in this study may have the potential to be used for ungauged or data-scare agricultural watersheds that are prevalent in many parts of the world.

Alan J. Verser

2012-07-01

77

Science Education for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of the Palouse Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses case study and qualitative content analysis methodologies to answer the question: What is the relationship between Washington State's k-12 science education standards and the environmental sustainability needs of the Palouse River Watershed? After defining the Palouse Watershed's attributes, the author presents a land use history…

Lyman, Samson E.

2009-01-01

78

Lower Susquehanna Subbasin. Small Watershed Study: Yellow Breeches Creek. A Bacteriological Assessment, February-November 2006.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) completed a water quality survey in the Yellow Breeches Creek Watershed from February-November 2006 as part of the Year-2 small watershed study in the Lower Susquehanna River Subbasin. The Year-1 study of more...

2007-01-01

79

Participatory watershed management to decrease land degradation and sediment transport in Kagera and Nyando catchments of Lake Victoria basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attention to participatory watershed management is increasing across the developing world as soil erosion continues to degrade agricultural land; reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure are clogged with sediment. The realization of the importance of watersheds is crucial for sustainable utilization especially in developing countries where rural livelihoods and economies are highly dependant on the exploitation of natural resources. The Lake Victoria basin is characterized by high population ...

Kenge, James Gunya

2009-01-01

80

Upper Susquehanna Subbasin Small Watershed Study: A Water Quality and Biological Assessment of the Watersheds Surrounding Whitney Point Lake, Broome and Cortland Counties, N.Y.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) completed a water quality and biological survey on the watersheds surrounding Whitney Point Lake from June-October 2008 as part of the Year-2 small watershed study in the Upper Susquehanna Subbasin. Year-1 and...

L. Steffy

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Q-BIC3 - A Québec-Bavarian international collaboration for adapting regional watershed management to climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Adapting to the impacts of climate change is certainly one of the major challenges in water resources management over the next decades. Adaptation to climate change risks is most crucial in this domain, since projected increase in mean air temperature in combination with an expected increase in the temporal variability of precipitation patterns will contribute to pressure on current water availability, allocation and management practices. The latter often involve the utilization of valuable infrastructure, such as dams, reservoirs and water intakes, for which adaptation options must by developed over long-term and often dynamic planning horizons. Research to establish novel methodologies for improved adaptation to climate change is thus very important and only beginning to emerge in regional watershed management. The presented project Q-BIC³, funded by the Bavarian Minstry for the Environment and the Québec Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation, aims to develop and apply a newly designed spectrum of tools to support the improved assessment of adaptation options to climate change in regional watershed management. It addresses in particular selected study sites in Québec and Bavaria. The following key issues have been prioritized within Q-BIC³: i) The definition of potential adaptation options in the context of climate change for pre-targeted water management key issues using a subsequent and logical chain of modelling tools (climate, hydrological and water management modeling tools) ii) The definition of an approach that accounts for hydrological projection uncertainties in the search for potential adaptation options in the context of climate change iii) The investigation of the required complexity in hydrological models to estimate climate change impacts and to develop specific adaptation options for Québec and Bavaria watersheds. iv) The development and prototyping of a regionally transferable and modular modelling system for integrated watershed management under climate change conditions. The study sites under investigation, namely the Haut-Saint Francois and Gatineau watersheds in Québec and the Isar and Regnitz catchments in Bavaria, are under heavy anthropogenic use. Intense dam and reservoir operations and even water transfer systems are in place to satisfy multi-purpose demands on available water resources. These are imposing extreme modifications to the natural flow regimes. In the first phase of the project, climatic forcing, stemming from an ensemble of selected GCM and RCM runs, is applied to a variety of hydrological models with different complexity. The derived projections of future hydrological conditions serve to investigate, whether current operation rules and/or existing infrastructure needs to be adapted to a changing environment. First findings demonstrate the large uncertainties associated to the model chain outputs, but also indicate that related adaptation is indispensable to meet the challenges of the rapidly changing man-environment systems.

Ludwig, Ralf

2010-05-01

82

Economics of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an optimal control model of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam. Management efforts focus on upstream soil conservation, reservoir-level sediment removal, and downstream damage control from water pollution. Increased soil conservation potentially benefits farmers and also has the external benefit of reducing sediment accumulation in the reservoir. Sediment is released downstream of the reservoir using the hydrosuction sediment removal system (HSRS). This sediment release extends reservoir life and provides nutrients to downstream farmers who then use less fertilizer. Also included in the functions of the dam manager are the provision of water to downstream farms, the control of instream flow to mitigate downstream damages from water pollution, and the use of water treatment to meet quality standards for water supplied directly from the reservoir to residential users. An illustrative application of the model to Lake Aswan, located between Egypt and Sudan, indicates substantial benefits from far-sighted behavior and cooperation across all agents. Moving from the baseline case that reflects the status quo to the socially optimal solution increases watershed net present value by more than $500 billion. Other scenarios with varying types of collaboration among the agents are also explored. Interestingly, while decisions with respect to soil conservation do impact the welfare of upstream farmers, the benefits to reservoir management and agriculture in Egypt are modest compared to benefits Egypt gets from improved control of instream flow. Also, subject to technical limits, increasing reservoir life through practice of HSRS is economically desirable.

Lee, Yoon; Yoon, Taeyeon; Shah, Farhed A.

2011-10-01

83

Water quality management in the Kaoping River watershed, Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kaoping River basin is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. It is 171 km long and drains a catchment of more than 3,250 km2. Based on the current water quality analysis, the Kaoping River is heavily polluted. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. Investigation results demonstrate that both point and non-point source pollutants are now the causes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, and pathogens in the river. The main water pollution sources are livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas, and leachate from riverbank landfills. The current daily BOD, NH3-N, and TP loadings to Kaoping River are 74,700, 39,400, and 5,100 kg, respectively. However, the calculated BOD, NH3-N, and TP carrying capacities are 27,700, 4,200, and 600 kg per day. To protect public health and improve the river water quality, a comprehensive management and construction strategy is proposed. The proposed strategy includes the following measures to meet the calculated river carrying capacity: (1) a hog ban in the entire Kaoping River basin, (2) sewer system construction to achieve 30% of connection in the basin within 10 years, (3) removal of 10 riverbank landfills, and (4) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards. After the implementation of the proposed measures, the water quality should be significantly improved and the BOD and nutrient loadings can be reduced to below the calculated carrying capacities. PMID:12793682

Kao, C M; Chen, K F; Liao, Y L; Chen, C W

2003-01-01

84

Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ? NS ? 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

Indrajeet Chaubey

2010-11-01

85

Evaluation of Best Management Practices in Millsboro Pond Watershed Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Inland Bays in southern Delaware (USA are facing eutrophication due to the nutrient loading from its watershed. The source of nutrients in the watershed is predominantly agriculture. The Millsboro Pond, a sub-watershed within the Inland Bays basin, was modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. It was found that the contribution of ground water from outside the watershed had a signifi-cant impact on the hydrology of the region. Once the model was calibrated and validated, five management scenarios were implemented, one at a time, to measure its effectiveness in reducing the nutrient loading in the watershed. Among the Best Management Practices (BMPs, planting winter cover crops on the agricul-ture land was the most effective method in reducing the nutrient loads. The second most effective method was to provide grassland riparian zones. The BMPs alone were not able to achieve the nutrient load reduc-tion as required by the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs. Two extra scenarios that involved in replac-ing agriculture land with forest, first with deciduous trees and then with high yielding trees were considered. It is suggested that to achieve the required TMDL for the watershed, some parts of the agricultural land may have to be effectively converted into the managed forest with some high yielding trees such as hybrid poplar trees providing cellulose raw material for bio fuels. The remaining agriculture land should take up the prac-tice of planting winter cover crops and better nutrient management. Riparian zones, either in form of forest or grasslands, should be the final line of defense for reducing nutrient loading in the watershed.

Aditya Sood

2010-05-01

86

Rainfall Runoff Modelling Using the Principle of Maximum Entropy(Case Study: Kasilian Watershed  

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Full Text Available Accurate estimation of runoff for a watershed is a very important issue in water resources management. In this study, the monthly runoff was estimated using the rainfall information and conditional probability distribution model based on the principle of maximum entropy. The information of monthly rainfall and runoff data of Kasilian River basin from 1960 to 2006 were used for the development of model. The model parameters were estimated using the prior information of the watershed such as mean of rainfall, runoff and their covariance. Using the developed model, monthly runoff was estimated for different values of runoff coefficient, , return period, , at different probability levels of rainfall for the basin under study. Results showed that the developed model estimates runoff for all return periods satisfactorily if the runoff coefficient value is taken 0.6. Also, it is observed that at a particular probability level and runoff coefficient, the estimated runoff decreases as return period increases. However, the rate of change of runoff decreases slightly as return period increases.

R. Mirabbasi Najafabadi

2012-03-01

87

Putting watershed restoration in context: alternative future scenarios influence management outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting effects of habitat restoration is an important step for recovery of imperiled anadromous salmonid populations. Habitat above three major hydropower dams in the Lewis River watershed, southwestern Washington, USA, will soon become accessible to anadromous fish. We used multiple models to estimate habitat conditions above dams and fish population responses. Additionally, we used scenario planning to predict how habitat and fish will respond to potential future trends in land use due to human population growth and riparian conservation policies. Finally, we developed a hypothetical management strategy (i.e., a set of prioritized restoration projects in specific locations within the watershed) as an example of how a fixed amount of restoration funds might be spent to enhance the success of reintroducing fish above dams. We then compared predicted outcomes from this new strategy to those of six previously modeled strategies. We estimated how the choice of the best management strategy might differ among alternative future scenarios. Results suggest that dam passage will provide access to large amounts of high-quality habitat that will benefit fish populations. Moreover, conservation of existing riparian areas, if implemented, has the potential to improve conditions to a much greater extent than restoration strategies examined, despite expected urban growth. We found that the relative performance of management strategies shifted when fish were allowed to migrate above dams, but less so among alternative futures examined. We discuss how predicted outcomes from these seven hypothetical management strategies could be used for developing an on-the-ground strategy to address a real management situation. PMID:19323185

Fullerton, A H; Steel, E A; Caras, Y; Sheer, M; Olson, P; Kaje, J

2009-01-01

88

Adapting regional watershed management to climate change in Bavaria and Québec  

Science.gov (United States)

The international research project QBic3 (Quebec-Bavarian Collaboration on Climate Change) aims at investigating the potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology of regional scale catchments in Southern Quebec (Canada) and Bavaria (Germany). For this purpose, a hydro-meteorological modeling chain has been established, applying climatic forcing from both dynamical and statistical climate model data to an ensemble of hydrological models of varying complexity. The selection of input data, process descriptions and scenarios allows for the inter-comparison of the uncertainty ranges on selected runoff indicators; a methodology to display the relative importance of each source of uncertainty is developed and results for past runoff (1971-2000) and potential future changes (2041-2070) are obtained. Finally, the impact of hydrological changes on the operational management of dams, reservoirs and transfer systems is investigated and shown for the Bavarian case studies, namely the potential change in i) hydro-power production for the Upper Isar watershed and ii) low flow augmentation and water transfer rates at the Donau-Main transfer system in Central Franconia. Two overall findings will be presented and discussed in detail: a) the climate change response of selected hydrological indicators, especially those related to low flows, is strongly affected by the choice of the hydrological model. It can be shown that an assessment of the changes in the hydrological cycle is best represented by a complex physically based hydrological model, computationally less demanding models (usually simple, lumped and conceptual) can give a significant level of trust for selected indicators. b) the major differences in the projected climate forcing stemming from the ensemble of dynamic climate models (GCM/RCM) versus the statistical-stochastical WETTREG2010 approach. While the dynamic ensemble reveals a moderate modification of the hydrological processes in the investigated catchments, the WETTREG2010 driven runs show a severe detraction for all water operations, mainly related to a strong decline in projected precipitation in all seasons (except winter).

Ludwig, Ralf; Muerth, Markus; Schmid, Josef; Jobst, Andreas; Caya, Daniel; Gauvin St-Denis, Blaise; Chaumont, Diane; Velazquez, Juan-Alberto; Turcotte, Richard; Ricard, Simon

2013-04-01

89

Quantifying the Functionality of Ephemeral Streams at the Watershed Scale for Land Management Applications  

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Land development and associated disturbances in arid environments can adversely affect the ecological functionality of ephemeral stream channels. Land use managers have limited methodologies available for assessing low-impact development plans, or for monitoring changes in stream functionality as land use changes are implemented. The development of utility-scale solar energy facilities is underway in the southwestern United States. Federal and state agencies have developed plans to concentrate facilities in specific regions to minimize transmission limitations (e.g., the Bureau of Land Management's Solar Energy Zones cover 1,100 km2). However, multiple facility footprints in a single desert valley have the potential to drastically alter the natural pattern of ephemeral stream networks. This study focuses on quantifying the sensitivity of ephemeral streams with respect to land disturbance impacts on flow and sediment conveyance, groundwater recharge, and the loss of soil and vegetative habitats. An initial assessment used publicly-available geospatial data (typically 10- to 30-m resolution) on topography, surficial geology, and soil characteristics, as well as data on historical peak discharges and aerial photographs. These datasets were used to inform a professional judgment, score-based ranking of potential land disturbance impacts on the functionality of ephemeral streams. The results were limited to mapped stream channels in the National Hydrography Dataset, but suggested that hydrological and geomorphic impacts were a greater concern in valley piedmont regions, and that habitat concerns were greater in the valley regions where vegetation is sparsely distributed. Current efforts are focused on using a remote sensing approach to obtain high-resolution information on topography, soil, and vegetation in order to map detailed ephemeral stream networks, measure channel bathymetry characteristics, and use spectral indices of soil and vegetation to develop surrogate measures of stream ecological functionality. The initial results for a small watershed (110 km2) using stereoscopic, sub-meter resolution aerial images, detected an increase of more than 100% in identified ephemeral stream channels and habitat patterns were more spatially correlated with ephemeral stream networks than was observed for the initial assessment approach. The eventual goal of these efforts is to refine the methodology for quantifying the disturbance sensitivity of ephemeral streams, from professional judgment rankings to spectral indices of stream functionality, and to close the spatial gap between the need for large-scale assessments for land management planning and the small-scale analyses and data requirements for quantifying ephemeral stream functionality.

O'Connor, B. L.; Hamada, Y.; Bowen, E. E.; Wuthrich, K. K.; Grippo, M. A.

2013-12-01

90

Web-based decision support and visualization tools for water quality management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed  

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Federal, State, and local water quality managers charged with restoring the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem require tools to maximize the impact of their limited resources. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) are developing a suite of Web-based tools called the Chesapeake Online Assessment Support Toolkit (COAST). The goal of COAST is to help CBP partners identify geographic areas where restoration activities would have the greatest effect, select the appropriate management strategies, and improve coordination and prioritization among partners. As part of the COAST suite of tools focused on environmental restoration, a water quality management visualization component called the Nutrient Yields Mapper (NYM) tool is being developed by USGS. The NYM tool is a web application that uses watershed yield estimates from USGS SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed (SPARROW) attributes model (Schwarz et al., 2006) [6] to allow water quality managers to identify important sources of nitrogen and phosphorous within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The NYM tool utilizes new open source technologies that have become popular in geospatial web development, including components such as OpenLayers and GeoServer. This paper presents examples of water quality data analysis based on nutrient type, source, yield, and area of interest using the NYM tool for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In addition, we describe examples of map-based techniques for identifying high and low nutrient yield areas; web map engines; and data visualization and data management techniques.

Mullinix, C.; Hearn, P.; Zhang, H.; Aguinaldo, J.

2009-01-01

91

DESIGN OF THE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PLACEMENT AND SELECTION OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) FOR STORMWATER CONTROL IN URBAN WATERSHEDS  

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A decision support system for selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds is being developed. The primary objective of the system is to assist stormwater management practioners and decision makers in developing effective...

92

Sustainable forest management: a challenging task in the siran watershed of district Mansehra in the NWFP of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure has led to unsustainable forest management during the past three decades in the study area. Strategic analysis of the system indicates that lack of national conservation based forest management has further aggravated the problem. Moreover, SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis show that the internal weaknesses and external threats outweigh the internal strengths and external opportunities of the Forest Department. Based on these analytical results, priority issues were evaluated in terms of their efficiency, social soundness, institutional acceptability and environmental sustainability. The proposed sustainable forest management options which fulfilled this criteria were the community based forest management, wood demand and supply management interventions, institutional restructuring and income generation opportunities using integrated forest management in the study area. (author)

2004-06-07

93

USING HISTORICAL BIOLOGICAL DATA TO EVALUATE STATUS AND TRENDS IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED (OHIO, USA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of watershed ecological status and trends is challenging for managers who lack randomly or consistently sampled data, or monitoring programs developed from a watershed perspective. This study investigated analytical approaches for assessment of status and trends using ...

94

The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed  

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The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed Guoxiang Yang1, Elly P.H. Best2, Staci Goodwin3 1 ORISE Postdoc Research Associate at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk...

95

Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

2008-01-01

96

Watershed influence on fluvial ecosystems: an integrated methodology for river water quality management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (Integrated River Basin Management for Europe) establishes the importance of preserving water quality through policies applied at watershed level given the strong links existing among ecological, hydrological, and hydrogeological systems. Therefore, monitoring campaigns of river water quality should be planned with multidisciplinary approaches starting from a landscape perspective. In this paper, the effects of the basin hydrology on the river water quality and, in particular, the impacts caused by the runoff production coming from agricultural areas are investigated. The fluvial segments receiving consistent amount of pollutant loads (due to the runoff routing over agricultural areas) are assumed more critical in terms of water quality and thus, they require more accurate controls. Starting from this perspective, to evaluate the runoff productions coming from agricultural areas, we applied a semi-distributed hydrological model that adopts satellite data, pedological and morphological information for the watershed description. Then, the river segments receiving critical amount of runoff loads from the surrounding cultivated areas were identified. Finally, in order to validate the approach, water quality for critical and non critical segment was investigated seasonally, by using river macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality because of their effectiveness in preserving in time a memory of pollution events. Biomonitoring data showed that river water quality strongly decreases in correspondence of fluvial segments receiving critical amount of runoff coming from agricultural areas. The results highlight the usefulness of such a methodology to plan monitoring campaigns specifically devoted to non-point pollution sources and suggest the possibility to use this approach for water quality management and for planning river restoration policies. PMID:18537049

Carone, Maria T; Simoniello, Tiziana; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caricato, Gaetano

2009-05-01

97

Evaluation of effective management plan for an agricultural watershed using AVSWAT model, remote sensing and GIS  

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In the present investigation, an effort has been made to identify the critical sub-watersheds for the development of best management plan for a small watershed of Eastern India using a hydrological model, namely, AVSWAT2000. A total of 180 combinations of various management treatments including crops (rice, maize ground nut and soybean), tillage (zero, conservation, field cultivator, mould board plough and conventional practices) and fertilizer levels (existing half of recommended and recommended) have been evaluated. The investigation reveled that rice cannot be replaced by other crops such as groundnut, maize, mungbean, sorghum and soybean since comparatively these crops resulted in higher sediment yield. The tillage practices with disk plough have been found to have more impact on sediment yield and nutrient losses than conventional tillage practices for the existing level of fertilizer. Sediment yield decreased in the case of zero tillage, conservation tillage, field cultivator, moldboard plough, and conservation tillage as compare to conventional tillage. Lowest NO3-N loss was observed in zero tillage in all the fertilizer treatments, whereas field cultivator, moldboard plough and disk plough resulted in increase of NO3-N loss. As compared to conventional tillage, the losses of soluble phosphorus were increased in moldboard plough. The losses of organic nitrogen were also increased as fertilizer dose increased. After zero tillage the conservation tillage preformed better in all the fertilizer treatments as per loss of organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus is concerned. It can be concluded that the sediment yield was found to be the highest in the case of disk plough followed by moldboard plough, field cultivator, conventional tillage, field cultivator and least in zero tillage practices. The nutrient losses were found to be in different order with tillage practices, resulted highest in disk plough tillage practices. In view of sediment yield and nutrient losses, the conservation tillage practice was found to be the best as the sediment yield is less than the average soil loss whereas nutrient loss is within the permissible limit.

Pandey, V. K.; Panda, S. N.; Pandey, Ashish; Sudhakar, S.

2009-01-01

98

Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.

Beria Leimona

2007-12-01

99

Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds. PMID:23713687

Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

2013-08-01

100

Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica  

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Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Synthesizing Drainage Morphology of Tectonic Watershed in Upper Ing Watershed (Kwan Phayao Wetland Watershed  

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Full Text Available The study was aimed to synthesize drainage morphology of tectonic watershed in upper Ing Watershed in Phayao province, northern Thailand. The morphometric analysis of 12 sub-watersheds was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS software-ArcGIS 9.3 for analysing drainage pattern and calculating the 16 theoretical values of drainage morphometric parameters in 3 aspects including linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect. The geologic formation and structure are also overlain on drainage morphological map to determine their influence on drainage patterns. The results showed that most areas were dendritic drainage pattern, while rectangular drainage pattern occurs relative to the direction of the fault. Trellis drainage pattern shown on the northeast of the watershed in Mae Puem sub-watershed which the rock layers bend or tilt in syncline structural geology. The upper Ing watershed was classified as a third to fifth order streams, which controlled by physiographic and structural conditions. The tectonic force formed a graben basin which Kwan Phayao wetland is the lowest area of this graben while the high mountain ranges in the western area. As a result, the river is flowing from western highland to lowland quickly especially in the western sub-watershed, this result affecting low permeability, high discharge of runoff and intensity of erosion processes which the calculated drainage morphometric parameters showed the results according to their appearance. It could be said that the drainage patterns in this area is influenced by tectonic structure rather than geologic formation. This study provided more understanding in drainage morphological characteristics of the upper Ing watershed for planning sustainable management of the Kwan Phayao wetland.

Rangsan Ket-ord

2012-12-01

102

Water quality monitoring: the basis for watershed management in the Oldman River Basin, Canada.  

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The Oldman River flows 440 km from its headwaters in south-western Alberta, through mountains, foothills and plains into the South Saskatchewan River. Peak flows occur in May and June. Three major reservoirs, together with more than a dozen other structures, supply water to nine irrigation districts and other water users in the Oldman basin. Human activity in the basin includes forestry, recreation, oil and gas development, and agriculture, including a large number of confined livestock feeding operations. Based on the perception of basin residents that water quality was declining and of human health concern, the Oldman River Basin Water Quality Initiative was formed in 1997 to address the concerns. There was limited factual information, and at the time there was a desire for finger pointing. Results (1998-2002) show that mainstem water quality remains good whereas tributary water quality is more of a challenge. Key variables of concern are nutrients, bacteria and pesticides. Point source discharges are better understood and better regulated, whereas non-point source runoff requires more attention. Recent data on Cryptosporidium and Giardia species are providing benefit for focusing watershed management activities. The water quality data collected is providing a foundation to implement community-supported urban and rural better management practices to improve water quality. PMID:16838699

Koning, C W; Saffran, K A; Little, J L; Fent, L

2006-01-01

103

Impediments and Solutions to Sustainable, Watershed-Scale Urban Stormwater Management: Lessons from Australia and the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

In urban and suburban areas, stormwater runoff is a primary stressor on surface waters. Conventional urban stormwater drainage systems often route runoff directly to streams and rivers, thus exacerbating pollutant inputs and hydrologic disturbance, and resulting in the degradation of ecosystem structure and function. Decentralized stormwater management tools, such as low impact development (LID) or water sensitive urban design (WSUD), may offer a more sustainable solution to stormwater management if implemented at a watershed scale. These tools are designed to pond, infiltrate, and harvest water at the source, encouraging evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, and re-use of stormwater. While there are numerous demonstrations of WSUD practices, there are few examples of widespread implementation at a watershed scale with the explicit objective of protecting or restoring a receiving stream. This article identifies seven major impediments to sustainable urban stormwater management: (1) uncertainties in performance and cost, (2) insufficient engineering standards and guidelines, (3) fragmented responsibilities, (4) lack of institutional capacity, (5) lack of legislative mandate, (6) lack of funding and effective market incentives, and (7) resistance to change. By comparing experiences from Australia and the United States, two developed countries with existing conventional stormwater infrastructure and escalating stream ecosystem degradation, we highlight challenges facing sustainable urban stormwater management and offer several examples of successful, regional WSUD implementation. We conclude by identifying solutions to each of the seven impediments that, when employed separately or in combination, should encourage widespread implementation of WSUD with watershed-based goals to protect human health and safety, and stream ecosystems.

Roy, Allison H.; Wenger, Seth J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Ladson, Anthony R.; Shuster, William D.; Thurston, Hale W.; Brown, Rebekah R.

2008-08-01

104

Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force?s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

105

Managing a Watershed Monitoring Project with Innovative Data Telemetry and Communications Software  

Science.gov (United States)

In collaboration with Clermont County, the U.S. EPA is developing watershed-wide load and transport models to better understand environmental stressors in stream flow and the structure and function of stream ecosystems in the tributaries of the Lower East Fork River. Watershed s...

106

The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

Alan S. Kolok

2009-01-01

107

PET study on cerebral hemodynamics in internal carotid artery occlusion; The pathogenesis of watershed infarction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied positron emission tomography in nine patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, selected as having good collateral circulation through the anterior portion of the circle of Willis. Analyses of regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral blood volume allowed quantitative evaluation of the regional hemodynamic status, especially in relation to watershed area. The patient group has a significantly (p<0.01) decreased regional blood flow in the middle cerebral artery territory and the surrounding watershed areas of the occluded hemisphere, as compared with eight control subjects. Values of oxygen extraction fraction became progressively greater farther from the circle of Willis, attaining the highet level in the uperior parietal and posterior temporal-occipital watershed area. Oxygen extraction fraction gave information on the balance of energy supply and demand, serving as an index of the oxygen carriage reserve. A concomitant decrease in the ratio of cerebral blood flow to volume suggested reduction in mean flow velocity with possible development of 'stagnation thrombus'. These findings suggest (1) hemodynamic vulnerability of watershed areas after internal carotid artery occlusion and importance of systemic hemodynamic factors such as blood pressure and circulating blood volume in the genesis of watershed infarctions. (author).

Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Harada, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Jun (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kameyama, Masakuni

1990-05-01

108

Dam N1 safety review and hydro-technical study of the Trent River watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Parks Canada Agency (PCA) manages most of the dams located in Canada's National Parks and National Historic Sites. The PCA is responsible for the safe management of all dams it operates. A new PCA dam safety directive applicable to all dams operated or located on PCA property was established in 2009. The 131 dams on the Trent-Severn Waterway in Ontario were covered by this directive. This paper presented the dam safety review carried out by AECOM as a part of the planning and design for major rehabilitation works on Dam N1 in Trenton. The hydrotechnical study of the 12,400 km2 Trent River Watershed is reported. Flood analyses were performed using a statistical approach to estimate peak flood flows for various return periods. A deterministic approach using streamflow synthesis and reservoir routing-USACE (SSARR) evaluated the spring and summer-fall scenarios of probable maximum flood. A comparison between both approaches for determining the PMF was presented.

