WorldWideScience

Sample records for watershed management study

  1. Watershed management in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watershed degradation, watershed management, background of watershed management in Myanmar (condition of watershed, manpower), discussion and recommendation (proposed administrative structure, the need for watershed survey and planning, bottom-up approach) are emphasized. Watershed management, after all can be seen that it is the interphase between the forest, agriculture, soil, wildlife and the local communities

  2. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, t...

  3. Watershed Management-A case study of Satara Tanda Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Thakare

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most critical component of life support system. India shares about 16% of the global population but it has only 4% of the water resources. The national water policy gives priority to drinking water followed by agriculture, industry and power. The single most important task before the country in the field of India’s water resource management is to pay special attention to rainwater conservation, especially which falls on our vast rain-fed lands but most of which flows away from it. The Marathwada region is declared the drought for this year by state government, to overcome the water scarcity watershed management is decided to do near the Sataratanda it is the outskirt region of Aurangabad city. The proposed site of watershed management structure bandhara is located on stream flowing near the Sataratanda village. The proposed bandhara is design for the conservation of water and recharging into the ground to raise the water table of this particular area for the benefits to villagers, fields & farmers. Since last few decades the demand for water had rapidly grown and with the increasing population would continue to rise in future. In Maharashtra, the assessment of ground water potential and scope for artificial recharge in the overdeveloped watershed is very crucial. The total cost of cement bandhara works about 9 lakhs thus the scheme is found economically feasible. The quantity of water store in the bandhara basin is 0.74 TCM.

  4. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  5. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vishnudas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  6. Integrated Approach for Prioritizing Watersheds for Management: A Study of Lidder Catchment of Kashmir Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mohammad Imran; Bhat, M. Sultan

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan watersheds are susceptible to various forms of degradation due to their sensitive and fragile ecological disposition coupled with increasing anthropogenic disturbances. Owing to the paucity of appropriate technology and financial resources, the prioritization of watersheds has become an inevitable process for effective planning and management of natural resources. Lidder catchment constitutes a segment of the western Himalayas with an area of 1,159.38 km2. The study is based on integrated analysis of remote sensing, geographic information system, field study, and socioeconomic data. Multicriteria evaluation of geophysical, land-use and land-cover (LULC) change, and socioeconomic indicators is carried out to prioritize watersheds for natural resource conservation and management. Knowledge-based weights and ranks are normalized, and weighted linear combination technique is adopted to determine final priority value. The watersheds are classified into four priority zones (very high priority, high priority, medium priority, and low priority) on the basis of quartiles of the priority value, thus indicating their ecological status in terms of degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The correlation between priority ranks of individual indicators and integrated indicators is drawn. The results reveal that socioeconomic indicators are the most important drivers of LULC change and environmental degradation in the catchment. Moreover, the magnitude and intensity of anthropogenic impact is not uniform in different watersheds of Lidder catchment. Therefore, any conservation and management strategy must be formulated on the basis of watershed prioritization.

  7. Geospatial Evaluation for Ecological Watershed Management: A Case Study of Some Chesapeake Bay Sub-Watersheds in Maryland USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken T. Aighewi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial technology is increasingly being used for various applications in environmental management as the need for sustainable development becomes more evident in today’s rapidly-developing world. As a decision tool, Geographic Information system (GIS and Global positioning System (GPS can support major decisions dealing with natural phenomena distributed in space and time. Such is the case for land use/cover known to impact ecosystems health in very direct ways. Our study examined one such application in managing land use of some sub-watersheds in the eastern Shore of Maryland, USA. We conducted a 20-year historical land use/cover evaluation using Landsat-TM remotely sensed images and GIS analysis and water monitoring data acquired during the period by Maryland Department of Natural Resources, including sewage discharge of some municipalities in the area. The results not only showed general trends in land use patterns, but also detailed dynamics of land use-land cover classes, impact on water quality, as well as other useful information for guiding both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems management decisions of the sub-watersheds. The use of this technology for evaluating trends in land use/cover on a decade-by-decade basis is recommended as standard practice for managing ecosystem health on a sustainable basis.

  8. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: User Manual and Case Study Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is intended to be used as a screening tool as part of an integrated watershed management process such as that described in EPA?s watershed planning handbook (EPA 2008).1 The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-doma...

  9. Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yanli Zhang; Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew McBroom; John DeGroote; Kauten, Rebecca L.; Barten, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI) approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning a...

  10. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing environmental interests). Different scenarios of distributed management are simulated, i.e. a situation where all the agents act independently, a situation in which a global coordination takes place and in-between solutions. The solutions are compared with the ones presented in Yang et al. (2009), aiming to present more general multiagent approaches to solve distributed management problems.

  11. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,; Dr.Mrs.Sushma Shekhar Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have be...

  12. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT – A MEANS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.

  13. Web-Based Spatial Decision Support System andWatershed Management with a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain a proper balance between development pressure and water resources protection, and also to improve public participation, efficient tools and techniques for soil and water conservation projects are needed. This paper describes the development and application of a web-based watershed management spatial decision support system, WebWMPI. The WebWMPI uses the Watershed Management Priority Indices (WMPI approach which is a prioritizing method for watershed management planning and it integrates land use/cover, hydrological data, soils, slope, roads, and other spatial data. The land is divided into three categories: Conservation Priority Index (CPI land, Restoration Priority Index (RPI land, and Stormwater Management Priority Index (SMPI land. Within each category, spatial factors are rated based on their influence on water resources and critical areas can be identified for soil conservation, water quality protection and improvement. The WebWMPI has user-friendly client side graphical interfaces which enable the public to interactively run the server side Geographic Information System to evaluate different scenarios for watershed planning and management. The system was applied for Dry Run Creek watershed (Cedar Falls, Iowa, US as a demonstration and it can be easily used in other watersheds to prioritize crucial areas and to increase public participation for soil and water conservation projects.

  14. Evaluating integrated watershed management using multiple criteria analysis--a case study at Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shampa; Vacik, Harald; Swanson, Mark E; Haque, S M Sirajul

    2012-05-01

    Criteria and indicators assessment is one of the ways to evaluate management strategies for mountain watersheds. One framework for this, Integrated Watershed Management (IWM), was employed at Chittagong Hill Tracts region of Bangladesh using a multi-criteria analysis approach. The IWM framework, consisting of the design and application of principles, criteria, indicators, and verifiers (PCIV), facilitates active participation by diverse professionals, experts, and interest groups in watershed management, to explicitly address the demands and problems to measure the complexity of problems in a transparent and understandable way. Management alternatives are developed to fulfill every key component of IWM considering the developed PCIV set and current situation of the study area. Different management strategies, each focusing on a different approach (biodiversity conservation, flood control, soil and water quality conservation, indigenous knowledge conservation, income generation, watershed conservation, and landscape conservation) were assessed qualitatively on their potential to improve the current situation according to each verifier of the criteria and indicator set. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), including sensitivity analysis, was employed to identify an appropriate management strategy according to overall priorities (i.e., different weights of each principle) of key informants. The AHP process indicated that a strategy focused on conservation of biodiversity provided the best option to address watershed-related challenges in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. PMID:21674224

  15. Observing, studying, and managing for change-Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Nicolas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds-Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, held at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks, Alaska, September 26-30, 2011. The conference was jointly hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service.

  16. Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530

  17. The impact of watershed management on coastal morphology: A case study using an integrated approach and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Achilleas G.; Koutitas, Christopher G.

    2014-04-01

    Coastal morphology evolves as the combined result of both natural- and human- induced factors that cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales of effect. Areas in the vicinity of natural stream mouths are of special interest, as the direct connection with the upstream watershed extends the search for drivers of morphological evolution from the coastal area to the inland as well. Although the impact of changes in watersheds on the coastal sediment budget is well established, references that study concurrently the two fields and the quantification of their connection are scarce. In the present work, the impact of land-use changes in a watershed on coastal erosion is studied for a selected site in North Greece. Applications are based on an integrated approach to quantify the impact of watershed management on coastal morphology through numerical modeling. The watershed model SWAT and a shoreline evolution model developed by the authors (PELNCON-M) are used, evaluating with the latter the performance of the three longshore sediment transport rate formulae included in the model formulation. Results document the impact of crop abandonment on coastal erosion (agricultural land decrease from 23.3% to 5.1% is accompanied by the retreat of ~ 35 m in the vicinity of the stream mouth) and show the effect of sediment transport formula selection on the evolution of coastal morphology. Analysis denotes the relative importance of the parameters involved in the dynamics of watershed-coast systems, and - through the detailed description of a case study - is deemed to provide useful insights for researchers and policy-makers involved in their study.

  18. Preliminary study on streamflow in forested and forest plantation experimental watersheds for water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future management of forests for water resources will be more important as population growth and demand for water resources increases. In Malaysia many lowland forests has been earmarked for agricultural crops, and timber concessionaires has moved towards the hillier region of the country where specific and costly logging techniques are required. Hence, planting timber trees, as an industrial timber plantation is an alternative to meet timber demands. Very few research on evaluation of the impact of forest clearance on hydrology attributes from newly established industrial timber plantations have been conducted. In 1989, experimental catchment at Bukit Tarek Tambahan Experimental Watershed (BTEW) was initiated to study the effects of land conversion from forest to industrial timber plantation on hydrological parameters changes. The BTEW is located in Compartment 41, Bukit Tarek Tambahan F. R. at Kerling, Selangor Malaysia. The study site was a regenerated secondary forest logged in 1963. The study area is divided into catchment C1 (32.8 ha) and C3 (12.5 ha). Catchment C1, act as a control whereas C3 is the experimental catchments. Catchment C3 was logged in 1999 and early 2000 and subsequently a forest plantation was established. The forest area in Catchment C3 was clear felled, and the residuals trees were burnt. Buffer zone was not established near the riverbanks. The plantation was established in catchment C3 with Hopea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was mea odorata in early 2004. Streamflow was measured continuously using the 120 degree V-notch weir at the outlet of each watershed (Weir 1 and Weir 3). The short time interval rainfall was also monitored. In this working paper, the main objective to analyze the data is to examine rainfall-runoff response of forested catchments before establishment of forest plantation. The preliminary study on discharge after the C3 was clear-felled using single storm hydrograph analysis shows that during the storm event, the quick flow runoff dominate the discharge in C3 runoff while the delayed flow runoff dominate the discharge in the C1. (Author)

  19. Geospatial Evaluation for Ecological Watershed Management: A Case Study of Some Chesapeake Bay Sub-Watersheds in Maryland USA

    OpenAIRE

    Aighewi, Isoken T.; Nosakhare, Osarodion K.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technology is increasingly being used for various applications in environmental management as the need for sustainable development becomes more evident in today’s rapidly-developing world. As a decision tool, Geographic Information system (GIS) and Global positioning System (GPS) can support major decisions dealing with natural phenomena distributed in space and time. Such is the case for land use/cover known to impact ecosystems health in very direct ways. Our study examined on...

  20. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  1. Multiple Impact of Integrated Watershed Management in Low Rainfall Semi-Arid Region: A Case Study from Eastern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture in low rainfall areas of eastern Rajasthan, India is characterized by high risks from drought, degraded natural resources and pervasive poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. In this region, water is the main limiting factor for upgrading rainfed agriculture. For such areas integrated watershed management is recognized as a potential approach for agriculture growth and rehabilitation of fragile and degraded lands. At Gokulpura-Goverdhanpura village in Bundi eastern Rajasthan, India an integrated watershed project was implemented using the holistic systems approach. This paper discusses the impacts of this watershed program on bio-physical, socio-economic, environmental and ecological parameters. Results indicate that due to watershed interventions the groundwater availability has substantially increased which brought changes in cropping patterns with high value crops. Significant increases in irrigated area, cropping intensity along with diversification of crops from traditional to commercial cash crops were recorded. The watershed program also significantly improved the socio-economic status of the watershed community. It has increased the income and reduced poverty of the people in the watershed. The watershed interventions generated good employment opportunities and significantly reduced the migration of both skilled and unskilled labor from the watershed village to urban areas. It has also improved the environmental quality and ecological status in the watershed. The watershed interventions increased the vegetative index or greenery, reduced runoff, soil loss, and land degradations and improved the bio-diversity in fragile ecosystems. Overall, the integrated watershed program at Gokulpura-Goverdhanpura provided resilience by ensuring continued and sustainable multiple outputs, besides soil and water conservation and other positive environmental effects.

  2. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  3. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated research questions. The goal of this research was to investigate whether scientific research tools were available that could provide evidence that links water quality and land type. In particular, could such tools be used on raw water at the treatment point rather than monitoring over a large geographic spanning a watershed. This report summarizes the utility of using isotopic tracers to better understand sources of non-point source pollution and their relation to industry standard water quality measurements. In this study we have found that much of the water quality data generated by utilities is under-interpreted in the context of understanding watershed processes. For example, the City of St. Louis depends solely on the Missouri River for drinking water, but due to large variability in discharge and runoff sources, they are faced with DOC concentrations that vary nearly a factor of three within a single season. The relationship between discharge and concentration has not been constrained. However, we found a linear correlation between the DOC concentration and the fractional amount of downstream discharge (derived from within the State of Missouri). This correlation relates directly to differences in land use and climate between the upstream and downstream portions of the river basin.

  4. Advancing the Guánica Bay (Puerto Rico) Watershed Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consideration of stakeholder values in watershed planning and management is a necessity, but sufficiently eliciting, understanding, and organizing those values can be daunting. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of formal decision analysis to integrate expert knowledge...

  5. Watershed Conservation Management Planning Using AGNPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  6. Sustainable Practices in Watershed Management: Global Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Sudha

    2007-01-01

    Watershed management is considered by scholars as well as practitioners across the world as the most appropriate approach to ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainability of all land based resources and for improving the living conditions of the people in uplands and low lands. More over watershed management technologies have proven to be effective for mitigating erosion on sloping land, stabilizing landscapes, providing clean water, stabilizing and improving agrarian production sy...

  7. Watershed management program. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Northwest Power Act, BPA is responsible for mitigating the loss of fish and wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian tribes, state agencies property owners, private conservation groups, and Federal agencies. Future watershed management actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include in-channel modifications and fish habitat enhancement structures; riparian restoration and other vegetation management techniques; agricultural management techniques for crop irrigation, animal facilities, and grazing; road, forest, urban area, and recreation management techniques; mining reclamation; and similar watershed conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual watershed management projects are planned and carried out with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as over time

  8. Watershed: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Manrai #

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological gradient is often used to find the gradient of an image which is further used for the transformation. However, noise in the gradient image results in to over-segmentation which have an undesirable bad effect on resulting segmented image. For the fine segmentation results the quality of the gradient estimate has a major influence on the segmentation performance. In this paper it is shownthat different types of gradient are computed with the help of different operators and further these various gradients are used to segment the image with the help of watershed transformation. The resulting image constitute of watershed divide lines and the catchment basins. The purpose of this work is to show that the gradient obtained through different operators like Sobel, Prewitt, kirsch etc. have varying effect on watershed in terms of peak signal to noise ratio.