Dumas, Annie; Shallhorn, Mike [AECOM Canada Ltd., (Canada); Roy, Andre [Parks Canada Agency, (Canada); Beland, Jacques [Public Works and Government Services Canada, (Canada)

2010-07-01

109

Study on phosphorus loadings in ten natural and agricultural watersheds in subtropical region of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water eutrophication in subtropical regions of southern China threatens watershed health and is of major concern. However, annual phosphorus (P) loading and its dominant causes are still unclear, especially at the watershed scale. In this study, we investigated dynamic P loadings and associated factors (e.g., land use, livestock production, and runoff depth) in ten watersheds that varied in area from 9 to 5,212 ha in a hilly area of Hunan Province, China. A flowmeter was installed at the outlet of each watershed, and total P (TP) and soluble P (SP) concentrations were monitored periodically from June 2010 to October 2012. The results showed that annual P loadings (APLs) in the ten watersheds ranged from 22.8 to 247.8 kg P/km(2) and that P loss primarily occurred from April to June of each year during the main rainfall season in the study area. In addition, the average eutrophication (>0.05 mg P/L) ratio for stream waters was 86.7 % during the study period, which was indicative of a potentially serious condition for the local water environments. Annual P loadings were linearly related to livestock density (LD; R = 0.92, p < 0.01), whereas the eutrophication ratio of stream water was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with LD (R = 0.61), percentage cropland (R = 0.71), and percentage forest cover (R = -0.68). Thus, it is concluded that the control of livestock production has the greatest potential for reducing P loadings in watersheds in this subtropical area. This will be beneficial to the amelioration and protection of local environment. PMID:24343709

Li, Yuyuan; Meng, Cen; Gao, Ru; Yang, Wen; Jiao, Junxia; Li, Yong; Wang, Yi; Wu, Jinshui

2014-05-01

110

Innovative assessment tools to improve water quality and watershed management in farming areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lot of initiatives for improving water quality have been developed over the last 15 y in Brittany in response to degradation induced by intensive farming and under the pressure of European policy and environmental organizations. This has involved the partnerships of farmer organizations, organizations in charge of rural affairs, research and formation institutes, and environmental nongovernmental organizations. In this paper, we present 2 complementary aspects of an original, and possibly efficient, water policy within the framework of water management in a medium-sized watershed, including 1) development of new methods of diagnostic and decision support based on participative approaches and 2) development of new methods to assess the current status and effect of alternative scenarios, taking into account the complexity of a system with strong agricultural and hydrological variability and a relatively long response time. The 1st series of methods, which deals with the buffering capacity of landscape structures, is close to a social learning approach; the 2nd illustrates the importance, for policy makers, of a precisely defined protocol for data monitoring and analysis and of the use of spatially distributed and dynamic models when water policy is based on an obligation of results. In spite of the coexistence of all the necessary constituents of a coherent policy, it seems difficult to build. The state of current water quality illustrates the importance and limitations of incentive policy. PMID:19431300

Merot, Philippe; Aurousseau, Pierre; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Durand, Patrick

2009-01-01

111

Streamflow allocation in arid watersheds: a case study in Northwestern China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a framework for allocating water resources among the upper, middle, and lower reaches of arid watersheds to meet the multiple demands for water, including rehabilitation of downstream ecosystem. The framework includes: (1) hydrologic simulation of distribution of water resources in the study watershed; (2) development of water allocation criteria; and (3) implementation of the water allocation plan. The advantages of the proposed framework are: (1) spatial integration; (2) multiple objectives; (3) incorporation of local needs through participatory decision making; and (4) dynamic evaluation. The framework was applied to the Heihe watershed, a large inland (terminal lake) watershed with a drainage area of over 128 000 km2 in Northwestern China. Simulation of the daily river flows for the period of 1990-2000 by the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model shows that Qilian Mountain in the upper reach produced most of the runoff in the watershed, and the increased withdrawals of water for agricultural irrigation, industrial development, and municipal supplies at the middles reach oasis reduced the annual mean discharge by approximately 0.18 × 109 m3 over the simulation period, making the middle reach unable to deliver the mandated amount of 0.95 × 109 m3 water downstream by the State Council, under normal climatic conditions. Changes in land use practices need to be implemented to achieve the mandated water allocation plan. The paper suggests that a participatory watershed planning approach involving multiple stakeholders in the water allocation process be undertaken to address key questions regularly, including how much water should be allocated to what uses and for whom and at what price?

He, C.; Zhang, L.; Fu, L.; Luo, Y.; Li, L.; DeMarchi, C.

2012-07-01

112

Streamflow allocation in arid watersheds: a case study in Northwestern China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for allocating water resources among the upper, middle, and lower reaches of arid watersheds to meet the multiple demands for water, including rehabilitation of downstream ecosystem. The framework includes: (1 hydrologic simulation of distribution of water resources in the study watershed; (2 development of water allocation criteria; and (3 implementation of the water allocation plan. The advantages of the proposed framework are: (1 spatial integration; (2 multiple objectives; (3 incorporation of local needs through participatory decision making; and (4 dynamic evaluation.

The framework was applied to the Heihe watershed, a large inland (terminal lake watershed with a drainage area of over 128 000 km2 in Northwestern China. Simulation of the daily river flows for the period of 1990–2000 by the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model shows that Qilian Mountain in the upper reach produced most of the runoff in the watershed, and the increased withdrawals of water for agricultural irrigation, industrial development, and municipal supplies at the middles reach oasis reduced the annual mean discharge by approximately 0.18 × 109 m3 over the simulation period, making the middle reach unable to deliver the mandated amount of 0.95 × 109 m3 water downstream by the State Council, under normal climatic conditions. Changes in land use practices need to be implemented to achieve the mandated water allocation plan. The paper suggests that a participatory watershed planning approach involving multiple stakeholders in the water allocation process be undertaken to address key questions regularly, including how much water should be allocated to what uses and for whom and at what price?

C. He

2012-07-01

113

Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India  

Science.gov (United States)

IWD interventions are helpful for building resilience in rainfed agriculture.IWD interventions reduced storm flow and enhanced base flow, GW recharge and ET.IWD interventions doubled crop production and income compared to control watershed.Study shows economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in large areas.

Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

2014-02-01

114

Debris flow run off simulation and verification ? case study of Chen-You-Lan Watershed, Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1996 typhoon Herb struck the central Taiwan area, causing severe debris flow in many subwatersheds of the Chen-You-Lan river watershed. More severe cases of debris flow occurred following Chi-Chi earthquake, 1999. In order to identify the potentially affected area and its severity, the ability to simulate the flow route of debris is desirable. In this research numerical simulation of debris flow deposition process had been carried out using FLO-2D adopting Chui-Sue river watershed as the study area. Sensitivity study of parameters used in the numerical model was conducted and adjustments were made empirically. The micro-geomorphic database of Chui-Sue river watershed was generated and analyzed to understand the terrain variations caused by the debris flow. Based on the micro-geomorphic analysis, the debris deposition in the Chui-Sue river watershed in the downstream area, and the position and volume of debris deposition were determined. The simulated results appeared to agree fairly well with the results of micro-geomorphic study of the area when not affected by other inflow rivers, and the trends of debris distribution in the study area appeared to be fairly consistent.

M.-L. Lin

2005-01-01

115

Case study: an evaluation of user-assisted hierarchical watershed segmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of an interactive, three-dimensional image segmentation technique that relies on watersheds. This paper presents two user-based case studies, which include two different groups of domain experts. Subjects manipulate a graphics-based front end to a hierarchy of segmented regions generated from a watershed segmentation algorithm, which is implemented in the Insight Toolkit. In the first study, medical students segment several different anatomical structures from the Visible Human Female head and neck color cryosection data. In the second study, radiologists use the interactive tool to produce models of brain tumors from MRI data. This paper presents a quantitative and qualitative comparison against hand contouring. To quantify accuracy, we estimate ground truth from the hand-contouring data using the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Estimation algorithm. We also apply metrics from the literature to estimate precision and efficiency. The watershed segmentation technique showed improved subject interaction times and increased inter-subject precision over hand contouring, with quality that is visually and statistically comparable. The analysis also identifies some failures in the watershed technique, where edges were poorly defined in the data, and note a trend in the hand-contouring results toward systematically larger segmentations, which raises questions about the wisdom of using expert segmentations to define ground truth. PMID:15919233

Cates, Joshua E; Whitaker, Ross T; Jones, Greg M

2005-12-01

116

Chesapeake Bay Program: Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which stretches across six states including New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and West Virginia and also the District of Columbia. Also included in the Bay watershed are several subwatersheds, smaller systems that drain into the streams and rivers that flow into the Chesapeake. More than 64,000 square miles of land drain into the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers. This site includes links to the subject of watershed management, which is a method for maintaining, protecting and restoring the natural resources within a watershed while also enhancing the quality of life in our communities. Students can learn what watershed management planning is and why it is important.

117

Watershed Restoration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

2007-09-27

118

Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation methods, and discount rates applied. Further guidance on representing uncertainty and applying uncertain results in decisionmaking would benefit both tool developers and those offices in using ecosystem services to compare management tradeoffs. Decisionmakers and Bureau of Land Management managers at the State-, district-, and field-office level would also benefit from continuing model improvements, training, and guidance on tool use that can be provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of the Interior. Tradeoffs were identified in the level of effort needed to parameterize and run tools and the amount and quality of information they provide to the decision process. We found the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, Ecosystem Services Review, and United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Centre Ecosystem Services Toolkit to be immediately feasible for application by the Bureau of Land Management, given proper guidance on their use. It is also feasible for the Bureau of Land Management to use the InVEST model, but in early 2012 the process of parameterizing the model required resources and expertise that are unlikely to be available in most Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Application of past primary valuation is feasible, but developing new primary-valuation studies is too time consuming for regular application. Value transfer approaches (aside from the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit) are best applied carefully on the basis of guidelines described in this report, to reduce transfer error. The ARIES model can provide useful information in regions modeled in the past (Arizona, California, Colorado, and Washington), but it lacks some features that will improve its usability, such as a generalized model that could be applied anywhere in the United States. Eleven other tools described in this report could become useful as the tools more fully develop, in high-profile cases for which additional resources are available for tool application or in case-st

Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

2012-01-01

119

Spatial analysis of soil erosion and sediment fluxes: a paired watershed study of two Rappahannock River tributaries, Stafford County, Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil erosion is a serious problem in areas with expanding construction, agricultural production, and improper storm water management. It is important to understand the major processes affecting sediment delivery to surficial water bodies in order to tailor effective mitigation and outreach activities. This study analyzes how naturally occurring and anthropogenic influences, such as urbanization and soil disturbance on steep slopes, are reflected in the amount of soil erosion and sediment delivery within sub-watershed-sized areas. In this study, two sub-watersheds of the Rappahannock River, Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run, were analyzed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) to estimate annual sediment flux rates. The RUSLE/SDR analyses for Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run predicted 298 Mg/y and 234 Mg/y, respectively, but nearly identical per-unit-area sediment flux rates of 0.15 Mg/ha/y and 0.18 Mg/ha/y. Suspended sediment sampling indicated greater amounts of sediment in Little Falls Run, which is most likely due to anthropogenic influences. Field analyses also suggest that all-terrain vehicle crossings represent the majority of sediment flux derived from forested areas of Horsepen Run. The combined RUSLE/SDR and field sampling data indicate that small-scale anthropogenic disturbances (ATV trails and construction sites) play a major role in overall sediment flux rates for both basins and that these sites must be properly accounted for when evaluating sediment flux rates at a sub-watershed scale. PMID:18320265

Ricker, Matthew C; Odhiambo, Ben K; Church, Joseph M

2008-05-01

120

Sustainable environmental management of marine regions: the Black Sea case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The EU Marine Strategy Directive (2008/56/EC proposes four marine regions as a political geographic framework for implementation of the Community's environmental policy. This study critically analyzes the state-based approach, which the Directive uses to outline the regions' boundaries. It suggests that environmental sustainability of marine odies strongly depends on the geographic congruence between their watersheds and the borders of the respective environmental management system, i.e., marine regions have to be environmentally managed within their watersheds. The proposed watershed-based approach also takes into consideration all elements – water, land, and air – of marine regions, which is a conditio sine qua non for their integrated and sustainable management. In the case of the Black Sea region in particular, the borders of a watershed-based environmental management system include a much wider set of stakeholder countries and enable a higher level of environmental cooperation among them.

Boian Koulov

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessment and simulation of biological soil conservation countermeasure (Case study: Northern Karoon River Watershed, Iran )  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of the present study are twofold: 1) to evaluate the actual capability of EUROSEM, to simulate the biological method of the soil and water conservation, and 2) to assess the effectiveness of this technique to protect the soil and water in the mentioned study area. The study area is a part of Vanak catchment in the Northern Karoon River Watershed, Southwest of Iran. Runoff and sediment data were collected over a number of periodical rainfall events from the two catchments called...

Behzad Ghorbani; Ahmad Jalalian; Reza Habibian

2012-01-01

122

Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative K?'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the K?‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

2014-01-01

123

Understanding groundwater systems and their functioning through the study of stable water isotopes in a hard-rock aquifer (Maheshwaram watershed, India)  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryGroundwater degradation through abstraction, contamination, etc., shows a world-wide increase and has been of growing concern for the past decades. In this light, the stable isotopes of the water molecule (? 18O and ? 2H) from a hard-rock aquifer in the Maheshwaram watershed (Andhra Pradesh, India) were studied. This small watershed (53 km 2) underlain by granite, is endorheic and representative of agricultural land-use in India, with more than 700 bore wells in use. In such a watershed, the effect of overpumping can be severe and the environmental effects of water abstraction and contamination are of vital importance. A detailed and dynamic understanding of groundwater sources and flow paths in this watershed thus is a major issue for both researchers and water managers, especially with regards to water quality as well as the delimitation of resources and long-term sustainability. To this end, the input from monsoon-precipitation was monitored over two cycles, as well as measuring spatial and temporal variations in ? 18O and ? 2H in the groundwater and in precipitation. Individual recharge from the two monsoon periods was identified, leading to identification of periods during which evaporation affects groundwater quality through a higher concentration of salts and stable isotopes in the return flow. Such evaporation is further affected by land-use, rice paddies having the strongest evapotranspiration.

Negrel, Ph.; Pauwels, H.; Dewandel, B.; Gandolfi, J. M.; Mascré, C.; Ahmed, S.

2011-01-01

124

Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this ty...

Se?ne, A. M.; Bonin, S.; Soubeyran, O.

2007-01-01

125

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN THE CLARK FORK-PEND OREILLE WATERSHED  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) Analyze the nutrient concentration and algal standing crop trend in the Clark Fork River portion of the watershed; (2) Provide a web-based data access system for reporting Clark Fork River monitoring information; and (3) Evaluate the effectiveness of current nutrient reductio...

126

Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan-Modification. A Modification of Mid-Snake TMDL and Upper Snake Rock TDML to Account for the Aquaculture Wasteload Allocation. Part One: Fish Production Facilities and Conservation Hatcheries; Part Two: Fish Processors; and Part Three: Billingsley Creek Facilties.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes the modification of three total maximum daily loads (TMDLs): the Middle Snake River Watershed Management Plan (or Mid-Snake TMDL), the Upper Snake Rock Watershed Management Plan (or Upper Snake Rock TMDL), and the Billingsley Creek...

2005-01-01

127

GIS-Based Model to Assess Erosion Sensitivity in Northern Morocco. Laou Watershed Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This application on the Laou watershed represents the first part of study results that concerns the development of a model for mapping soil susceptibility at a regional scale in northern Morocco using spatial databases and geographic information systems (GIS). The model uses qualitative decision rules and hierarchical organization of data represented by different thematic maps. Those laters are derived from input erosion parameters which are coded according to their sensitivity to water erosi...

2012-01-01

128

Soil Erosion Prediction Using GIS and RUSLE: Study at Sampean Watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erosionis one factor that cause soil degradation in Indonesia. RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) is widely usedto predict average annual rate of soil erosion. This research integrate the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(RUSLE) and Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict potential soil erosion losses. Study was conducted atSampean Watershed where located in Eastern part of East Java. Firstly, GIS layer was obtained from available databasethat cover East Java Province. All...

2010-01-01

129

Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring "2"2"2Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for "2"2"2Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn_q, the "2"2"2Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn_q to the measured "2"2"2Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach

1992-01-01

130

Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mulholland, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-05-01

131

Environmental baseline study of the Huron River Watershed, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes results of a study to establish water-quality and geochemical baseline conditions within a small watershed in the Lake Superior region. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a survey of water-quality parameters and soil and streambed sediment geochemistry of the 83 mi2 Huron River Watershed in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Streamflow was measured and water-quality samples collected at a range of flow conditions from six sites on the major tributaries of the Huron River. All water samples were analyzed for a suite of common ions, nutrients, and trace metals. In addition, water samples from each site were analyzed for unfiltered total and methylmercury once during summer low-flow conditions. Soil samples were collected from 31 sites, with up to 4 separate samples collected at each site, delineated by soil horizon. Streambed sediments were collected from 11 sites selected to cover most of the area drained by the Huron River system. USGS data were supplemented with ecological assessments completed in 2006 by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality using a modified version of their Great Lakes Environmental Assessment Section procedure 51, and again during 2008 using volunteers under supervision of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Results from this study define a hydrological, geological, and environmental baseline for the Huron River Watershed prior to any significant mineral exploration or development. Results from the project also serve to refine the design of future regional environmental baseline studies in the Lake Superior Basin.

Woodruff, Laurel G.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Cannon, William F.

2010-01-01

132

Soil Erosion Prediction Using GIS and RUSLE: Study at Sampean Watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erosionis one factor that cause soil degradation in Indonesia. RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation is widely usedto predict average annual rate of soil erosion. This research integrate the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(RUSLE and Geographic Information System (GIS to predict potential soil erosion losses. Study was conducted atSampean Watershed where located in Eastern part of East Java. Firstly, GIS layer was obtained from available databasethat cover East Java Province. All treatment of GIS layer was done using Mapwindows GIS. Furthermore, RUSLEmethod was used to predict rate of soil erosion from GIS layer treated previously. Results showed that up to 82%(102,921 ha area of the watershed have tolerable soil erosion rate.

Arif Faisol

2010-05-01

133

The Imbalance between Nature and Management: Jurisdictional Evaluation of Headwaters in a Mountain Watershed (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

In mountain ecoregions of the semi-arid western U.S., there is an imbalance between science and policy for jurisdictional determinations of aquatic resource as ';waters of the US' that can be protected under Clean Water Act Section 404 (permitting discharge of dredged and fill materials into wetlands and other waters). This leads to continued degradation of surface waters due to the imbalance of key biophysical and societal/regulatory components; the imbalance of water across these drier landscapes, and the imbalance between the critical ecological services provided by these headwater areas and the increasing impacts from urbanization and energy development in previously undeveloped areas. This study analysed headwater streams in a mountain watershed in southwestern Colorado and developed a classification scheme and hydrological connectivity index to demonstrate jurisdictional evaluation at a watershed scale. The National Hydrography Dataset and USGS program StreamStats were used with field observations to classify flow duration and stream order used for Level 1 and 2 classification. Kruskall Wallis tests and discriminant analysis were used to evaluate differences among Level 1 and 2 classes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to develop Level 3 classes based on stream length, distance to the nearest downstream traditional navigable water (TNW), and the ratio of mean annual flow from the source stream to the TNW. Three primary metrics were used for HCI development: Avg Q/AQ, or the average streamflow metric as a proportion of the metric for the TNW, distance from the stream to the TNW, and slope to the TNW. Additional metrics were also analyzed including stream length, elevation, channel slope and type, and riparian zone types. Perennial waters constitute over a third of all streams (the highest order of which is 4th order), 64% of all reaches are intermittent or ephemeral, and almost half are ephemeral 1st order (E1). The perennial and intermittent streams are classified as jurisdictional relatively permanent waters (RPWs). All ephemeral reaches are non-RPWs and would require significant nexus evaluation to determine jurisdiction. The main stream contributes 20% of the average annual flow to the TNW, and 5% of the total to the river can come from E1 streams. There were significant differences in most metrics among Level 2 classes. There was a large range of HCI values, with 48% 1. Mean values differed among stream duration and order classes. Many ephemeral streams may be non-jurisdictional and unprotected under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The flow index (QI) component constituted the greatest proportion of the HCI for perennial streams, was sensitive to the Q metrics used, and was greatest for high flows. Ephemeral streams are only connected to the TNW <3 months of the year, but their flow contribution is proportionally larger during high flows than other flow metrics. Streams in one ephemeral Level 3 class with HCI values from 0.75-0.94 are farthest from the TNW but contribute the greatest proportion of flow and may have significant nexus with the river.

Caruso, B. S.

2013-12-01

134

Optimization of the Relationship Between Water and Sediment Discharge Rates (Case Study; Amameh Indicator Watershed of Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, first by using Smirnov-Kolmogorov method, the consistency of data was applied in order to optimize the relationship between water and sediment discharge rates in Amameh indicator watershed of Iran. After the consistency and authenticity of data were confirmed, by means of daily mean discharge and a software called Technical Hydrology (TH), monthly hydrograph was sketched for total period of 1969-2000 in Kamarkhani station in Amameh watershed outlet. Then, different models were ...

Mahmud Habibnejad Roshan; Karim Solaimani; Abdol Piri; Mirkhalegh Ahmadi; Sedigheh Lotfi

2007-01-01

135

Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for...

Hsu, S. M.; Wen, H. Y.; Chen, N. C.; Hsu, S. Y.; Chi, S. Y.

2012-01-01

136

Quantifying streamflow change caused by forest disturbance at a large spatial scale: A single watershed study  

Science.gov (United States)

Climatic variability and forest disturbance are commonly recognized as two major drivers influencing streamflow change in large-scale forested watersheds. The greatest challenge in evaluating quantitative hydrological effects of forest disturbance is the removal of climatic effect on hydrology. In this paper, a method was designed to quantify respective contributions of large-scale forest disturbance and climatic variability on streamflow using the Willow River watershed (2860 km2) located in the central part of British Columbia, Canada. Long-term (>50 years) data on hydrology, climate, and timber harvesting history represented by equivalent clear-cutting area (ECA) were available to discern climatic and forestry influences on streamflow by three steps. First, effective precipitation, an integrated climatic index, was generated by subtracting evapotranspiration from precipitation. Second, modified double mass curves were developed by plotting accumulated annual streamflow against annual effective precipitation, which presented a much clearer picture of the cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow following removal of climatic influence. The average annual streamflow changes that were attributed to forest disturbances and climatic variability were then estimated to be +58.7 and -72.4 mm, respectively. The positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) values in streamflow change indicated opposite change directions, which suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability in the study watershed. Finally, a multivariate Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was generated to establish quantitative relationships between accumulated annual streamflow deviation attributed to forest disturbances and annual ECA. The model was then used to project streamflow change under various timber harvesting scenarios. The methodology can be effectively applied to any large-scale single watershed where long-term data (>50 years) are available.

Wei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Mingfang

2010-12-01

137

Effects of agricultural best-management practices on total phosphorus yields in the Johnson Brook and Lovejoy Pond watersheds, Kennebec County, Maine, 1980-84  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of daily phosphorus yield and streamflow data collected before and after implementation of agricultural best management practices in the Johnson Brook watershed in south-central Maine indicated statistically significant reductions in phosphorus loading in all flow categories. Reduction of median loadings for five flow categories ranged from 26% to 90%. The annual total phosphorus yield was reduced 17% after implementation of the best management practices. The observed phosphorus yield reduction is considerable because of two streamflow factors. First, the period after implementation of the best management practices had eight more storms. Periods of storm runoff in the post-implementation period had 31 days with greater than average streamflow, and a maximum daily streamflow more than three times greater than those observed in the pre-implementation period. Second, the annual streamflow was 128% greater in the year after the management practices were implemented. Because the potential for phosphorous transport increases with runoff, and greater yields are possible when the volume of water increases, a higher phosphorus yield would be expected in the post-implementation period than during the pre-implementation period, if other factors had remained unchanged. The reductions in phosphorous yield in the study area are not expected to have a significant effect on the eutrophic conditions observed in Lovejoy Pond. Phosphorous concentrations in the pond will continue to be capable of supporting algal blooms. However, the intensity and duration of blooms are expected to be less than those observed before best management practice implementation. (Author 's abstract)

Maloney, Thomas J.; Sowles, John W.

1987-01-01

138

Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate Rainfall erosivity (R factor. As many as101 sampling sites were used to investigate soil erodibility (K-factor with physico-chemical laboratory analysis. Digital elevation model (DEMof Sumani Watershed was used to calculate slope length and Steepness (LS-factor. Landsat TM imagery and field survey were used to determine crop management (C-factor and conservation practices (P-factor. Calculating soilloss and map of USLE factor were determined by Kriging method in Surfer 9. Sumani Watershed had erosion hazard in criteria as: severe to extreme severe (26.23%, moderate (24.59% and very low to low (49.18%. Annual average soil loss for Sumani watershed was 76.70 Mg ha-1 y-1 in 2011. Upland area was designated as having a severe toextreme severe erosion hazard compared to lowland which was designated as having very less to moderate. On the other land, soil eroded from upland were deposited in lowland. These results were verified by comparing one year’s sediment yield observation on the outlet of the watershed. Land use (C-factor, rainfall erosivity (R- factor, soil erodibility (K-factor, slope length and steepness (LS-factor were dominant factors that affected soil erosion. Traditional soil conservation practices were applied by farmer for a long time such as terrace in Sawah. The USLE model in Surfer was used to identify specific regions susceptible to soil erosion by water and was also applied to identify suitable sites to conduct soil conservation planning in Sumani Watershed.

Aflizar

2013-01-01

139

Predicting risk from multiple stressors in watershed ecosystems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Watersheds provide a definable geomorphological boundary where the influence of diverse human activities on land and in water are naturally combined within waters flowing through a watershed. The combined risk of multiple impacts have been essentially ignored in risk estimates in the past. Although significant effort is currently directed toward developing management plans to protect ecological resources within watersheds, success will be difficult to achieve without systematic evaluation of the individual, combined and cumulative impacts of chemical, physical and biological stressors normally impacting watershed ecosystems. Watershed level ecological risk assessment methodology, now being developed through case studies, provides a format for predicting the combined risk of diverse stressors on one system. Discussion will focus on the appropriate selection of assessment endpoints, development of three levels of conceptual models and a format for analysis plans as the basis for predicting the relative and combined risk of diverse stressors.

Marcy, S.K.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

140

Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Payments for Watershed Protection Services: Emerging Lessons from the Philippines  

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Full Text Available There is growing interest on payments for ecosystem services (PES in developing countries including the Philippines. Watersheds have been degraded through deforestation and subsequent conversion to other land cover, principally for agriculture. In the last decade, several Payments for Watershed Services schemes have been implemented and this paper is an attempt to assess the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different management leadership in the Philippines. We reviewed four cases specifically related to watershed services in the: 1 Bakun Watershed, 2 Maasin Watershed, 3 Sibuyan Watershed, and 4 Baticulan Watershed. The case studies of varying stages of implementation has shown that the chances of success of PES schemes in promoting watershed conservation and rehabilitation as well as in improving the livelihoods of upland communities is constrained by incomplete information and knowledge about the interaction between ecosystem properties and provision of services, and the difficulty in establishing voluntary participation and conditionality of payments. In this paper, we argued that institutions may enable or hinder the successful implementation of PES. The role of the local government as intermediaries is crucial in the process of establishing PES more particularly in the information dissemination and education of the key stakeholders. The case studies also showed how PES programs are reinforced by the presence of non-government organizations.

Daniel Gaitán Cremaschi

2012-12-01

142

Hydrological characterization of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

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Full Text Available Executive Summary Water is one of the most critical resource and constraint in the semi-arid tropics (SAT. To minimize land degradation and sustain crop productivity in the SAT, management and efficient utilization of rainwater is important. Watershed-based resource utilization involves the optimum use of the area’sprecipitation for the improvement and stabilization of agriculture on the watershed through better water, soil, and crop management. More effective utilization of water for the production of crops canbe facilitated by one or more of the following means: (i in situ conservation of moisture; (ii proper drainage, collection, storage, and re-utilization of runoff; and (iii groundwater recovery from wells. For the proper development, conservation, and management of land and water resources, accurate information on surface and groundwater hydrology is crucial. Under the Asian Development Bank(ADB-supported project on integrated watershed management we studied the hydrological behavior of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam. From the five benchmarkwatersheds, the information on topography, rainfall, runoff, groundwater, and other relevant data were collected and analyzed.The hydrological data from the five benchmark watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam clearly show the effectiveness of improved watershed technologies in reducing runoff volume and peakrunoff rate. The highest runoff volume of 433 mm (51% of seasonal rainfall was recorded from the Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, while the lowest runoff volume of 55 mm (7% of seasonal rainfall wasrecorded from the Adarsha watershed in Kothapally, India. The highest peak runoff rate of 0.235 m3 s-1ha-1 was recorded from the untreated watershed at Kothapally. Between the treated and untreatedwatersheds the maximum difference in runoff volume was recorded at Lalatora watershed in India(290 mm in untreated compared to 55 mm in treated watershed. Among the three locations in India, the highest runoff was recorded at Lalatora watershed followed by Ringnodia and Kothapally watersheds. The groundwater observations from the three sites in India, clearly show the effectiveness of the improved watershed technologies in increasing the groundwater recharge therebyimproving the availability of water for agricultural and other uses. Throughout the season the groundwater levels in the treated areas were significantly higher compared to the groundwater levelsin the untreated areas. In terms of prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge, the Tad Fa watershed inThailand has the highest potential followed by Lalatora watershed in India. The prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge at Ringnodia and Adarsha watersheds in India aremoderate. The region-specific hydrological data reported in this publication will be useful in the planning, design, development, and management of land and water resources in the target regions.

P Pathak

2006-08-01

143

Scaling Relations for Watersheds  

CERN Document Server

We study the morphology of watersheds in two and three dimensional systems subjected to different degrees of spatial correlations. The response of these objects to small, local perturbations is also investigated with extensive numerical simulations. We find the fractal dimension of the watersheds to generally decrease with the Hurst exponent, which quantifies the degree of spatial correlations. Moreover, in two dimensions, our results match the range of fractal dimensions $1.10 \\leq d_f \\leq 1.15$ observed for natural landscapes. We report that the watershed is strongly affected by local perturbations. For perturbed two and three dimensional systems, we observe a power-law scaling behavior for the distribution of areas (volumes) enclosed by the original and the displaced watershed, and for the distribution of distances between outlets. Finite-size effects are analyzed and the resulting scaling exponents are shown to depend significantly on the Hurst exponent. The intrinsic relation between watershed and invas...

Fehr, E; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01

144

Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

2009-05-01

145

[Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed. PMID:24483100

Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

2013-10-01

146

Implementation of BMP Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change and Land Use Change in a Pasture-Dominated Watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs) can reduce non-point source (NPS) pollutants from various land use activities. Watershed models are generally used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMP performance in improving water quality as the basis for watershed management recommendations. This study evaluates 171 management practice combinations that incorporate nutrient management, vegetated filter strips (VFS) and grazing management for their performances in improving water qua...

Li-Chi Chiang; Indrajeet Chaubey; Nien-Ming Hong; Yu-Pin Lin; Tao Huang

2012-01-01

147

Perceiving patagonia: an assessment of social values and perspectives regarding watershed ecosystem services and management in southern South america.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management. PMID:24477552

Zagarola, Jean-Paul A; Anderson, Christopher B; Veteto, James R

2014-04-01

148

Potential and limitations of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) as a means to manage watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on two case studies conducted at local sites in Northern Thailand and Lao PDR, the objectives of this paper are (i) to assess whether conditions for the establishment of PES at the watershed level exist in the uplands of mainland SE Asia and (ii) to examine and discuss limitations that are likely to impinge on direct transfer of the PES concept as well as the institutional adaptations and support that are required for the successful implementation of PES markets in this regional cont...

Alana George; Alain Pierret; Arthorn Boonsaner; Valentin Christian; Olivier Planchon

2009-01-01

149

The experimental watersheds in Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

2008-11-01

150

Technical Documentation of the Regional Manure Management Model for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Regional Manure Management Model, developed for the ERS project on Manure Management for Improved Water Quality, is used to evaluate the cost and feasibility of manure land application as a manure management strategy at the regional level. This model ...

M. Aillery N. Gollehon V. Breneman

2005-01-01

151

Participatory Scenario Planning for the Cienega Watershed: Embracing Uncertainty in Public Lands Management in the U.S. Southwest  

Science.gov (United States)

Land managers and communities struggle to sustain natural landscapes and the benefits they provide--especially in an era of rapid and unpredictable changes being driven by shifts in climate and other drivers that are largely outside the control of local managers and residents. The Cienega Watershed Partnership (CWP) is a long-standing multi-agency partnership involved in managing lands and resources over about 700,000 acres in southeast Arizona, surrounding the Bureau of Land Management's Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. The region forms a vital wildlife corridor connecting the diverse ecosystems of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and grasslands with the Sierra Madrean and Rocky Mountain forests and woodlands. The CWP has long-standing forums and relationships for considering complex issues and novel approaches for management, including practical implementation of adaptive management, development of monitoring programs and protocols, and the use of nested objectives to adjust management targets. However, current plans have objectives and strategies based on what is known or likely to become known about natural and socio-cultural systems; they do not incorporate uncertainties related to rapid changes in climate or have well developed feedback mechanisms for routinely reconsidering climate information. Since 2011, more than 50 individuals from over 20 federal and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and private landowners have participated in scenario planning for the Cienega Watershed. Scenario planning is an important tool for (1) managing risks in the face of high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity; (2) integrating quantitative climate projections, trend and impact assessments, and local expertise to develop qualitative scenario narratives that can inform decisions even by simply provoking insights; and (3) engaging jurisdictions having different missions, objectives, and planning processes. Participants are helping to extend and refine participatory scenario planning methods from the development of regional qualitative narratives to (1) development of scenario narratives that are relevant at the local management level, (2) creation and evaluation of portfolios of management options that can accommodate changes in management objectives, connect to formal agency planning processes, and that can be adjusted as the future evolves, and (3) explicit identification of the data and information that link qualitative narratives to quantitative scenario and adaptation assessments, which can be used to drive the timing and implementation of activities within the adaptation portfolios, and to prioritize monitoring and research activities to resolve near-term uncertainties. Project tasks are structured around four resource teams that focus on their specific management concerns (Montane, Riparian, Upland and Cultural), but that come together periodically to consider interaction and conflict among their scenarios or prospective adaptation. Participants are finding that embracing uncertainty enables them to approach climate change with a sense of empowerment rather than a sense of reacting to crises, and they appreciate the methods and opportunities for thinking differently and crossing boundaries that the scenario planning exercises provide.

Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.

2013-12-01

152

Potential and limitations of Payments for Environmental Services (PES as a means to manage watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on two case studies conducted at local sites in Northern Thailand and Lao PDR, the objectives of this paper are (i to assess whether conditions for the establishment of PES at the watershed level exist in the uplands of mainland SE Asia and (ii to examine and discuss limitations that are likely to impinge on direct transfer of the PES concept as well as the institutional adaptations and support that are required for the successful implementation of PES markets in this regional context. The study's main findings are that: (i acceptance of PES principles and constraints are directly related to stakeholders' perception of their land rights irrespective of their actual rights; (ii willingness to pay (WTP is very low among local stakeholders, making any PES market unlikely to emerge without external support; (iii the classical scheme for watershed services hardly applies in its original form because environmental service (ES providers and buyers are generally the same people; (iv where potential ES buyers feel that ES providers are better-off or wealthier than them, they do not have any WTP for ES; (v good governance, including a strong liaising at various levels between people and the authorities is a strong prerequisite for the successful establishment of PES markets, even without direct government funding

Alana George

2009-05-01

153

Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin. PMID:24292872

Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

2014-04-01

154

Developing a Framework to Measure Watershed Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model  

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Full Text Available A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that landuse (both type and location impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Aditya Sood

2011-11-01

155

GIS-Based Model to Assess Erosion Sensitivity in Northern Morocco. Laou Watershed Case Study  

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Full Text Available This application on the Laou watershed represents the first part of study results that concerns the development of a model for mapping soil susceptibility at a regional scale in northern Morocco using spatial databases and geographic information systems (GIS. The model uses qualitative decision rules and hierarchical organization of data represented by different thematic maps. Those laters are derived from input erosion parameters which are coded according to their sensitivity to water erosion. Superposing effect of several layers: geology, geomorphology, land use and topography, allows we the obtaining of a qualitative map showing the potential sensitivity to erosion per unit area. The obtained map shows that severe erosion affects the Southern and North-western sectors of the basin, even if they present the least erodible lands of all the basin and have, as well, a relatively dense plant cover. It may be concluded that both high gradient and damaged terrain state represent the main factors of water erosion in the Laou watershed.

Roberto Passalacqua

2012-07-01

156

Developing High-Resolution Climate Projections at the Watershed Scale: A Hubbard Brook Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate projections from global climate models (GCMs), at scales of 100s of km, are typically too coarse to use as input for small watershed scale modeling. This mismatch in scale has driven many advances in the field of statistical downscaling, a method whereby a statistical model is trained on a set of observations and historical GCM simulations, then used to develop high-resolution projections of future climate at scales ranging from individual weather stations to multi-kilometer grids required to accurately assess potential hydrometeorological impacts. With one set of observations and one statistical downscaling technique, it is impossible to assess the uncertainty introduced by this approach. Here, we describe the inputs required to generate watershed-scale climate projections using the example of projections developed for the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. We compare the projected changes in temperature and precipitation, derived from gridded vs. point-based observations, and monthly quantile mapping vs. daily quantile regression downscaling approaches, and evaluate implications for changes in water, carbon and nitrogen cycles as projected by the PnET-BGC biogeochemical model. This study illustrates the importance of careful selection of observational data and statistical downscaling methods when modeling small spatial scales, particularly in areas with highly variable topography and complex terrain.

Stoner, A. K.; Hayhoe, K.; Pourmokhtarian, A.; Driscoll, C. T.; Campbell, J. L.

2013-12-01

157

Endangered ecosystem conservation: a 30-year lesson from the evolution of saline-alkali soil management in Manasi river watershed, China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies on saline-alkali soil management mostly followed an instrumental 'prediction and control' approach dominated by technical end-of-pipe solutions. However, those 'integrated' instrumental solutions frequently perished due to the growing social and economic uncertainties in financial support, legal insurance, expertise service and other factors. This investigation summarizes the 30-year period of saline-alkali soil management - the social and economic and ecological (SEE) management innovation - its adoption, diffusion, adaptation and transformation in Manasi River watershed of northern Xinjiang. This area was experiencing three distinct SEE management stages from pure instrumental desalination techniques to integrated desalination technique system following the SEE supporting system. The results of GIS analysis (Fragatats 3.3) and historical documents provide data evidence for above three transition stages. The total area of saline and alkali land was increased by 32.7%, 47.6% during the first two decades but decreased by 11.9% in the recent decade. The numbers of saline land patches were 116, 129 and 121 in 1989, 2000 and 2007 respectively, a similar trend to the changes of total area. However, both perimeter-area fractal dimension (PAFD) and splitting index (SI) continued to increase, with values of 1.265, 1.272 and 1.279 for PAFD and 259.29, 269.68, 272.92 for SI in 1989, 2000 and 2007, respectively. It suggests that saline and alkaline land distribution had been fragmented, and sequestrated into salt micro-catchments within whole oasis ecosystems. This case is largely associated with effective adoption of integrated engineering and biological desalination programs as a result of local SEE saline-alkali soil management innovation. (author)

2012-05-01

158

Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Khul Gad Micro Watershed of Kumoun Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Women in the marginal areas of Uttarakhand have always played and continue to play a significant role in managing and operating most of the household and agricultural activities. They are the main subsistence provider in the hills and considered the backbone of hill agriculture. Their lives are intrinsically related to land, water, forest, which are the main components and integral parts of an eco-system. An adverse effect on any one of these components disturbs the other compo- nents due to strong linkages and interrelationship with each other and creates havoc on the life of people, especially women in the region. However, in recent years, environmental degradation, poor resource management and increased migration of men to the plains have deteriorated the livelihood options and added more workload to women of the region. The sufferings of the com- munities in these hilly areas are gradually increasing and their standard of living is declining be- cause they have been neglected at both policy and practice levels by the government. The nexus between women, environment degradation and poverty are poorly understood and rarely treated in an integrated way. Therefore, the key objective of the present paper is to analyse the work par- ticipation of women operating at different sub-systems, impact of environmental degradation and role of women in sustaining the traditional agro-ecosystem in Khul Gad micro-watershed of Ku- moun Himalaya.

Suman Singh

2014-02-01

159

SOIL EROSION STUDIES AND GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELLING OF ALANTHURAI WATERSHED USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Tamil Nadu, like in many other parts of India and elsewhere, a critical point has been reached so for resources like soil and water are concerned. Practically, all readily available surface and ground water resources, i.e. blue water, have already been tapped. It is time to improve allocation and co-operation with different groups to efficiently and effectively utilize and conserve the available resources. This multi-disciplinary project will benefit from the results of several studies like soil erosion studies and groundwater flow modelling carried out in the Alanthurai watershed region. The source of water for this region is Western Ghats. The project mainly deals with the groundwater modelling and soil erosion studies. Suitable measures have been recommended for the farmers in the region for conserving the water as well as soil.

C.MEIARAJ

2007-01-01

160

Characterizing a Century of Climate and Hydrological Variability of a Mediterranean and Mountainous Watersheds: the Durance River Case-Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the understanding of mountain watersheds hydrological variability is a great scientific issue, for both researchers and water resources managers, such as Electricite de France (Energy and Hydropower Company). The past and current context of climate variability enhances the interest on this topic, since multi-purposes water resources management is highly sensitive to this variability. The Durance River watershed (14000 km2), situated in the French Alps, is a good example of the complexity of this issue. It is characterized by a variety of hydrological processes (from snowy to Mediterranean regimes) and a wide range of anthropogenic influences (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, tourism and water supply), mixing potential causes of changes in its hydrological regimes. As water related stakes are numerous in this watershed, improving knowledge on the hydrological variability of the Durance River appears to be essential. In this presentation, we would like to focus on a methodology we developed to build long-term historical hydrometeorological time-series, based on atmospheric reanalysis (20CR : 20th Century Reanalysis) and historical local observations. This methodology allowed us to generate precipitation, air temperature and streamflow time-series at a daily time-step for a sample of 22 watersheds, for the 1883-2010 period. These long-term streamflow reconstructions have been validated thanks to historical searches that allowed to bring to light ten long historical series of daily streamflows, beginning on the early 20th century. Reconstructions appear to have rather good statistical properties, with good correlation (greater than 0.8) and limited mean and variance bias (less than 5%). Then, these long-term hydrometeorological time-series allowed us to characterize the past variability in terms of available water resources, droughts or hydrological regime. These analyses help water resources managers to better know the range of hydrological variabilities, which are usually greatly underestimated with classical available time-series (less than 50 years).

Mathevet, T.; Kuentz, A.; Gailhard, J.; Andreassian, V.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

A Decision Support System (talsim) For Integrated Management of Reservoir Controlled Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Both, the European Water Framework Directives and the discussion of the report of the world commission on dams (WCD-Report) ask for efficient and transparent decision support tools for rivers and river basins controlled by reservoir systems. It is evident that in contrast to historical planning conditions new objectives according to sustain- ability criteria have to be considered. Also, climate and land use changes have to be considered to account for changes of the hydrological cycle. In addition to river basin management dam safety has become a major issue in recent European discussions. In most cases decision support systems for reservoir systems have been individually tai- lored systems being only applicable to the system they had been developed for. Any transfer to other systems was strongly restricted as system definition and operation rules were implemented in the program code. Thus, a generic DSS for reservoir sys- tems modelling and optimisation is required to serve as a basic tool to support reser- voir operators and water administration to account for new objectives under changing boundary conditions. During the last six years a DSS for reservoir systems including their catchments and river reaches has been developed to fulfill these requirements (named TALSIM). The work has been supported by the Environmental Agency of the German Federal State of North-Rhine Westfalia. During the development and test phases the DSS has been applied to several reservoir systems in Germany and Africa. At present it is applied to one of the most complex German systems. The scope of the presentation is to present - the new requirements for decision making procedures in reservoir management - the structure of the TALSIM DSS including simulation and optimisation modules - completed and ongoing case studies

Lohr, H.; Ostrowski, M.; Leichtfuss, A.

162

Imagined Communities, Contested Watersheds: Challenges to Integrated Water Resources Management in Agricultural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated water resources management is one of the major bottom-up alternatives that emerged during the 1980s in North America as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory styles of environmental governance. It aims to protect surface and groundwater resources by focusing on the integrated and collaborative management of land and…

Ferreyra, Cecilia; de Loe, Rob C.; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.

2008-01-01

163

Entering the watershed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological integrity of a river is a direct function of the health of its watershed. Riverine pollution, habitat degradation, and extinction of aquatic biodiversity are all issues that must be addressed at the ecosystem level. The product of a two-year project established by The Pacific Rivers Council to develop new federal riverine protection and restoration policy alternatives, this book recommends a comprehensive new approach to river protection: a nationwide, strategic community- and ecosystem-based watershed restoration initiative founded upon principles of watershed dynamics, ecosystem function, and conservation biology. The book describes in detail the existing level of damage of rivers and species. A new, intensified national emphasis on rivers is presented. The flaws and gaps in existing policy are analyzed. The scientific underpinnings and management strategies needed in new policy are outlined. Specific policy proposals are made.

Doppelt, B.; Scurlock, M.; Frissell, C.; Karr, J.

1993-01-01

164

APEX simulation of best irrigation and N management strategies for off-site N pollution control in three Mediterranean irrigated watersheds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main constraints of irrigated agriculture is off-siteNpollution due to export of nitrate in irrigation return flows (IRF). Models capable of simulating the growth of crops and the N loads in IRF as affected by irrigation and N fertilization may be valuable tools in watershed studies. The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used to assess bestmanagement practices for reducing off-siteN loads in the IRF of three Mediterranean irrigated watersheds (Akarsu in Tu...

Cavero Campo, Jose?; Barros, Roci?o; Sellam, F.; Topcu, S.; Isidoro, Daniel; Lounis, A.; Ibrikci, H.; Cetin, M.; Williams, J. R.; Aragu?e?s Lafarga, Ramo?n

2012-01-01

165

Effects of grassed buffer strip management on potential denitrification in a belgian agricultural watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with nitrate uptake by plant growth- that reduces nitrate input in surface water. We investigated the Denitrifier Enzyme Activity (DEA) to test how the buffer strip management modifies the denitrification process. The experimental site is composed of a crop field and a 11 m wide grassed buffer st...

Cors, Marie; Tychon, Bernard

2003-01-01

166

Long-Term Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Paired Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization.

Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D.; Topp, Edward

2014-01-01

167

Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling. PMID:23703873

Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Conrads, Paul A; Feaster, Toby D; Davis, Gary M; Benedict, Stephen T; Bradley, Paul M

2013-09-01

168

Criteria for evaluating sediment quality. Case study: sub-watershed of Espirito Santo Stream, affluent of the Sao Francisco river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Sediment Quality Values Guidelines' (SQVG) have been used for evaluating ecological risk associated with the sediment contamination for benthic organisms. The main objective of this work was to develop methodologies and to collect data that allowed the application of SQVG for the following metals: Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The location chosen for the case study was the sub-watershed of the Espirito Santo Stream, which is part of the Unit Planning and Hydrologic Resources Management- UPGRH SF4, of the Sao Francisco river watershed, located in the area of the city of Tres Marias. The life in the sub-watershed is significantly affected by the installation of a waste dam that controls effluents coming from the zinc-ore beneficiation plant. Our studies addressed the biogeochemical characterization of the sediments of those environments through the determination of the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), the study of the partitioning of metals is among the total sediments and interstitial waters, and the determination of the fraction of metals is associated with AVS in the total sediments. The data obtained were analyzed in association with those related to the analysis of the structure of the benthic community and eco-toxicity tests. The studies also included analysis of the physico-chemical variables and concentration of metals is in the samples of the surface water; mineralogical and granulometric analyses, quantity of organic matter and concentration of inorganic contaminants in the samples of sediments. High levels of electrical conductivity and total solids diluted were found in one surface water sample site. The results of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) showed that the chemical elements predominant in the samples were Ti, Al, V, Mn and Fe. The results of the total metal analysis in sediment samples showed that only one point located in the Lavagem stream, situated immediately downstream the dam and before flowing into the Espirito Santo stream, presented concentration values of the evaluated metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) above those of the 'background' value. The TEL limits ('Threshold Effect Level') and PEL ('Probable Effect Level') were not exceeded in any of the sampling campaigns. The Guidelines Interstitial Water Toxic Units (IWTU), established by the USEPA, was violated for all samples. The application of SQVG, based on the equilibrium partition theory, showed that metals are controlled by the sulfide-phase present in sediments. This indicates that the metals presented in the sediments may have low bio-availability. The results of the evaluation of the benthic community structure indicated a possible influence of the waste dam in the Lavagem stream and in the Espirito Santo stream, downstream the confluence with the Lavagem stream. The results of eco-toxicity tests showed that contaminated sediment can cause only chronic effects. (author)

2007-01-01

169

Exposure risk assessment and evaluation of the best management practice for controlling pesticide runoff from paddy fields. Part 1: Paddy watershed monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice pesticide concentrations in surface water along with hydrological balance and water management conditions were investigated in a paddy watershed of about 100 ha at the Sakura river basin in Tsukuba, Japan, for 3 years from April 2002. Monitoring on different hydrological scales ranging from a paddy plot up to a watershed determined the importance of water management associated with rainfall events and the cyclic irrigation for reducing pesticide discharge into aquatic environments. Surface drainage significantly increased as a response to rainfall events greater than about 1.5 cm day(-1). A total of 16 herbicides were detected in the stream water and their peak concentrations mostly occurred from early to mid-May following the pesticide application period. Two water management factors influencing the pesticide runoff from paddy fields were defined: excess water storage capacity (EWSC) and water holding period (WHP). Uncertainty analyses of pesticide discharge from a paddy plot for dymron (daimuron) and imazosulfuron (IMS) were performed using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with prescribed probability of rainfall and water management practice from observations over a period of 3 years. Application of an intermittent irrigation scheme with shallow water depth practice and high drainage gate to maintain the EWSC > 2 cm and increasing WHP from the current Japanese Agricultural Chemicals Regulation law of 3-4 days to at least 10 days were recommended for reducing the pesticide runoff from paddy fields in a monsoon region such as in Japan. The combination of good water management in field plots and small-scale water cycling is the best management practice for controlling pesticide discharge from paddy watersheds. PMID:17099930

Vu, Son Hong; Ishihara, Satoru; Watanabe, Hirozumi

2006-12-01

170

Watershed-wide trend analysis of temperature characteristics in Karun-Dez watershed, southwestern Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Trend estimation of climatic characteristics for a watershed is required to determine developing compatible strategies related to design, development, and management of water resources. In this study, the trends of the annual maximum ( T max), minimum ( T min), and mean ( T mean) air temperature; temperature anomaly ( T anomaly); and diurnal temperature range (DTR) time series at 13 meteorological stations located in the Karun-Dez watershed were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall and linear regression trend tests. The pre-whitening method was used to eliminate the influence of serial correlation on the Mann-Kendall test. The result showed increasing trends in the T min, T mean, and T anomaly series at the majority of stations and decreasing trend in the T max and DTR series. A geographical analysis of the trends revealed a broad warming trend in most of the watershed, and the cooling trends were observed only in the southern parts. Furthermore, the geographical pattern of the trends in the T mean and T anomaly series was similar, and the T max data did not show any dominant trend for the whole watershed. This study provides temperature change scenarios that may be used for the design of future water resource projects in the watershed.

Marofi, Safar; Soleymani, Samere; Salarijazi, Meysam; Marofi, Hossein

2012-10-01

171

Documentation of Precipitation Runoff Modeling System modules for the Modular Modeling System modified for the Watershed and River Systems Management Program  

Science.gov (United States)

A decision support system is being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation as part of a long-term project, the Watershed and River Systems Management Program. The goal of the program is to apply the decision support system to U.S. Bureau of Reclamation projects in the western United States. An important component of the decision support system is the physical hydrology modeling, which consists of watershed models using the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System within the Modular Modeling System. To construct models and to enhance the tools for the application of the decision support system, selected Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System modules were modified or developed. These modules are documented in this report.

Mastin, Mark C.; Vaccaro, J. J.

2002-01-01

172

El Rio Bonito: An Ethnoecological Study of the Bonita Creek Watershed, Southeastern Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the history of ecological change in the Bonita Creek watershed in southeastern Arizona. It evaluates current biological and ecological conditions, reviews local history and prehistory to determine past conditions, and makes comparison...

D. Hadley R. V. N. Ahlstrom S. Mills

1993-01-01

173

TRADABLE CREDITS FOR STORM WATER VOLUME: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The increased storm water runoff rate and volume caused by urbanization, and their detrimental effects on stream habitat and morphology, is well documented. In most cases, current storm water management policies are focused on attenuating peak flow rates. While these policies may...

174

Design of Water Discharge of Medewi Watershed Using Avswat Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Medewi watersheds is located in the southern of Bali Island and its estuary is located in Medewi Beach at Kabupaten Jembrana. The exact location of Medewi watersheds is between Desa Medewi and Desa Pulukan, Kecamatan Pekutatan, Kabupaten Jembrana. The watersheds itself, due to its strategic location is used as a territorial border between the two villages. Geographically, Medewi watersheds is between 114o48'00' - 114o50'00' east longitude and 08o20'00' - 08o26,5'00' south latitude. The main river of Medewi Watersheds is 25,64 km long and is classified as a continuous river, the width of the watersheds itself is measured 128,2 km2. Medewi watersheds have two tributaries which is Medaan watersheds and Pangliman watersheds, both watersheds' heads are located in Medewi Beach. Medewi watersheds is often flooded and brings heavy toll to its surrounding areas and citizen. Therefore, there is an urgent need to perform engineering techniques to overcome the aforementioned problem. However, there is a slight issue in the definition of water discharge plan in the location. The water discharge plan, which is used as a basis to prevent flooding, is often inaccurate. That is the reason why it is needed to build a model in order to accurately find out the amount of water discharge in the study location. Medewi watersheds' area usage is as follow: bushes (9,44%), forestation (77,10%), farm (7,76%), settlement (2,15%), irrigation field (1,64%), rainfed field (1,88%) and crops field (0,48%). The result of our modeling using ASVAT shows that the maximum water discharge is 149,9 m3/sec. The discharge is calibrated with the available water discharge data log. According to AWLR data, it is known that the largest discharge occurred on June 2nd, 2009 and measured at 147,9 m3/sec. Our conclusion is that the model used in this study managed to approach the field result with minimum error.

Pramana, Y. H.; Purwanto, B. P.

2013-12-01

175

Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2007-04-01

176

Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within

May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

2008-02-04

177

Watershed Charachterization And Prioritization Of Tulasi Subwatershed: A Geospatial Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is proficiently important to conserve the limited and precarious natural resources vis land, water and soil which should be categorically studied at watershed level. Due to improper land, soil and water management practices, land and water resources getting degraded and eroded, water getting polluted. In this regard present study is profoundly concerned to characterization and prioritization of Tulasi sub watershed which is small tributary of Bhogavati River in mega Panchganga river basin of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. The prioritization of this small watershed has been carried out on the basis of morphometric analysis for land reclamation and soil erosion prevention. Database has been prepared in ArcGIS 9.3 desktop application, ARCSWAT extension tool for sub-watershed demarcation and other analysis carried out for certain significant areal, linear morphometric parameters vis stream length, stream frequency, bifurcation ratio, Length of overland flow, perimeter of basin, drainage density etc. have been assessed. Cartosat data used for preparation DEM and delineation of watershed. Above said parameters obtained by using Arc Gis ver.9.3 software and appropriate weightage assigned to them in order to assess the priority of sub watershed. The result reveals that, sub-basin TB-2, TB-3 and TB-4 has comes under the high risk for soil erosion and need to give a high priority for land conservation practices. These studies are significant for soil erosion prevention and surface rainwater harvesting.

V.S.PAWAR-PATIL

2013-06-01

178

A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be accomplished in a virtual environment. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

Norman, L. M.; Guertin, D. P.; Feller, M.

2008-01-01

179

Effects of water management on hydrology and water quality of a semi-arid watershed in the Northeast of Brazil Effects of water management on hydrology and water quality of a semi-arid watershed in the Northeast of Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water resource management based on dam construction, diversion, and other engineered hydraulic structures improves conditions for humans living in arid and semi-arid areas. However, the effects of damming on fluvial and coastal ecosystems are well-know, as it is the fact that economic and social development based on water management might enhance the pressure on such environments. This study gives a first basin scale representation of the possible effects of water resource management on hydro...

Molisani, M. M.; Lisieux, R.; Cavalcante, M. D.; Maia, L. P.

2007-01-01

180

Landscape processes, effects and the consequences of migration in their management at the Jatún Mayu watershed (Bolivia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Bolivia has a large rural population, mostly composed of subsistence farmers that face natural and anthropogenic driven processes affecting their livelihoods. In order to establish sustainable management strategies, it is important to understand the factors governing landscape changes. This work explores the geomorphic imprint and effects of natural and anthropogenic driven processes on three mountain communities undergoing de-population in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Based on satellite image interpretation, field work and household surveys, we have identified gullies and landslides as main active processes, causing land losses, affecting inter-communal roads, etc. While landslides are mostly occurring in the middle and lower section of the basin, gullies are especially affecting the upper part (especially the southern slope). Our analysis indicated that in the middle and lower part of the basin, landslides are developing in response to the Jatún Mayu incision (slopes reach a critical angle and slope failures increase). However in the upper part, where no river down-cutting is taking place, preliminary analysis indicates that past and present human interventions (over-grazing, agriculture, road construction, etc.) play a key role on driving land degradation toward the formation of gullies. Based on the comparison of high resolution images from 2004 and 2009, we determined an agricultural land loss rate of 8452 m2/year, mostly in the form of landslides. One single event swept away 0.03 km2 of agricultural lands (~13 parcels), approximately 87% of an average household property. People's main concerns are hail, frost and droughts because they cause an "immediate" loss on family incomes, but the impacts caused by landslides and gullies are not disregarded by the communities and the government. Communities are organized to set up and maintain key infrastructure such as irrigation canals and roads. They also intend to develop protective measures against erosion like check dams based on tyres filled with rocks. In addition, organizations supported by government and institutions from abroad have built dams, reforested some slopes, and raised local capacities to improve soil conservation measures e.g. through slow-forming terraces. However, rural-to-urban migration could be affecting the management of processes leading to land degradation. Around 77% of the 22 households surveyed have at least one migrant family member (permanent, seasonal or double residence migrant). Labour force is reduced and because of de-population, two of the three schools in the area have closed. In spite of the support that communities receive, our findings indicate that high population mobility is affecting land management practices and the capacity of communities to cope with land degradation processes.