  9. Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically nolementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after appropriate modifications. (author)

  10. The Role of Integrated Water Management in Watershed Flood Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Hemadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, flood management, in a system of a reservoir and ungaged sub-basins was evaluated. By means of frequency analysis and index hydrograph method, flood hydrographs with different return periods for these under study sub-basins were calculated. After determination of inflow hydrograph to dam reservoir, flood routing in reservoir and consequently in river network by three scenarios were conducted. The results have shown that dam reservoir located in one of the sub-basins, functioned well as a flood controller, but because of no watershed analysis as a hydrologic unit and comprehensive consideration in watershed studies, the flood control resultant in the out point of system is in the order of zero.

  11. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through a wide range of information and topics, Integrated Watershed Management Principles and Practice shows how involved the watershed management planning process can be. The book is informative, and the author obviously has researched the subject thoroughly. The book's case...

  12. Water Quality Response Times to Pasture Management Changes in Small and Large Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To interpret the effects of best management practices on water quality at a regional or large watershed scale likely response times at various scales must be known. Therefore, 4 small (<1 ha, 2.5 ac) watersheds, in rotational grazing studies at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (NAEW) nea...

  13. Environmental Anthropological Study of Watershed Management?Water Quality Conservation of Forest as a Catchment Area in the Southern Part of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hiratsuka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors have conducted an experiment of irradiation using sound waves (frequency including ultrasonic waves into water such as drinking water, sea water and forest water and wastewater so far. As a result, almost the same effect of improvement of water quality was confirmed for each sound wave. Then, an environmental anthropological study of watershed management based on the sound was carried out assuming that a water quality management using the sound could be possible. The Goulburn River basin in the southern part of Australia in which indigenous peoples (Yorta Yorta have been concerned with the management for a long time so far was selected as an objective drainage basin this time. As a result, a couple of environmental anthropological perspectives on watershed management were proposed.

  14. An Analysis of Socioeconomic Profiles of the Rural Community Involved in Natural Resources Management: A case study of Hilkot Watershed Mansehra

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Anwar Hussain; Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak; Khan, Abdul Qayyum Khan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and describe socioeconomic profiles of the rural community in the Hilkot Watershed Mansehra engaged in natural resources management practices. The study reveals that population living in the sample area have diverse cultural and ethnic background. Mainly population consists of Gujars (58.75%), Swati (33.12%), Syeds (6.87%), Awans (1.87%). Major occupation in the sample area: farming,(47.5%), farming with service(19.37%), service (1937%), farming with ...

  15. Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weaver; Jason Shaw Parker; Richard Moore

    2009-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershe...

  16. US Environmental Protection Agency Watershed Academy Web: Online Training in Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Watershed Academy offers training opportunities for ecologists, managers, and others interested in watersheds. Additionally, 20 Academy 2000 Distance Learning Modules are now available online to highlight key watershed management topics. While some modules are under construction, those currently available provide a solid backbone in many important areas such as Principles of Watershed Management, Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle, Watershed Modeling, Economics of Sustainability, and Stream Corridor Restoration. Modules vary in depth (and intended audience), but all are (co)-authored by prominent scientists in the field of watershed ecology. Designed to reach a broad audience, many modules are provided in slide format (navigable by clicking on arrows) and could be supplemented with more technical readings; others are given in .pdf format. The inclusion of color photographs throughout, such as in the Ohio's Virtual Watershed Tour module, supplements the learning experience by providing illustrations and examples of important concepts.

  17. A bacia hidrográfica do Tietê/Jacaré: estudo de caso em pesquisa e gerenciamento / The Tietê/Jacaré watershed: a case study in research and management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Galizia, Tundisi; Takako, Matsumura-Tundisi; Daniela Cambeses, Pareschi; Anna Paula, Luzia; Paulo H., Von Haeling; Eduardo H., Frollini.

    Full Text Available A bacia do Tietê/Jacaré é uma das 22 Unidades de Gestão de Recursos Hídricos (Ugrhis) do Estado de São Paulo. Um estudo desenvolvido de 2005 a 2007 detalhou as principais características dessa bacia hidrográfica, os usos do solo, a cobertura vegetal, as fontes pontuais e não-pontuais de eutrofização [...] e contaminação e as vulnerabilidades da bacia, que conta com 34 municípios e uma população de 1.200.000 habitantes. A montagem de um banco de dados com as informações ecológicas, hidrológicas, climatológicas e econômicas possibilitou estabelecer um programa de planejamento e gestão baseado em vulnerabilidades da bacia hidrográfica, impactos das mudanças globais e futuras perspectivas para a gestão dos recursos hídricos. Um índice de qualidade da bacia hidrográfica foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de apoiar o planejamento de longo prazo e a gestão de águas superficiais e subterrâneas. Abstract in english The Tietê/Jacaré watershed is one of the units of management of water resources of São Paulo State. São Paulo State has 22 units of management of water resources. A study on the characteristics of the watershed and an evaluation of its environmental situation was carried out from 2005 to 2008. With [...] a population of 1.200.000 inhabitants distributed in 34 towns and an economic activity predominantly agribusiness and industrial activities, this watershed has an extensive hydrographic network, sufficient water resources and intense economic activity. The study considered soil uses; vegetation cover; water quality of rivers, reservoirs, underground waters, erosion processes, vulnerability of the aquatic biota to eutrophication and contamination. With the ecological, hydrological, ecological and economic data, a data bank was established and a management plan with scenarios, perspectives and integration of planning with future activities was developed. An index of watershed quality was developed as a basis for this planning and management activity.

  18. A bacia hidrográfica do Tietê/Jacaré: estudo de caso em pesquisa e gerenciamento The Tietê/Jacaré watershed: a case study in research and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galizia Tundisi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do Tietê/Jacaré é uma das 22 Unidades de Gestão de Recursos Hídricos (Ugrhis do Estado de São Paulo. Um estudo desenvolvido de 2005 a 2007 detalhou as principais características dessa bacia hidrográfica, os usos do solo, a cobertura vegetal, as fontes pontuais e não-pontuais de eutrofização e contaminação e as vulnerabilidades da bacia, que conta com 34 municípios e uma população de 1.200.000 habitantes. A montagem de um banco de dados com as informações ecológicas, hidrológicas, climatológicas e econômicas possibilitou estabelecer um programa de planejamento e gestão baseado em vulnerabilidades da bacia hidrográfica, impactos das mudanças globais e futuras perspectivas para a gestão dos recursos hídricos. Um índice de qualidade da bacia hidrográfica foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de apoiar o planejamento de longo prazo e a gestão de águas superficiais e subterrâneas.The Tietê/Jacaré watershed is one of the units of management of water resources of São Paulo State. São Paulo State has 22 units of management of water resources. A study on the characteristics of the watershed and an evaluation of its environmental situation was carried out from 2005 to 2008. With a population of 1.200.000 inhabitants distributed in 34 towns and an economic activity predominantly agribusiness and industrial activities, this watershed has an extensive hydrographic network, sufficient water resources and intense economic activity. The study considered soil uses; vegetation cover; water quality of rivers, reservoirs, underground waters, erosion processes, vulnerability of the aquatic biota to eutrophication and contamination. With the ecological, hydrological, ecological and economic data, a data bank was established and a management plan with scenarios, perspectives and integration of planning with future activities was developed. An index of watershed quality was developed as a basis for this planning and management activity.

  19. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081. The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05 was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  20. Adaptive management of urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, A.; Shuster, W.; Green, O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Consent decree settlements for violations of the Clean Water Act (1972) increasingly include provisions for redress of combined sewer overflow activity through hybrid approaches that incorporate the best of both gray (e.g., storage tunnels) and green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens). Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to improve environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that can help regulated communities achieve environmental quality objectives. We are using an adaptive management approach to guide a green infrastructure retrofit of a neighborhood in the Slavic Village Development Corporation area (Cleveland, Ohio). We are in the process of gathering hydrologic and ecosystem services data and will use this data as a basis for collaboration with area citizens on a plan to use green infrastructure to contain stormflows. Monitoring data provides researchers with feedback on the impact of green infrastructure implementation and suggest where improvements can be made.

  1. The use of stakeholder analysis in integrated watershed management

    OpenAIRE

    Mutekanga, F. P.; Kessler, A.; Leber, K.; Visser, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    In the Ngenge watershed, at Mt. Elgon in the eastern Ugandan highlands, agricultural practices cause serious soil erosion problems and subsequent decrease in soil and water quality. Attempts to manage soil erosion through policy interventions have not been successful, because existing policies and legislation for natural resource management are inadequate and often formulated without consulting local communities. In the Ngenge watershed, an integrated watershed management (IWM) program was in...

  2. A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential strategies, guidance on strategy selection in other watersheds where such detailed analyses have not been completed, and a framework for organizing information and modeled predictions to best manage wide-ranging species.

  3. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address challenging resource management issues in industry, government and nongovernmental agencies. Current research and analysis tools were developed to manage meteorological, climatological, and land and water resource data efficiently at high resolution in space and time. The deliverable for this work is a Whitebox-GENESYS open-source resource management capacity with routines for GIS based watershed management including water in agriculture and food production. We are adding urban water management routines through GENESYS in 2013-15 with an engineering PhD candidate. Both Whitebox-GAT and GENESYS are already well-established tools. The proposed research will combine these products to create an open-source geomatics based water resource management tool that is revolutionary in both capacity and availability to a wide array of Canadian and global users

  4. Geomorphometry through remote sensing and GIS for watershed management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of remote sensing and GIS for effective determination of the quantitative description of drainage basin geometry for watershed management prioritization forms the theme of this paper. In the present study, each of the eight sub watersheds of Racherla watershed of Prakasam (District) Andhra Pradesh, have been studied in terms of the morphometric parameters -stream length, bifurcation ratio, length ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor area, perimeter, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and sediment yield index. The prioritization of the eight sub watersheds is carried out considering morphometry and sediment yield index. Using IRS IC satellite imagery, a computerized database is created availing ARC / INFO software. The initial drainage map prepared from the survey of India toposheets was later unified with satellite imagery. The prioritization of sub sheds based on morphometry compared with sediment yield prioritization and found nearly same for the study area. The information obtained from all the thematic map is integrated and action plan is suggested for land and water resources development on a sustainable basis. (author)

  5. Climate Change, Resource Management and Human Safety in the Watershed -The Nishinotani Stream Case Study, Kyushu; Japan-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Fandiño, V.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is occurring already and heavy rain appears to be one of the many indicators. This requires revisiting the integration of resource management and policy making particularly in mountainous areas exposed to flashfloods with the view of increasing human safety too. Devastating flooding took place in the main island of Kyushu due to heavy rain during the second week of July 2012 causing major devastation in various watershed, cities and towns. This event has been tagged as unprecedented although a similar one with records of 27 inches of rain occurred in 1953 as reported in the literature and newspapers of the time. Levels of 7 inches per hour and about 31 inches of raining 72 hours were recorded in certain parts of the island causing most of the rivers to burst their banks, and produce large landslides in Kumamoto, Oita, Fukushima and Saga Prefectures. One of the many impacted upper watersheds belong to the Hoshino-Yokoyamawa river in the Minou Renzan mountains in Yame City; Fukuoka Prefecture. The Yokoyamawa waters flow downstream within high concrete walls with sporadic containments while receiving various affluents along its course. This type of embankment's design is typical of steep river courses and large seasonal discharge fluctuations, which is typical of many rivers in Japan. Along the embankments there are forest areas mainly of Japanese cedar (Sugi), bamboo trees as well as rice growing terraces and farmer houses. The lack of proper environmental management, safe planning by the local municipalities and peoples awareness came to light in many areas after the floods resulting in large damage. A particular case in point was identified in the Nishinotani stream, which feeds the Yokoyamawa River where a large farmer's house and rice field was built directly facing the stream flow direction. Furthermore, the municipality built a small bridge over the stream to allow for traffic. Both proved to be most inappropriate and unwise decisions causing enormous damage In view of the climatic change predictions for Japan as described by the Meteorological Agency it is likely that heavy precipitations will continue in the future. Therefore, this type of flash flooding event in small mountain streams are likely to keep occurring hence the need to revisit local policies related to natural resource management, awareness raising and human safety. Basic environmental management approaches and environmental education awareness for local communities are also required to avoid future cases like the Nishinotani stream.

  6. U.S. EPA's Watershed Management Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  7. REMOTE AND PROXIMATE SENSING IN SUPPORT OF SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter-generationally prudent management of watershed resources will require attention to a complex array of interdependent variables. An interdisciplinary team of investigators from four national research laboratories in EPA's ORD are collaborating to develop stratagems for water...

  8. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  9. Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

  10. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.

    2011-12-01

    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been evidenced by 1) institutional innovation for integrated watershed management; 2) real-world management practices involving multidisciplinary expertise; 3) growing role of economics in systems analysis; 4) enhanced research programs such as the CHNS program and Water, Sustainability and Climate (WSC) program at the US National Science Foundation (NSF). Furthermore, recent scientific and technological developments are expected to accommodate integrated watershed system analysis approaches, such as: 1) increasing availability of distributed digital datasets especially from remote sensing products (e.g. digital watersheds); 2) distributed and semi-distributed watershed hydrologic modeling; 3) enhanced hydroclimatic monitoring and forecast; 4) identified evidences of vulnerability and threshold behavior of watersheds; and 5) continuing improvements in computational and optimization algorithms. Managing watersheds as CHNS will be critical for watershed sustainability, which ensures that human societies will benefit forever from the watershed through development of harmonious relationships between human and natural systems. This presentation will provide a review of the research opportunities that take advantage of the concept of CHNS and associated scientific, technological and institutional innovations/developments.

  11. Bridging the gap between uncertainty analysis for complex watershed models and decision-making for watershed-scale water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.

    2013-12-01

    Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye Basin has a Gobi-oasis system typical of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis.

  12. Area Study prior to Companion Modelling to Integrate Multiple Interests in Upper Watershed Management of Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Barnaud, Ce?cile; Trebuil, Guy; Dumrongrojwatthana, Pongchai; Marie, Je?ro?me

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic minorities living in the highlands of northern Thailand have long been accused of degrading the upper watersheds of the country's major basins. In the nineties, the government reinforced his environmental policies and further restricted their access to farm and forest resources. In the meanwhile, the policy framework also favoured decentralization and public participation. This contradiction resulted in an increasing number of conflicts over land-use between local communities and state...