Penna, Ivanna; Jaquet, Stephanie; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Kaenzig, Raoul; Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Liniger, Hanspeter; Machaca, Angelica; Cuba, Edgar; Boillat, Sebastien

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Assessment and simulation of biological soil conservation countermeasure (Case study: Northern Karoon River Watershed, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are twofold: 1 to evaluate the actual capability of EUROSEM, to simulate the biological method of the soil and water conservation, and 2 to assess the effectiveness of this technique to protect the soil and water in the mentioned study area. The study area is a part of Vanak catchment in the Northern Karoon River Watershed, Southwest of Iran. Runoff and sediment data were collected over a number of periodical rainfall events from the two catchments called biological and control catchments. Parameterization, calibration, and validation of the model were carried out based upon the input parameters. Experimental results confirmed the capability of the model to simulate biological soil and water conservation techniques. The simulation of biological soil and water conservation technique indicated that this protection approach caused significant differences in the total runoff generated, total soil loss, peak flow rates, and time to peak flow rates as compared to the same traits of the control. The result illustrated that this conservation technique reduced both output total runoff and total sediments by 40 to 81% and 45 to 69% respectively, yielding a sustainable ecosystem in the catchment.

Behzad Ghorbani

2012-11-01

182

Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study  

CERN Document Server

We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

Nathalie Dumeaux

2004-01-01

183

Water quality in watershed of the Jaboatão River (Pernambuco, Brazil): a case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar as influências antrópicas sobre a qualidade da água na bacia do rio Jaboatão (Pernambuco, Brasil) e fornecer subsídios ao enquadramento dos corpos d'água em classes de usos. Foram realizadas coletas mensais de água durante o período de março/98 a feverei [...] ro/99 em oito estações de amostragem. As seguintes variáveis foram medidas: temperatura, pH, condutividade, alcalinidade, Cl, oxigênio dissolvido, DBO, coliformes fecais, nitrato, fósforo total e sólidos totais. As variáveis oxigênio dissolvido, coliformes fecais e fósforo total, foram as mais críticas para o enquadramento. Foram delimitados grupos de usos da água na bacia e sugeridas classes de qualidade para cada grupo, fornecendo, desta maneira, elementos para auxiliar o gerenciamento da qualidade da água Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the water quality and to offer a subsidy to the establishment of water quality goals in the Jaboatão River Basin (Pernambuco State, Brazil). Eight sampling points were established and were sampled monthly during one hydrolog [...] ical cycle (March/98-February/99). The following variables were analyzed: temperature, pH, conductivity, chlorine, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliforms, nitrate, total phosphorus and total solids. The most critical variables related to water quality objectives were dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus. Maps of land use, legally protected areas, area industries, and water withdrawals were utilized in order to propose division of the watershed into regions and to provide water quality management information.

Antonio Donizetti Gonçalves de, Souza; José Galizia, Tundisi.

184

Scaling relations for watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the morphology of watersheds in two and three dimensional systems subjected to different degrees of spatial correlations. The response of these objects to small, local perturbations is also investigated with extensive numerical simulations. We find the fractal dimension of the watersheds to generally decrease with the Hurst exponent, which quantifies the degree of spatial correlations. Moreover, in two dimensions, our results match the range of fractal dimensions 1.10?d(f)?1.15 observed for natural landscapes. We report that the watershed is strongly affected by local perturbations. For perturbed two and three dimensional systems, we observe a power-law scaling behavior for the distribution of areas (volumes) enclosed by the original and the displaced watershed and for the distribution of distances between outlets. Finite-size effects are analyzed and the resulting scaling exponents are shown to depend significantly on the Hurst exponent. The intrinsic relation between watershed and invasion percolation, as well as relations between exponents conjectured in previous studies with two dimensional systems, are now confirmed by our results in three dimensions. PMID:22060465

Fehr, E; Kadau, D; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

2011-09-01

185

Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions. PMID:22218174

Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

2012-01-01

186

Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords:Chemical fertilizer, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Paddy field, Non-point source pollution.

Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

2013-04-01

187

Investigation of Check Dam`s Effects on Channel Morphology (Case Study: Chehel Cheshme Watershed  

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Full Text Available This research is focused on morphologic changes of channels resulted from establishing check dam construction in Chehel cheshme watershed located at Fars Province. In this study, five channels with check dams were selected through the study area. Then some morphologic parameters of channels such as width/depth ratio, the maximum depth and cross section area along the channel on which check dam were constructed had been measured. These measurements were made on 6 cross section areas in 10, 50 and 90% distances from check dams at upstream and downstream. The above mentioned parameters were calculated using calculating and graphic soft wares. Then, some analytical methods were used to estimate and compare the average digital numbers of calculated parameters through different channels. The results showed that check dams have definitely influenced on width/depth ratios at their upstream and downstream. These influences are associated with higher width/depth ratios at upstream and lower width/depth ratio at downstream. Furthermore, the maximum depth of channels had significant influenced by check dams. As for cross section areas, no significant difference existed between cross sections through total channels and check dams.

K. Solaimani

2008-01-01

188

Study on Rainfall Forecasting by Using Weather Satellite Imagery in a Small Watershed Located at Mountainous Area of Central Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Using meteorological radar and satellite imagery had become an efficient tool for rainfall forecasting However few studies were aimed to predict quantitative rainfall in small watersheds for flood forecasting by using remote sensing data Due to the terrain shelter and ground clutter effect of Central Mountain Ridges the application of meteorological radar data was limited in mountainous areas of central Taiwan This study devises a new scheme to predict rainfall of a small upstream watershed by combing GOES-9 geostationary weather satellite imagery and ground rainfall records which can be applied for local quantitative rainfall forecasting during periods of typhoon and heavy rainfall Imagery of two typhoon events in 2004 and five correspondent ground raingauges records of Chitou Forest Recreational Area which is located in upstream region of Bei-Shi river were analyzed in this study The watershed accounts for 12 7 square kilometers and altitudes ranging from 1000 m to 1800 m Basin-wide Average Rainfall BAR in study area were estimated by block kriging Cloud Top Temperature CTT from satellite imagery and ground hourly rainfall records were medium correlated The regression coefficient ranges from 0 5 to 0 7 and the value decreases as the altitude of the gauge site increases The regression coefficient of CCT and next 2 to 6 hour accumulated BAR decrease as the time scale increases The rainfall forecasting for BAR were analyzed by Kalman Filtering Technique The correlation coefficient and average hourly deviates between estimated and observed value of BAR for

Wei, C.; Cheng, K. S.

189

Participação comunitária e implementação dos instrumentos de gestão da água em bacias hidrográficas / Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O modelo atual de gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é descentralizado, participativo e integrado, e tem como unidade de planejamento a bacia hidrográfica. Baseia-se na atuação de comitês de bacia, sendo que cada comitê possui composição e regras de funcionamento próprias, regidas por seu estatu [...] to, os quais apresentam semelhanças básicas. Os princípios básicos desta gestão foram ditados pela Constituição Brasileira de 1988 e detalhados pela Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos em 1997. Em nível estadual, São Paulo promulgou sua Política Estadual de Recursos Hídricos em 1991. Este artigo faz análise do processo de participação nos comitês de bacia do Estado de São Paulo e suas implicações na implementação dos instrumentos de gestão de recursos hídricos, por meio de um estudo de caso no Comitê da Bacia Hidrográfica do Tietê - Jacaré, adotando como metodologia a aplicação de questionários aos seus membros titulares da gestão 2009-2011. Observou-se engajamento e integração entre seus diversos integrantes. Mesmo assim, os resultados encontrados apontam para a necessidade de revisão do estatuto deste comitê, sendo evidenciadas distorções causadas pelas divergências entre a legislação estadual e a federal, principalmente quanto aos segmentos participantes e atores envolvidos. Mostraram também a necessidade de uma maior divulgação das questões de recursos hídricos nesta bacia e no Estado de São Paulo, como um todo. Ao mesmo tempo, recomenda-se colocar esforços para ampliar o exercício da representatividade das instituições no comitê e fortalecer os resultados dos trabalhos desenvolvidos nas câmaras técnicas no espaço de tomada de decisão do comitê de bacia hidrográfica. Abstract in english The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. Th [...] e basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee's members (2009 - 2011). Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews' results have shown that the Committee's statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

Tadeu Fabrício, Malheiros; Mariza Guimarães, Prota; Mario Alejandro, Perez Rincón.

190

A snow water equivalent reanalysis case study over an Andean watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern Andes and its seasonal snow cover represent an important seasonal water reservoir for many population centers. Despite this, there is a significant shortage of in situ instrumentation that limits real-time or historical analysis of snow dynamics. Historical remote sensing data can be used to augment the limited in situ data. We apply a data assimilation (reanalysis) framework to reconstruct space-time fields of snow water equivalent (SWE) for a case study over a watershed located in the semi-arid Andes (33°S) for the 2008 water year. The framework consists of conditioning an uncertain prior estimate, obtained from a Land Surface Model (LSM) using the MERRA reanalysis forcing data, with historical fractional snow covered area from the Landsat platform. The method is designed to generate improved estimates of precipitation forcing that are a key requirement for accurate SWE estimates. The resulting daily, 90 m gridded SWE values are validated against runoff volumes and existing in-situ SWE measurements. The resulting estimates consist of a valuable dataset that can serve as a basis for a diverse number of climatological and modeling applications, such as understanding climate change impacts, spatial variability patterns or hydrological model calibration in areas with low to non-existent SWE in-situ measurements.

Cortés, G.; Girotto, M.; Margulis, S. A.

2013-12-01

191

Lithological and Geological Impacts on Gully Erosion (Case Study: Seif Abad Watershed, Lorestan  

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Full Text Available Soil erodibility and gully erosion and their expansion occur under geological formation and soil characteristics. This study aims to find the rate of soil and formation effects on gully erosion in Seifabad watershed. To that end, aerial and field work were used together to determine the rate & expansion of 17 gullies in 12 years' period from 1997 to 2009. The soils were sampled for each gully in 50% interval distance with 0-30 cm horizontal surfaces and >30 cm depth. Some factors were estimated from the soil such as EC, PH, Silt, Clay, Sand & limeston percentages. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14 through non-parametric tests such as Kruskal-Wallis & Mann-Whitney. Spearman coefficient was used to investigate the relation between volume of gully & litological factors. The results showed a positive correlation at 1% level for the PH with the gully erodibility in surface soil, but for the depth of soil this relation belonged to the silt percentage, and sand showed a negative relation at 5%level with the volume of the gully sediments. Finally, there was no statistical relationship between geological formation and the sediment yield in gullies.

SH. Yousofvand

2013-12-01

192

Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan  

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Full Text Available A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

S. M. Hsu

2012-06-01

193

Development of cost effective nutrient management strategies for a watershed with the DSS FyrisCOST  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an application of the FyrisCOST model to calculate the cost efficiency of alternative scenarios for nitrogen management in a small agricultural catchment in Southern Sweden. The scenarios include the spatial distribution by sub-catchment of a set of nitrogen abatement measures that have been identified as eligible for financial support under the Swedish Rural Development Program (wetlands, catch crops, spring plowing and a combination of these) with alternative crop distributions. The model FyrisCOST is a catchment scale DSS that has been developed for the evaluation of alternative nutrient mitigation strategies. This model is able to evaluate a range of mitigation approaches for phosphorous and nitrogen from several sources (point and diffuse). This allows cost efficiency to be estimated for a catchment based on a combination of measures. The model is currently being used to develop a data base for the Swedish Water Authorities on the cost efficiency of buffer zones for all small catchments in Sweden. Hydrological flows in the FyrisCOST model are built on the dynamic model FyrisNP and nutrient losses are derived from simulations from the Nutrient Leaching Coefficient Calculation System (NLeCCS) which includes the ICECREAMDB model for estimating phosphorus losses and the SOILNDB model for soil nitrogen leaching. FyrisCOST calculates nitrogen concentrations in effluent water for each sub-catchment. The concentration of nitrogen is dependent on the current land use and geographical conditions. In order to evaluate agricultural scenarios in FyrisCOST a method for calculating N leaching from agricultural land was constructed. The calculation includes crop rotations and tillage systems and differentiates between annual and perennial crops. The model is able to take into account the probability that a primary crop is followed by a specific crop/tillage system and the effect on nutrient losses estimated using a specially developed leaching concentration calculator. Each measure or combination of measures in a scenario is evaluated based on reduction effects and costs for each sub-catchment. The measures can be ranked by gross cost efficiency in a sub-catchment or on net cost efficiency in a recipient. The recipient may be a lake, a coastline or a sub-catchment. An important feature in calculating cost efficiency is downstream retention. In the application described in this paper, the scenarios illustrate how comparative costs of abatement measures can be used to support informational campaigns for individual sub-catchments based on the expected change in loads to the Baltic Sea. Sub-catchment targeted informational campaigns would promote adoption of voluntary measures where they have the highest cost efficiency to achieve environmental targets.

Collentine, D.; Johnsson, H.; Larsson, P.; Markensten, H.; Widén Nilsson, E.

2012-12-01

194

Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

Manoj Kumar Jha

2011-06-01

195

Influences of Watershed Urbanization and Instream Habitat on Macroinvertebrates in Cold Water Streams  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed data from riffle and snag habitats for 39 small cold water streams with different levels of watershed urbanization in Wisconsin and Minnesota to evaluate the influences of urban land use and instream habitat on macroinvertebrate communities. Multivariate analysis indicated that stream temperature and amount of urban land use in the watersheds were the most influential factors determining macroinvertebrate assemblages. The amount of watershed urbanization was nonlinearly and negatively correlated with percentages of Ephemeroptera-PlecopteraTrichoptera (EPT) abundance, EPT taxa, filterers, and scrapers and positively correlated with Hilsenhoff biotic index. High quality macroinvertebrate index values were possible if effective imperviousness was less than 7 percent of the watershed area. Beyond this level of imperviousness, index values tended to be consistently poor. Land uses in the riparian area were equal or more influential relative to land use elsewhere in the watershed, although riparian area consisted of only a small portion of the entire watershed area. Our study implies that it is extremely important to restrict watershed impervious land use and protect stream riparian areas for reducing human degradation on stream quality in low level urbanizing watersheds. Stream temperature may be one of the major factors through which human activities degrade cold-water streams, and management efforts that can maintain a natural thermal regime will help preserve stream quality.

Wang, Lizhu; Kanehl, Paul

2003-10-01

196

Ecosystem health assessment of the Jinghe River Watershed on the Huangtu Plateau.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved Costanza model was developed to assess the health of the Jinhe River Watershed ecosystem. The watershed is located at the center of the Huangtu Plateau in China and has suffered a severe disturbance in the last few decades. Three indicators including vigor, organization, and resilience were calculated respectively by merging ground-based observations with remotely sensed data on a watershed scale. Health indices of 12 topographic sub-watersheds were calculated using a modified Costanza formula. Health evaluated results indicated that sub-watersheds in the Huangtu mountain region were relatively healthy ecosystems with scores over 0.673. The sub-watersheds in the loess mountain and the loess gully regions, e.g., Jinghe, Heihe, and Honghe regions, scored moderately; their evaluated value ranged from 0.505 to 0.606. The two sub-watersheds in the loess gully region and all sub-watersheds in the loess hilly region scored the lowest, less than 0.50 and were considered unhealthy ecosystems. It can be argued that the loess hilly region and the loess gully regions should be in primary consideration for ecological protection and rehabilitation. This study provided a possible quantitative model for ecological planning and landscape management with respect to topographic conditions in this area. PMID:18787916

Suo, An-Ning; Xiong, You-Cai; Wang, Tian-Ming; Yue, Dong-Xia; Ge, Jian-Ping

2008-06-01

197

Study and Test of Fitting Natural and Synthetic Unit Hydrographs in Zayandehrud-dam Watershed (Pelasjan Sub-basin  

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Full Text Available As unit hydrograph is an important item in flood estimation of the rivers and since flood hydrograph and simultaneous rainfall hyetograph is needed to derive a unit hydrograph, hydrologists recommend synthetic unit hydrographs for areas lacking these hydrometeorological data. A research was conducted in the Zayandehrud-dam watershed (Pelasjan sub-basin to test the efficiency of synthetic unit hydrographs (Snyder, SCS, and Triangular methods in hydrological evaluations. For the purposes of this study, natural and synthetic unit hydrographs were determined and compared, using all morphologic, hydrometric and rainfall data. The results showed that Triangular and SCS methods fit natural unit hydrographs better than Snyder method does, but peak instantaneous flow is estimated to be higher than the observed flow. So, the constant 2.083 in peak flow equation is recommended to be changed to 1.74 in this watershed. The Snyder method predicts good peak flows, compared with the other two methods. Generally, it is concluded that Triangular, SCS, and Snyder methods are ranked 1 to 3 for determination of synthetic unit hydrographs in this watershed.

Mohammad Mahdavi

1998-07-01

198

A machine-to-machine architecture for the real-time study of urban watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex patterns of water quality across urban watersheds are driven by yet to be understood dynamics between natural and human-induced phenomena. More spatiotemporally representative data are required to improve our understanding of the contributions of various land-use patterns on water quality. This is particular true of the Great Lakes watersheds in the mid-western United States, where significant stream nutrient loading is adversely affecting ecosystem health. We discuss the development of a machine-to-machine architecture to enable the long-term, reliable, real-time measurement of water parameters across large, urbanized watersheds. Our sensor network is presently being deployed in a 2300km2 watershed in southeastern Michigan, where temperature fluctuations between -10C to 32C and annual precipitation of up to 750mm impose significant challenges on deployed hardware. Exploiting the cellular coverage of urban environments enables the use of ultra-low-power, low-cost, embedded wireless modules for measurement, computation and communication. Bi-directional links between sensor nodes and cloud-based services permit extreme network configurability and ease of deployment, while permitting seamless access to sensors via an IP-based addressing scheme. We show how hardware and software selection will enable years of battery life without sacrificing temporal data resolutions. Initial results indicate that the system provides a reliable means by which to collect and analyze real-time water quantity and water quality data.

Kerkez, B.; Zhao, Y.

2013-12-01

199

Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

Bond, Ivan

2007-08-15

200

Tree-ring research in an integrated watershed study of acid-deposition effects. Research report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tree-ring study was conducted in conjunction with the integrated watershed study of acid deposition effects at Emerald Lake. Tree cores were collected from western white pine and lodgepole pine. Age trends were removed from crossdated ring-width series, which were then combined into chronologies. Both chronologies revealed historical periods of reduced growth within the last four centuries, but no evidence of an obvious decline currently occurring. However, it is possible that there are subtle effects of air pollution present that are masked by the currently more-limiting influence of climate. Recommendations for further study were made.

Kincaid, W.B.; Nash, T.H.

1986-05-10

 
 
 
 
201

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the obse...

Zhang, H. L.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, D. X.; Wang, X. K.

2013-01-01

202

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, US  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the obse...

Zhang, H. L.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, D. X.; Wang, X. K.

2013-01-01

203

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage-IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the obse...

Zhang, H. L.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, D. X.; Wang, X. K.

2013-01-01

204

Methods for interfacing IPCC climate change scenarios with higher resolution watershed management models in the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

As much as 90% of the Nile River flow that reaches Egypt originates in the Highlands of the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. This imbalance in water availability poses a threat to water security in the region, and could be severely impacted by projected climate change. This analysis coupled hydrodynamic/watershed models with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR4 climate change scenarios to assess the potential impact on water resources and sediment dynamics. Specific AR4 scenarios include the A1B, B1, B2 and COMMIT, which were used to force the baseline hydrodynamic models calibrated against 1979-2011 streamflow for 20 sub-watersheds in the Tana and Beles basins. Transfer functions were developed to distribute the model parameters from the calibrated sub-watersheds to un-gauged portions of the basins based on a similarity index of hydrologic response units. We analyzed the scenario in two manners: first we ran all of the seven individual Global Circulation Model results in the IPCC AR4 report though our watershed models to asses the potential spread of climate change predictions; then we assessed the mean value produced for each IPCC AR4 scenario to better estimate convergence. Results indicate that the Tana basin is expected to experience an increase in mean annual flow. The Beles basin is predicted to experience a small decrease in mean annual flow. Sediment concentrations in the Tana basin increase proportionally more than the flow increase. Interestingly, and perhaps counter to what might be expected for a decrease in flow in the Beles basin, sediment concentrations increase.

Easton, Z. M.; MacAlister, C.; Fuka, D. R.

2013-12-01

205

The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, US  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the observed data. The strategy is implemented in Clear Creek Watershed (CCW), which is located in the upper Mississippi River basin. Results show that most of the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to the basin partition scheme and that the relative relevance of physical processes, described by the model, change depending on watershed subdivision. In particular, our results show that parameters derived from different model implementations attribute losses in the system to completely different physical phenomena without a notable effect on the model's performance. Our work adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that automatically calibrated parameters in hydrological models can lead to an incorrect prescription of the internal dynamics of runoff production and transport. Furthermore, it demonstrates that model implementation adds a new dimension to the problem of non-uniqueness in hydrological models.

Zhang, H. L.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, D. X.; Wang, X. K.

2013-07-01

206

Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria) - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been d...

Lubenov Todor; Marinov Ivan; Velizarova Emiliya

2009-01-01

207

The Edgewood Watershed Education Connection  

Science.gov (United States)

The Edgewood Watershed Education Connection (EWEC) promotes networking, education, and public involvement around local ecological and cultural issues. Materials include a discussion of 'What is a watershed?', a section on the use of maps and mapping to examine environmental patterns and relationships, and a discussion of ecosystem health. There is also a discussion of phenology (the study of the response of living organisms to seasonal and climatic changes) and a section on the importance of worms to ecosystem and watershed health. Each section features suggestions for activities and extensive lists of links to additional information on these topics.

208

Analyses of the Watershed Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of mathematical morphology, watershed transform (WT represents a key stepin image segmentation procedure. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of some existingwatershed approaches in the discrete case: WT based on flooding, WT based on path-costminimization, watershed based on topology preservation, WT based on local condition and WTbased on minimum spanning forest. For each approach, we present detailed description ofprocessing procedure followed by mathematical foundations and algorithm of reference. Recentpublications based on some approaches are also presented and discussed. Our study concludeswith a classification of different watershed transform algorithms according to solution uniqueness,topology preservation, prerequisites minima computing and linearity.

Ramzi Mahmoudi, Mohamed AKIL

2011-12-01

209

Watershed Mercury Export and Environmental Change: Projecting the Effects of Variations in Atmospheric Deposition, Land Cover, and Climate (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sources of mercury (Hg) to watersheds invariably change over time, which potentially affects Hg transport and fate in surface waters. Watershed-scale Hg cycling studies over the past several decades have contributed to an increased understanding of the links between sources of Hg to the landscape and transport of Hg from catchments to surface waters. Watershed-scale models provide the unique capacity to project - often in a spatially-explicit manner - how key physical stressors on the landscape affect Hg cycling and transport to surface water systems. Thus, such models serve as foundational tools for considering the projected effects of land management, regulations in atmospheric emissions of Hg and subsequent variations in deposition, and climate change on Hg export from watersheds over extended time scales. This presentation summarizes findings and research needs based on several studies in the Southeastern United States that focus on questions relating to the export of Hg from watersheds under changing atmospheric deposition, land cover, and climatic conditions. In each study, one to four watershed loading models are applied to simulate Hg responses to these diverse physical anthropogenic stressors. Findings from the studies provide a window to the temporal dynamics of Hg (and linked constituents, such as nitrogen) and may therefore guide future watershed management. These studies also highlight the importance of soil Hg storage and its effects on steady-state assumptions for watershed Hg export, watershed Hg response to stressors in relation to other water quality components (such as inorganic nitrogen), and the application of a multiple model (ensemble) approach for addressing projected watershed Hg source-to-fate related questions.

Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.; Conrads, P.; Feaster, T.; Davis, G.; Benedict, S.; Bradley, P. M.

2013-12-01

210

ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results showed that using Toutin's Model, enabling Wallis filter and specifying high DEM detail, along with restricting the holes filling option gave the best position accuracy and the least number of failure values. This is mainly due to the ruggedness of the studying area. Comparing GPS heights with the extract DEM showed a Minimum and a maximum error of (-11.9 m, 10.56 m), Mean error (1.32 m) and RMSE of (4.7 m). While extracting the drainage lines showed 80 to 90 % of coincidence of the upper water heads and an order of less than one pixel for the main river course and mountainous road intersection.

Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

2014-05-01

211

Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. PMID:21546665

Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

2011-01-01

212

A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

213

Stream corridors as indicators of watershed land use: A case study in Istanbul Corredores ribereños como indicadores de uso de suelo de una cuenca: un caso de estudio en Estambul  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Riparian ecosystems as components of stream corridors provide a range of regulating ecosystem services including water production. Water quality, a component of water production is a major concern in urbanized watersheds. Water quality monitoring has been a very common method of investigating watershed impairment particularly in case of human impacts but it is now clear that hydrologic and ecological parameters may support and improve monitoring studies substantially. In three major watershed...

Yusuf Serengil; Muhittin ?nan; ?brahim Yurtseven; Ümit Kiliç; Betül Uygur

2012-01-01

214

DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN WATERSHEDS AND ECOREGIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to adopt more holistic ecosystem approaches to resource assessment and management, many state and federal agencies have begun using watershed or ecoregion frameworks. Although few would question the need to make this move from dealing with problems and issues on a ca...

215

The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. PMID:22784807

Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

2012-10-01

216

Application of the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees: Methodological approach and preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Modelling runoff and sediment transport at watershed scale are key tools to predict hydrological and sediment processes, identify soil sediment sources and estimate sediment yield, with the purpose of better managing soil and water resources. This study aims to apply the SWAT model in an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, where there have been a number of previous field-based studies on sediment sources and transfers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a process based semi-distributed watershed scale hydrologic model, which can provide a high level of spatial detail by allowing the watershed to be divided into sub-basins. This study addresses the challenge of applying the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed that drains to a central lake, without external output, and without a network of permanent rivers. In this case it has been shown that the SWAT model does not correctly reproduce the stream network when using automatic watershed delineation, even with a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (5 x 5 metres). For this purpose, different approaches needed to be considered, such as i) user-defined watersheds and streams, ii) burning in a stream network or iii) modelling each sub-watershed separately. The objective of this study was to develop a new methodological approach for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes in an endorheic and complex karst watershed of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. The Estanque de Arriba Lake watershed (74 ha) is an endorheic system located in the Spanish Central Pre-Pyrenees. This watershed holds a small and permanent lake of fresh water (1.7 ha) and is a Site of Community Importance (European NATURA 2000 network). The study area is characterized by an abrupt topography with altitude range between 679 and 862 m and an average slope gradient of 24 %. Steep slopes (> 24 %) occupy the northern part of the watershed, whereas gentle slopes (

Gaspar, Leticia; White, Sue; Navas, Ana; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia

2013-04-01

217

The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean Hg concentration in throughfall (12.0 ± 8.5 ng ? -1) was higher than in precipitation (6.5 ± 2.8 ng ? -1). In August and September 1994, the total deposition of Hg in throughfall was estimated to be 3.1 ?gm -2 (1.9 ?g m -2 in precipitation) to the deciduous hardwood forests in the Lake Champlain basin. The mean Hg concentration in litterfall (53.2± 11.4 ng g -1) was significantly greater than the mean concentration in green foliage (34.2 +7.2 ng g -1), suggesting uptake of Hg from the atmosphere by foliage. Estimated annual litterfall deposition to the Lake Champlain basin was 13 ?g m -2. This study suggests that throughfall and litterfall play a significant role in the cycling and deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed.

Rea, Anne W.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Scherbatskoy, Timothy

218

Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis - a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis) landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR) of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

Lahousse, T.; Chang, K. T.; Lin, Y. H.

2011-10-01

219

Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

A. D. Jayakaran

2013-09-01

220

Técnicas avanzadas para la evaluación de caudales ecológicos en el ordenamiento sostenible de cuencas hidrográficas / Advanced techniques for evaluating instream flows in sustainable watershed management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La potencialidad de las corrientes fluviales ha fascinado al hombre por su capacidad para satisfacer las demandas crecientes del recurso hídrico superficial a escala temporal y espacial. Actualmente la idea de que los caudales naturales de un río deban reservarse para preservar el funcionamiento prí [...] stino del ecosistema resulta utópica, al menos en sociedades que progresan. Una ordenación eficaz del recurso hídrico se caracteriza por ser racional y ecosistémica, con una gestión fundamentada en un régimen de caudales ecológicos (RCE) que compagina los usos del agua asegurando una condición aceptable del ecosistema. Este trabajo analiza la problemática de la regulación de caudales y aborda la necesidad de fijar los RCE para salvaguardar la integridad ambiental. Se presentan los métodos para calcular caudales ecológicos y las pautas especificadas en la legislación colombiana. Con la pretensión de estipular un procedimiento para determinar los RCE en Colombia, se resume la metodología IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology), ampliamente utilizada en el mundo, y que consideramos aplicable en los sistemas fluviales locales. Finalmente, se concretan las pautas operativas básicas de IFIM y el procedimiento que optimiza el balance entre el coste y la confiabilidad de un estudio convencional de caudales ecológicos. Abstract in english Rivers? potential for satisfying growing water demands has always fascinated human beings. The current idea that a river?s natural flow should be reserved to conserve pristine dynamics is a utopian ideal, at least in countries having established a certain level of progress. Effective watershed plann [...] ing is characterised by being rational and ecological, employing management based on instream flows (IF), combining water use and ensuring acceptable ecosystem conditions. This work addresses the environmental consequences of regulating rivers and focuses on the need to fix IFs to protect fluvial systems? ecological integrity. The methods for calculating instream flows are presented as well as approaches provisionally specified in Colombia?s legislative framework. Instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM), which is widely used around the world, is summarised to provide a basis for developing a procedure for determining IFs in Colombia as it would seem applicable to local streams. IFIM basic operative rules are then summed up, as is the procedure optimising the balance between a conventional instream flow study?s costs and reliability.

Diez-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Burbano Burbano, Liliana.

 
 
 
 
221

Técnicas avanzadas para la evaluación de caudales ecológicos en el ordenamiento sostenible de cuencas hidrográficas Advanced techniques for evaluating instream flows in sustainable watershed management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La potencialidad de las corrientes fluviales ha fascinado al hombre por su capacidad para satisfacer las demandas crecientes del recurso hídrico superficial a escala temporal y espacial. Actualmente la idea de que los caudales naturales de un río deban reservarse para preservar el funcionamiento prístino del ecosistema resulta utópica, al menos en sociedades que progresan. Una ordenación eficaz del recurso hídrico se caracteriza por ser racional y ecosistémica, con una gestión fundamentada en un régimen de caudales ecológicos (RCE que compagina los usos del agua asegurando una condición aceptable del ecosistema. Este trabajo analiza la problemática de la regulación de caudales y aborda la necesidad de filiar los RCE para salvaguardar la integridad ambiental. Se presentan los métodos para calcular caudales ecológicos y las pautas especificadas en la legislación colombiana. Con la pretensión de estipular un procedimiento para determinar los RCE en Colombia, se resume la metodología IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology, ampliamente utilizada en el mundo, y que consideramos aplicable en los sistemas fluviales locales. Finalmente, se concretan las pautas operativas básicas de IFIM y el procedimiento que optimiza el balance entre el coste y la confiabilidad de un estudio convencional de caudales ecológicos.Rivers’ potential for satisfying growing water demands has always fascinated human beings. The current idea that a river’s natural flow should be reserved to conserve pristine dynamics is a utopian ideal, at least in countries having established a certain level of progress. Effective watershed planning is characterised by being rational and ecological, employing management based on instream flows (IF, combining water use and ensuring acceptable ecosystem conditions. This work addresses the environmental consequences of regulating rivers and focuses on the need to fix IFs to protect fluvial systems’ ecological integrity. The methods for calculating instream flows are presented as well as approaches provisionally specified in Colombia’s legislative framework. Instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM, which is widely used around the world, is summarised to provide a basis for developing a procedure for determining IFs in Colombia as it would seem applicable to local streams. IFIM basic operative rules are then summed up, as is the procedure optimising the balance between a conventional instream flow study’s costs and reliability.

Burbano Burbano Liliana

2006-04-01

222

Effect of Rock Check Dams on Flood Reducing in Arid and Semi Arid Regions (Case Study: Darjazin Watershed in Semnan Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Check dams are considered as main measures for flood and sediment control in watersheds, and their uses have been rapidly increased from 1990 onward in Iran. This research is done in Darjazin watershed in north of semnan city. The check dams have been constructed from 15 years ago in two sub basins of the watershed for flood control in Mahdishar. More than 650 check dams were evaluated for effects on flood. The collected data in the field was fed to ArcGIS software. The effects of these structures on flood reduction were evaluated by HEC-GeoHMS extension and HEC-HMS model. Because of homogeneity of watershed management projects in the basin due to building more check-dams in different watercourses, any flood discharge is related to check dams. Evaluating the effects of check dams on flood by t-test showed significant differences between flood discharge before and after construction of check dams at 5 percent level. So, check dams have been able to reduce flood discharge by 16.7 percent on average.

S. A. A. Hashemi

2014-02-01

223

Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes: a case study of Peddavanka watershed, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In India, the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation is variable from place to place. Assessment of water quality has been carried out to determine the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater. Quality of groundwater in a 398 km2 Peddavanka watershed of a semi-arid region of south India is evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The middle Proterozoic Cuddapah Supergroup and Kurnool Group of rocks underlie most of the watershed. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of quartzite, limestone, and shale. Seventy-six water samples were collected from open-wells and bore-holes. Water samples were collected representative of the post-monsoon (winter) and pre-monsoon (summer). The quality assessment is made through the estimation of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO{4/2-}, CO{3/2-}, HCO{3/-}, total hardness as CaCO3, TDS, EC, and pH. Based on these analyses, parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, index of base exchange and permeability index were calculated. According to Gibbs‘ ratio samples in both seasons fall in the rock dominance field. The overall quality of waters in the study area in post-monsoon season is high for all constituents ruling out pollution from extraneous sources.

Gowd, S. Srinivasa

2005-09-01

224

Regional scale modeling of hillslope sediment delivery: a case study in the Ésera—Isábena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil erosion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2; centra...

Alatorre, L. C.; Begueri?a, Santiago; Garci?a-ruiz, Jose? Mari?a

2009-01-01

225

Hydrological Study of Watersheds Arid and Semi-Arid South-Eastern Algeria (Chott Melghir, Chott El Hodna and Highlands Constantine  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study is to establish the hydrological characteristics, the hydrological behavior of river basins in arid and semi-arid south-eastern Algeria (establish of methodologies and necessary working tools for planning the development and management of water resources. The study on floods in Algeria is established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm. The duration of the flood is in the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damages caused by these floods are still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid, arid south and Algeria. There are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2, highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2 and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2. The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2. Studies of protection against floods and design studies of hydraulic structures (spillway, storm basin, etc. require the raw data which are often unknown in several places particularly at ungauged wadis of these areas.

Fares Belagoune

2013-12-01

226

Water qualtiy in Newport Bay and its watershed - June, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Orange County Environmental Management Agency water quality monitoring program in Newport Bay and its watershed is reported. The objectives of this program are to establish a sound baseline of data for future management decisions on the operation, protection and restoration of the Newport Bay ecosystem; to detect sources of various pollutants; and to determine solutions to water quality problems and issues. General physical parameters, nutrient and trace elements are monitored on a regular monthly basis while other parameters such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phenolic compounds, oil and grease, methylene-blue-active substances, and trace elements in sediments are monitored on a semi-annual basis. The study period for this report is 1973 to 1979 for watershed water quality monitoring and 1976 to 1979 for Newport Bay water quality monitoring. The results of these analyses are presented in detail. From these it may be noted that pH of rain water in the watershed range from 4 to 7; nitrate and sulfate levels in rain water were high only during the first storms of the season or during storms after long periods without rain; lead levels in rain water have decreased and zinc levels were higher than lead concentrations at all stations. In addition, elevated levels of grease and oil were found throughout Newport Bay and the watershed.

1980-01-01

227

Prediction of stream flow by utilizing artificial neural network in flood plain (Case study: Sepidroud watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For knowing the hydrological behavior and water management of Sepidroud River (North of Iran-Gilan the present study focused on stream flow forecasting with artificial neural network. Ten years (2000-2009 historical inflow data, observed from the Sepidroud River, were selected ; then 10 years inflow of the Sepidroud River have been forecasted by neural network. Finally, the results obtained from forecasted data compared with observed data. The results showed that neural network could predict stream flow with high precision and the maximum error between predicted and observed data was 3% approximately.

Alireza Mardookhpour

2013-02-01

228

Application of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for landslide susceptibility mapping: A case study from the Tinau watershed, west Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslide problems are abundant in the mountainous areas of Nepal due to a unique combination of adverse geological conditions, abundant rainfall and anthropogenic factors, which leads to enormous loss of life and property every year. To control such problems, systematic studies of landslides are necessary, including inventory mapping and risk assessment. This study applies the analytical hierarchy process method in the Tinau watershed, Nepal. A landslide susceptibility map is prepared on the basis of available digital data of topography, geology, land-use and hydrology. The landslide susceptibility map is validated through physical and statistical methods. The results reveal that the predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences, and, hence, the map is trustworthy for future land-use planning.

Kayastha, P.; Dhital, M. R.; De Smedt, F.

2013-03-01

229

USING NEXRAD AND RAIN GAUGE PRECIPITATION DATA FOR HYDROLOGIC CALIBRATION OF SWAT IN A NORTHEASTERN WATERSHED  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The value of watershed?scale, hydrologic and water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropriate application of watershed models. In small watersheds, where no dense rain gauge network is available, modelers are faced with a dilemma to choose between different data sets. In this study, we used the German Branch (GB) watershed (~50 km2), which is included in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), to examine the implications of using surface rain gauge and next?generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data sets on the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The GB watershed is located in the Coastal Plain of Maryland on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Stream flow estimation results using surface rain gauge data seem to indicate the importance of using rain gauges within the same direction as the storm pattern with respect to the watershed. In the absence of a spatially representative network of rain gauges within the watershed, NEXRAD data produced good estimates of stream flow at the outlet of the watershed. Three NEXRAD datasets, including (1)*non?corrected (NC), (2) bias?corrected (BC), and (3) inverse distance weighted (IDW) corrected NEXRAD data, were produced. Nash?Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients for daily stream flow simulation using these three NEXRAD data ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 during calibration and from 0.68 to 0.76 during validation. Overall, correcting NEXRAD with rain gauge data is promising to produce better hydrologic modeling results. Given the multiple precipitation datasets and corresponding simulations, we explored the combination of the multiple simulations using Bayesian model averaging.

Sexton, Aisha M.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Shirmohammadi, Adel

2010-05-10

230

Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín / Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la [...] disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur. Abstract in english In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availabilit [...] y of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

René, Zúñiga; Enrique, Muñoz; José Luis, Arumí.

231

Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur.In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availability of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

René Zúñiga

2012-01-01

232

pyLIDEM: A Python-Based Tool to Delineate Coastal Watersheds Using LIDAR Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurately identifying the boundary of a watershed is one of the most fundamental and important steps in any hydrological assessment. Representative applications include defining a study area, predicting overland flow, estimating groundwater infiltration, modeling pollutant accumulation and wash-off rates, and evaluating effectiveness of pollutant mitigation measures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, the most comprehensive water quality management program in the United States (US), is just one example of an application in which accurate and efficient watershed delineation tools play a critical role. For example, many impaired water bodies currently being addressed through the TMDL program drain small coastal watersheds with relatively flat terrain, making watershed delineation particularly challenging. Most of these TMDL studies use 30-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) that rarely capture all of the small elevation changes in coastal watersheds, leading to errors not only in watershed boundary delineation, but in subsequent model predictions (such as watershed runoff flow and pollutant deposition rate predictions) for which watershed attributes are key inputs. Manually delineating these low-relief coastal watersheds through the use of expert knowledge of local water flow patterns, often produces relatively accurate (and often more accurate) watershed boundaries as compared to the boundaries generated by the 30-meter DEMs. Yet, manual delineation is a costly and time consuming procedure that is often not opted for. There is a growing need, therefore, particularly to address the ongoing needs of the TMDL program (and similar environmental management programs), for software tools which can utilize high resolution topography data to more accurately delineate coastal watersheds. Here, we address this need by developing pyLIDEM (python LIdar DEM), a python-based tool which processes bare earth high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data, generates fine scale DEMs, and delineates watershed boundaries for a given pour point. Because LIDAR data are typically distributed in large sets of predefined tiles, our tool is capable of combining only the minimum number of bare earth LIDAR tiles required to delineate a watershed of interest. Our tool then processes the LIDAR data into Triangulated Irregular Networks, generates DEMs at user- specified cell sizes, and creates the required files needed to delineate watersheds within ArcGIS. To make pyLIDEM more accessible to the modeling community, we have bundled it within an ArcGIS toolbox, which also allows users to run it directly from an ArcGIS platform. We assess pyLIDEM functionality and accuracy by delineating several impaired small coastal watersheds in the Newport River Estuary in Eastern North Carolina using LIDAR data collected for the North Carolina Flood Mapping Program. We then compare the pyLIDAR-based watershed boundaries with those generated manually and with those generated using the 30-meter DEMs, and find that the pyLIDAR-based boundaries are more accurate than the 30-meter DEMs, and provide a significant time savings compared to manual delineation, particularly in cases where multiple watersheds need to be delineated for a single project.

O'Banion, R.; Alameddine, I.; Gronewold, A.; Reckhow, K.

2008-12-01

233

A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of “self-/peer-appraisal” of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: ? We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. ? It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. ? The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. ? The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

2012-04-01

234

Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

McRoberts, Heidi

2006-03-01

235

Assessing Watershed-Wildfire Risks on National Forest System Lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States  

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Full Text Available Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial risk assessment methods can be brought to bear to identify and prioritize at-risk watersheds for risk mitigation treatments, in both pre-fire and post-fire planning contexts. Risk assessment results can be particularly useful for prioritizing management of hazardous fuels to lessen the severity and likely impacts of future wildfires, where budgetary and other constraints limit the amount of area that can be treated. Specifically we generate spatially resolved estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity, and couple that information with spatial data on watershed location and watershed erosion potential to quantify watershed exposure and risk. For a case study location we focus on National Forest System lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The Region houses numerous watersheds that are critically important to drinking water supplies and that have been impacted or threatened by large wildfires in recent years. Assessment results are the culmination of a broader multi-year science-management partnership intended to have direct bearing on wildfire management decision processes in the Region. Our results suggest substantial variation in the exposure of and likely effects to highly valued watersheds throughout the Region, which carry significant implications for prioritization. In particular we identified the San Juan National Forest as having the highest concentration of at-risk highly valued watersheds, as well as the greatest amount of risk that can be mitigated via hazardous fuel reduction treatments. To conclude we describe future opportunities and challenges for management of wildfire-watershed interactions.

Jessica R. Haas

2013-07-01

236

Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of a Semi-Distributed Model in a Semi-Arid Region, Case Study: Nishabour Watershed  

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Full Text Available Application of conceptual hydrological models is an important issue in watersheds for researchers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The hydrological behaviors are complicated in such watersheds and their calibration is more difficult. In this article, the conceptual and semi-distributed SWAT model is used for a semi-arid Nishabour watershed with 9350 km2 area. Streamflow simulation is considered for 8 years. Nishabour watershed modeling led to 22 subbasins and 146 Hydrologic response units. SUfI2 approach is used for calibration and uncertainty analysis of watershed modeling. Results showed that calibration and validation of watershed model is not satisfactory, because of uncertainties in conceptual model such as dam structures, and land subsidence. Another reason is related to the complexity of hydrological system in arid regions which has simplified in hydrological models. Moreover, the complex behavior between runoff and subsurface flow in low depth of rainfall events usually effects in hydrological simulation results. Finally, it concluded that we cannot rely on conceptual hydrologic models with different sources of uncertainty without including them in hydrological modeling at arid and semi-arid watersheds.

K. Davari

2013-09-01

237

Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria  

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Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

Lubenov Todor

2009-01-01

238

Modeling subsurface contaminant reactions and transport at the watershed scale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this research are: (1) to numerically examine the multiscale effects of physical and chemical mass transfer processes on watershed scale, variably saturated subsurface contaminant transport, and (2) to conduct numerical simulations on watershed scale reactive solute transport and evaluate their implications to uncertainty characterization and cost benefit analysis. Concurrent physical and chemical nonequilibrium caused by inter aggregate gradients of pressure head and solute concentration and intra-aggregate geochemical and microbiological processes, respectively, may arise at various scales and flowpaths. To this date, experimental investigations of these complex processes at watershed scale remain a challenge and numerical studies are often needed for guidance of water resources management and decision making. This research integrates the knowledge bases developed during previous experimental and numerical investigations at a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the concurrent effects of physical and chemical nonequilibrium. Comparison of numerical results with field data indicates that: (1) multiregion, preferential flow and solute transport exist under partially saturated condition and can be confirmed theoretically, and that (2) mass transfer between pore regions is an important process influencing contaminant movement in the subsurface. Simulations of watershed scale, multi species reactive solute transport suggest that dominance of geochemistry and hydrodynamics may occur simultaneously at different locales and influence the movement of one species relative to another. Execution times on the simulations of the reactive solute transport model also indicate that the model is ready to assist the selection of important parameters for site characterization.

Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; D`Azevedo, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Desert Research Inst., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

1997-12-01

239

On the equivalence between hierarchical segmentations and ultrametric watersheds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study hierarchical segmentation in the framework of edge-weighted graphs. We define ultrametric watersheds as topological watersheds null on the minima. We prove that there exists a bijection between the set of ultrametric watersheds and the set of hierarchical segmentations. We end this paper by showing how to use the proposed framework in practice in the example of constrained connectivity; in particular it allows to compute such a hierarchy following a classical watershed-based morpholo...

Najman, Laurent

2011-01-01

240

Estimation of the peak factor based on watershed characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydraulic modeling and dam structure design require the river flood flow as a primary input. For a given flood event, the ratio of peak flow over mean daily flow defines the peak factor. The peak factor value is dependent on the watershed and location along the river. The main goal of this study consisted in finding a relationship between watershed characteristics and this peak factor. Regression analyses were carried out on 53 natural watersheds located in the southern part of the province of Quebec using data from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). The watershed characteristics included in the analyses were the watershed area, the maximum flow length, the mean slope, the lake proportion and the mean elevation. The results showed that watershed area and length are the major parameters influencing the peak factor. Nine natural watersheds were also used to test the use of a multivariable model in order to determine the peak factor for ungauged watersheds.

Gauthier, Jean; Nolin, Simon; Ruest, Benoit [BPR Inc., Quebec, (Canada)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10â??12% to 39â??42% for deep lakes and from 10â??12% to 21â??23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a â??deliveryâ? mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes. Hence, the whole watershed should be considered whenmanaging nutrient loadings to lakes, and future policies should ideally target measures that reduce the proportion of cultivated land in the watershed to successfully improve lake water quality. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-1831.1

Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis

2012-01-01

242

Hydrological year 2009 in the small watersheds ?ervík and Malá Ráztoka  

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Full Text Available Unique experiment, not only with respect to time, is ongoing within the two small watersheds in Beskid Mts. The year 2009 represents already the 56-th year of this long-term forestry-hydrological research. Experimental watershed ?ervík (CE is situated near the village Staré Hamry, watershed Malá Ráztoka (MR near Trojanovice. The aim of the research is to study the impact of forest on the water runoff from the watershed, and the impact of forest management on water balance in the headwater regions. Compared to the long-term time series, the data measured in 2009 seems to be relatively balanced. In 2009 the year precipitation amount within two watersheds was only slightly higher than the long-term average. Snowing had started in the middle of November; more intensive snow fall was registered in February, March, and also at the end of the hydrological year (mid-October. The average year temperatures within the two watersheds are again much higher than the averages of the last 56 years. During the vegetation season only few short period without precipitation was recorded, forest vegetation was not threatened by dryness in this year.

Zden?k Vícha

2011-06-01

243

Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method  

Science.gov (United States)

Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris

2014-05-01

244

Can functional gene abundance predict N-fluxes? Examples from a well-studied hydrological flow path in a forested watershed in SW China  

Science.gov (United States)

Edaphic, climatic and management factors shape soil microbial communities taxonomically and functionally, resulting in spatial separation of nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes along hydrological flowpaths. In a recent study, we investigated N-cycling processes and N2O emissions along a mesic hillslope (HS) and a hydrologically connected groundwater discharge zone (GDZ) in a forested headwater catchment dominated by acid soils (pH 4.0 - 4.5) in subtropical China (Chongqing). The watershed receives 50 kg N ha-1 a-1 through atmogenic deposition (2/3 as ammonium), most of which is removed before discharge. Surprisingly, N2O emissions were found to be greatest on the well-drained HS, whereas a drop of NO3- concentrations along the flow path indicated that N removal was highest in the moist GDZ. Nitrification was assumed to be none-limiting as the total flux of NO3- leaving the hill slope soils roughly equalled the input of NH4+. To understand watershed N-cycling and removal in more detail, we studied the abundance of functional genes involved in ammonium oxidation (amoA of AOB and AOA), nitrite oxidation (nxrB) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ) in top soils from 8 locations along the flow path spanning from the hilltop to the outlet of the GDZ. 16S rRNA gene abundance was assessed as a general marker for bacterial abundance. All genes showed highest abundance per gram soil in the heavily disturbed GDZ (formerly cultivated terraces), despite lower soil organic carbon content (1-4% w/w as opposed to 10-20% w/w in HS topsoil) and periodically stagnant conditions due to high water tables after monsoonal rainfalls. Ratios of nosZ/nirS+nirK, commonly used to predict denitrification product stoichiometry (N2O/N2), yielded counterintuitive results with higher values for HS than for GDZ. However, comparing nir gene with 16S rRNA gene abundance revealed that denitrifiers accounted for up to 10% of the bacterial community in the GDZ soils whereas this value was only 1% in HS soils. Even though GDZ soils harbour less nosZ relative to nirS+nirK denitrifiers (i.e. has a lower nos/nir gene copy ratio), the high relative abundance of denitrifiers in the GDZ communities may still provide sufficient N2O reducing capacity to explain lower N2O emission. High N2O reduction capacity in the GDZ is further supported by higher soil pH (4.5 versus 4.0 at the HS) and diffusion limitation in the denser GDZ soil resulting in high dissolved N2O concentrations promoting nosZ expression. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) were about 5000 times more abundant than bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOB) which is in line with the low pH of these soils, and amounted to up to 3% of 16S rRNA gene counts. Again, abundances were highest in the GDZ despite periodical waterlogging. Abundance of nitrite oxidizers was similar to that of AOA. Our results show that copy numbers of functional genes in complex landscapes cannot be readily interpreted with respect to ecosystem N fluxes, but need to be analysed in a spatially explicit manner in the context of watershed hydrology.

Liu, Binbin; Muzammil, Bushra; Dörsch, Peter; Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Frostegård, Åsa

2014-05-01

245

Trip report: pilot studies of factors linking watershed function and coastal ecosystem health in American Samoa  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral reef resources in the territory of American Samoa face significant problems from overfishing, non-point source pollution, global warming, and continuing population growth and development. The islands are still relatively isolated relative to other parts of the Pacific and have managed to avoid some of the more devastating invasive species that have reached other archipelagoes. As a result, there are opportunities for collaborative and integrative research and monitoring programs to help restore and maintain biodiversity and functioning natural ecosystem in the archipelago. We found that the 'Ridge to Reef' paradigm already exists in American Samoa, with a high degree of interagency cooperation and efficient use of limited resources already taking place in the Territory. USGS may be able to make contributions as a partner organization in the Coral Reef Advisory Group (CRAG) through deployment of sediment monitoring instrumentation to supplement stream monitoring by the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, by providing high resolution vegetation and land-use maps of main islands, by providing additional support to the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources and the National Park Service for monitoring of invasive species, by working with members of CRAG to initiate sediment transport studies on Samoan reefs, and by developing new projects on the effects of bacterial contamination and pollutants on coral reef physiology and demography.

Atkinson, Carter T.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

2010-01-01

246

Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

2000-02-01

247

Traditional and Host-Associated Fecal Indicator Bacterial Patterns in Southern California Watersheds: Field Source Identification Studies and Laboratory Microcosms Investigating Presence and Persistence in Water and Sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Overall, recreational beach water quality remains an issue of concern in Southern California and across the globe. Many factors come into play when determining water quality, including physical issues such as the myriad sources that contribute pollution to the site and financial and political issues that control the way water quality is monitored and determined. Current national regulations require the monitoring of fecal indicator bacteria in order to determine recreational water quality. However, it is also important to identify biological and geographical sources of pollution to consistently impaired locations. A commonly applied approach to meet the goals of source identification is to sample sites that have been high in FIB for further study. A tiered approach such as this, however, assumes a correlation between FIB and the sources of interest in the watershed. The research described in this dissertation tests this assumption in two Southern California watersheds, Santa Monica Canyon and Ventura Harbor. In both cases, a tiered approach to sampling using FIB as a first tier to guide sampling would have failed to identify sources of human fecal pollution (as identified by the presence of the human-associated Bacteroides marker HF183). Every watershed is a distinct environment that has different potential sources of bacteria and many factors contributing to the persistence of the bacteria. Rather than attempting to apply an indicator that has worked as a first tier in other watersheds, it would be better to have as a first tier an in-depth study of the watershed using historical data or local experts to provide information on the most likely sources of pollution in the watershed. Using this information it would be possible to design a study using FIB and one or more source-associated parameters to identify specific sources of pollution in the watershed. In addition, sampling FIB and other parameters such as HF183 allow the application of other microbial source tracking tools including indicator ratios and detection frequencies. Source identification studies do not necessarily have to be long-term to identify consistent sources of pollution. For example, within the first four months of sampling at Ventura, the increased frequency of detection of HF183 at the Marina Dock sample location was apparent, and a dry weather influx of HF183 was seen in the Keys channels. In addition to the many sources of FIB to the environment such as storm drains, leaking sewers, and wildlife, there are important environmental reservoirs such as sand and seaweed that can foster FIB growth and persistence in the environment. As such, it is important to understand the effect of different factors on the ability of bacteria to survive and persist in these reservoirs. Microcosm experiments conducted during the course of this dissertation research found that in dry beach sand (0.1% moisture), the addition of moisture was detrimental to the survival of the indicators studied (General Bacteroidales, E. coli, and enterococci). While increased moisture was not always detrimental to bacterial survival, these results point to the ability of bacteria to persist for long periods of time in beach environments under in-situ conditions (including dry sand). These findings point to the importance of understanding the behavior of indicator bacteria populations that have evolved to survive in environmental conditions so that their potential impact on overlying or adjacent water quality can be better understood. In summation, results from this research point to the importance of selecting indicators and sample locations that are most relevant to watershed concerns rather than using a first tier such as FIB to preferentially select sites for further analysis. Measuring a marker for human fecal pollution in both watershed studies provided useful information for potential human inputs that would have been missed if sites were chosen based on high FIB levels. In addition it is very important to underst

Mika, Kathryn Beth

248

Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"  

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Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is to augment stream runoff during the years of low summer discharge. This paper intends to highlight the importance of creating credible knowledge on the Himalayan cryospheric processes to develop a more representative global view on river flow response to cryospheric changes and locally sustainable water resources management strategies.

R. J. Thayyen

2010-02-01

249

Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

2013-12-01

250

Sediment and nutrient loading from non-degraded and degraded watershed area in to a tropical water body: a case study using remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study deals with the works relating to integrated watershed management on sustainable basis for evolving tractable operational package so that nutrient, sediment and runoff losses from catchment could be minimized. Study area lies between latitudes 22°5' and 22°12' and longitudes 77°17' and 77°23' covering an area of 6357.5 hectares. Physically it is divided into two different parts, hills and plains. The height of elevation of study area is in between 518 to 630 meters above m.s.l. The thematic maps were generated using satellite data. The present tropical catchment possessing diverse forest ecosystem and agriculture land characterized by weathered black cotton soil derived from basalt with the slope ranging from nearly level to moderately steep to steep sloping and receiving average annual rainfall 1150 mm. The annual return of carbon and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Na and Mg) in non degraded and degraded forest and nutrient concentrations in runoff flow and sediment output (sediment loss) during monsoon period from non-degraded forest, degraded forest and agriculture lands were worked out. The sediment and nutrient losses from the catchment to the tropical water body are alarming particularly from agricultural land. The nutrient losses in both the forms (runoff water plus sediment movement) are in the order of agriculture > degraded forest > non-degraded forest. The loss of soil in the form of sediment loss follows the same pattern. The results were alarming when the value of sediment loss of forest was compared to the agriculture land of the catchment. The soil loss as sediment is 33.5 times greater in agriculture land compared to non-degraded forest and 10.2 times greater in agriculture land compared to degraded forest.