  13. Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Vyavahare, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...

  14. Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Weaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  15. Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-10-15

    Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. PMID:23851319

  16. Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies Provide Science-Society Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R. M.; Hancock, G. S.; Swaddle, J. P.; Hicks, R. L.; Roberts, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental issues typically occur at the intersection of traditional disciplines such as biology, geology, economics, public policy, and sociology, but many undergraduate students possess neither the tools nor the required interdisciplinary skills to effectively work together to address these complex issues. Our REU program--Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies at the College of William and Mary--with its common watershed theme, improves our students' independence as scientists, increases environmental science literacy across disciplines, and contributes to the educational development of undergraduates as environmental spokespersons. The cohort of students work with W&M faculty mentors on aquatic and associated upland habitats under increasing pressures from urbanization, posing questions integrated across disciplines to address relevant management issues identified by local government agencies and NGOs. Investigations of current hydrogeologic and ecological status in watersheds are completed by analyzing riparian corridor impacts associated with channel incision, stormwater management effectiveness, spatial variation in water quality, lake-wide budgets for water, sediment and nutrients, and population/community structure in aquatic and terrestrial portions of the watershed. Because the status of any watershed system is the result of historical changes in land use, sociologic and economic surveys of residents' perception of development, environmental protection and water and property rights are used to determine the current direction and strength of population and market forcing functions. Students work on each other's projects and develop an understanding of research approaches among fields. In addition to presenting their work at scientific conferences, many students give presentations at local meetings and agency workshops to enhance science-society links. Watershed analysis provides a comprehensive approach to environmental instruction that strengthens the synergy between undergraduate research and education and enhances environmental literacy.

  17. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Khedkar, Smita U.; Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg

    2014-01-01

    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observationa...

  18. Uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Sudheer, K.; Her, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Use of computer simulation models have increased substantially to make watershed management decisions and to develop strategies for water quality improvements. These models are often used to evaluate potential benefits of various best management practices (BMPs) for reducing losses of pollutants from sources areas into receiving waterbodies. Similarly, use of simulation models in optimizing selection and placement of best management practices under single (maximization of crop production or minimization of pollutant transport) and multiple objective functions has increased recently. One of the limitations of the currently available assessment and optimization approaches is that the BMP strategies are considered deterministic. Uncertainties in input data (e.g. precipitation, streamflow, sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses measured, land use) and model parameters may result in considerable uncertainty in watershed response under various BMP options. We have developed and evaluated options to include uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management. We have also applied these methods to evaluate uncertainty in ecosystem services from mixed land use watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss methods to to quantify uncertainties in BMP assessment and optimization solutions due to uncertainties in model inputs and parameters. We have used a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT) to simulate the hydrology and water quality in mixed land use watershed located in Midwest USA. The SWAT model was also used to represent various BMPs in the watershed needed to improve water quality. SWAT model parameters, land use change parameters, and climate change parameters were considered uncertain. It was observed that model parameters, land use and climate changes resulted in considerable uncertainties in BMP performance in reducing P, N, and sediment loads. In addition, climate change scenarios also affected uncertainties in SWAT simulated crop yields. Considerable uncertainties in the net cost and the water quality improvements resulted due to uncertainties in land use, climate change, and model parameter values.

  19. Understanding parameter sensitivity and its management implications in watershed-scale water quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Keller, Arturo A.

    2006-05-01

    Because of uncertainty and variability in input parameter values, watershed-scale water quality modeling can result in significant output uncertainty. Quantifying this uncertainty is very important for policy makers and stakeholders who rely on the output of these models for watershed management. Given the large number of parameters in these complex models, a preliminary sensitivity analysis is needed before the uncertainty analysis. A few sensitivity studies have been conducted for watershed models, but efficiently selecting critical parameters for the uncertainty analysis remains an issue. This study aimed to (1) develop a framework for systematically conducting a preliminary sensitivity analysis for complex watershed models using generalized sensitivity analysis (GSA) as a global technique and (2) evaluate the relevance of incorporating management concerns in the preliminary sensitivity analysis and its impact on parameter selection. Although the proposed approach is valid for any complex watershed model, for this study the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF) model was implemented using data from the Santa Clara River in southern California. To simulate hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport, 121 parameters are needed for a single catchment/reach combination; an efficient selection method is paramount for an uncertainty analysis. The results show that GSA can be implemented efficiently, yielding insights into model and parameter behavior. The sensitivity analysis must consider management concerns early on in the process to identify parameters and parameter values that can influence management decisions. The number of parameters that must be considered in a subsequent uncertainty analysis was significantly reduced. This study also provides guidance for future research on parameter sensitivity and uncertainty in complex watershed models.

  20. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV, but not in the other three (NWMV. The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92% households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR = 0.39, had greater number of toilets (OR = 6.95, cultivated more variety of crops (OR = 2.61, had lower migration (OR = 0.59, higher number of girls continuing education (OR = 3.04 and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR = 3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively. Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.

  1. 77 FR 71404 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Flood Risk Management Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...Proposed Flood Risk Management Study for the Blanchard River Watershed Including Communities...proposed Flood Risk Management Study in the Blanchard River Watershed including the communities...habitat in a comprehensive manner in the Blanchard River Watershed, Ohio. The...

  2. Utility of isotopes in watershed study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrology, water conservation, soil conservation and erosion can be studied effectively on watershed. The meteorological data and the information on stream gauging, infiltration, groundwater recharge evaporation and water balance can be collected in a systematic manner. Isotopes can provide an insight into these phenomena and their inter-relationship. Isotope techniques are now available for chronoloqical hydrology which will be instrumental for study of regional flow patterns and the water balance of catchments. Cosmically produced radioisotopes such as 3H, 14C and 32Si and bomb-produced tritium have been used for dating groundwaters and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen for studying the origin of water. Coventional radiotracers can be used for determining the direction and the velocity of movement of groundwater and the moisture. A beginning has been made on these lines at an experimental watershed at Khandala on Bombay-Poona road. (author)

  3. Persistent Conflicts Over Timber Production and Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Mohammed M.; Lord, William B.

    1992-10-01

    Most forest lands are managed for multiple purposes, among them timber production and water supply. Conflicts often arise in such cases because logging is perceived as a threat to water quality. These conflicts can result from uncertain factual information, from differences in underlying social values, or from imbalances in the incidence of costs and benefits. Resulting conificts may go unresolved because existing institutional structures fail to address the real roots of the dispute. When such conificts go unresolved, benefits are often lost, and social, political, and managerial costs are high. This study found that the roots of conifict may lie in value differences or in interest impacts, but attention may be focused inappropriately and unproductively on factual issues. It suggests that at least some long-standing disputes in the management of forested watersheds may be resolved by identi1,íng the root causes of these disputes and choosing those actions, whether they be changes in management guidelines or altered institutional structures, which are appropriate to those causes.

  4. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  5. A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Maher; Jennifer Burke; David Jensen; Patricia Olson; Sheer, Mindi B.; Aimee Fullerton; Yuko Caras; Ashley Steel, E.; Paul McElhany

    2008-01-01

    Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, US...

  6. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals of sustainable development on a regional scale.

  7. An index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonjoo; Chung, Eun-Sung

    2014-03-01

    This study developed an index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management dealing with water quantity and quality issues in a changing climate. It consists of two parts of management alternative development and analysis. The first part for alternative development consists of six steps: 1) to understand the watershed components and process using HSPF model, 2) to identify the spatial vulnerability ranking using two indices: potential streamflow depletion (PSD) and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD), 3) to quantify the residents' preferences on water management demands and calculate the watershed evaluation index which is the weighted combinations of PSD and PWQD, 4) to set the quantitative targets for water quantity and quality, 5) to develop a list of feasible alternatives and 6) to eliminate the unacceptable alternatives. The second part for alternative analysis has three steps: 7) to analyze all selected alternatives with a hydrologic simulation model considering various climate change scenarios, 8) to quantify the alternative evaluation index including social and hydrologic criteria with utilizing multi-criteria decision analysis methods and 9) to prioritize all options based on a minimax regret strategy for robust decision. This framework considers the uncertainty inherent in climate models and climate change scenarios with utilizing the minimax regret strategy, a decision making strategy under deep uncertainty and thus this procedure derives the robust prioritization based on the multiple utilities of alternatives from various scenarios. In this study, the proposed procedure was applied to the Korean urban watershed, which has suffered from streamflow depletion and water quality deterioration. Our application shows that the framework provides a useful watershed management tool for incorporating quantitative and qualitative information into the evaluation of various policies with regard to water resource planning and management. PMID:24365586

  8. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  9. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...mining, soil, forest, fish and wildlife, and recreation agencies and with...conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion control, forest management, improvement of fish and wildlife habitat, and land use in...

  10. Locating Farmer-based Knowledge and Vested Interests in Natural Resource Management in the Manupali Watershed, Philipines

    OpenAIRE

    Price, L. L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines local soil knowledge and management in the Manupali watershed in the Philippines. The study focuses on soil erosion and its control. Research methods used in the study include ethnosemantic elicitations on soils and focus group discussions. In addition, in-depth work was conducted with 48 farmers holding 154 parcels at different elevations/locations in the watershed. The on-parcel research consisted of farmer classifications of the soil, topography, and erosion status of t...

  11. Disaster management for Nandira watershed district Angul (Orissa) India, using temporal Remote Sensing data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P K; Singh, A P

    2005-05-01

    NALCO--the largest exporter of aluminium in India has a power plant of 720 MW capacity in Nandira watershed in Angul district of Orissa. The power plant utilises local coal to generate thermal power and disposes of large amount of ash which accumulates in slurry form at nearby two ash ponds. These ash ponds were breached on 31 December 2000, causing ash accumulation for entire regime of the Nandira river. An attempt has been made towards preparation of recovery and rehabilitation plan for NALCO using temporal Remote Sensing data and GIS. Indian remote sensing satellite data for pre-breach condition 12 December 2000, during breach event 31 December 2000 and post-breach condition 4 and 6 January 2001 has been digitally analysed for Nandira watershed. The satellite data of coarse spatial resolution provides the absence and presence of fresh sediment deposition along Nandira watershed and Brahmani river pertaining to pre-breach and post-breach conditions respectively on regional scales. The temporal comparison of fine resolution has clearly highlighted the aerial extent of damage caused by the disaster for entire watershed on local scales. The GIS has helped in demarcation of freshly accumulated ash at interval of 500 m along the river length as well as in delineation of maximum ash accumulation across the river width. The study has clearly demonstrated the use of temporal Remote Sensing data in conjunction with GIS for disaster management in terms of recovery and rehabilitation plan preparation of the Nandira watershed. PMID:15932001

  12. Uncertainty Assessment in Watershed-Scale Water Quality Modeling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Keller, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Watershed-scale water quality models such as SWAT, WARMF or HSPF are widely used to support management decision-making. However, the uncertainty in model output is hard to determine explicitly. An uncertainty analysis is necessary to develop a safety factor, or in regulatory terms a Margin of Safety (MOS) for the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). We have developed a framework to systematically assess the uncertainty in complex models, with a particular emphasis on watershed models used for decision-support. A key component of the framework is the Management Objectives Constrained Analysis of Uncertainty (MOCAU) method, which explicitly considers management objectives and observational uncertainty within the analysis. In this case study, we used the WARMF model and a specific catchment in an actual watershed (Santa Clara River) to demonstrate the applicability of the approach. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of MOCAU. Although this method relies on a Monte Carlo approach, the use of management criteria, such as Non Attainment Frequency, Severity of Exceedance, Timing of Exceedance, are used to better constrain the uncertainty analysis. In addition to determining the necessary information for the MOS, a key result is the ability to design monitoring programs that use resources much more efficiently, by directing them towards those conditions that are most likely to reduce the uncertainty of management/regulatory decisions.

  13. SUSTAIN ? A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for water quality management and flow abatement techniques in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale, decision-support framework that is based on cost optimization is needed to support gov...

  14. Analyzing the impacts of forest disturbance and regrowth on watershed hydrology: A case study from the Homochitto Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.; Islam, A.; Huang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Forests are efficient sinks and reservoirs of terrestrial carbons. They can relieve or amplify the adverse impacts of global warming and climate variability and hence, managing forests has been the most important sustainable strategy to mitigate climatic impacts. However, forest management often involves a large scale landscape transformation of land use and cover, and brings significant changes on water resources to the local community. This study is to evaluate the impacts of forest management and disturbance on water quality and quanity in the Homochitto watershed (Mississippi), where forest management and disturbance have occurred on a large scale over long time scales. Using a watershed simulation model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and a long term water monitoring data from USGS and US EPA, we will investigate how the spatial heterogeneity of land use, vegetation cover, topography, and climate affect water cycles (e.g., soil water content, water yields), and water quality (e.g., nutrients and sediments) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Historic chronologies of forest disturbance maps will be generated with a number of satellite-based measurements (such as Landsat, MODIS, and aerial photographs), Geospatial datasets (including MS Gap Analysis Project (GAP), National Land Cover Database (NLCD)), field measurements from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) database, and historic records on forest land management in the region, characterizing the human induced changes in the forest landscape. This study will provide valuable information to better understand the hydrologic feedbacks to changing forests and climate system.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AS APPLIED TO WATERSHEDS, UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING, DECISION SUPPORT AND VISUALIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management as a conceptual framework and as a set of interdisciplinary analytical approaches will be described within the context of sustainable watershed management, within devergent complex ecosystems. A specific subset of integrated tools are deployed to...

  16. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

  17. Public participation in watershed management: International practices for inclusiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)

    This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Longitudinal patterns in carbon and nutrient export from urban watersheds with contrasting headwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Stormwater management in urban areas presents challenges and opportunities to enhance water quality while simultaneously protecting property and infrastructure. Through several generations, stormwater management practices have evolved from 'gray infrastructure' such as pipes and ditches designed to quickly transport water away from the landscape, to more 'green infrastructure' projects meant to allow for biological processing and retention of urban runoff. Implementation of these practices has replaced traditional stream burial with bioretention cells, wetlands, and ponds. We hypothesize that these contrasting green versus gray strategies for headwater management may have significant consequences for the delivery and processing of dissolved carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. To address this hypothesis, we compared two paired urbanized watersheds with different stormwater management by measuring the longitudinal export of DOC, DIC, TDN, PO4+, and major anions, and characterizing dissolved organic matter using Fluorescence Index (FI) and Spectral Slope. Both watersheds were located in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Dead Run is an urbanized catchment with prevalent stream burial and minimal stormwater management which was implemented after initial development. Red Run is a similarly sized watershed with more recent development and comprehensive stormwater management (wetlands, ponds, bioretention cells, sand filters) and 100m wide stream buffer areas. In each of these contrasting watersheds, we chose two headwater streams which drain SWM features and one stream that terminates at a storm drain. We measured longitudinal changes in export by conducting a synoptic survey of both watersheds in which flow and water chemistry were measured every 500m in the main stem and approximately every 250m in the selected tributaries. Within watersheds, we found differences in the C, N and P loads from SWM and non-SWM streams. In Red Run, DOC and DIC were higher in SWM streams, while TDN was higher in non-SWM streams. In contrast, Dead Run SWM streams had lower DIC and PO4+ concentrations than non-SWM, but DOC and TDN were comparable for this single sampling date. Overall, Red Run had lower C export with 4.6 Kg day-1 of DOC and 83 Kg day-1 of DIC, than Dead Run which exported 28.7 Kg day-1 of TOC and 174.2 Kg day-1 of DIC. The instantaneous TDN load was very similar with 5.5 Kg day-1 in Red Run and 5.4 Kg day-1 in Dead Run. Dead Run had an overall longitudinal increase in DOC and decline in DIC concentrations from the headwaters to the mainstem. Red Run showed an overall longitudinal increase in both DIC and DOC concentrations with distance downstream. Future work will investigate biogeochemical processing rates within these contrasting watersheds to explain the longitudinal patterns along stream networks. This work will connect how headwater management strategies alter downstream transport and transformation of carbon and nutrients across the urban watershed continuum.

  19. Role of Science, Policy, and Society in Adaptive Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard M. T.

    2009-03-01

    Planning for an Uncertain Future: Monitoring, Integration, and Adaptation; Estes Park, Colorado, 8-11 September 2008; Water managers around the world are being tasked to include potential effects of climate change in their future operations scenarios. One important water manager, the federal government, owns and manages 30% of all land in the United States, the vast majority of which is in western states and Alaska. On 9 March 2007, the Secretary of the Interior signed Order 3270, which states that adaptive management should be considered when (1) there are consequential decisions to be made; (2) there is an opportunity to apply learning; (3) the objectives of management are clear; (4) the value of reducing uncertainty is high; (5) uncertainty can be expressed as a set of competing, testable models; and (6) an experimental design and monitoring system can be put in place with a reasonable expectation of reducing uncertainty. The Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds provided an appropriate forum to discuss science-driven resource management in the context of new adaptive management strategies. The conference was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cosponsored by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agricultural Research Service, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  20. Watershed Management and Public Health: An Exploration of the Intersection of Two Fields as Reported in the Literature from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J.; Parkes, Margot; Zubrycki, Karla; Venema, Henry; Hallstrom, Lars; Neudorffer, Cynthia; Berbés-Blázquez, Marta; Morrison, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Watersheds are settings for health and well-being that have a great deal to offer the public health community due to the correspondence between the spatial form of the watershed unit and the importance to health and well-being of water. However, managing watersheds for human health and well-being requires the ability to move beyond typical reductionist approaches toward more holistic methods. Health and well-being are emergent properties of inter-related social and biophysical processes. This paper characterizes points of connection and integration between watershed management and public health and tests a new conceptual model, the Watershed Governance Prism, to determine the prevalence in peer-reviewed literature of different perspectives relating to watersheds and public health. We conducted an initial search of academic databases for papers that addressed the interface between watershed management (or governance) and public health themes. We then generated a sample of these papers and undertook a collaborative analysis informed by the Watershed Governance Prism. Our analysis found that although these manuscripts dealt with a range of biophysical and social determinants of health, there was a tendency for social factors and health outcomes to be framed as context only for these studies, rather than form the core of the relationships being investigated. At least one cluster of papers emerged from this analysis that represented a cohesive perspective on watershed governance and health; "Perspective B" on the Watershed Governance Prism, "water governance for ecosystems and well-being," was dominant. Overall, the integration of watershed management/governance and public health is in its infancy.

  1. Watershed management and public health: an exploration of the intersection of two fields as reported in the literature from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J; Parkes, Margot; Zubrycki, Karla; Venema, Henry; Hallstrom, Lars; Neudorffer, Cynthia; Berbés-Blázquez, Marta; Morrison, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Watersheds are settings for health and well-being that have a great deal to offer the public health community due to the correspondence between the spatial form of the watershed unit and the importance to health and well-being of water. However, managing watersheds for human health and well-being requires the ability to move beyond typical reductionist approaches toward more holistic methods. Health and well-being are emergent properties of inter-related social and biophysical processes. This paper characterizes points of connection and integration between watershed management and public health and tests a new conceptual model, the Watershed Governance Prism, to determine the prevalence in peer-reviewed literature of different perspectives relating to watersheds and public health. We conducted an initial search of academic databases for papers that addressed the interface between watershed management (or governance) and public health themes. We then generated a sample of these papers and undertook a collaborative analysis informed by the Watershed Governance Prism. Our analysis found that although these manuscripts dealt with a range of biophysical and social determinants of health, there was a tendency for social factors and health outcomes to be framed as context only for these studies, rather than form the core of the relationships being investigated. At least one cluster of papers emerged from this analysis that represented a cohesive perspective on watershed governance and health; "Perspective B" on the Watershed Governance Prism, "water governance for ecosystems and well-being," was dominant. Overall, the integration of watershed management/governance and public health is in its infancy. PMID:24938794

  2. HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT AND WILDLIFE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Kumar Mishra, Rathore SS and Devendra Pandey*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In India, man-animal conflict is seen across the country in a variety of forms, including monkey menace in the urban areas, crop raiding by ungulates and wild pigs, depredation by elephants and cattle & human killing by tigers and leopards. Damage to agricultural crops and property, killing of livestock and human beings are some of the worst forms of man-animal conflict. One of the main challenges in and around any reserve forest area is to avoid or at least to minimize the incidences of man-animal conflict. An attempt has been made to analyze one of the main reasons (acute shortage of water in forest areas behind such conflicts and suggest remedial measures to minimize this menace by adopting appropriate watershed management techniques.

  3. COST-EFFECTIVE ALLOCATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES USING A GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...

  4. Development of an integrated modeling approach for identifying multilevel non-point-source priority management areas at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Yucen; Wei, Guoyuan; Cai, Yanpeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-05-01

    The identification of priority management areas (PMAs) at the large-basin scale is notably complex because of the random nature of watershed processes, which complicates the application of traditional deterministic PMAs. In this study, a multilevel PMA (ML-PMA) framework is designed as a new tool to pinpoint these sensitive areas, within a basin, that contribute the most to water quality deterioration. The main advantage of the ML-PMA framework is the wide availability of its supplementary tools and its complete framework, which integrates both watershed and river processes in addressing PMAs at the watershed scale. The watershed model, stream model, and a Markov chain approach are integrated to depict the dynamics of watershed processes and various water quality statutes. Based on the results of this study, the river migration process is vital for water quality degradation in the river network and significantly influenced the final PMA map. In addition, the proposed ML-PMA framework considers the impact of climatic conditions and hydrological properties and allows for a more cost-effective allocation of PMAs among different years. In the authors' view, the connectivity of PMAs in terms of flux distribution and propagation downstream on which the ML-PMA is based makes the ML-PMA framework particularly interesting for watershed non-point-source pollution control.

  5. Using causal loop diagrams for the initialization of stakeholder engagement in soil salinity management in agricultural watersheds in developing countries: A case study in the Rechna Doab watershed, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Halbe, Johannes; Prasher, Shiv

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last twenty years, participatory modeling has increasingly been advocated as an integral component of integrated, adaptive, and collaborative water resources management. However, issues of high cost, time, and expertise are significant hurdles to the widespread adoption of participatory modeling in many developing countries. In this study, a step-wise method to initialize the involvement of key stakeholders in the development of qualitative system dynamics models (i.e. causal loop diagrams) is presented. The proposed approach is designed to overcome the challenges of low expertise, time and financial resources that have hampered previous participatory modeling efforts in developing countries. The methodological framework was applied in a case study of soil salinity management in the Rechna Doab region of Pakistan, with a focus on the application of qualitative modeling through stakeholder-built causal loop diagrams to address soil salinity problems in the basin. Individual causal loop diagrams were developed by key stakeholder groups, following which an overall group causal loop diagram of the entire system was built based on the individual causal loop diagrams to form a holistic qualitative model of the whole system. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach, based on using causal loop diagrams in initiating stakeholder involvement in the participatory model building process. In addition, the results point to social-economic aspects of soil salinity that have not been considered by other modeling studies to date. PMID:25681287

  6. Integrated watershed management through consortium approach: team building for watershed consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenath Dixit

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available DFID-funded Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP is currently supported by a consortium of several research and development institutions led by ICRISAT. This is one of the first systematic attempts of convergence of various agencies at watershed level. To develop a common vision of the goals of the project it is important that the partners of the consortium deliberate and discuss with each other and come to know of each other's strengths and limitations. A series of team building workshops were therefore organized at different levels to facilitate the partners of the consortium to function as an effective team. This process was carried out in four rounds starting with the core team in the first round spiraling up further to include the entire network of the consortium partners. This report brings forth the output of these exercises in the form of learnings that are useful to facilitate a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team for natural resource management.

  7. RIVER AND WATERSHED PLANNING: THE SAN LUIS REY CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental management of our water resources requires the integration of science and politics, defining problems and solutions for physical resources within a social context. watershed planning is a term applied to the development of long-term strategies to reconcile a com...

  8. ARS-BLM COOPERATIVE STUDIES, REYNOLDS CREEK WATERSHED, IDAHO, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    This interim report summarizes progress and results of cooperative watershed research between the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. Of Agriculture and the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Dept of the Interior. Work was initiated in 1968. This report covers January 1 thro...

  9. An integrated system dynamics model developed for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Benoit, Gaboury; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-05-15

    A reliable system simulation to relate socioeconomic development with water environment and to comprehensively represent a watershed's dynamic features is important. In this study, after identifying lake watershed system processes, we developed a system dynamics modeling framework for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale. Two reinforcing loops (Development and Investment Promotion) and three balancing loops (Pollution, Resource Consumption, and Pollution Control) were constituted. Based on this work, we constructed Stock and Flow Diagrams that embedded a pollutant load model and a lake water quality model into a socioeconomic system dynamics model. The Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China, which is the sixth largest and among the most severely polluted freshwater lakes in China, was employed as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Water quality parameters considered in the model included chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and three alternative management scenarios on spatial adjustment of industries and population (S1), wastewater treatment capacity construction (S2), and structural adjustment of agriculture (S3), were simulated to assess the effectiveness of certain policies in improving water quality. Results showed that S2 is most effective scenario, and the COD, TN, and TP concentrations in Caohai in 2030 are 52.5, 10.9, and 0.8 mg/L, while those in Waihai are 9.6, 1.2, and 0.08 mg/L, with sustained development in the watershed. Thus, the model can help support the decision making required in development and environmental protection strategies. PMID:25770958

  10. Evaluating watershed service availability under future management and climate change scenarios in the Pangani Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Benedikt; Hurni, Hans; Wiesmann, Urs; Ngana, James O.

    Watershed services are the benefits people obtain from the flow of water through a watershed. While demand for such services is increasing in most parts of the world, supply is getting more insecure due to human impacts on ecosystems such as climate or land use change. Population and water management authorities therefore require information on the potential availability of watershed services in the future and the trade-offs involved. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to model watershed service availability for future management and climate change scenarios in the East African Pangani Basin. In order to quantify actual “benefits”, SWAT2005 was slightly modified, calibrated and configured at the required spatial and temporal resolution so that simulated water resources and processes could be characterized based on their valuation by stakeholders and their accessibility. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate three management and three climate scenarios. The results show that by the year 2025, not primarily the physical availability of water, but access to water resources and efficiency of use represent the greatest challenges. Water to cover basic human needs is available at least 95% of time but must be made accessible to the population through investments in distribution infrastructure. Concerning the trade-off between agricultural use and hydropower production, there is virtually no potential for an increase in hydropower even if it is given priority. Agriculture will necessarily expand spatially as a result of population growth, and can even benefit from higher irrigation water availability per area unit, given improved irrigation efficiency and enforced regulation to ensure equitable distribution of available water. The decline in services from natural terrestrial ecosystems (e.g. charcoal, food), due to the expansion of agriculture, increases the vulnerability of residents who depend on such services mostly in times of drought. The expected impacts of climate change may contribute to an increase or decrease in watershed service availability, but are only marginal and much lower than management impacts up to the year 2025.

  11. Uncertainty assessment in watershed-scale water quality modeling and management: 1. Framework and application of generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Keller, Arturo A.

    2007-08-01

    Watershed-scale water quality models involve substantial uncertainty in model output because of sparse water quality observations and other sources of uncertainty. Assessing the uncertainty is very important for those who use the models to support management decision making. Systematic uncertainty analysis for these models has rarely been done and remains a major challenge. This study aimed (1) to develop a framework to characterize all important sources of uncertainty and their interactions in management-oriented watershed modeling, (2) to apply the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) approach for quantifying simulation uncertainty for complex watershed models, and (3) to investigate the influence of subjective choices (especially the likelihood measure) in a GLUE analysis, as well as the availability of observational data, on the outcome of the uncertainty analysis. A two-stage framework was first established as the basis for uncertainty assessment and probabilistic decision-making. A watershed model (watershed analysis risk management framework (WARMF)) was implemented using data from the Santa Clara River Watershed in southern California. A typical catchment was constructed on which a series of experiments was conducted. The results show that GLUE can be implemented with affordable computational cost, yielding insights into the model behavior. However, in complex watershed water quality modeling, the uncertainty results highly depend on the subjective choices made by the modeler as well as the availability of observational data. The importance of considering management concerns in the uncertainty estimation was also demonstrated. Overall, this study establishes guidance for uncertainty assessment in management-oriented watershed modeling. The study results have suggested future efforts we could make in a GLUE-based uncertainty analysis, which has led to the development of a new method, as will be introduced in a companion paper. Eventually, the study should assist in the development of a new generation of watershed water quality models.

  12. Flow Analysis of Landslide Dammed Lake Watersheds: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun Lee, Kwan; Lin, Yi-Ting

    2006-12-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake, which occurred on September 21, 1999, and had a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale, resulted in an extensive landslide that blocked the Ching-Shui Creek in Taiwan, forming a large lake with a storage volume of 40 million m^3. This paper describes an analytical procedure used to perform flow analysis of the Tsao-Ling watershed, which includes the new landslide dammed lake. In this study, a digital elevation model was applied to obtain the watershed geomorphic factors and stage-area storage function of the landslide dammed lake. Satellite images were used to identify the landslide area and the land cover change that occurred as a result of the earthquake. Two topography-based runoff models were applied for long term and short term streamflow analyses of the watershed because the watershed upstream of the landslide dam was ungauged. The simulated daily flow and storm runoff were verified using limited available measured data in the watershed, and good agreement was obtained. The proposed analytical procedure for flow analysis is considered promising for application to other landslide dammed lake watersheds.