Gupta, Mool Chandra

2006-12-01

251

A Comparative Study of Ion Chemistry of Groundwater Samples of Typical Highland and Midland Sub-watersheds of the Manimala River Basin, Kerala, South India  

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Full Text Available Results of the detailed study of the chemistry of ions present in the groundwater samples of Peruvanthanam and Valiyathodu sub-watersheds of the Manimala river basin are analysed using the AQUACHEM 4.0 software to understand general chemical characteristics and geochemical processes involved. The study reveals that cations, such as sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, calcium (Ca2+, and magnesium (Mg2+ and anions, such as bicarbonate (HCO3-, sulphate (SO42-, chloride (Cl-, nitrate (NO3- are present. Recognition methods such as (a Box and Whisker diagram (b Piper diagram (c Durov diagram (d Radial plot and (e Stiff diagram were prepared to delineate the seasonal variations in chemical constituents. The major ionic concentration of the groundwater samples of Peruvanthanam sub-watershed is Mg2+>Ca2+>HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->Na+>K+ and that of Valiyathodu is Mg2+>Ca2+>HCO3->Cl->NO3->SO42->Na+>K+. A critical analysis of Piper diagram reveals that in Peruvanthanam sub-watershed the pre monsoon groundwater samples belong to the zone of bicarbonates, chloride and sulphates, the monsoon season samples belong to the bicarbonate and chloride zone and the post monsoon samples belong to the zone of prevailing bicarbonates. In Valiyathodu sub-watershed, the pre monsoon and post monsoon samples have dominant bicarbonates, while the monsoon samples show predominance of both bicarbonates and chloride. Radial plots and Stiff diagrams for Peruvanthanam sub-watershed show that Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-- Cl- are the dominant water types during the pre monsoon season. Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl-- HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl--SO42- are dominant during the monsoon and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- are the dominant water types during the post monsoon season. In Valiyathodu sub-watershed during the pre monsoon - Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- and Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3-, during the monsoonm - Mg2+-Ca2+- HCO3--Cl-, Mg2+-Ca2+-Cl-- HCO3- and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--Cl-, and during the post monsoon - Mg2+-Ca2+-HCO3--Cl- and Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3--Cl- are the dominant water types. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.4037

Vadakkepurakkal Balakrishnan Rekha

2014-01-01

252

Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them. PMID:21853280

Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

2011-10-01

253

Fecal Contamination of Groundwater in a Small Rural Dryland Watershed in Central Chile Contaminación Fecal en Agua Subterránea en una Pequeña Cuenca de Secano Rural en Chile Central  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on microbiological groundwater quality was conducted in Chile in a rural watershed that has almost no other water source. Forty-two wells were randomly selected and levels of indicator bacteria - total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), and fecal streptococci (FS) - were repeatedly measured during the four seasons of 2005. The aim of this study was to characterize microbiological groundwater quality, relate indicator levels to certain watershed features and management characterist...

Mariela Valenzuela; Bernardo Lagos; Marcelino Claret; Mondaca, Mari?a A.; Claudio Pérez; Oscar Parra

2009-01-01

254

Hydrological response of a High-Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years: a case study of Bayelva watershed, Svalbard  

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Our study considers climate change and its influence upon the hydrology and water balance of the glacierized Bayelva watershed in Svalbard. We find that changes are most noticeable within the last 10 years, when winters have become warmer and wetter. The change is most significant during the shoulder months, especially September, when the transition from summer ablation to winter accumulation is taking place. Winter rainfalls, when extreme, produce ground icings and runoff outside the summer ...

Aga Nowak; Andy Hodson

2013-01-01

255

Platforms and Terraces : Bridging participation and GIS in joint-learning for watershed management with the Ifugaos of the Philippines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complex multi-actor problem situations in natural resource management (NRM) need the convergence of different knowledge processes, first of all, in understanding and agreeing what the problem is before aspiring for joint-action. This is a joint-learning approach in NRM. Geographic information systems (GIS), with their integrative, analytic, and visualization capabilities, offer promising means to facilitate this approach. However, using GIS relies heavily on specialists that develop and inter...

Gonzalez, R. M.

2000-01-01

256

Payment for Environmental Services (PES) - A feasibility study for watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia  

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PES markets create opportunities to address environmental problems on a local scale through negotiations with stakeholders: communities that are in a position to provide an ES receive compensation from those who benefit from this service. This type of direct environmental management has the potential to set up effective systems of price setting, which can be especially beneficial in developing countries with weak histories of environmental governance. The objective of this paper is to discuss...

Alana George; Alain Pierret; Arthorn Boonsaner; Valentin Christian; Olivier Planchon

2009-01-01

257

Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and brief...

Suyanto, S.; Noviana Khususiyah; Beria Leimona

2007-01-01

258

Prioritization of sub-watersheds in semi arid region, Western Maharashtra, India using Geographical Information System  

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Full Text Available - The study area is one of the sub-river basin of Krishna river, covering an area of 3035 km² and lies in west part of Maharashtra state bounded by Latitude 16055’ to 17028’ N and Longitude 74020’ to 74040’ E. Poor soil cover, sparse vegetation, erratic rainfall and lack of soil moisture characterize the study area for most part of the year. Due to unavailability/poor managed of surface water storage structures, more than 50% area depends upon groundwater for their daily needs. Recurring drought coupled with increase in ground water exploitation results in decline in the ground water level. So the entire study area has been further divided into 9 sub-watersheds named SWS1 to SWS9, ranging in geographical area from 76 km² to 492 km² and has been taken up for prioritization based on morphometric analysis using Geographical information system (GIS and remote sensing techniques. The drainage density of sub-watersheds varies between 2.07 to 3.26 km/km² and low drainage density values of sub-watershed SWS5 indicates that it has highly resistant, impermeable subsoil material with dense vegetative cover and low relief. The elongation ratio varies from 0.2 to 0.35 which indicates low relief and gentle ground slope. The high value of circularity ratio for SWS 8 sub-watershed 0.6 indicates the late maturity stage of topography. This anomaly is due to diversity of slope, relief and structural conditions prevailing in this sub-watershed. The compound parameter values are calculated and the sub-watershed with the lowest compound parameter is given the highest priority. The sub-watershed SWS3 has a minimum compound parameter value of 1.68 and SWS 8 has a maximum compound parameter 3.08. Hence it should be provided with immediate soil conservation measures because sedimentation is the major problem for surface water storage structures.

Abhijit M.Zende

2013-10-01

259

Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk.

2010-07-15

260

ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN GEOLOGYCAL STUDY OF SANJUL VILLAGE AT GP-08 WATERSHED  

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Full Text Available The village of Sanjul facing a water scarcity problem in summer sessions hence this work can be carried out. The traditional use of remotely sensed image interpretation lies in the qualitative characterization of hydrogeological mapping units and the detection of specific features. Most applications pertain to crystalline basements. Basaltic trains more recent developments pertain to groundwater emergence in the discharge areas of groundwater flow systems using thermal and multispectral imagery, and to management of groundwater for the latter, spatial recharge patterns and contamination assessment will focus attention on defining the parameters of vegetation and terrain mapping units and on monitoring hydrogeological relevant surface features embedded in spatial groundwater models

Pathrikar Pramod B.

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Ecosystem Services Valuation to Support Decisionmaking on Public Lands-A Case Study of the San Pedro River Watershed, Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed...

D. Jaworksi D. Semmens J. Larson K. J. Bagstad R. Winthrop

2012-01-01

262

Outage management: A case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

1992-06-07

263

Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

2009-01-01

264

A distributed physical approach for surface-subsurface water transport modeling in agricultural watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface cover and soil type have a major influence upon groundwater recharge and groundwater quality in agricultural watersheds. However, several hydrological models focus on simulating groundwater recharge without including the influence of agricultural practices and soil characteristics. In this study, ANSWERS, a distributed parameters surface nonpoint source model has been modified to include the simulation of water transport in the vadose and saturated zones. This model takes into account the spatial and temporal variability of crop cover and management practices, and the spatial variability of soil type and rainfall distribution. It is physically based and uses parameters that can be easily determined from readily available soil and plant information. It has been validated at multiple scales: local scale, field scale and watershed scale. At the local and field scale, it predicts accurately drainage below the root zone and evapotranspiration on different type of soil cover. At the watershed scale, it reproduces well the piezometric levels and trends of variation.

Bouraoui, F.; Vachaud, G.; Haverkamp, R.; Normand, B.

1997-12-01

265

Hydrologic Effects of Brush Management in Central Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing brush management practices (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal cooperators, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Preliminary results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget as well as water quality between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods.

Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.

2011-12-01

266

Gully control in SAT watersheds  

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Full Text Available Gully erosion is geographically a widespread problem. It is common in the semi-arid region, characterized by denuded landscape and flash floods. An estimated 4 million ha land in India and 29 million ha of land in Africa are affected by severe gully erosion. Gully erosion is more difficult and expensive to control than other types of soil erosion. A full understanding of erosion processes at various stages of gully development is essential to achieve gully stabilization. Without proper understanding often the measures taken for controlling gully were found unnecessary or ineffective. This report provides the basic knowledge of gully formation and its causes. The classification of gullies and the basic principles of its control are explained. Drawing primarily the experiences from the several on-farm watershed projects implemented by ICRISAT, the report provides the practical approach for gully control in the context of overall watershed development and management. The basic considerations and the design details of various gully control structures, viz, loose rock dam, double-row post-brush dam, double-row post-stone dam, single-row post-stone dam, stone wall dam, masonry check-dam, earthen check-dam and gabion structures are covered in detail. The key hydrological data, ie, runoff volume and peak runoffrate measured at the watershed scale along with design peak runoff rate for the various locations in India are given. These data will greatly assist the watershed implementing agencies in the selection, design, construction and maintenance of gully control structures.

P Pathak

2006-08-01

267

Heat Management Strategy Trade Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

2009-09-01

268

Choosing Different Contour Interval on a Fully Raster-Based Erosion Modeling: Case Study at Merawu Watershed, Banjarnegara, Central Java  

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Full Text Available The research was aimed to study the efect of choosing different contour interval to produce Digital Elevation Model on a fully raster-based erosion modeling of The Universal Soil Loss Equation using remote sensing data and a geographical information system technique. Methods were applied by analyzing all factors that affecting erosion in GIS environment such data were in the form of raster. Those data were R , K, LS, C and P factors. LS factor was derived from Digital Elevation Model by taking flow direction from each pixel into consideration. Research used 3 contour intervals to produce Digital Elevation Model, i.e. 12.5, 25 and 50 meter. C factor was derived from the formula after applying linearly regression analysis between Normalized Difference Vegetation index of remote sensing data and C factor measured directly on the field. Another analysis was the creation of map of Bulk Density used to convert erosion unit as from Mg ha-1mo-1 to mm mo-1. To know the model accuracy, validation of the model was done by applying statistical analysis and by comparing the result of erosion model (Emodel with actual erosion (Eactual which was measured regularly in Merawu watershed. A threshold value of > 0.80 or > 80% was chosen to justify whether the model was accurate or not. The results showed that all Emodel using 3 countour intervals have correlation value of > 0.8. These results were strenghtened with the result of analysis of variance which showing there were no difference between Emodel and Eactual. Among the 3 models, only Emodel using 50 meter countour interval reached the accuracy of 81.13% while the other only had 50.87% (using countour interval 25 meter and 32.92% (using countour interval 12.5 meter.

Bambang Sulistyo

2011-09-01

269

Monitoring and evaluation of soil bioengineering interventions for watershed management, disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Latin America  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades the institutions responsible for land management and civil protection have showed a great interest in relation to the use of more environmentally friendly techniques to mitigate the risk of landslides and floods. Soil bioengineering has responded to this need and several research groups are carrying out experimentations using the techniques of this discipline in the countries in the developing world. The Deistaf from University of Florence has concentrated its activities in this area over the past decade promoting the use of the techniques of Soil bioengineering in Latin America through the implementation of training and experimentation programmes. Numerous works have been completed both in riverbanks and on slopes in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Colombia. It was decided to make a census of interventions in Latin America from different institutions that may be related to Soil bioengineering in order to obtain an overview of the state of the art in the specific context taking into account also environmental and socio-economic issues. Taking advantage of its network of contacts, DEISTAF has collected dozens of sheets that describe interventions. These sheets describe, among other fields focused on the environment in which the work has been carried out, the materials and techniques used, and the impact of the intervention. In the sheets we present also the monitoring that has been realized for some of these works in the months of October and November 2012; we include the identification of the current condition and functionality of the intervention and, in the case of the presence of some damages, the formulation of instructions to fix them as well as the economic quantification of the repairs to be carried out.

Petrone, Alessandro; Preti, Federico

2013-04-01

270

Use of USLE/GIS methodology for predicting soil loss in a semiarid agricultural watershed.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is an erosion model to estimate average soil loss that would generally result from splash, sheet, and rill erosion from agricultural plots. Recently, use of USLE has been extended as a useful tool predicting soil losses and planning control practices in agricultural watersheds by the effective integration of the GIS-based procedures to estimate the factor values in a grid cell basis. This study was performed in the Kazan Watershed located in the central Anatolia, Turkey, to predict soil erosion risk by the USLE/GIS methodology for planning conservation measures in the site. Rain erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), and cover management factor (C) values of the model were calculated from erosivity map, soil map, and land use map of Turkey, respectively. R values were site-specifically corrected using DEM and climatic data. The topographical and hydrological effects on the soil loss were characterized by LS factor evaluated by the flow accumulation tool using DEM and watershed delineation techniques. From resulting soil loss map of the watershed, the magnitude of the soil erosion was estimated in terms of the different soil units and land uses and the most erosion-prone areas where irreversible soil losses occurred were reasonably located in the Kazan watershed. This could be very useful for deciding restoration practices to control the soil erosion of the sites to be severely influenced. PMID:17171276

Erdogan, Emrah H; Erpul, Günay; Bayramin, Ilhami

2007-08-01

271

Sediment removal by prairie filter strips in row-cropped ephemeral watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve small watersheds in central Iowa were used to evaluate the effectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in trapping sediment from agricultural runoff. Four treatments with PFS of different size and location (100% rowcrop, 10% PFS of total watershed area at footslope, 10% PFS at footslope and in contour strips, 20% PFS at footslope and in contour strips) arranged in a balanced incomplete block design were seeded in July 2007. All watersheds were in bromegrass ( L.) for at least 10 yr before treatment establishment. Cropped areas were managed under a no-till, 2-yr corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation beginning in 2007. About 38 to 85% of the total sediment export from cropland occurred during the early growth stage of rowcrop due to wet field conditions and poor ground cover. The greatest sediment load was observed in 2008 due to the initial soil disturbance and gradually decreased thereafter. The mean annual sediment yield through 2010 was 0.36 and 8.30 Mg ha for the watersheds with and without PFS, respectively, a 96% sediment trapping efficiency for the 4-yr study period. The amount and distribution of PFS had no significant impact on runoff and sediment yield, probably due to the relatively large width (37-78 m) of footslope PFS. The findings suggest that incorporation of PFS at the footslope position of annual rowcrop systems provides an effective approach to reducing sediment loss in runoff from agricultural watersheds under a no-till system. PMID:23099945

Helmers, Matthew J; Zhou, Xiaobo; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D; Cruse, Richard M

2012-01-01

272

Management by Values: A Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable manage...

Liu, Zhen

2012-01-01

273

Watershed Cuts: Thinnings, Shortest Path Forests, and Topological Watersheds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We recently introduced the watershed cuts, a notion of watershed in edge-weighted graphs. In this paper, our main contribution is a thinning paradigm from which we derive three algorithmic watershed cut strategies: the first one is well suited to parallel implementations, the second one leads to a flexible linear-time sequential implementation whereas the third one links the watershed cuts and the popular flooding algorithms. We state that watershed cuts preserve a notion of contrast, called ...

Cousty, Jean; Bertrand, Gilles; Najman, Laurent; Couprie, Michel

2010-01-01

274

SUSTAIN - A BMP PROCESS AND PLACEMENT TOOL FOR URBAN WATERSHEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate how best to address environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. Significant investments are needed to protect and restore water quality, address total maximum daily loads ...

275

Hydrologic study of high waters of the Bistrica river in the Sotla watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the area of the Bistrica river basin I have made a hydrologic study of high waters, where I have predetermined actual discharge and flood waves with return period of 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 in some key sections of Bistrica. I have made the hydrological model of the Bistrica river basin with the help of program Hydrological modeling System (HEC – HMS). Hydrological study includes the description of hydrological model HEC-HMS (basic cornerstone, their use and used methods), hydrological and h...

Sovre, Katja

2009-01-01

276

Application of SWAT2000 Model for Estimating Runoff and Sediment in Beheshtabad Watershed, a Sub-basin of Northern Karun  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil erosion is an important economical, social and environmental problem requiring intensive watershed management for its control. In recent years, modeling has become a useful approach for assessing the impact of various erosion-reduction approaches. ?Due to limited hydrologic data in mountainous watersheds, watershed modeling is, however, subject to large uncertainties. In this study, SWAT2000 was applied to simulate runoff and sediment discharge in Beheshtabad watershed, a sub-basin of Northern Karun catchment in central Iran, with an area of 3860 km2. Model calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed with SUFI-2. Four indices were used to assess the goodness of calibration, viz., P-factor, d-factor, R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe (NS. Runoff data (1996-2004 of six hydrometery stations were used for calibration and validation of this watershed. The results of monthly calibration p-factor, d-factor, R2 and NS values for runoff at the watershed outlet were 0.61, 0.48, 0.85 and 0.75, respectively, and for the validation, these statistics were 0.53, 0.38, 0.85 and 0.57, respectively. The values for calibration of sediment concentration at the watershed outlet were 0.55, 0.41, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively, and for the validation, these statistics were 0.69, 0.29, 0.60 and 0.27, respectively. In general, SWAT simulated runoff much better than sediment. Weak simulation of runoff at some months of the year might be due to under-prediction of snowmelt in this mountainous watershed, model’s assumptions in frozen and saturated soil layers, and lack of sufficient data. Improper simulation of sediment load could be attributed to weak simulation of runoff, insufficient data and periodicity of sediment data.

R Rostamian

2009-01-01

277

Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

changwen, ye

2014-05-01

278

ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR  

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Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil erodibility attribute controlled by parent material. High amount of soil erodibility in southwest area of given study area showed need to more attention for conservation the soil and control erosion.

Ayoubi, S.A

2005-05-01

279

Geographic information system/watershed model interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

Fisher, Gary, T.

1989-01-01

280

Soil bio-engineering for watershed management and disaster mitigation in Ecuador: a short-term species suitability test  

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Full Text Available This paper reports a soil bio-engineering technical assessment program conducted in the Santo Domingo, Ecuador region. Autochthonous plant species survivorship and vegetative growth was evaluated in a short-term palisade experimental regime. Among the four species evaluated, Brugmansia versicolor, Malvaviscus penduliflorus, and Trichanthera gigantea performed well, evidenced by > 70% survivorship, however Euphorbia cotinifolia exhibited increased mortality (59%. Significant differences and notable variability in terminal shoot length and stem diameter among species indicated further study is warranted in growth parameters.

Preti F

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelašnica watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serbia’s hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the land’s capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and th...

Risti? Ratko; Radi? Boris; Vasiljevi? Nevena; Niki? Zoran

2011-01-01

282

Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis – a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis) landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR) of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due t...

2011-01-01

283

Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of Nairobi. A dam was constructed in 1994 with a water reservoir of 70 million m3. Thika River also supplies water to Masinga Reservoir to supply the seven forks dams, which together supply 75% of the nation's electricity. The quantity of water in rivers and reservoirs is decreased due to sedimentation while water quality is degraded by sediments, and sediment-borne nutrients and pesticides. The focus of this pilot twinning project is watershed erosion and reservoir sedimentation assessment. This will be accomplished by (1) a rapid watershed/catchment erosion assessment using ground based measurements and remote sensing/GIS techniques, 2) use of Acoustic Profiling Systems (APS) for reservoir sedimentation measurement studies, and 3) advanced water quality modeling using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. Data acquired will be used for sediment transport modeling to1) determine sediment "hot spots" and management practices that will minimize sediments into reservoirs in order to 2) maintain the reservoirs on which many farmers depend for their livelihood and a cleaner environment. This project will provide an opportunity for 1) sharing knowledge and experience among the stakeholders, 2) building capacity through formal and informal education opportunities through reciprocal hosting of decision makers and water experts, and 3) technology transfer of pilot results with recommended management practices to reduce reservoir sedimentation rates.

Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

2007-12-01

284

Santa Rita Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

The Southwest Water Resource Center/ USDA provides data on precipitation and runoff, and meteorological data for the Santa Rita Experimental Watersheds in Arizona. Data are available in .zip, .tar.z, or .txt formats, with accompanying instructions for downloading.

285

An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas  

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Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

Shang-Lien Lo

2012-10-01

286

Groundwater Flow in Mountain Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountain watersheds are unique high-relief environments that exhibit geological, landscape, climate, and other characteristics that are distinctive from other types of watersheds/basins. As such, they give rise to complex groundwater systems that circulate water over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation highlights the results of two modeling studies that were conducted to investigate deep groundwater flow processes within mountain watersheds in British Columbia, Canada. The first study focuses on a headwater catchment, and demonstrates that extending the model domain into the bedrock and allowing groundwater to exit the catchment does not compromise the calibration. Deep groundwater loss is estimated at up to 6% of the annual water balance. The second study focuses on deep groundwater flow within the mountain block, which contributes to mountain front recharge. Mountain front recharge is an important source of water to valley-bottom aquifers. Mountain front recharge derives from both mountain streams, which gain water as baseflow from deeply circulating groundwater, and mountain block recharge, which is the subsurface discharge of deep groundwater from the bedrock mountain block to the valley bottom sediments. Baseflow in the mountain streams is found to be sensitive to changes in groundwater recharge across the mountain block.

Allen, Diana; Voeckler, Hendrik; Welch, Laurie

2014-05-01

287

Improving the stochastic watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stochastic watershed is an unsupervised segmentation tool recently proposed by Angulo and Jeulin. By repeated application of the seeded watershed with randomly placed markers, a probability density function for object boundaries is created. In a second step, the algorithm then generates a meaningful segmentation of the image using this probability density function. The method performs best when the image contains regions of similar size, since it tends to break up larger regions and merge...

Bernander, Karl B.; Gustavsson, Kenneth; Selig, Bettina; Sintorn, Ida-maria; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.

2013-01-01

288

Multi-Layer Assessment of Land Use and Related Changes for Decision Support in a Coastal Zone Watershed  

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Full Text Available In order to address the challenges in coastal regions, there is the need to understand the extent and impacts of past changes and their implications for future management. Land use data and remotely-sensed imagery are often used to provide insights into these changes. Often, however, existing land use data are inconsistent, thus differences observed through their analyses could also be attributable to error. The use of multiple layers of data, in addition and as related to basic land use layers, has been suggested in the literature as a method to mitigate such error. This study used existing land use data, population, stream flow, climate and water quality data with a view to determining what information could be discerned from multi-layer analyses and whether or how it could be used in watershed-level management decision making. Results showed that all the datasets provided useful, but not necessarily complemental, insights into spatial and temporal changes occurring in the watershed. The information obtained did, however, provide a broader perspective on watershed dynamics, which would be useful for watershed-level decision making. Overall, the multi-layer approach was found suitable in the absence of consistent land use data, provided results were interpreted in context, considering the historical perspective and with a working knowledge of the watershed.

Margaret Gitau

2012-12-01

289

Implementation of watershed based image segmentation algorithm in FPGA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The watershed algorithm is a commonly used method of solving the image segmentation problem. However, of the many variants of the watershed algorithm not all are equally well suited for hardware implementation. Different algorithms are studied and the watershed algorithm based on connected components is selected for the implementation, as it exhibits least computational complexity, good segmentation quality and can be implemented in the FPGA. It has simplified memory access compared to all ot...

Ruparelia, Sameer

2012-01-01

290

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisati...

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

291

An improved watershed-based SAR image segmentation algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

The watershed transform is a well-established tool for image segmentation. However, watershed segmentation is often not effective for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images which are generally corrupted by coherent speckle noise. This paper presents a novel approach for SAR image segmentation using watershed segmentation algorithm combined with Otsu. The aim of this study is to improve the generalization of watershed techniques and to construct a well segmentation of SAR images. Typically, Otsu is used to produce inner mark and external mark. Then we use the mark to modify the gradient image of the SAR image. Additionally, rather than flooding the gradient image, we use the gradient image modified by the mark as input to the watershed algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the improved watershed-based SAR segmentation.

Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Jiao, Licheng; Zhang, Xiangrong

2009-10-01

292

Application of a virtual watershed in academic education  

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Full Text Available Hydrologic models of watersheds often represent complex systems which are difficult to understand regarding to their structure and dynamics. Virtual watersheds, i.e. watersheds which exist only in the virtual reality of a computer system, are an approach to simplify access to this real-world complexity. In this study we present the virtual watershed KIELSHED-1, a 117 km2 v-shaped valley with grassland on a "Cambisol" soil type. Two weather scenarios are delivered with the watershed: a simplified artificial weather scenario based on long-term data of a German weather station as well as an unmodified data record. The input data and parameters are compiled according to the conventions of the SWAT 2000 hydrological model. KIELSHED-1 is mainly used for education, and illustrative application examples, i.e. calculation of water balance, model calibration, development of land use scenarios, give an insight to the capabilities of the virtual watershed.

A. L. Horn

2005-01-01

293

Integrated Landsat Image Analysis and Hydrologic Modeling to Detect Impacts of 25-Year Land-Cover Change on Surface Runoff in a Philippine Watershed  

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Full Text Available Landsat MSS and ETM+ images were analyzed to detect 25-year land-cover change (1976–2001 in the critical Taguibo Watershed in Mindanao Island, Southern Philippines. This watershed has experienced historical modifications of its land-cover due to the presence of logging industries in the 1950s, and continuous deforestation due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture in the present time. To estimate the impacts of land-cover change on watershed runoff, land-cover information derived from the Landsat images was utilized to parameterize a GIS-based hydrologic model. The model was then calibrated with field-measured discharge data and used to simulate the responses of the watershed in its year 2001 and year 1976 land-cover conditions. The availability of land-cover information on the most recent state of the watershed from the Landsat ETM+ image made it possible to locate areas for rehabilitation such as barren and logged-over areas. We then created a “rehabilitated” land-cover condition map of the watershed (re-forestation of logged-over areas and agro-forestation of barren areas and used it to parameterize the model and predict the runoff responses of the watershed. Model results showed that changes in land-cover from 1976 to 2001 were directly related to the significant increase in surface runoff. Runoff predictions showed that a full rehabilitation of the watershed, especially in barren and logged-over areas, will be likely to reduce the generation of a huge volume of runoff during rainfall events. The results of this study have demonstrated the usefulness of multi-temporal Landsat images in detecting land-cover change, in identifying areas for rehabilitation, and in evaluating rehabilitation strategies for management of tropical watersheds through its use in hydrologic modeling.

Enrico Paringit

2011-05-01

294

Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Watershed Services of the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City, Philippines  

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Full Text Available Watersheds provide numerous ecosystem services to downstream communities often with no cost to them. Although these services are valuable to humans, they do not have monetary values attached to them, making their total economic value quite ambiguous. This ambiguity results in the non-optimal use of the natural resources that leads to the degradation of the watersheds. One approach that could address this issue is payments for ecological services (PES. The main objective of this study was to estimate the willingness-to-pay for improved watershed services by domestic water users within the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City. It employed the contingent valuation method to assess the willingness to pay of water users. More than 50% of the respondents voted positively to the referendum question which is whether they are willing to pay a certain amount for the conservation of the Layawan Watershed or not. The computed mean willingness to pay amounts were Php 57.48 and Php 53.89 per month per household for the parametric and non-parametric estimations, respectively. These amounts translate to 0.68% of the average monthly household income of the sample respondents, which is approximately Php 8 198.84. The amounts computed may serve as bases for a water user fee that may be collected from the domestic water users in the Layawan Watershed as buyers of the watershed services.

Margaret Mejorada Calderon

2012-12-01

295

Water Quality, Contamination, and Wetlands in the Croton Watershed, New York, USA  

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Full Text Available The Croton Watershed (New York State, USA is a semi-urban region that provides 10% of the drinking water for the City of New York. Nonpoint source contamination in the watershed is a major concern for managers because the water supply is currently unfiltered water. Results are reported from three synoptic studies of surface water quality from 98 wetland-containing sub-catchments in the Croton Watershed designed to broadly characterize, at a reconnaissance level, the geochemical controls on water quality, in particular as it relates to wetlands. Total dissolved organic carbon concentrations in surface waters draining wetlands correlated well (average R2 of 0.93 with standard Gelbstoff (g440 color measurements, although there is very little correlation between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and wetland areas in the sub-catchments. This may be a potential indication of other sources of colored organic material. Concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride, while related to road length, stochiometrically had more chloride than expected for pure road-salt dissolution. This offset is likely due to cation exchange and sorbtion of sodium by wetlands in the Croton watershed. The results show contamination in the Croton hydrologic system that should addressed in ongoing management policies and decision-making.

Jeffrey M. McKenzie

2012-01-01

296

Morphological, physical and pedogenetic attributes related to water yield in small watersheds in Guarapari/ES, Brazil Atributos morfológicos, físicos e pedogenéticos relacionados com a "produção de água" em microbacias do município de Guarapari, ES, Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil characteristics related to the genesis, land use and management are important factors in water dynamics in watersheds. This study evaluated physical, morphological and pedogenetic attributes related to water yield potential in small watersheds in Guarapari, ES, Brazil. The following representative profiles were selected, morphologically described and sampled in area of Atlantic Forest domain: Lithic Udifolists, Oxyaquic Udifluventes, Typic Paleudults, Typic Hapludults, Typic Hapludox, Ox...

Alexson de Mello Cunha; João Luiz Lani; Liovando Marciano da Costa; Elpídio Inácio Fernandes Filho; Eufran Ferreira do Amaral

2011-01-01

297

A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality  

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The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P) related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest f...

Miller, Watkins W.; Johnson, Dale W.; Karam, Sarah L.; Walker, Roger F.; Weisberg, Peter J.

2010-01-01

298

The Effects of Land use on Hydrological Response at Various Scales in the Upper Reventazon Watershed, Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humid tropical areas generally receive large amounts of rain with high intensities, which can result in traumatic flooding events. Frequently, land use and land use change are mentioned as major influences on the intensity of these flooding events. In response to these scientific claims national governments, such as Costa Rica, have developed payment programs (Environmental Service Payments (PSAs)) directed at specific land owners within watersheds to modify their management. However, the effect of land use on hydrological response is studied at a variety of geographical and temporal scales. Linking hydrological processes at one scale to another scale often proves to be a complex task. In this study, we investigated how land use affects hydrological response at the point, plot (1 m2), field (1-6ha), watershed (130 km2) and regional watershed scale (1500 km2) in the upper Reventazon watershed near Turrialba, Costa Rica. To determine how land use modifies hydrological processes, we conducted a soil survey; used double ring infiltrometers; monitored seasonal differences in soil moisture; performed irrigation experiments to monitor soil moisture and wetting fronts; performed irrigated dye experiments; installed flumes; developed land cover maps for different time periods, used historical hydrological data, and a distributed hydrological model. At the smaller scales, we investigated several different land covers: forest, a coffee agroforestry system, sugar cane, and pasture. At the point and plot scales, the presence of macropores, roots, and management artifacts (e.g., surface compaction and a plough layer) altered the hydrological processes within the soils. At the field scale, surface infiltration, macropores, antecedent moisture contents, and topography were major influences upon runoff generation. At the watershed and regional scales, subsurface lateral flow and base flow increased in importance for runoff generation. For payment programs to succeed at directing field scale management for entire watershed effects, appropriate parameters need to be identified to link the hydrological processes between the various scales.

Toohey, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Jones, J.

2008-12-01

299

Water fluxes and their control on the terrestrial carbon balance: Results from a stable isotope study on the Clyde Watershed (Scotland)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gradients between precipitation and runoff quantities as well as their water isotopes were used to establish a water balance in the Clyde River Basin (Scotland). This study serves as an example for a European extreme with poorly vegetated land cover and high annual rainfall and presents novel water stable isotope techniques to separate evaporation, interception and transpiration with annual averages of 0.029 km3 a-1, 0.220 km3 a-1 and 0.489 km3 a-1, respectively. Transpiration was further used to determine CO2 uptake of the entire basin and yielded an annual net primary production (NPP) of 352 x 109 g C (Giga gram) or 185.2 g C m-2. Compared to other temperate areas in the world, the Clyde Basin has only half the expected NPP. This lower value likely results from the type of vegetation cover, which consists mostly of grasslands. Subtracting the annual heterotrophic soil respiration flux (Rh) of 392 Gg (206.1 g C m-2 a-1) from the NPP yielded an annual Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of -40 Gg C, thus showing the Clyde Watershed as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite the unusual character of the Clyde Watershed, the study shows that areas with predominant grass and scrub vegetation still have transpirational water losses that by far exceed those of pure evaporation and interception. This infers that vegetation can influence the continental water balances on time scales of years to decades

2007-12-01

300

A STUDY OF MANAGING LIQUIDITY  

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Full Text Available

Since privatisation, to ensure swift economic development it was deemed essential that a sound steel production program on a formidable basis must be formulated. Accordingly, the private sector has set up many more integrated steel plants and enhanced the existing plants to increase current production capacity. To some extent the priority given by the country failed to flourish due to poor capacity, under-utilisation and poor consumption. Working capital is accountable for poor capacity, under-utilisation and poor consumption. The competence of the working capital in terms of short-term liquidity is of foremost significance in the case where we examine performs and guiding principle presently overcoming in an industry with a view to finding out whether they are reasonable or require enhancement. The effectiveness of working capital is of crucial importance if short-term liquidity position as well as short-term solvency position is very acceptable and at the same time, if judgement is made with its standard or benchmark. The overall efficiency is vital from the viewpoint of short-term liquidity and at the same time proper plane of profitability is required for the business enterprises. Consequently, the affiliation between short-term liquidity and profitability is one of the most imperative areas necessitating management analysis. Keeping this in view, a study of liquidity management of the selected private sector steel companies is undertaken in the present work.

Somnath MuKhuti

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Using NEXRAD Radar Rainfall to Calibrate a Development Impact Model in a Coastal Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Low slopes and shallow, impermeable soils are characteristic of the Upper Texas Gulf Coast. These, coupled with large rainfall events, contribute to wide floodplains and ponding. Rapid, high intensity development has further exacerbated flooding in this coastal region. The Clear Creek Watershed is located in southeast Houston and empties into Galveston Bay. During the past decade, the watershed has been impacted by significant historical coastal storms and rainfall events such as Tropical Storm Allison (2001), Hurricane Ike (2008), and the April 2009 Event. In this study, we employ a calibrated, distributed hydrologic model and pre- and LID-development models to analyze how development characteristics have contributed to costly flooding in coastal watersheds. In 2012, Brody et al. used FEMA floodclaims collected over the 11-year period between 1999 and 2009 to examine the pattern of flood loss across the Clear Creek watershed. The results showed that the 100-year floodplain did not adequately represent overall or event-specific loss. Using a spatial cluster analysis, the Turkey Creek sub-area of the Clear Creek watershed was pin-pointed as an area of statistically significant flood loss, an area where there were a considerable number of high-value flood claims. This area is characterized by high-density, poorly constructed development and frequent flooding. In parallel with Brody's study of flood-risk indicators, our study aims to examine the behavior of the flood-wave in the coastal watershed and how it is affected by different development patterns. A distributed hydrologic VfloTM model was built for Turkey Creek using 2008 CCAP land cover data and calibrated using NEXRAD radar rainfall for the Hurricane Ike (2008) and April 2009 events. Once the model was calibrated, both pre- and LID-development models were built using historical land cover data. These models were used to identify how development patterns have influence the flood hydrograph. Early results indicate that the construction of impervious surfaces has greatly increased the flood peak and shortened the time to peak of the flood wave. The study will go further to identify the measures that may be taken to reduce flooding in the Clear Creek Watershed and attempt to extrapolate the best management practices for low impact development in coastal watersheds.

Sebastian, A.; Bedient, P.

2012-12-01

302

Optimizing Streamgage Network through Spatial Evolutionary Algorithms toward Digital Watershed Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The streamflow gage network is at the base of the infrastructure of any digital watershed that is supposed to provide reliable, dynamic, online streamflow and water quality information for watershed management. The task for streamgage network optimization is to decide the location of gages and the concomitant link to reliability of water management decisions. The gage network is modeled as a large-scale spatial system, which brings challenges because large-scale spatial problems are computationally expensive for traditional optimization methods. However, spatial patterns (information) provide some opportunities for upgrading regular optimization algorithms for spatial problems. Spatial Evolutionary Algorithms (SEA) is designed to incorporate the spatial knowledge of the system into an evolutionary algorithm. A hierarchical tree structure is designed to encode the spatial datasets in the gage network and shows an increased computational efficiency for large-scale spatial problems. Adopting the tree structure, we design and implement the operators of crossover and mutation, which forms the unique elements of the newly developed SEA. Specifically, splitting and merging procedures based on sensitivity in the mutation operation introduce exploitation into mutation and helps to speed up the optimal search; crossover swaps the nodes within the same area between individuals, maintains locally good information and passes it on to future generations. This study applies the SEA to a case study watershed, the Salt Creek watershed. The streamgage network refinement is defined as a multi-objective optimization problem to maximize the effectiveness of the network extension and minimize the cost. A consistent framework is developed to integrate the model calibration and streamflow gage network optimization. We employ Cross-Entropy (CE) as a measure of incremental information gain and maximize CE to search for the optimal network refinement. The results from the case study watershed demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the SEA. Expansion of the method for sensor network design is also discussed.

Wang, J.; Cai, X.

2008-12-01

303

Multi-Scale Drought Analysis using Thermal Remote Sensing: A Case Study in Georgia’s Altamaha River Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented recent droughts in the Southeast US caused reservoir levels to drop dangerously low, elevated wildfire hazard risks, reduced hydropower generation and caused severe economic hardships. Most drought indices are based on recent rainfall or changes in vegetation condition. However in heterogeneous landscapes, soils and vegetation (type and cover) combine to differentially stress regions even under similar weather conditions. This is particularly true for the heterogeneous landscapes and highly variable rainfall in the Southeastern United States. This research examines the spatiotemperal evolution of watershed scale drought using a remotely sensed stress index. Using thermal-infrared imagery, a fully automated inverse model of Atmosphere-Land Exchange (ALEXI), GIS datasets and analysis tools, modeled daily surface moisture stress is examined at a 10-km resolution grid covering central to southern Georgia. Regional results are presented for the 2000-2008 period. The ALEXI evaporative stress index (ESI) is compared to existing regional drought products and validated using local hydrologic measurements in Georgia’s Altamaha River watershed at scales from 10 to 10,000 km2.

Jacobs, J. M.; Bhat, S.; Choi, M.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Anderson, M. C.

2009-12-01

304

Experimental Study of Splash Erosion and Its Relation With Some Soil Properties in Three Adjacent Land Uses (A Case Study: Kasilian Watershed  

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Full Text Available As the first event in soil erosion, rain splash erosion causes movement of soil fragments. Splash is an important process in interrill erosion. The amount of soil particles detached from the surface is associated with soil and rain characteristics and may be affected by rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility. Therefore, in this study, splash erosion rate and its relation with some soil properties were studied. 120 soil samples were collected from three adjacent land uses including forest, rangeland and agriculture in two depths of 0-10 and10-20 cm in Kasilian Watershed. Soil samples were investigated under the experimental condition using splash cup and rainfall simulator. Results showed no significant differences between splash erosion in different land uses. Cultivated and rangeland soils were found to show a significantly lower organic matter (OM by 59.93% and 33.62% in depth (0-10cm and 33.33% and 25.59% in depth (10-20cm, respectively. We also found significance positive correlation between percent of silt and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.69, p=0.018 and significance negative correlation between soil organic matter and splash erosion rate in rangeland (r=0.767, p=0.001 and significance positive correlation between K-USLE and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.00, p=0.758.

M. Rezaie Pasha

2012-03-01

305

Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students’ ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial management.

Zhenghong Che; Zhengmei Che

2011-01-01

306

Study of International Standards of Risk Management  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

Dykan Volodymyr L.

2014-01-01

307

Impacts and socio-ecological feedbacks associated with regionalization of water supply in a suburban New England watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Suburban watersheds often rely on locally derived ecosystem services such as water supply, even as these services are threatened by existing land use and land-use change patterns. At some point, the ability of the watershed to provide such services may become impaired. Socio-ecological feedbacks are likely to emerge, leading to more active management of locally derived water provisioning services, or replacement of services generated locally with those from more distant locations. We applied a spatially distributed hydrological model to explore the impact of multiple interacting and spatially varying human activities, including feedbacks, on the hydrology of a suburban watershed in the Boston, MA, metropolitan area, the Ipswich R. watershed. We accounted for the role of impervious surfaces, lawns and lawn watering, septic systems, and water use, as well as several socio-ecological feedbacks evident in the region (water bans, regional import). The result of human activities on the landscape is that most of the river system is wetter than a hypothetical pristine condition (predicted mean basin runoff during summers of 0.65 mm per day in contemporary vs. 0.10 mm per day in pristine). However, water withdrawals along the large main stem river remove some of this excess, resulting in a reduced net effect of human activities at the large watershed scale (predicted mean basin runoff of 0.54 mm per day). Recent feedbacks in response to low flows have resulted in increasing importance of imported water supplies, removing local constraint to further development. Because suburban watersheds continue to rely on local ecosystem services, suburban watersheds may be useful model systems within which to study socio-ecological feedbacks.

Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.; Polsky, C.; Pontius, R.; Hopkinson, C.

2012-12-01

308

Information Management in Communication Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An introduction to the concept of Information Management. Its close relation to other disciplines, the tasks it covers and its impact in Information Society. Digital citizens and Information Literacy.

Alemany Marti?nez, Dolores

2011-01-01

309

Hydrological Modeling in a watershed of the Lower Araguaia River Basin, TO  

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Full Text Available Hydrological simulation is an important tool for water resources management since it allows for practitioners toevaluate the impacts of anthropic activities and climatic changes on water availability. The Lontra River watershedis situated in the Lower Araguaia River Basin which is an important economic region of Northern Tocantins State.The understanding of its hydrological features is fundamental for the development of environmental studies forsupporting the decision-making related to the water resources management as strong pressure has been observeddue to both the agricultural frontier expansion and installed economic center. The LASH hydrological model (standsfor Lavras Simulation of Hydrology is characterized as a deterministic, semi conceptual and spatially distributedmodel and has been successfully applied in watersheds located in Southeastern Brazil. It was found in this study thatthe model was able to adequately capture the overall hydrological regime in the studied watershed. Three statisticalcoefficients used for measuring the model goodness-of-fit, Nash-Sutcliffe (CNS, Log (CNS and determinationcoefficient (R², have shown values greater than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.90, respectively. The simulated flow duration curvepresented a good fit in relation to the observed one, with small errors for prediction of minimum and maximumstream flows. Thus, we can be conclude that LASH model simulated properly the hydrological regime in the LontraRiver Watershed and it can be applied for either evaluation water availability or planning and management ofwater resources in the Lower Araguaia River Basin.

Marcelo Ribeiro Viola

2012-01-01

310

Optiman Antecedent Precipitation Indices for Small Eastern Watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study used 98 flood events on 12 watersheds located throughout Pennsylvania. Watershed areas ranged from 4 to 175 square miles. Search for an optimal antecedent precipitation index led to using the classical API, (total rain fall in a period of days p...

D. A. Telleck

1973-01-01

311

The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia, U.S.A  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FIB and pathogens in stream water and sediment based on three land management-affected categories: agricultural, forest, and waters receiving treated municipal wastewater. Two synoptic sampling events were conducted under baseflow conditions (Campylobacter and Listeria spp. were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected at 15 locations (six agricultural (AG); six forested (FORS); and three receiving discharge from water pollution control plants (WPCP)) in the S. Fork Broad River watershed located in northeast Georgia, USA. Mean E. coli and E. faecalis concentrations were highest in the AG stream water samples (3.08 log MPN 100 mL -1 for E. coli and 3.07 log CFU 100 mL -1 for E. faecalis ) and lowest in the FORS water samples for E. coli (2.37 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) and WPCP water samples for E. faecalis (2.53 log CFU 100 mL -1 ). E. coli concentrations (2.74 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) in the WPCP streams were intermediate. Similar to water samples, E. coli concentrations were highest in the AG sediments (4.31 log MPN g -1 ), intermediate in the WPCP sediments (4.06 log MPN g -1 ), and lowest in the FORS sediments (3.46 log MPN g -1 ). In contrast to E. coli, E. faecalis concentrations were lower (1.10 to 1.31 log CFU g -1 ) and relatively more constant than E. coli in sediments over the three land management categories. Campylobacter was detected in 27% of the water samples and 8% of the sediment samples. The highest occurrence of Campylobacter detection was in the AG streams (15% of the water samples; 5% of the sediment samples). Listeria was detected in 76% of the water samples and 65% of the sediment samples. The FORS and AG streams had the highest occurrence of Listeria in water and sediment (32% and 29% of the water samples, respectively; 24% and 29% of sediment samples, respectively) suggesting Listeria is fairly ubiquitous in these streams. Based on the high concentrations of E. faecalis in water and E. coli in water and sediment, and higher frequency of Campylobacter detection in the AG streams, this study indicates that E. coli and Campylobacter may occur in high concentrations in stream sediments in land management areas where fecal material is deposited directly by livestock into the stream or adjacent land in large doses.

Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Sullivan, K.; Oakley, B.; Berrang, M.; Meinersmann, R.

2013-12-01

312

Micro - Watershed Development Plans Using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques Panoli Village, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, Iindia  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable development aims at maintaining the equilibrium between the human needs and economic developments within the parameters of environmental conservation through efficient use of natural resources to ensure tradeoff between desired productions - consumption levels. The well-known Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as a "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In essence, the sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and instrumental changes, all are in harmony". The sustainable development of natural resources is based on maintaining the fragile ecosystem balance between the productivity functions and conservation practices through monitoring and identification of problem areas, agricultural practices, crop rotation, use of bio-fertilizers, energy efficient farming methods and reclamation of underutilized lands. Sustainable development requires a holistic approach towards natural resources after taking into account the precarious environmental conditions. Watershed development has become the main involvement in natural resource management in India. This Dissertation demonstrates the use of Remote Sensing and GIS-based modeling framework for local-level planning, incorporating the sustainability aspects of Micro-watershed development. A case study has been taken in Panoli Village, Parner Taluka, Ahmanagar District, Maharashtra state to demonstrate the implementation of these new technologies for watershed prioritization and sustainable development. Watershed development and its management is achieved through the combination of database within the watershed boundaries of a drainage area to optimally develop land, water and plant resources to meet the basic minimum needs of the people in a sustained manner.;

Purushothuman, S.

2013-05-01

313

Watershed assessment and in-stream monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a brief introduction to fundamental issues for watershed and regional assessments and identifies the needs for physical, chemical, and biological monitoring and research to be designed and integrated to support such assessments. Regional management requires organizing paradigms or conceptual models, and an assessment framework can serve this purpose; risk assessment is used as an example. Spatial scale (watersheds and ecoregions) can also serve as a strong organizing paradigm for management The role of federal and state monitoring and assessment programs is discussed with examples for biomonitoring. The two classes of biomonitoring methods are discussed: ecological surveys and toxicity testing. Biological criteria can provide an appropriate reference for monitoring and assessment and can establish statistical and ecological (practical) significance. This paper is based on Chapter 5 of Water Environment Federation`s new book, Biomonitoring, in the Water Environment.

Hunsaker, C.T.

1997-11-01

314

Development of a tool for managing groundwater resources in semi-arid hard rock regions: application to a rural watershed in South India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until recently, aquifers located in hard rock formations (granite, gneiss, schist) were considered as a highly heterogeneous media, and no adequate methodology for groundwater management was available. Recent research studies have shown that when hard rocks are exposed to regional and deep-weathering processes and when the geology is relatively homogenous, a typical hard rock aquifer is made of two main superimposed hydrogeological layers each characterized by quite homogeneous specific hydro...

Dewandel, Benoit; Perrin, Je?ro?me; Ahmed, S.; Aulong, Ste?phanie; Hrkal, Z.; Lachassagne, Patrick; Samad, M.; Massuel, S.

2010-01-01

315

Bed coarsening, riffle shortening, and channel enlargement in urbanizing watersheds, northern Kentucky, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Stream systems naturally respond to watershed land use dynamics, particularly in urban developments with unmanaged impervious areas. Such urban-provoked alterations to channel morphology cause water quality impairments, have adverse effects on aquatic biota, and pose risks to adjacent public infrastructure. Over the past four years we have collected detailed hydrogeomorphic data at 40 unique stream locations throughout northern Kentucky, with at least two rounds of annually repeated surveys at 70% of the sites and three rounds of surveys at 50% of the sites. Analysis of this time-series data encompassed measured rates of instability across three distinct dimensions including (1) channel cross sections, (2) longitudinal profiles, and (3) bed material particle composition. Regression analyses between geomorphic change and 2011 watershed imperviousness indicated stream cross sections in urban/suburban watersheds tend to be getting larger—their overall shape is both deepening and widening. Additionally, stream riffle lengths are shrinking and their pools are becoming both longer and deeper; and finally, their bed material composition is coarsening, particularly in streams in the early stages of watershed development. By documenting fluvial geomorphologic dynamics in such detail, this study highlights the process by which unmitigated urbanization homogenizes stream habitat and degrades aquatic ecosystems. This improved, process-based understanding of the urban-induced channel response sequence has clear implications to both stormwater management and stream/ecosystem restoration, particularly in stream systems where headcut migration is a primary driver of channel instability.

Hawley, Robert J.; MacMannis, Katherine R.; Wooten, Matthew S.

2013-11-01

316

Simulation of Runoff and Sediment Yield for a Himalayan Watershed Using SWAT Model  

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Full Text Available Watershed is considered to be the ideal unit for management of the natural resources. Extraction of water-shed parameters using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS and use of mathematical models is the current trend for hydrologic evaluation of watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT having an interface with ArcView GIS software (AVSWAT2000/X was selected for the estimation of runoff and sediment yield from an area of Suni to Kasol, an intermediate watershed of Satluj river, located in Western Himalayan region. The model was calibrated for the years 1993 & 1994 and validated with the observed runoff and sediment yield for the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the run-off and sediment yield from the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2 for the daily and monthly runoff was obtained as 0.53 and 0.90 respectively for the calibration period and 0.33 and 0.62 respectively for the validation period. The R2 value in estimating the daily and monthly sediment yield during calibration was computed as 0.33 and 0.38 respectively. The R2 for daily and monthly sediment yield values for 1995 to 1997 was observed to be 0.26 and 0.47.

Sanjay K. Jain

2010-04-01

317

Implementation of BMP Strategies for Adaptation to Climate Change and Land Use Change in a Pasture-Dominated Watershed  

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Full Text Available Implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs can reduce non-point source (NPS pollutants from various land use activities. Watershed models are generally used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMP performance in improving water quality as the basis for watershed management recommendations. This study evaluates 171 management practice combinations that incorporate nutrient management, vegetated filter strips (VFS and grazing management for their performances in improving water quality in a pasture-dominated watershed with dynamic land use changes during 1992–2007 by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. These selected BMPs were further examined with future climate conditions (2010–2069 downscaled from three general circulation models (GCMs for understanding how climate change may impact BMP performance. Simulation results indicate that total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP losses increase with increasing litter application rates. Alum-treated litter applications resulted in greater TN losses, and fewer TP losses than the losses from untreated poultry litter applications. For the same litter application rates, sediment and TP losses are greater for summer applications than fall and spring applications, while TN losses are greater for fall applications. Overgrazing management resulted in the greatest sediment and phosphorus losses, and VFS is the most influential management practice in reducing pollutant losses. Simulations also indicate that climate change impacts TSS losses the most, resulting in a larger magnitude of TSS losses. However, the performance of selected BMPs in reducing TN and TP losses was more stable in future climate change conditions than in the BMP performance in the historical climate condition. We recommend that selection of BMPs to reduce TSS losses should be a priority concern when multiple uses of BMPs that benefit nutrient reductions are considered in a watershed. Therefore, the BMP combination of spring litter application, optimum grazing management and filter strip with a VFS ratio of 42 could be a promising alternative for use in mitigating future climate change.

Tao Huang

2012-10-01

318

Modeling sediment and nitrogen export from a rural watershed in eastern Canada using the soil and water assessment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Watershed simulation models can be used to assess agricultural nonpoint-source pollution and for environmental planning and improvement projects. However, before application of any process-based watershed model, the model performance and reliability must be tested with measured data. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool version 2005 (SWAT2005) was used to model sediment and nitrogen loads from the Thomas Brook Watershed, which drains a 7.84 km rural landscape in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Canada. The Thomas Brook SWAT model was comprised of 28 subbasins and 265 hydrologic response units, most of them containing agricultural land use, which is the main nonpoint nitrogen source in the watershed. Crop rotation schedules were incorporated into the model using field data collected within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices program. Model calibration (2004-2006) and validation (2007-2008) were performed on a monthly basis using continuous stream flow, sediment, and nitrogen export measurements. Model performance was evaluated using the coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) statistics. Study results show that the model performance was satisfactory (NSE > 0.4; > 0.5) for stream flow, sediment, nitrate-nitrogen, and total nitrogen simulations. Annual corn, barley, and wheat yields were also simulated well, with PBIAS values ranging from 0.3 to 7.2%. This evaluation of SWAT demonstrated that the model has the potential to be used as a decision support tool for agricultural watershed management in Nova Scotia. PMID:21712588

Nafees Ahmad, Hafiz M; Sinclair, Andrew; Jamieson, Rob; Madani, Ali; Hebb, Dale; Havard, Peter; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K

2011-01-01

319

Coaching managers : A Q methodological study of managers’ subjective experience of being coaching managers  

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The aim of this study is to explore managers’ subjective experience of having a coaching approach to management. This has been researched through a Q methodological approach where 18 participants sorted a sample of 36 statements based on their subjective experience. These statements were prepared on the basis of a research design which included how managers perceive their role as both manager and coach, how they relate to a focus on process and product, and how they experience the relationa...

2013-01-01

320

An object-oriented watershed management tool (QnD-VFS) to engage stakeholders in targeted implementation of filter strips in an arid surface irrigation area  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural nonpoint source pollution cause the majority of the 1,224 different waterbodies failing to meet designated water use criteria in Washington. Although various best management practices (BMPs) are effective in mitigating agricultural pollutants, BMP placement is often haphazard and fails to address specific high-risk locations. Limited financial resources necessitate optimization of conservation efforts to meet water quality goals. Thus, there is a critical need to develop decision-making tools that target BMP implementation in order to maximize water quality protection. In addition to field parameters, it is essential to incorporate economic and social determinants in the decision-making process to encourage producer involvement. Decision-making tools that identify strategic pollution sources and integrate socio-economic factors will lead to more cost-effective water quality improvement, as well as encourage producer participation by incorporating real-world limitations. Therefore, this study examines vegetative filter strip use under different scenarios as a BMP to mitigate sediment and nutrients in the highly irrigated Yakima River Basin of central Washington. We developed QnD-VFS to integrate and visualize alternative, spatially-explicit, water management strategies and its economic impact. The QnDTM system was created as a decision education tool that incorporates management, economic, and socio- political issues in a user-friendly scenario framework. QnDTM, which incorporates elements of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and risk assessment, is written in object-oriented Java and can be deployed as a stand-alone program or a web-accessed tool. The model performs Euler numerical integration of various rate transformation and mass-balance transfer equations. The novelty of this object-oriented approach is that these differential equations are detailed in modular XML format for instantiation within the Java code. This design allows many levels of complexity to be quickly designed and rendered in QnDTM without time-consuming additions of new Java code. Thus, temporal and spatial scales used in the equations become part of model development and iteration. A salient aspect is that QnDTM links spatial components within GIS (ArcInfo Shape) files to the abiotic (e.g., climate), biotic and chemical/contaminant interactions. QnD-VFS integrates environmental, management and socio-economic/cultural factors identified through stakeholder input. Several scenarios have been studied. Thus one of the main results show that changing water management, improved irrigation, is equivalent to changing length of vegetative filter strips, with a low economic impacts for farmers. Concurrently, these interactive tools allow resource managers to identify economic and social determinants that may impede conservation efforts.

Campo, M. A.; Perez-Ovilla, O.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kiker, G.; Ullman, J. L.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Dissolved Organic Matter: A Case Study of the Boulder Creek Watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) performs a number of vital functions in aquatic ecosystems, playing a substantial role in carbon and nitrogen cycles and the bioavailability of metals as well as generally affecting water chemistry. Additionally, it is considered the main cause of the the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts during water treatment processes. Because DOM is vital for ecosystem functioning, but potentially problematic for some direct human uses of water, it proves a complex case study for the application of the ecosystem services framework. To add to the complexity, human behavior can affect the amount and composition of DOM in water. Increasing concentrations of DOM have been observed in many areas of Northern Europe and North America. Hypotheses which have been suggested to explain these increased concentrations include changing land use, thawing peatlands, increased nitrogen deposition, and a lessening of acid rain, a particularly interesting idea because it would be an unintended consequence of a policy designed to protect other ecosystem functions. This multi-year study investigates DOM in the Boulder Creek Watershed in Colorado to better understand seasonal cycling of DOM and the link between DOM in the river and organic matter in the catchment, which is a substantial DOM source. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical character of the DOM in an attempt to elucidate the watershed processes driving changes in DOM concentration. Because flow in Boulder Creek is partially controlled by Barker dam and reservoir, this study site provides an opportunity to investigate both natural DOM cycling and the impact of an anthropogenic influence. By better understanding DOM cycling and the ecosystem services it provides, we can better predict how DOM dynamics may shift in the future and be prepared to adjust our behavior and water treatment processes accordingly.

Gabor, R. S.; McKnight, D. M.