  13. GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rousseau

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

  14. Field Scale Optimization for Long-Term Sustainability of Best Management Practices in Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, A.; Babbar-Sebens, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural and urban land use changes have led to disruption of natural hydrologic processes and impairment of streams and rivers. Multiple previous studies have evaluated Best Management Practices (BMPs) as means for restoring existing hydrologic conditions and reducing impairment of water resources. However, planning of these practices have relied on watershed scale hydrologic models for identifying locations and types of practices at scales much coarser than the actual field scale, where landowners have to plan, design and implement the practices. Field scale hydrologic modeling provides means for identifying relationships between BMP type, spatial location, and the interaction between BMPs at a finer farm/field scale that is usually more relevant to the decision maker (i.e. the landowner). This study focuses on development of a simulation-optimization approach for field-scale planning of BMPs in the School Branch stream system of Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana, USA. The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) tool is used as the field scale hydrologic model, and a multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to search for optimal alternatives. Multiple climate scenarios downscaled to the watershed-scale are used to test the long term performance of these alternatives and under extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness of these BMPs under multiple weather conditions are included within the simulation-optimization approach as a criteria/goal to assist landowners in identifying sustainable design of practices. The results from these scenarios will further enable efficient BMP planning for current and future usage.

  15. The magnitude of lost ecosystem structure and function in urban streams and the effectiveness of watershed-based management (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker, N. J.; Detenbeck, N. E.; Kuhn, A.

    2013-12-01

    Watershed development is a leading cause of stream impairment and increasingly threatens the availability, quality, and sustainability of freshwater resources. In a recent global meta-analysis, we found that measures of desirable ecological structure (e.g., algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities) and functions (e.g., metabolism, nutrient uptake, and denitrification) in streams with developed watersheds were only 23% and 34%, respectively, of those in minimally disturbed reference streams. As humans continue to alter watersheds in response to growing and migrating populations, characterizing ecological responses to watershed development and management practices is urgently needed to inform future development practices, decisions, and policy. In a study of streams in New England, we found that measures of macroinvertebrate and algal communities had threshold responses between 1-10% and 1-5% impervious cover, respectively. Macroinvertebrate communities had decreases in sensitive taxa and predators occurring from 1-3.5% and transitions in trophic and habitat guilds from 4-9% impervious cover. Sensitive algal taxa declined at 1%, followed by increases in tolerant taxa at 3%. Substantially altered algal communities persisted above 5% impervious cover and were dominated by motile taxa (sediment resistant) and those with high nutrient demands. Boosted regression tree analysis showed that sites with >65% and ideally >80% forest and wetland cover in near-stream buffers were associated with a 13-34% decrease in the effects of watershed impervious cover on algal communities. While this reduction is substantial, additional out-of-stream management efforts are needed to protect and restore stream ecosystems (e.g., created wetlands and stormwater ponds), but understanding their effectiveness is greatly limited by sparse ecological monitoring. Our meta-analysis found that restoration improved ecological structure and functions in streams by 48% and 14%, respectively, when compared to streams with developed watersheds and no management practices in place. However, ecosystem measures at restored sites were still only 53% of those in minimally disturbed reference streams. Some of our ongoing work further examines how watershed development and riparian condition affect stream ecosystem functions by altering the sources and delivery of nutrients and carbon. Our results can help inform management priorities and expectations, and they emphasize the importance of implementing mindful development and protective actions in a watershed context, especially in watersheds near impervious cover thresholds. Continued research on linked terrestrial-aquatic systems, improved BMP tracking, and ongoing monitoring will be essential to conserving and restoring the mechanisms that sustain valued ecological attributes and ecosystem services of streams.

  16. Influence of watershed system management on herbicide concentrations in Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotowicz, Robert M; Locke, Martin A; Krutz, L Jason; Lerch, Robert N; Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Gordon, R Earl; Steinriede, R Wade

    2006-11-01

    The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MD-MSEA) project was established in 1994 in three small watersheds (202 to 1,497 ha) that drain into oxbow lakes (Beasley, Deep Hollow, and Thighman). The primary research objective was to assess the implications of management practices on water quality. Monthly monitoring of herbicide concentrations in lake water was conducted from 2000 to 2003. Water samples were analyzed for atrazine, cyanazine, fluometuron, metolachlor, and atrazine metabolites. Herbicide concentrations observed in the lake water reflected cropping systems of the watershed, e.g., atrazine and metolachlor concentrations were associated with the level of corn and sorghum production, whereas cyanazine and fluometuron was associated with the level of glyphosate-sensitive cotton production. The dynamics of herbicide appearance and dissipation in lake samples were strongly influenced by herbicide use, lake hydrology, rainfall pattern, and land management practices. The highest maximum concentrations of atrazine (7.1 to 23.4 microg L(-1)) and metolachlor (0.7 to 14.9 microg L(-1)) were observed in Thighman Lake where significant quantities of corn were grown. Introduction of s-metolachlor and use of glyphosate-resistant cotton coincided with reduced concentration of metolachlor in lake water. Cyanazine was observed in two lakes with the highest levels (1.6 to 5.5 microg L(-1)) in 2000 and lower concentrations in 2001 and 2002 (<0.4 microg L(-1)). Reduced concentrations of fluometuron in Beasley Lake were associated with greater use of glyphosate-resistant cotton and correspondingly less need for soil-applied fluometuron herbicide. In contrast, increased levels of fluometuron were observed in lake water after Deep Hollow was converted from conservation tillage to conventional tillage, presumably due to greater runoff associated with conventional tillage. These studies indicate that herbicide concentrations observed in these three watersheds were related to crop and soil management practices. PMID:17005240

  17. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

  18. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

  19. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Zhang, Minghua

    2009-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. PMID:19616876

  20. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

  1. APPLYING ECOLOGICAL RISK PRINCIPLES TO WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable progress in addressing point source (end of pipe) pollution problems has been made but it is now recognized that further substantial environmental improvements depend on controlling nonpoint source pollution. A watershed approach is being used more frequently to add...

  2. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  3. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2003-01-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  4. Topographical characteristics and evaluating water quality in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Tarlé Pissarra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Topographical characteristics and water quality were evaluated at Hacienda Gloria, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Un-derstanding the relief’s morphometric characteristics and the course of the streams in a small watershed supported the hypothesis that land-use affects water quality and helps predict how changes in water-flow and the surrounding landscape occur; areas protected by native forest and those dedicated to agriculture were considered. Water quality was sampled at six sites and physical and chemical changes were analysed. Monthly water samples were collected from the streams on the same day of each month during the course of a year; Horiba equipment was used for recording data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for determining differences between the sites being investigated. Analysing the data revealed significant differences in pH, electric conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Topographical characteristics have been influenced by agricultural activity, thereby having an environmental impact. Surface runoff was predominant on steep slopes, mainly in areas near the top of the watershed. Land-use has had a significant impact on many physical parameters, including stream turbidity and tem-perature which increased with deforestation. The results indicated the agricultural watershed’s fragility to pollutant exposure and/ or toxicity, mainly due to turbidity in the streams caused by soil erosion, waste discharge and runoff.

  5. Integrated watershed management in Quebec (Canada): a participatory approach centred on local solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, P; Maranda, Y; Baudrand, J

    2006-01-01

    The Quebec Water Policy was launched in November 2002 in support of reform of the water governance. One of the government commitments is to gradually implement watershed-based management for 33 major watercourses located primarily in the St. Lawrence plain. At the local and regional levels, watershed organizations are responsible for implementing integrated management, from a sustainable-development perspective, by preparing a master plan for water (MPW), which will include watercourses, lakes, wetlands and aquifers. These watershed organizations rely on public consultation, as well as local and regional expertise, on the responsibilities for water of the municipalities and regional county municipalities of the territory, as well as those of the ministries and other government agencies. They are also required to observe national priorities regarding protection, restoration, and development of water resources and to comply with relevant guidelines, directives, standards, regulations, and legislation. The role of watershed organizations is to act as planning and consultation tables. Government representatives are present, on the initial process, as the facilitator and for scientific and technical support. They do not have, at this moment, any voting or decisional rights. After two years, integrated water management mobilized water stakeholders on watersheds and they are on their way to initiating their first MPW. PMID:16838716

  6. Oued Zeroud watershed management and Sidi Saad Dam protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Tunisia has decided to construct the Qued Zeroud Dam to protect Kairouan from flooding, to irrigate 4,080 ha, and to maintain the groundwater supply. To prevent silting of the dam 100,000 ha of the Qued Zeroud watershed will undergo a conservation programme. Terraces, waterways and drop structures will be constructed and forage and tree plantations will be developed using Atriplex and cactus. Cultural and grazing practices will be controlled. (author)

  7. The impact of water management on watershed self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Laura; Maxwell, Reed

    2014-05-01

    Temporal and spatial self-organization has been demonstrated for hydrologic variables including soil moisture, evapotranspiration and groundwater depth across many hydrologic catchments. Previous work has demonstrated that aquifers act as low pass filters, removing high frequency variability while allowing low frequency variability to pass through. While much research has focused on connections between water management and groundwater-surface water interactions, few studies have considered the impact of water management, specifically groundwater pumping and irrigation, on the scaling behavior of the natural system. We address this gap by simulating moisture dependent groundwater fed irrigation in the Little Washita Basin (Oklahoma, USA) using the fully integrated hydrologic model ParFlow-CLM. We present results from two simulations each spanning twenty years at hourly resolution, one with irrigated agriculture and one without. The model is forced with heterogeneous historical meteorological forcings and is populated with realistic land cover and subsurface units. Model results demonstrate scaling behavior for variables like latent heat flux and water table depth similar to other studies. Additionally, gridded model outputs allow for direct analysis of spatial patterns in temporal organization not possible with previous observational studies. Analysis shows clear spatial patterns in scaling. For example, water table depth and latent heat flux have the most similar scaling coefficients along the river, where groundwater and surface water are closely interacting. While scaling behavior is also observed in the irrigated agriculture scenario, there are notable differences in frequency behavior. Pumping and irrigation attenuate low frequency (inter-annual variability) while amplifying high frequency (intra-annual variability). Water management operations increase persistence in both groundwater and surface water systems and expand the spatial area where the two are closely connected. Results highlight potential impacts of managed agriculture on natural system dynamics that go beyond traditional considerations of water availability. Feedbacks between management operations and underlying system variability are an important consideration for water managers because system reliability is largely a function of natural variance.

  8. Demarcation of Drainage Network for Watershed Management of Sangamner Tahsil Using Topographical and GIS Data: A Case Study of Sangamner Tahsil of Ahemadnagar District

    OpenAIRE

    Ms Deshmukh Pragati P; Wawale, Surindar G.; Aher, Sainath P.; Prof. Thorat Sukdeo K

    2012-01-01

    Water is significant geographical resource, which need to micro level planning for the conservation. It is the fundamental need of all biotic community which is depending on the precipitation sources directly and River, lake, tank water sources circuitously. There is sensitive issue regarding water managements because of its need and availability. So the, variety of research techniques applied for the sustainable development of water resource. In most of region very less rainfall incidence...

  9. Relating sediment impacts on coral reefs to watershed sources, processes and management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Rebecca; Bainbridge, Zoe T; Lewis, Stephen E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Wilkinson, Scott N; Brodie, Jon E; Silburn, D Mark

    2014-01-15

    Modification of terrestrial sediment fluxes can result in increased sedimentation and turbidity in receiving waters, with detrimental impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Preventing anthropogenic sediment reaching coral reefs requires a better understanding of the specific characteristics, sources and processes generating the anthropogenic sediment, so that effective watershed management strategies can be implemented. Here, we review and synthesise research on measured runoff, sediment erosion and sediment delivery from watersheds to near-shore marine areas, with a strong focus on the Burdekin watershed in the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. We first investigate the characteristics of sediment that pose the greatest risk to coral reef ecosystems. Next we track this sediment back from the marine system into the watershed to determine the storage zones, source areas and processes responsible for sediment generation and run-off. The review determined that only a small proportion of the sediment that has been eroded from the watershed makes it to the mid and outer reefs. The sediment transported >1 km offshore is generally the clay to fine silt (75% will likely be required to reduce runoff and prevent sub-soil erosion; however, it is not known whether ground cover management alone will reduce sediment supply to ecologically acceptable levels. PMID:24121565

  10. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    NRMRL-CIN-1496A Rochon*, G., Szlag*, D., Daniel*, F.B., and Chifos**, C. Remote Sensing Applications for Sustainable Watershed Management and Food Security. Proceedings of the 21st European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories Symposium, Marne-La-Valle, France, 5/14-16/200...

  11. PESTICIDES AND WATERSHED-SCALE MODELING: SOLUTIONS FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three papers that follow in this issue of JAFC were presented at a Symposium held at the Fall 2004 American Chemical Society meeting in Philadelphia Entitled “Agrochemicals And Watershed-Scale Modeling: Solutions For Water Quality Management.” These papers show that industry pesticide scientist...

  12. Evaluation of targeting methods for implementation of best management practices in the Saginaw River Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Subhasis; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A

    2012-07-30

    Increasing concerns regarding water quality in the Great Lakes region are mainly due to changes in urban and agricultural landscapes. Both point and non-point sources contribute pollution to Great Lakes surface waters. Best management practices (BMPs) are a common tool used to reduce both point and non-point source pollution and improve water quality. Meanwhile, identification of critical source areas of pollution and placement of BMPs plays an important role in pollution reduction. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of different targeting methods in 1) identifying priority areas (high, medium, and low) based on various factors such as pollutant concentration, load, and yield, 2) comparing pollutant (sediment, total nitrogen-TN, and total phosphorus-TP) reduction in priority areas defined by all targeting methods, 3) determine the BMP relative sensitivity index among all targeting methods. Ten BMPs were implemented in the Saginaw River Watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model following identification of priority areas. Each targeting method selected distinct high priority areas based on the methodology of implementation. The concentration based targeting method was most effective at reduction of TN and TP, likely because it selected the greatest area of high priority for BMP implementation. The subbasin load targeting method was most effective at reducing sediment because it tended to select large, highly agricultural subbasins for BMP implementation. When implementing BMPs, native grass and terraces were generally the most effective, while conservation tillage and residue management had limited effectiveness. The BMP relative sensitivity index revealed that most combinations of targeting methods and priority areas resulted in a proportional decrease in pollutant load from the subbasin level and watershed outlet. However, the concentration and yield methods were more effective at subbasin reduction, while the stream load method was more effective at reducing pollutants at the watershed outlet. The results of this study indicate that emphasis should be placed on selection of the proper targeting method and BMP to meet the needs and goals of a BMP implementation project because different targeting methods produce varying results. PMID:22459068

  13. Demarcation of Drainage Network for Watershed Management of Sangamner Tahsil Using Topographical and GIS Data: A Case Study of Sangamner Tahsil of Ahemadnagar District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Deshmukh Pragati P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is significant geographical resource, which need to micro level planning for the conservation. It is the fundamental need of all biotic community which is depending on the precipitation sources directly and River, lake, tank water sources circuitously. There is sensitive issue regarding water managements because of its need and availability. So the, variety of research techniques applied for the sustainable development of water resource. In most of region very less rainfall incidence, where need to conservation of water by the appropriate techniques for sustainable development. From the ancient time humans are using variety of techniques for preservation of water, which is now a day becomes a time consuming, resources wastage and less correctness. This traditional techniques replaced by advance GIS and RS techniques where obtain the precise accuracy, digital quality, fewer recourses.

  14. Assessment of a turfgrass sod best management practice on water quality in a suburban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C E; Munster, C L; Vietor, D M; Arnold, J G; White, R

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of manure on agricultural land has caused water quality concerns in many rural watersheds, sometimes requiring state environmental agencies to conduct total maximum daily load (TMDL) assessments of stream nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A best management practice (BMP) has been developed in response to a TMDL that mandates a 50% reduction of annual P load to the North Bosque River (NBR) in central Texas. This BMP exports composted dairy manure P through turfgrass sod from the NBR watershed to urban watersheds. The manure-grown sod releases P slowly and would not require additional P fertilizer for up to 20 years in the receiving watershed. This would eliminate P application to the sod and improve the water quality of urban streams. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) was used to model a typical suburban watershed that would receive the sod grown with composted dairy manure to assess water quality changes due to this BMP. The SWAT model was calibrated to simulate historical flow and estimated sediment and nutrient loading to Mary's Creek near Fort Worth, Texas. The total P stream loading to Mary's Creek was lower when manure-grown sod was transplanted instead of sod grown with inorganic fertilizers. Flow, sediment and total N yield were the same for both cases at the watershed outlet. The SWAT simulations indicated that the turfgrass BMP can be used effectively to import manure P into an urban watershed and reduce in-stream P levels when compared to sod grown with inorganic fertilizers. PMID:17298864

  15. Physical Feasibility Study of Agroforestry Farm Systems to Support Sustainable Agriculture in Konaweha Sub Watershed of Southeast Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitti Marwah

    2012-01-01

    The farming systems in Konaweha watershed are mostly mixed garden that are partly managed intensively as well as traditionally. The objectives of this research were to identify and classify agroforestry systems that were practiced by farmers, to study the effect of the agroforestry systems on soil properties, hydrological indicators, and erosion, as well as to analyze farm management feasibility of agroforestry systems to establish sustainable agriculture system. The study was carried out in ...

  16. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  17. Monitoring, Modeling, and Emergent Toxicology in the East Fork Watershed: Developing a Test Bed for Water Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overarching objectives for the development of the East Fork Watershed Test Bed in Southwestern Ohio include: 1) providing research infrastructure for integrating risk assessment and management research on the scale of a large multi-use watershed (1295 km2); 2) Focusing on process...

  18. WATERSHED INFORMATION - SURF YOUR WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surf Your Watershed is both a database of urls to world wide web pages associated with the watershed approach of environmental management and also data sets of relevant environmental information that can be queried. It is designed for citizens and decision makers across the count...

  19. Effects of watershed management practices on the relationships among rainfall, runoff, and sediment delivery in the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinghong; Lei, Tingwu; Yuan, Cuiping; Lei, Qixiang; Yang, Xiusheng; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu; An, Leping

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among rainfall, runoff, and sediment delivery are significant in predicting soil erosion and in evaluating the benefits of watershed management practices (WMP) on the hilly-gully regions of the Loess Plateau. Hydrologic data (1987 to 2010) were analyzed for variations in precipitation, runoff, and sediment delivery at annual and event scale. These data were obtained from the Qiaozi East watershed (QE) and the Qiaozi West watershed (QW) with and without WMP, respectively. Results indicated that the runoff coefficients of the watersheds decreased significantly, although the runoff coefficient of QE was less than half of that of QW. Sediment delivery decreased more in QE than in QW mainly because of the increase in vegetation cover in both watersheds. In QE, the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery did not change significantly from 1987 to 2006, although the variation was significant from 2007 to 2010. In QW, the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery was not notably altered from 1987 to 2010. This finding suggested that vegetation practices and engineering measures on the hillslope did not strongly affect the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery in the watersheds. But the construction of check dams reduced gully erosion and the suspended sediment concentration. Hence, control practices for gully erosion significantly influenced the relationship between runoff and sediment delivery. This study suggests that a combination of hillslope and gully erosion control practices effectively reduces erosion and sediment delivery in the hilly-gully regions of the Loess Plateau.

  20. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.

  1. Effect of Nutrient Management Planning on Crop Yield, Nitrate Leaching and Sediment Loading in Thomas Brook Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Ahmad, Nafees H. M.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob; Burton, David; Madani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower leaching ( P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.

  2. Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J-Y

    2008-01-01

    Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently. PMID:18547938

  3. A decision support system for phosphorus management at a watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djodjic, Faruk; Montas, Hubert; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Bergström, Lars; Ulén, Barbro

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the main nutrients controlling algal production in aquatic systems. Proper management of P in agricultural production systems can greatly enhance our ability to combat pollution of aquatic environments. To address this issue, a decision support system (DSS) consisting of the Maryland Phosphorus Index (PI), diagnosis expert system (ES), prescription ES, and a nonpoint-source pollution model, Ground Water Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), was developed and applied to an agricultural watershed in southern Sweden. This system can identify critical source areas (CSAs) regarding phosphorus losses within the watershed, make a diagnosis of probable causes, prescribe the most appropriate best management practices (BMPs), and test the environmental effects of the applied BMPs. The PI calculations identified small parts of the watershed as CSAs. Only 10.4% of the total watershed area in 1995 and 5.2% of the total watershed area in 1996 were classed as "high potential P movement." Four probable causes (high P level in soil, excessive P fertilization, stream proximity, and subsurface drainage) and three BMPs (riparian buffer strips, reduced P fertilizer application, and P fertilizer incorporation) were identified by a diagnosis and prescription expert system. The GLEAMS simulations conducted for one selected CSA field for a 24-yr period showed that the recommended BMP reduced runoff P losses by 55% and sediment P losses by 71%, if applied from the first year. Results showed that using DSS may enable us to select a proper BMP implementation strategy and to realize the beneficial effect of BMPs on a long-term basis. PMID:12026098

  4. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Best, E. P.; Goodwin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants to receiving water bodies and enhance local and regional ecosystem services. Barriers for the implementation of CRAM include uncertainties related to the extent to which nutrients are removed by CRAM at various spatial and temporal scales, longevity, optimal placement of CRAM within the landscape, and implementation / operation / maintenance costs. We conducted a study aimed at the identification of optimal placement of CRAM in watersheds that reduces N loading to an environmentally sustainable level, at an acceptable, known, cost. For this study, we used a recently developed screening-level modeling approach, WQM-TMDL-N, running in the ArcGIS environment, to estimate nitrogen loading under current land use conditions (NLCD 2006). This model was equipped with a new option to explore the performances of placement of various CRAM types and areas to reduce nitrogen loading to a State-accepted Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) standard, with related annual average TN concentration, and a multi-objective algorithm optimizing load and cost. CRAM practices explored for implementation in rural area included buffer strips, nutrient management practices, and wetland restoration. We initially applied this modeling approach to the Tippecanoe River (TR) watershed (8-digit HUC), a headwater of the Wabash River (WR) watershed, where CRAM implementation in rural and urban areas is being planned and implemented at various spatial scales. Consequences of future land use are explored using a 2050 land use/land cover map forecasted by the Land Transformation Model. The WR watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state's 92 counties and supports predominantly agricultural land use. Because the WR accounts for over 40% of the nutrient loads of the Ohio River and significantly contributes to the anoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), reduction in TN loading of the WR are expected to directly benefit downstream ecosystem services, including fisheries in the GOM. This modeling approach can be used in support of sustainable integrated watershed management planning.

  5. Tribal Watershed Management: Culture, Science, Capacity, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Amanda; Ostergren, David M.

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on two elements of contemporary American Indian natural resource management. First, the authors explore the capacity of tribes to manage natural resources, including the merging of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with Western science. Second, they analyze tribal management in the context of local and regional…

  6. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections essential for sound land use planning.

  7. Legacy Phosphorus in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Restoration and Management of Wetlands and Aquatic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus is added to watersheds in various forms, including fertilizers, nonhazardous wastes (animal manures and biosolids) and nutrient enriched waters. Globally, approximately 14 million metric tons of phosphorus is added as fertilizer to agricultural watersheds. The approximate ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus fertilizer application at the global level is 5.8 (Mullins et al., 2005). Historically, organic wastes such as animal manure were applied to agronomic crops and pastures on the basis of their nitrogen availability, which has resulted in excessive application of phosphorus. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio of manure is less than 2. As a result, many agricultural watersheds receiving land application of wastes and fertilizers have accumulated phosphorus in excess amounts. However, as soils in agricultural watersheds become saturated or overloaded with phosphorus, a significant portion of stored phosphorus can be released and transported with water during runoff events into adjacent water bodies such as wetlands, streams, shallow lakes and other aquatic systems (Carpenter et al., 1998; Foley et al., 2005). Wetlands, riparian zones and water conservation areas in agricultural watersheds serve as sinks, sources and transformers of nutrients and other chemical contaminants, and as such, they can have a significant impact on water quality, nutrient retention and ecosystem productivity. Here we briefly present a case study of water quality issues in the Lake Okeechof water quality issues in the Lake Okeechobee Basin (LOB), FL, USA and its impact on an adjacent lake.

  8. Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kebede Wolka Wolancho

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

  9. Ecological Engineering Practices for the Reduction of Excess Nitrogen in Human-Influenced Landscapes: A Guide for Watershed Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeport, Elodie; Vidon, Philippe; Forshay, Kenneth J.; Harris, Lora; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Kellogg, Dorothy Q.; Lazar, Julia; Mayer, Paul; Stander, Emilie K.

    2013-02-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) in freshwater systems, estuaries, and coastal areas has well-documented deleterious effects on ecosystems. Ecological engineering practices (EEPs) may be effective at decreasing nonpoint source N leaching to surface and groundwater. However, few studies have synthesized current knowledge about the functioning principles, performance, and cost of common EEPs used to mitigate N pollution at the watershed scale. Our review describes seven EEPs known to decrease N to help watershed managers select the most effective techniques from among the following approaches: advanced-treatment septic systems, low-impact development (LID) structures, permeable reactive barriers, treatment wetlands, riparian buffers, artificial lakes and reservoirs, and stream restoration. Our results show a broad range of N-removal effectiveness but suggest that all techniques could be optimized for N removal by promoting and sustaining conditions conducive to biological transformations (e.g., denitrification). Generally, N-removal efficiency is particularly affected by hydraulic residence time, organic carbon availability, and establishment of anaerobic conditions. There remains a critical need for systematic empirical studies documenting N-removal efficiency among EEPs and potential environmental and economic tradeoffs associated with the widespread use of these techniques. Under current trajectories of N inputs, land use, and climate change, ecological engineering alone may be insufficient to manage N in many watersheds, suggesting that N-pollution source prevention remains a critical need. Improved understanding of N-removal effectiveness and modeling efforts will be critical in building decision support tools to help guide the selection and application of best EEPs for N management.

  10. REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  11. A system method for the assessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in mountain watershed areas: the case of the "Giffre" watershed (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnay, Bérengère

    2011-07-01

    In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions. PMID:21547433

  12. A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnay, Bérengère

    2011-07-01

    In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

  13. A METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING UNCERTAINTY OF A DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGIC MODEL: APPLICATION TO POCONO CREEK WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utility of distributed hydrologic and water quality models for watershed management and sustainability studies should be accompanied by rigorous model uncertainty analysis. However, the use of complex watershed models primarily follows the traditional {calibrate/validate/predict}...

  14. Management zone delineation using a modified watershed algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Roudier, P.; Tisseyre, B.; Poilve?, H.; Roger, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Le zonage intra-parcellaire est une méthode couramment utilisée pour gérer la variabilité intra-parcellaire. Ce concept consiste à partitionner une parcelle en zones de management selon une ou plusieurs caractéristiques du sol et/ou du couvert végétal de cette parcelle. Cet article propose une méthode de zonage originale, basée sur l'utilisation d'une méthode de segmentation d'image puissante et rapide : l'algorithme de ligne de partage des eaux. Cet algorithme d'analyse d'image a ...

  15. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A; Gronberg, Jo Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices. PMID:23128751

  16. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ? NS ? 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  17. Sediment Transport and Control of Keelung River - From Watershed Management Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.-L.; Ho, C.-C.; Lin, J.-Y.; Tsao, H.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Keelung River flows through mountainous area across New Taipei City and Taipei City. The total length is more than 60km. The average rainfall in this watershed ranges from 2000 mm to 5000 mm (1971~2011). Landslide and erosion occurred with heavy rainfall and typhoon events, which is 3~4 in average per year. Flooding occurred in Hsichih area with heavy rainfall and high tide. In order to control flooding, three major engineering control projects were held before 1998 to 2005. The engineering control methods including reshape of river line, normal embankment and ecological embankment, and a new constructed flow path in order to let overflow flood passes through tunnel to another watershed directly to the sea. The section profile of river depth was measured every year since 1960s. This data provides high quality for sediment transportation. Remote sensed data was adopted to digitize land use condition along the river to discuss temporal existence of flood lands, landslides, and green coverage, which including trees and grass lands. The discussion of erosion-deposition relationship in each convergence of river, major engineering treatments is discussed in this research. Moreover, the contribution of land usage change, green coverage and landslide to sediment is discussed and hopefully can provide suggestions to engineering control method and watershed management.

  18. Rainfall Runoff Modelling Using the Principle of Maximum Entropy(Case Study: Kasilian Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirabbasi Najafabadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of runoff for a watershed is a very important issue in water resources management. In this study, the monthly runoff was estimated using the rainfall information and conditional probability distribution model based on the principle of maximum entropy. The information of monthly rainfall and runoff data of Kasilian River basin from 1960 to 2006 were used for the development of model. The model parameters were estimated using the prior information of the watershed such as mean of rainfall, runoff and their covariance. Using the developed model, monthly runoff was estimated for different values of runoff coefficient, , return period, , at different probability levels of rainfall for the basin under study. Results showed that the developed model estimates runoff for all return periods satisfactorily if the runoff coefficient value is taken 0.6. Also, it is observed that at a particular probability level and runoff coefficient, the estimated runoff decreases as return period increases. However, the rate of change of runoff decreases slightly as return period increases.