2011-12-01

322

Regolith formation rate from U-series nuclides: Implications from the study of a spheroidal weathering profile in the Rio Icacos watershed (Puerto Rico)  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 m-thick spheroidal weathering profile, developed on a quartz diorite in the Rio Icacos watershed (Luquillo Mountains, eastern Puerto Rico), was analyzed for major and trace element concentrations, Sr and Nd isotopic ratios and U-series nuclides (238U-234U-230Th-226Ra). In this profile a 40 cm thick soil horizon is overlying a 150 cm thick saprolite which is separated from the basal corestone by a ˜40 cm thick rindlet zone. The Sr and Nd isotopic variations along the whole profile imply that, in addition to geochemical fractionations associated to water-rock interactions, the geochemical budget of the profile is influenced by a significant accretion of atmospheric dusts. The mineralogical and geochemical variations along the profile also confirm that the weathering front does not progress continuously from the top to the base of the profile. The upper part of the profile is probably associated with a different weathering system (lateral weathering of upper corestones) than the lower part, which consists of the basal corestone, the associated rindlet system and the saprolite in contact with these rindlets. Consequently, the determination of weathering rates from 238U-234U-230Th-226Ra disequilibrium in a series of samples collected along a vertical depth profile can only be attempted for samples collected in the lower part of the profile, i.e. the rindlet zone and the lower saprolite. Similar propagation rates were derived for the rindlet system and the saprolite by using classical models involving loss and gain processes for all nuclides to interpret the variation of U-series nuclides in the rindlet-saprolite subsystem. The consistency of these weathering rates with average weathering and erosion rates derived via other methods for the whole watershed provides a new and independent argument that, in the Rio Icacos watershed, the weathering system has reached a geomorphologic steady-state. Our study also indicates that even in environments with differential weathering, such as observed for the Puerto Rico site, the radioactive disequilibrium between the nuclides of a single radioactive series (here 238U-234U-230Th-226Ra) can still be interpreted in terms of a simplified scenario of congruent weathering. Incidentally, the U-Th-Ra disequilibrium in the corestone samples confirms that the outermost part of the corestone is already weathered.

Chabaux, F.; Blaes, E.; Stille, P.; di Chiara Roupert, R.; Pelt, E.; Dosseto, A.; Ma, L.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

2013-01-01

323

Potential use by attributes morphometric soil of the upper Meia Ponte watershed, Goiás  

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Full Text Available Planning and environmental management are necessary to manage land use and to assess the suitability of land in order to maximize agricultural productivity by designing an operating system capable of sustaining human activities with minimal disruption to physical, ecological and social processes. In order to ensure the rational use of natural resources with regard to various types of soil, the physical, chemical, and morphometric characteristics of the watershed must be evaluated in order to determine the proper intensity of cultivation and soil management to avoid the loss of productive capacity due to erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphometric attributes in relation to the distribution of soils in the landscape and to suggest potential alternative land uses based upon the roughness coefficient in the watershed of the upper Meia Ponte river, Goiás. Among the variables necessary to watershed planning, morphometric analysis of soil characteristics and topography has proven to be of great importance in defining its potential and characteristics with respect to water dynamics. This analysis allowed us to infer that runoff in Inceptisols and Ultisols soil classes is greater than in Oxisols. Based upon the analysis of the morphometric data, soil, and roughness coefficient, it was possible to conclude that the optimal use of the basin is for agriculture and cattle grazing, provided that the areas of natural vegetation and reforestation are preserved.

Virlei Álvaro de Oliveira

2013-04-01

324

Segmentation of Medical Image using Clustering and Watershed Algorithms  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging. Segmentation of an image is the division or separation of the image into dissimilar regions of similar attribute. In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates clustering algorithm and marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm for medical image segmentation. The use of the conservative watershed algorithm for medical image analysis is pervasive because of its advantages, such as always being able to construct an entire division of the image. On the other hand, its disadvantages include over segmentation and sensitivity to false edges. Approach: In this study we proposed a methodology that integrates K-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm and integrates Fuzzy C-Means clustering with marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm separately for medical image segmentation. The Clustering algorithms are unsupervised learning algorithms, while the marker controlled watershed segmentation algorithm makes use of automated thresholding on the gradient magnitude map and post-segmentation merging on the initial partitions to reduce the number of false edges and over-segmentation. Results: In this study, we compared K-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm with Fuzzy C-means clustering and marker controlled watershed algorithm. And also we showed that our proposed method produced segmentation maps which gave fewer partitions than the segmentation maps produced by the conservative watershed algorithm. Conclusion: Integration of K-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm gave better segmentation than integration of Fuzzy C-means clustering with marker controlled watershed algorithm. By reducing the amount of over segmentation, we obtained a segmentation map which is more diplomats of the several anatomies in the medical images.

M. C.J. Christ

2011-01-01

325

Prediction of sediment associated Organic mater loss in a Hyrcanian watershed, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suspended sediment moving in watershed provides a path way for the transport of sediment associated contaminant. Information on sediment and nutrient export from catchments and about related erosive processes is required by catchment managers and decision-makers. Presently, only the MUSLE model is preferably applied in storm-wise sediment yield prediction in developing country such as Iran, due to a lack of adequate data in one side and necessity of getting access to accurate sediment yield estimates for running developmental projects in other side. The present study aims to estimate the Organic matter (OM associate sediment due to storm rainfall and runoff in the Kojour forest watershed, Iran. The prediction was made using the MUSLE. The results of the study approved the efficient application of the Calibrated MUSLE in estimating storm-wise OM losses in the study area with an acceptable estimation error of some 33%. The results could facilitate the application of given methods obtained in the present study to other ungauged watershed with similar conditions and leading to the suitable soil and water management.

Hamzeh Noor

2012-05-01

326

Indicadores socioeconômicos e gestão ambiental nos municípios da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Apodi-Mossoró, RN / Socio-economic indicators and environmental management in the municipalities of the river Apodi-Mossoró watershed, state of Rio Grande do Norte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo apresenta os resultados da sistematização de indicadores socioeconômicos e de gestão ambiental referentes aos 51 municípios que compõem a área da bacia hidrográfica do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte. O principal objetivo foi produzir um diagnóstico relacional entr [...] e o índice de pressão socioeconômica e o índice de gestão ambiental como parâmetro comparativo e avaliativo para a promoção de políticas públicas e fortalecimento da gestão ambiental nos municípios. Os métodos e técnicas se baseiam na coleta, organização e agregação dos dados e no uso de um sistema de informações geográficas como suporte para a interpretação espacial dos resultados. Abstract in english This article presents the results of the systematization of socio-economic and environmental management indicators concerning the 51 municipalities within the area of river Apodi-Mossoró watershed, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The main objective was to produce a relational diagnosis between the soc [...] io-economic pressure index and the environmental management index that serves as a comparative and evaluative parameter for the promotion of public policies and the environmental management strengthen in the municipalities. The methods and techniques are based on statistical data processing and use of a geographic information system as support for the spatial interpretation of results.

Rodrigo Guimarães de, Carvalho; Fátima Maria Soares, Kelting; Edson Vicente da, Silva.

327

Challenge and opportunities of space-based precipitation radar for spatio-temporal hydrology analysis in tropical maritime influenced catchment: Case study on the hilly tropical watershed of Peninsular Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper highlights two critical issues regarding hilly watershed in Peninsular Malaysia; (1) current status of spatio-temporal condition of rain gauge based measurement, and (2) potential of space-based precipitation radar to study the rainfall dynamics. Two analyses were carried out represent each issue consecutively. First, the spatial distribution and efficiency of rain gauge in hilly watershed Peninsular Malaysia is evaluated with respect to the land use and elevation information using Geographical Information System (GIS) approach. Second, the spatial pattern of rainfall changes is analysed using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite information. The spatial analysis revealed that the rain gauge distribution had sparse coverage on hilly watershed and possessed inadequate efficiency for effective spatial based assessment. Significant monthly rainfall changes identified by TRMM satellite on the upper part of the watershed had occurred occasionally in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2006, and 2009 went undetected by conventional rain gauge. This study informed the potential and opportunities of space-based precipitation radar to fill the gaps of knowledge on spatio-temporal rainfall patterns for hydrology and related fields in tropical region.

Mahmud, M. R.; Numata, S.; Matsuyama, H.; Hosaka, T.; Hashim, M.

2014-02-01

328

Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management / Características topográficas y evaluación del agua en el manejo de cuencas hidrográficas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluaron características topográficas y muestras de agua en un cauce de la hacienda Gloria, municipio Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil. Las características morfométricas del relieve y del agua fueron estudiadas en una pequeña cuenca hidrográfica, considerando zonas protegidas con bosque nativo y a [...] quellas que presentaban uso agrícola de la tierra para ajustar la hipótesis de que el uso de ella afecta la calidad del agua y ayuda a predecir cómo se producen los cambios en este y en el local paisaje circundante. La calidad del agua fue evaluada en seis sitios y se analizaron los cambios de los parámetros físicos y químicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas el mismo día de cada mes, durante un año, mediante un equipo de Horiba. Para determinar diferencias entre los sitios estudiados se realizó el análisis de varianza (Anova). El análisis de los datos presentó diferencias significativas de pH, conductividad eléctrica, turbidez, oxígeno disuelto y temperatura. Las características topográficas han sido influenciadas por las actividades agrícolas, impactando el medio ambiente. La escorrentía superficial es predominante en las laderas pronunciadas, sobre todo en las zonas altas de la cuenca. Los resultados indican la fragilidad de la cuenca agrícola a la exposición de contaminantes o agentes tóxicos, debido a la turbidez en el agua causada por la erosión de los suelos, la deposición de residuos agrícolas y por la escorrentía superficial. Abstract in english Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil . Understanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and hel [...] ps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six sites and physical and chemical changes were analysed. Monthly water samples were collected from the streams on the same day of each month during the course of a year; Horiba equipment was used for recording data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for determining differences between the sites being investigated. Analysing the data revealed significant differences in pH, electric conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Topographical characteristics have been influenced by agricultural activity, thereby having an environmental impact. Surface runoff was predominant on steep slopes, mainly in areas near the top of the watershed. Land-use has had a significant impact on many physical parameters, including stream turbidity and temperature which increased with deforestation. The results indicated the agricultural watershed’s fragility to pollutant exposure and/ or toxicity, mainly due to turbidity in the streams caused by soil erosion, waste discharge and runoff.

Teresa Cristina, Tarlé Pissarra; Flavia, Mazzer Rodrigues; Christiano, Luna Arraes; João Antonio, Galbiatti; Maurício José, Borges.

329

Morphometric analysis of landslide in the Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazi: the case study of D'anta's watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass movements are recurrent phenomena in the whole Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. These events actively participate in the relief evolution and are also responsible for many damages and loss of human lives. The triggering of these events depends on the natural environment and the preparatory and immediate action of the physical, biotic and human agents responsible for these processes. This work is based on the hypothesis in which the topographical conditions have a major effect on the spatial distribution of translational landslides caused by decreased of the internal resistance of the material mobilized. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the topographical conditions favorable to landslide triggering based on morphometric analysis in a pilot watershed - D'antás watershed - located in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The indices include the topographic wetness index (TWI), contributing area, slope angle and elevation and were derived from 5-m grid digital terrain model, computed on a Geographic Information System (GIS). The maps produced allowed the analysis of topographic influence on the landslides distribution from the indices of frequency classes (F), concentration of scars (CC) and potential of landslide (PL). The landscape sectors that are more likely to be affected by landslides were the ones where the elevation ranges from 1070m - 1187m, slope angle between 40.95° and 47.77°, contributing area between (log10) 1.32 m² - 1.95 m² and topographic wetness index between 7.11 to 9.59. This work provides important information which may help in the decision-making process, using fewer data and indices of easy application. Finally, the results obtained will subsidize of a landslide susceptibility map through the implementation of the conditional probability method aimed at predicting and mitigating of the damage caused by landslides.

Carvalho Araújo, João Paulo; da Silva, Lúcia Maria; Avear, Marcello; Dourado, Francisco; Ferreira Fernandes, Nelson

2013-04-01

330

Long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer use on ground water nitrate in two small watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in agricultural management can minimize NO3-N leaching, but then the time needed to improve ground water quality is uncertain. A study was conducted in two first-order watersheds (30 and 34 ha) in Iowa's Loess Hills. Both were managed in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) from 1964 through 1995 with similar N fertilizer applications (average 178 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)), except one received applications averaging 446 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1969 and 1974. This study determined if NO3-N from these large applications could persist in ground water and baseflow, and affect comparison between new crop rotations implemented in 1996. Piezometer nests were installed and deep cores collected in 1996, then ground water levels and NO3-N concentrations were monitored. Tritium and stable isotopes (2H, 18O) were determined on 33 water samples in 2001. Baseflow from the heavily N-fertilized watershed had larger average NO3-N concentrations, by 8 mg L(-1). Time-of-travel calculations and tritium data showed ground water resides in these watersheds for decades. "Bomb-peak" precipitation (1963-1980) most influenced tritium concentrations near lower slope positions, while deep ground water was dominantly pre-1953 precipitation. Near the stream, greater recharge and mixed-age ground water was suggested by stable isotope and tritium data, respectively. Using sediment-core data collected from the deep unsaturated zone between 1972 and 1996, the increasing depth of a NO3-N pulse was related to cumulative baseflow (r2 = 0.98), suggesting slow downward movement of NO3-N since the first experiment. Management changes implemented in 1996 will take years to fully influence ground water NO3-N. Determining ground water quality responses to new agricultural practices may take decades in some watersheds. PMID:14674538

Tomer, M D; Burkart, M R

2003-01-01

331

Management Accounting Case study of infogroup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the question related to the importance of management accounting in a service enterprise. We highlight steps involved in information system of an enterprise, stress on factors which influence management accounting and study if this new branch of accounting is valuable for a service corporation that is in our case infogroup.

Mabou Nghokam, Gervais

2011-01-01

332

Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis  

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This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Scien...

Manoj Kumar Jha

2011-01-01

333

Temporal and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed: a cluster analysis based on crude and Bayesian risk estimates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important biological contaminants in drinking water that produces life threatening infection in people with compromised immune systems. Dairy calves are thought to be the primary source of C. parvum contamination in watersheds. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in the risk of C. parvum infection in dairy cattle is essential for designing cost-effective watershed management strategies to protect drinking water sources. Crude and Bayesian seasonal risk estimates for Cryptosporidium in dairy calves were used to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of C. parvum infection on dairy farms in the New York City watershed. Results Both global (Global Moran's I and specific (SaTScan cluster analysis methods revealed a significant (p C. parvum infection in all herds in the summer (p = 0.002, compared to the rest of the year. Bayesian estimates did not show significant spatial autocorrelation in any season. Conclusions Although we were not able to identify seasonal clusters using Bayesian approach, crude estimates highlighted both temporal and spatial clusters of C. parvum infection in dairy herds in a major watershed. We recommend that further studies focus on the factors that may lead to the presence of C. parvum clusters within the watershed, so that monitoring and prevention practices such as stream monitoring, riparian buffers, fencing and manure management can be prioritized and improved, to protect drinking water supplies and public health.

Mohammed Hussni O

2010-06-01

334

Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

1977-01-01

335

Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yields Using the AnnAGNPS Model in a Three-Gorge Watershed of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil erosion has been recognized as one of the major threats to our environment and water quality worldwide, especially in China. To mitigate nonpoint source water quality problems caused by soil erosion, best management practices (BMPs) and/or conservation programs have been adopted. Watershed models, such as the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading model (AnnAGNPS), have been developed to aid in the evaluation of watershed response to watershed management practices. Th...

Lizhong Hua; Xiubin He; Yongping Yuan; Hongwei Nan

2012-01-01

336

FLOW ANALYSIS AT THE PORSUK WATERSHED STREAMS WITH USING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining low-flows and their periodicities is very important for sustainably using and managing streams which are one of the most important water resources. In this study, EPA’s DFLOW software has been used for the analysis of the main stream and tributaries of the Porsuk watershed. Flow data sets from selected stream flow gauge stations located in the Porsuk Watershed have been provided by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. Hydrologically and biologically based low-flow criteria like 7Q10, 4B3 have been calculated by using the DFLOW software and how these stream tributaries have been affected over the last 45 years has been determined. Also temporal trends of low-flow periods and 7-day average low flows whose return period is a year (7Q1 have been examined. As a result of this study, increasing trends have been determined on some tributaries used for irrigation purposes and after reservoir construction. Undisturbed tributaries have decreasing low-flow patterns. Increases in temperature and precipitation changes due to climate change should be consideredwith more care. In addition, in the planning and use of water control structures, such as hydroelectrical power plant dams, such studies are important for the more efficient use and sustainabilityof the limited surface water resources in our country.

Serdar GÖNCÜ

2011-12-01

337

??????????????? Digital Management Study of World Heritage Tourism  

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Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????In recent years, China’s world heritage tourism is ever-increasing. It has become a difficult problem to the management authorities that how to scientifically guide tourists in large groups and rationally use valuable resources of world heritage. To the key issues of world heritage management, such as: controlling tourist flow, displaying cultural content, guiding identification direction, preventing disaster & damage, gathering tourists’ opinions, this study points out that we should diverge tourists, and classify utilization, and share information through digital management, while this study researches & judges its necessity and analyzes its strengths & weaknesses and constructs its framework graph, in order to improve scientific and technological content and management efficiency of world heritage management.

???

2011-09-01

338

Forecasts of Urban Expansion in Watersheds across the World and in Megadeltas of Asia and Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary urbanization has significant implications for global sustainability. The location, rate, and magnitude of urban land expansion will influence wide-ranging phenomena including hydrological cycle and the vulnerability of urban residents and infrastructure to various natural hazards. In this study, we examine the urban extent circa 2000 and forecasts of urban expansion by 2030 in watersheds across the world. Specifically, we ask two questions: 1) How does the urban extent change between 2000 and 2030 in watershed across the world?; 2) How much urban expansion will occur in the mega-deltas of Asia and Africa where the highest rates and magnitudes of urbanization are expected? We use a global watershed dataset, HYDRO1K, and urban expansion forecasts (Seto et al. 2012). We compute the amount of high-probability urban expansion (defined as land parcels with ?75% probability of becoming urban by 2030) in each watershed and eleven mega-deltas of Asia and Africa. We find that the largest increase in percent urban cover in watersheds is expected in Eastern Asia (9% in 2030 from 4% circa 2000) whereas the largest proportional increase in percent urban cover in watersheds is expected in Southern Asia (more than 4 times, from 0.9% circa 2000 to 3.6% in 2030). Of the eleven mega-deltas, Niger River Delta is expected to experience the largest proportional change (almost 17 times, from 3,200 km2 circa 2000 to 52,000 km2 in 2030) of urban land cover by 2030. It is followed by Nile River Delta (more than 9 times, from 2,700 km2 circa 2000 to 25,000 km2 in 2030). Our analysis sheds light on future urban expansion in watersheds across the world and in the mega-deltas of Asia and Africa. Thus, our findings can inform further studies on the management of water resources and the assessment of vulnerability of these urban areas to coastal hazards in the near future.

Liu, Y.; Hales, B. U.; Guneralp, B.; Guneralp, I.

2013-12-01

339

Landcare on the Poverty-Protection Interface in an Asian Watershed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serious methodological and policy hurdles constrain effective natural resource management that alleviates poverty while protecting environmental services in tropical watersheds. We review the development of an approach that integrates biodiversity conservation with agroforestry development through the active involvement of communities and their local governments near the Kitanglad Range Natural Park in the Manupali watershed, central Mindanao, the Philippines. Agroforestry innovations were de...

Garrity, Dennis P.; Amoroso, Victor B.; Samuel Koffa; Delia Catacutan; Gladys Buenavista; Paul Fay; William Dar

2002-01-01

340

Investigating Plot and Watershed Scale Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

While there are numerous water quality studies at either the plot-, field- or watershed-scale, there are very few studies that integrate the hydrologic and biogeochemical responses across scales. A review of the literature reveals seemingly contradictory responses at the plot and watershed scales, e.g., in some cases pollutant concentrations decrease with increasing discharge at plot scales but increase with discharge at watershed scales. We investigate the biogeochemical responses of several plots and at a watershed outlet in a small mixed-use watershed in New York State. Runoff plots established along a gradient in topographic position and land use types distributed throughout the watershed were monitored for a seven year period and runoff, dissolved and particulate phosphorus (DP and PP, respectively) and sediment (TSS) were collected from storm 213 events. Flow, sediment, and phosphorus (P) were also measured at the watershed outlet for the same period and events. The watershed outlet response for DP, PP and sediment were characterized by a linear increases in concentration [mg/L] with increasing runoff [mm] (DP = 0.002(runoff) + 0.019, PP = 0.006(runoff) +0.006, and TSS = 1.055(runoff) + 2.389) while plot scale responses for DP, PP and TSS showed decreasing concentrations with increasing runoff losses. The specific runoff-concentration relationships varied but were generally characterized by a negative power-function-type decline with increasing runoff, although some landcover types (fertilized lawns) and constituents (esp. DP) exhibited more linear declines with increasing runoff, presumably a result of greater easily transported P at the soil surface. These plot scale results show the classical first flush response typical of bound pollutants (DP, PP, TSS), while the watershed clearly exhibits a concentrating effect with higher flows. However, these seemingly contradictory responses can be explained by considering the hydrologic spatio-temporal variability in the watershed. Plots located in hydrologically active areas, which produce more frequent and greater quantities of runoff with generally smaller average concentrations, explain the small runoff events with smaller concentrations at the watershed scale; areas with few runoff events and smaller runoff volumes with generally greater average concentrations were associated with large runoff events and correspond to higher concentrations at the watershed scale. These results show that the hydrologic and biogeochemical response can vary substantially at various scales, but are in fact related. This points towards a more parsimonious, accurate means of initializing watershed models and increasing their applicability by combining field monitoring with modeling in non-traditional ways.

Easton, Z. M.; Walter, M. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Test of APEX for nine forested watersheds in East Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrologic/water quality models are increasingly used to explore management and policy alternatives for managing water quality and quantity from intensive silvicultural practices with best management practices (BMPs) in forested watersheds due to the limited number of and cost of conducting watershed monitoring. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was field-tested using 6 yr of data for flow, sediment, nutrient, and herbicide losses collected from nine small (2.58 to 2.74 ha) forested watersheds located in southwest Cherokee County in East Texas. Simulated annual average stream flow for each of the nine watersheds was within +/- 7% of the corresponding observed values; simulated annual average sediment losses were within +/- 8% of measured values for eight out of nine watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (EF) values ranged from 0.68 to 0.94 based on annual stream flow comparison and from 0.60 to 0.99 based on annual sediment comparison. Similar to what was observed, simulated flow, sediment, organic N, and P were significantly increased on clear-cut watersheds compared with the control watersheds. APEX reasonably simulated herbicide losses, with an EF of 0.73 and R(2) of 0.74 for imazapyr, and EF of 0.65 and R(2) of 0.68 for hexazinone based on annual values. Overall, the results show that APEX was able to predict the effects of silvicultural practices with BMPs on water quantity and quality and that the model is a useful tool for simulating a variety of responses to forest conditions. PMID:17526877

Wang, X; Saleh, A; McBroom, M W; Williams, J R; Yin, L

2007-01-01

342

Management in Practice : A Multiple Case Study of Contemporary Managers in a Management Theory Context  

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Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the distance between theory and practice in the field of management. Theoretical perspective In the literature review we have chosen to give insights on the concepts that aresurrounding management students: organization, management, leadership and culture. Bydoing we were able to get a better understanding of the concepts that are fundamental tomanagement studies. In addition to that, by selecting these concepts we could assimilate thekey p...

Lange, Julien; Scho?rling, Egon

2011-01-01

343

Co Relational Study On High School Managers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim. This paper examined the relationship between transformational leadership and life skills among high school managers in Iran.Background. Previous studies have found significant positive relationship between transformational leadership and life skills.Method. Acorrelation study was carried out with a randomly sample contained of 98 (52 males and 46 females) of high school managers. The participants responded to a Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire – MLQ (by Bass & Avolio developed in 1...

2012-01-01

344

CO RELATIONAL STUDY ON HIGH SCHOOL MANAGERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim. This paper examined the relationship between transformational leadership and life skills among high school managers in Iran.Background. Previous studies have found significant positive relationship between transformational leadership and life skills.Method. Acorrelation study was carried out with a randomly sample contained of 98 (52 males and 46 females) of high school managers. The participants responded to a Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire – MLQ (by Bass & Avolio...

2012-01-01

345

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site is largely developed yet its surface water system encompasses two arroyos, an engineered detention basin (Lake Haussmann), storm channels, and wetlands. Conversely, the more rural Site 300 includes approximately 7,000 acres of largely undeveloped land with many natural tributaries, riparian habitats, and wetland areas. These wetlands include vernal pools, perennial seeps, and emergent wetlands. The watersheds within which the Laboratory's sites lie provide local and community ecological functions and services which require protection. These functions and services include water supply, flood attenuation, groundwater recharge, water quality improvement, wildlife and aquatic habitats, erosion control, and (downstream) recreational opportunities. The Laboratory employs a watershed approach to protect these surface water systems. The intent of this approach, presented in this document, is to provide an integrated effort to eliminate or minimize any adverse environmental impacts of the Laboratory's operations and enhance the attributes of these surface water systems, as possible and when reasonable, to protect their value to the community and watershed. The Laboratory's watershed approach to surface water protection will use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Framework and guiding principles of geographic focus, scientifically based management and partnerships1 as a foundation. While the Laboratory's unique site characteristics result in objectives and priorities that may differ from other industrial sites, these underlying guiding principles provide a structure for surface water protection to ensure the Laboratory's role in environmental stewardship and as a community partner in watershed protection. The approach includes pollution prevention, continual environmental improvement, and supporting, as possible, community objectives (e.g., protection of the San Francisco Bay watershed).

Coty, J

2009-03-16

346

River flow fluctuation analysis: Effect of watershed area  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River Basin in Georgia in the southeastern United States with special focus on the effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 23 to 19,606 km2. The climatic and seasonal trends are removed using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique. Results show that (1) river flow fluctuations have two distinct scaling regimes, and the scaling break is delayed for large watershed areas; (2) large watersheds have more persistent river flow fluctuations and stronger long memory (i.e., for lag times beyond the scale break) than small watersheds do; (3) the long memory of river flow fluctuations does not come from the long memory of precipitation; (4) a linear reservoir unit hydrograph transfer function approach does not capture correctly the basin processes that convert short-memory precipitation to long-memory streamflow; and (5) the degree of multifractality of river flow fluctuations decreases with increasing watershed area. The results clearly indicate that watershed area is an important factor in the long-memory studies of streamflow such as streamflow prediction.

Hirpa, Feyera A.; Gebremichael, Mekonnen; Over, Thomas M.

2010-12-01

347

A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Sediments: A Case Study from Wailpalli Watershed, Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study, focuses on investigation of heavy metal distribution in sediments of the Wailpalli watershed located in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India, and to study different causes of enrichment by applying multivariate statistics on the studied elements, including correlation and factor analyses, and to identify possible sources of sediment bound heavy metals. Sediment samples were collected along the streams from a depth of 0-10 cm and were analyzed for Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn and Zr by using Philips PW 2440 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF. The concentration ranges were Ba 128.5 to 929.4 mg/kg, Co 0.4 to 36.2 m g/kg, C r 15.8 to 107.8 mg/kg, Cu 1.6 to 43.1 mg/kg, Ni 0.2 to 69.8 mg/kg, Pb 2.3 to 14.1 mg/kg, Rb 8.0 to 446.2 mg/kg, Sr 73.0 to 360.6 mg/kg, V 7.9 to 240.8 mg/kg, Zn 24.5 to 130.1 mg/kg, and Zr 108.4 to 2668 mg/kg. Distribution maps metal concentrations in sediments were plotted by Golden Software’s SURFER program. Using multivariate statistical analysis (correlation coefficients, factor analysis, the interrelationships among elements, and Enrichment Factor (EF was calculated to differentiate the origin of metals between anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The results of median EF indicate no significant enrichment of the metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, V and Zn except for high Pb and Ni possibly indicating some point source input to the stream sediments. However, systematic and continuous monitoring of the study area for heavy metals is necessary as most of the area in Wailpalli watershed is under active irrigation and these elements may enter the food chain, and could be hazardous to human health.

K. Rama Mohan and N.N. Murthy

2011-03-01

348

Watershed Analysis of Nitrate Transport as a Result of Agricultural Inputs for Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Soil Type  

Science.gov (United States)

The Grand River Watershed is one of the largest watersheds in southwestern Ontario with an area of approximately 7000 square kilometers. Ninety percent of the watershed is classified as rural, and 80 percent of the watershed population relies on groundwater as their source of drinking water. Management of the watershed requires the determination of the effect of agricultural practices on long-term groundwater quality and to identify locations within the watershed that are at a higher risk of contamination. The study focuses on the transport of nitrate through the root zone as a result of agricultural inputs with attenuation due to biodegradation. The driving force for transport is spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge that is a function of land use/land cover, soil and meteorological inputs that yields 47,229 unique soil columns within the watershed. Fertilizer sources are determined from Statistics Canada's Agricultural Census and include livestock manure and a popular commercial fe