  19. Handling Water through Irrigation Watershed Management for Coping with Stream Pollution Dilution in Phetchaburi River, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Soulivanh Vorovong; Kasem Chunkao; Surat Baulert

    2014-01-01

    The research was aimed to find means how to handle water at Phetchaburi diversion dam for coping with stream pollution in Phetchaburi River through irrigation watershed management. There eight sampling points for collecting water samples since the year of 2002 to 2013 for analyzing water quality in relation to release water flow in consecutive velocity of 22.4, 100, and 377m3/s in order to obtain the better diluted stream water. Accordance with the same trends of water quality indicators, thi...

  20. Studies of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in two adjacent watersheds.

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, C.; Moorehead, W.; Ross, A.; Isaac-renton, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two adjacent British Columbia, Canada, watersheds with similar topographical features were studied. Both the Black Mountain Irrigation District (BMID) and the Vernon Irrigation District (VID) serve rural agricultural communities which are active in cattle ranching. The present study was carried out in five phases, during which a total of 249 surface water samples were tested in the study watersheds. The aims of these phases were to determine levels of parasite contamination in raw water sampl...

  1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhruvesh P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Gupta, Manika; Nandhakumar, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  2. Adapting regional watershed management to climate change in Bavaria and Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ralf; Muerth, Markus; Schmid, Josef; Jobst, Andreas; Caya, Daniel; Gauvin St-Denis, Blaise; Chaumont, Diane; Velazquez, Juan-Alberto; Turcotte, Richard; Ricard, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The international research project QBic3 (Quebec-Bavarian Collaboration on Climate Change) aims at investigating the potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology of regional scale catchments in Southern Quebec (Canada) and Bavaria (Germany). For this purpose, a hydro-meteorological modeling chain has been established, applying climatic forcing from both dynamical and statistical climate model data to an ensemble of hydrological models of varying complexity. The selection of input data, process descriptions and scenarios allows for the inter-comparison of the uncertainty ranges on selected runoff indicators; a methodology to display the relative importance of each source of uncertainty is developed and results for past runoff (1971-2000) and potential future changes (2041-2070) are obtained. Finally, the impact of hydrological changes on the operational management of dams, reservoirs and transfer systems is investigated and shown for the Bavarian case studies, namely the potential change in i) hydro-power production for the Upper Isar watershed and ii) low flow augmentation and water transfer rates at the Donau-Main transfer system in Central Franconia. Two overall findings will be presented and discussed in detail: a) the climate change response of selected hydrological indicators, especially those related to low flows, is strongly affected by the choice of the hydrological model. It can be shown that an assessment of the changes in the hydrological cycle is best represented by a complex physically based hydrological model, computationally less demanding models (usually simple, lumped and conceptual) can give a significant level of trust for selected indicators. b) the major differences in the projected climate forcing stemming from the ensemble of dynamic climate models (GCM/RCM) versus the statistical-stochastical WETTREG2010 approach. While the dynamic ensemble reveals a moderate modification of the hydrological processes in the investigated catchments, the WETTREG2010 driven runs show a severe detraction for all water operations, mainly related to a strong decline in projected precipitation in all seasons (except winter).

  3. Putting watershed restoration in context: alternative future scenarios influence management outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A H; Steel, E A; Caras, Y; Sheer, M; Olson, P; Kaje, J

    2009-01-01

    Predicting effects of habitat restoration is an important step for recovery of imperiled anadromous salmonid populations. Habitat above three major hydropower dams in the Lewis River watershed, southwestern Washington, USA, will soon become accessible to anadromous fish. We used multiple models to estimate habitat conditions above dams and fish population responses. Additionally, we used scenario planning to predict how habitat and fish will respond to potential future trends in land use due to human population growth and riparian conservation policies. Finally, we developed a hypothetical management strategy (i.e., a set of prioritized restoration projects in specific locations within the watershed) as an example of how a fixed amount of restoration funds might be spent to enhance the success of reintroducing fish above dams. We then compared predicted outcomes from this new strategy to those of six previously modeled strategies. We estimated how the choice of the best management strategy might differ among alternative future scenarios. Results suggest that dam passage will provide access to large amounts of high-quality habitat that will benefit fish populations. Moreover, conservation of existing riparian areas, if implemented, has the potential to improve conditions to a much greater extent than restoration strategies examined, despite expected urban growth. We found that the relative performance of management strategies shifted when fish were allowed to migrate above dams, but less so among alternative futures examined. We discuss how predicted outcomes from these seven hypothetical management strategies could be used for developing an on-the-ground strategy to address a real management situation. PMID:19323185

  4. USING HISTORICAL BIOLOGICAL DATA TO EVALUATE STATUS AND TRENDS IN THE BIG DARBY CREEK WATERSHED (OHIO, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of watershed ecological status and trends is challenging for managers who lack randomly or consistently sampled data, or monitoring programs developed from a watershed perspective. This study investigated analytical approaches for assessment of status and trends using ...

  5. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflizar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop. Using a kriging method in Surfer tool program, have been developed data base from topographic map, Landsat TM image, climatic data and soil psychochemical properties. Using these data, the Universal Soil Loss Equation was used for spatial map of soil erosion 3D and proposed a 3D agro-ecological land use planning for sustainable land management in Sumani watershed. A 3D Agro-ecological land use planning was planned under which the land use type would not cause more than tolerable soil erosion (TER and would be economically feasible. The study revealed that the annual average soil erosion from Sumani watershed was approximately 76.70 Mg ha-1yr-1 in 2011 where more than 100 Mg ha-1yr-1 was found on the cultivated sloping lands at agricultural field, which constitutes large portion of soil erosion in the watershed. Modification of land use with high CP values to one with lower CP values such as erosion control practices by reforestation, combination of mixed garden+beef+chicken (MBC, terrace (TBC or contour cropping+beef+chicken (CBC and sawah+buffalo+chicken (SBC could reduce soil erosion rate by 83.2%, from 76.70 to 12.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with an increase in total profit from agricultural production of about 9.2% in whole Sumani watershed.

  6. Using a Watershed-Based Effluent Trading Approach to Manage Coalbed Methane Produced Water in a Cost-Effective and Environmentally Sound Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Harju, J. A.; Bolles, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is expected to supply much of the incremental U.S. natural gas demand in the coming decades. Extraction of methane from coal seams necessitates reduction of the hydrostatic pressure in the coalbed by removal of water, called produced water. The large volume of produced water not only raises concerns about its impact on surface water quality but also negatively affects producers' profitability because of costs associated with handling the water in a manner consistent with environmental regulatory requirements imposed by the Clean Water Act. Alternatively, watershed-based effluent trading could provide a market mechanism for managing CBM produced water and more quickly improving the overall water quality in a watershed at a lower cost. However, the complexity of appraising the potential trading options in accordance with the prerequisites of implementation feasibility and the effects on environment, economy, and equity dictates an easy-to-be-implemented tool. This paper presents a decision support tool that can be used by both water resources managers and other stakeholders to evaluate various trading options. The tool consists of a database on water quality and discharge baseline determined in terms of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Total Maximum Daily Loads, algorithms to define trading types and trading and transferability rules, a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model, and a simplified economic model. These components are seamlessly integrated with ArcView GIS to facilitate use of this tool. In addition to the prototype developed for the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, this study formulates a general framework upon which similar tools can be created for other watersheds.

  7. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  8. Sustainable forest management: a challenging task in the siran watershed of district Mansehra in the NWFP of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests play an important socio-economic and environmental role on earth. Exploitation of forest resources within the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem has always ensured their sustainability but in recent decades man has overexploited these resources to meet various needs. Pakistan with only 4.8% of its total land area under forests was also experiencing unsustainable forest management. In the Siran Watershed of District Mansehra in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, forests were exploited to meet not only the domestic and commercial wood-fuel needs but also timber needs of the local and external markets. Moreover, the local communities as a source of income generation have also used forest resources to increase their cash income earnings. Analysis of time series forest cover change in the past three decades was done in three adjacent sub-watersheds having different property right regimes. The GIS based spatial analysis showed that despite government efforts to conserve these forests, 75% of the forests were completely converted either into regeneration area (34%) or barren areas (41 %) during the past three decades. The Protected Forests have lost 41 % of its cover and the Guzara Forests 34%. Results show that the forest degradation stress has greatly increased in the eighties and afterwards. Using stakeholder analysis the key wood demanding stake holders in terms of their wood demand state were the local communities, the external commercie local communities, the external commercial timber consumers, tobacco growers and Afghan refugees. The wood supplies stake holders were the Forest Department that controls the Common Pool Forests (CPF), the Forest Development Corporation (FDC), the Forest Cooperative Societies (FCS) and the farm foresters. Analysis of the cause effect relationship of the system shows that the pressure factors of increased wood demand by various stake holders coupled with the enabling factors of the market failure, government failure and institutional failure has led to unsustainable forest management during the past three decades in the study area. Strategic analysis of the system indicates that lack of national conservation based forest management has further aggravated the problem. Moreover, SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis show that the internal weaknesses and external threats outweigh the internal strengths and external opportunities of the Forest Department. Based on these analytical results, priority issues were evaluated in terms of their efficiency, social soundness, institutional acceptability and environmental sustainability. The proposed sustainable forest management options which fulfilled this criteria were the community based forest management, wood demand and supply management interventions, institutional restructuring and income generation opportunities using integrated forest management in the study area. (author)

  9. Streamflow Modeling in a Highly Managed Mountainous Glacier Watershed Using SWAT: The Upper Rhone River Watershed Case in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Kazi; Maringanti, Chetan; Beniston, Martin; Widmer, Florian; Abbaspour, Karim; Lehmann, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Stream flow simulation is often challenging in mountainous watersheds because of irregular topography and complex hydrological processes. Rates of change in precipitation and temperature with respect to elevation often limit the ability to reproduce stream runoff by hydrological models. Anthropogenic influence, such as water transfers in high altitude hydropower reservoirs increases the difficulty in modeling since the natural flow regime is altered by long term storage of water in the reserv...

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A

    2015-04-01

    The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m(3)/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales. PMID:25553544

  11. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaiescu, Tania; Mihaiescu, R.; Muntean, E.; Muntean, Nicoleta

    2010-01-01

    Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern ...

  12. Watershed Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactive game features two skill levels (novice and intermediate) that teach about water quality, watersheds, and management of this important resource. The intermediate level game is broken into four sections: National Parks, agriculture, neighborhood, and city, each with five questions. At the end of the quiz, the best choices for each question are explained.

  13. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed Guoxiang Yang1, Elly P.H. Best2, Staci Goodwin3 1 ORISE Postdoc Research Associate at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk...

  14. Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

  15. Watershed Data Management (WDM) Database for Salt Creek Streamflow Simulation, DuPage County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ishii, Audrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Department of Engineering, Stormwater Management Division, maintains a database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. The majority of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. This report describes a version of the WDM database that was quality-assured and quality-controlled annually to ensure the datasets were complete and accurate. This version of the WDM database contains data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, and is named SEP04.WDM. This report provides a record of time periods of poor data for each precipitation dataset and describes methods used to estimate the data for the periods when data were missing, flawed, or snowfall-affected. The precipitation dataset data-filling process was changed in 2001, and both processes are described. The other meteorologic and hydrologic datasets in the database are fully described in the annual U.S. Geological Survey Water Data Report for Illinois and, therefore, are described in less detail than the precipitation datasets in this report.

  16. A modeling study on soil moisture effect on soil erosion under future climate in a humid continental watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, R.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Schneiderman, E.; Zion, M.; Anandhi, A.; Pierson, D. C.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    Quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion under present and future climate is important both for understanding sediment transport processes as well as watershed-scale management of sediment and associated pollutants. A case study from one of the major watersheds in the New York City Water Supply System is presented. The objective of this study is to apply SWAT-WB, a physically based semi-distributed model to simulate the impact of antecedent soil moisture on soil erosion and suspended sediment yield in the study watershed for a set of future climate scenarios representative of the period 2081-2100. Scenarios developed using nine global climate model (GCM) simulations indicate that future climate related changes in soil erosion appeared more pronounced in the winter due to a shift in the timing of snowmelt and also due to a decrease in the proportion of precipitation received as snow. However, preliminary results indicate that in the future, impact of changes in antecedent soil moisture on soil erosion was less important in the winter. Although an increase in future summer precipitation is predicted, soil erosion and sediment yield appeared to decrease owing to an increase in soil moisture deficit and a decrease in water yield due to increased evapotranspiration.

  17. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Chandniha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and environment aspects of water resources. However it is difficult to bring all these indicators on a single platform. In this study, a watershed sustainability index (WSI which integrates the hydrology, environment, life and policy (HELP has been suggested for Piperiya watershed in Chhattisgarh state of India. This watershed has an area of about 2400km2 and is part of Hasdeo river basin which is located in Koriya district of Chhattisgarh. Further, the majority of population in the area is tribal and illiterate. Providing safe and adequate water to the masses is a challenge in this area. The District has numerous hill ranges with rocky geological formation having steep slope. The district faces an acute water shortage for drinking as well as irrigation. Further, the area has number of coal mines and coal washing plants, which contaminate the surface water as well as groundwater. Thus, the availability of safe and fresh water is quite limited. It has been noticed that the WSI for this watershed is about 0.60, which is moderate level of sustainability. In order to improve the water sustainability in this watershed, a watershed management framework and its utilizationhas been elaborated.

  18. Regional risk assessment of the Puyallup River Watershed and the evaluation of low impact development in meeting management goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Eleanor E; Landis, Wayne G

    2014-04-01

    The Relative Risk Model (RRM) is a tool used to calculate and assess the likelihood of effects to endpoints when multiple stressors occur in complex ecological systems. In this study, a Bayesian network was used to calculate relative risk and estimate uncertainty (BN-RRM) in the Puyallup River Watershed. First, we calculated the risk of prespawn mortality of coho salmon. Second, we evaluated the effect of low impact development (LID) as a means to reduce risk. Prespawner mortality in coho salmon within the Puyallup watershed was the endpoint selected for this study. A conceptual model showing causal pathways between stressors and endpoints was created to show where linkages exist. A relative risk gradient was found throughout the watershed. The lowest risk was found in risk regions with the least urban development, and the greatest risk of prespawner mortality was found in the highly urbanized risk regions with the largest amounts of impervious surface. LID did reduce risk but only when implemented at high intensities within the urban watersheds. The structure of the BN-RRM also provides a framework for water quality- and quantity-related endpoints within this and other watersheds. The framework is also useful for evaluating different strategies for remediation or restoration activities. The adaptability of using BNs for a relative risk assessment provides opportunities for the model to be adapted for other watersheds in the Puget Sound and Salish Sea region. PMID:24288344

  19. Groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-Ferreira, Joao-Paulo; Oliveira, Luís.; Diamantino, Catarina

    2010-05-01

    The paper addresses groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios. The conceptual idea of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is considered as one of the scientific based solutions towards scientific based mitigation measures to climate variability and change in many parts of the world. In Portugal two European Union sponsored 6th Framework Programme for Research Projects have been addressing this topic, namely GABARDINE Project on "Groundwater artificial recharge based on alternative sources of water: Advanced integrated technologies and management" and the Coordinated Action ASEMWATERNet, a "Multi-Stakeholder Platform for ASEM S&T Cooperation on Sustainable Water Use". An application of Aquifer Storage and Recovery methodologies aiming drought mitigation and Integrated Water Resource Management of the Algarve (Portugal). The technique of artificial recharge of groundwater is used in many parts of the world with several aims, e.g. water storing in appropriate aquifers for the mitigation of future water needs during droughts or as protection against pollution or even for the recovery of groundwater quality. Artificial recharge of the aquifer systems of Campina de Faro and Silves-Querença is addressed in this paper, proposed to be an alternative to decrease the vulnerability of the Algarve to a future drought. Integrated management of water resources in the Algarve is not a clear issue since the last decade, when groundwater resources that supplied almost all water needs, have been drastically replaced by surface water stored in new reservoirs.

  20. Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beria Leimona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.

  1. Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Wolka Wolancho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide sediment to critical water bodies. Nutrients and chemicals from cropland and urban sewage are transported into the water systems. Many reservoirs which have been established for hydroelectric power, urban water supply and irrigation accumulate an alarmingly higher level of sediment than expected. Koka, Angereb, Legedadi, Gilgel Gibe I and other reservoirs are threatened by this accelerated sedimentation. Consequences of reservoir sedimentation include the loss of storage capacity and its subsequent effects. These effects include water supply shortages for human consumption, irrigation and hydropower; increased hydro-equipment maintenance and repair; a decline in water quality; the cost of removing sediment; blockage of navigational waters and loss of recreation opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are modified by increased deposition of sediments and adsorbed or dissolved nutrients and chemicals, which commonly causes eutrophication which in turn negatively influences habitats of fish and other organisms. Some of the techniques suggested to reduce reservoir sediment concentration are technically less feasible as it requires design considerations during construction (which is difficult to implement for the existing dams. Removal of sediment is also economically demanding. Among the approaches and techniques proposed and implemented, integrated participatory watershed management is strongly recommended to reduce sediment inflow in sustainable pattern.

  2. Studies on Twin Micro-Watersheds, Melekote and Rajagatta Dodballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka State through Morphometry, Land Formation and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Ramachandraiah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses assessment of various chemical constituents present in groundwater besides morphology, and land form characteristics of twin micro-watersheds (viz., Melekote and Rajaghatta Dodballapur Taluk, (Karnataka coming under semi-arid climatic zone. Farmers who are mainly depending on agricultural yields for their living are disappointed due to vagaries of monsoons and undependable rainfall. This is particularly so in arid and semi-arid regions. These regions suffer from water scarcity, soil degradation, low crop yield, high soil erosion and gradual depletion of soil fertility. All these factors culminate in planning for conservation and storage of water in small watersheds for future needs, i.e., during drought conditions. In many areas, it is observed that the water table levels are declining resulting in problems of increased concentration of solutes and deterioration of groundwater quality. All aspects of hydrological studies are covered in relation to watershed management in order to formulate strategies for sustainable agricultural development. Morphometry, landform and topography play an important role in understanding the hydrological response of any watershed. Quantitative morphometric analysis has been carried out on the watershed along with landform and topographical study.

  3. Consideration for modelling studies of migration of accidentally released radionuclides in a river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning radionuclides that might be released in an event of an accident from a nuclear facility, much attention has been paid to the migration pathways including the atmospheric deposition and subsequent inflow to surface water bodies since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In European countries, computer-coded systems for predicting the migration including those pathways and providing scientific supports for decision makers to manage the contamination have been developed. This report is a summary of presentations and discussion made at the occasion of the visit of Dr. Monte in order to have directions related to the current subject of research, development of a mathematical model of the behavior of radionuclides in a river watershed. Those presentations and discussions were made at JAERI and also at prominent universities and institutes of Japan involved in this study field. As a result of these discussions, distinct advantages and key issues in use of a mathematical model for prediction of the migration of radionuclides in a river watershed have been identified and analyzed. It was confirmed that the use of mathematical modeling has distinct advantages. Re-arrangement of the existing experimental knowledge on the environment in an ordered way according to a theory (a mathematical model) will lead to a new angle to consider a problem in that environment, despite several gaps in the data array. A model to assess the radionuclide behaviour in contaminated aquatic ecosystems is a basis of decision analysis tools for helping decision-makers to select the most appropriate intervention strategies for the ecosystems. Practical use of a mathematical model and continuous effort in its validation were recognized as crucial. (author)

  4. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring 222Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for 222Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rnq, the 222Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rnq to the measured 222Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach

  5. PET study on cerebral hemodynamics in internal carotid artery occlusion; The pathogenesis of watershed infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Harada, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Jun (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kameyama, Masakuni

    1990-05-01

    We studied positron emission tomography in nine patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, selected as having good collateral circulation through the anterior portion of the circle of Willis. Analyses of regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral blood volume allowed quantitative evaluation of the regional hemodynamic status, especially in relation to watershed area. The patient group has a significantly (p<0.01) decreased regional blood flow in the middle cerebral artery territory and the surrounding watershed areas of the occluded hemisphere, as compared with eight control subjects. Values of oxygen extraction fraction became progressively greater farther from the circle of Willis, attaining the highet level in the uperior parietal and posterior temporal-occipital watershed area. Oxygen extraction fraction gave information on the balance of energy supply and demand, serving as an index of the oxygen carriage reserve. A concomitant decrease in the ratio of cerebral blood flow to volume suggested reduction in mean flow velocity with possible development of 'stagnation thrombus'. These findings suggest (1) hemodynamic vulnerability of watershed areas after internal carotid artery occlusion and importance of systemic hemodynamic factors such as blood pressure and circulating blood volume in the genesis of watershed infarctions. (author).

  6. Synthesizing Drainage Morphology of Tectonic Watershed in Upper Ing Watershed (Kwan Phayao Wetland Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangsan Ket-ord

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to synthesize drainage morphology of tectonic watershed in upper Ing Watershed in Phayao province, northern Thailand. The morphometric analysis of 12 sub-watersheds was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS software-ArcGIS 9.3 for analysing drainage pattern and calculating the 16 theoretical values of drainage morphometric parameters in 3 aspects including linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect. The geologic formation and structure are also overlain on drainage morphological map to determine their influence on drainage patterns. The results showed that most areas were dendritic drainage pattern, while rectangular drainage pattern occurs relative to the direction of the fault. Trellis drainage pattern shown on the northeast of the watershed in Mae Puem sub-watershed which the rock layers bend or tilt in syncline structural geology. The upper Ing watershed was classified as a third to fifth order streams, which controlled by physiographic and structural conditions. The tectonic force formed a graben basin which Kwan Phayao wetland is the lowest area of this graben while the high mountain ranges in the western area. As a result, the river is flowing from western highland to lowland quickly especially in the western sub-watershed, this result affecting low permeability, high discharge of runoff and intensity of erosion processes which the calculated drainage morphometric parameters showed the results according to their appearance. It could be said that the drainage patterns in this area is influenced by tectonic structure rather than geologic formation. This study provided more understanding in drainage morphological characteristics of the upper Ing watershed for planning sustainable management of the Kwan Phayao wetland.

  7. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in science program design and implementation for effective environmental decision-making.

  8. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

  9. Watershed management and farmer conservation investments in the semi-arid tropics of India: analysis of determinants of resource use decisions and land productivity benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Shiferaw, Bekele A.; Ratna Reddy, V.; Sp, Wani; Gd, Nageswara Rao

    2006-01-01

    Integrated watershed management has been promoted as a suitable strategy for improving productivity and sustainable intensification of agriculture in rainfed drought-prone regions. The paper examines the socioeconomic and biophysical factors influencing farmers' soil and water conservation investment decisions and the resulting economic incentives (productivity benefits) from watershed management interventions in the semi-arid tropics of India. The paper develops a theoretical framework to te...

  10. Assessing the impacts of land use and land cover change on hydrology of watershed: a case study on Gigel-Abbay Watershed, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Geremew, Asmamaw Adamu

    2013-01-01

    The population growth for the last 16 years caused changes in land cover of the Gilgel Abbay watershed, Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. The effects of the land cover changes have impacted on the stream flow of the watershed by changing the magnitude of surface runoff and ground water flow. This study is mainly focusing on the assessment of the impacts of the land cover changes on the stream flow by changing SURQ and GWQ for the wet months (June, July, August) and dry months (January, February, Mar...

  11. A Validation Study of SWAT in an Urbanizing Multiuse Watershed in the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollan, D. P.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed-scale distributed hydrologic/water quality (H/WQ) models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are increasingly important tools for land managers. They are powerful prediction tools, and are also useful to assess and develop Best Management Practices (BMP) and estimates of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL). A major impediment to successful calibration and validation of H/WQ models is a general lack of distributed monitoring data including discharge, sediment yield and climate data. The current study evaluates SWAT model simulations of water and sediment yield using publically available meteorological and USGS flow data versus simulations developed using comprehensive data sets from a nested network of five hydroclimate stations collecting continuous discharge, sediment and climate data. This work is taking place in the Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW, 230.8 km2) located in central Missouri. Elevation ranges from 170 m at the outlet to 287 m at the headwaters. Landuse in the upper HCW consists of rural pasture and wooded areas, while the lower HCW contains the city of Columbia. Soils in the upper HCW are characterized as loamy till with a well developed clay pan, and in the lower HCW as thin cherty clay and silty to sandy clay. The transitional climate of Missouri includes influences from winter dominant continental polar air masses, and summer prevalent maritime and continental tropical air masses. Average annual temperature and precipitation are 12.8 °C and 1016 mm, respectively. A USGS streamflow gauge (contributing area 179.5 km2) has been operating from 1966-1981, 1986-1991, and 03/2007 to the present. SWAT model inputs were configured for the HCW using ArcSWAT with six subcatchments corresponding to the contributing areas of each of the five gauge sites and the watershed outlet. Using 2001 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) landuse and State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) soils data, the model was parameterized for 26 hydrologic response units. The model was forced with measured climate data from the publically available University of Missouri Sanborn Field meteorological station for the period from January 1, 2000 to December 21, 2008. Simulated discharge was compared to measured discharge at the USGS gauge from March 8, 2007 to December 21, 2008. The simulation yielded R2 values of 0.87 and 0.31 and Nash-Sutcliffe values of 0.81 and 0.29 for monthly and daily flow, respectively. Peak daily flow was 221.2 m3/s and 131.8 m3/s for measured and simulated discharge, respectively. Visual analysis of simulated hydrographs show consistent overestimation of baseflow and leading edge hydrograph discontinuities. Future work will compare current modeling results with model runs developed using data from the distributed hydroclimate station network. Model performance across the continuum of land use, from the forested to urban portion of HCW, will be quantified. This work will supply Central U.S. land managers with improved understanding and tools (i.e. models) for future landuse and development scenarios.

  12. Eliciting stakeholder values for coral reef management tasks in the Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is developing a valuation protocol for southwest Puerto Rico that will support the US Coral Reef Task Force?s (USCRTF) Partnership Initiative in the Guánica Bay/Rio Loco (GB/RL) Watershed. The GB/RL watershed is located in southwestern Puerto Rico and includes the urbaniz...

  13. Managing a Watershed Monitoring Project with Innovative Data Telemetry and Communications Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with Clermont County, the U.S. EPA is developing watershed-wide load and transport models to better understand environmental stressors in stream flow and the structure and function of stream ecosystems in the tributaries of the Lower East Fork River. Watershed s...

  14. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania MIHAIESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern part of Romania. A distinct characteristic of this watershed is the presence of lakeunits (natural and artificial. Natural lakes and ponds are a polarizing element, which provides identity for the landscapein Fizes watershed, concentrates the majority of settlements in their close vicinity and also represent a support ofeconomical activities development, from agriculture to tourism.The objective of the present work is to discuss the major ion chemistry of the main lakes from Fizes watershed.Chemical classification also throws light on the concentration of various predominant cations, anions and theirinterrelationships. Water lake samples were collected from 11 sampling points covering the area during the years 2007and 2008 and were analyzed for physical-chemical characters. The system of lake units present distinctive physicalchemicalcharacteristics, influenced by local natural conditions, main factors being climate, morphometriccharacteristics of lakes, vegetation by shadowing, factors which together with biological conditions and anthropicinfluences shape the quality conditions of the lake waters. Climatic, hydrological and substrate conditions are reflectedin the resulting water quality. The lakes located in the upper part of the watershed can be included in the bicarbonateclass, while lakes located in the lower part are closer to sulphate waters.

  15. Interaction Between Scientists and Nonscientists in Community-Based Watershed Management: Emergence of the Concept of Stream Naturalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads; Wilson; Urban

    1999-10-01

    / Watershed management, although dependent on science and engineering, is first and foremost a social process. Given the current emphasis on community-based approaches to environmental decision making, scientists must, more than ever before, understand, appreciate, respect, and immerse themselves within local social contexts. Only by doing so will they be able to ensure that their opinions and information are fairly and meaningfully considered by nonscientists.The authors' personal experience in watershed planning and decision making in the agricultural Midwest is described to illustrate how: (1) formalization of the process of community-based management is not sufficient to guarantee that local people will meaningfully consider scientific information and opinion when making decisions about watersheds, and (2) genuine social interaction between scientists and nonscientists requires a considerable investment of time and energy on the part of the scientist to develop personal relationships with nonscientists based on trust and mutual exchange of information. This experience provides the basis for developing a general conceptual model of the interaction between scientists and nonscientists in community-based watershed management in the agricultural Midwest.An important aspect of integrating science effectively into community-based decision making is the need to revise existing concepts to accommodate place-based contexts. Stream naturalization is introduced as an alternative to stream restoration and rehabilitation, which are viewed as inappropriate management strategies in human-dominated environments. Stream naturalization seeks to establish sustainable, morphologically and hydraulically varied, yet dynamically stable fluvial systems that are capable of supporting healthy, biologically diverse aquatic ecosystems. This general goal is consistent with the types of stream-management practices emerging from community-based decision making in human-dominated, agricultural landscapes. Further research on the linkages between geomorphological and ecological dynamics of human-modified agricultural streams over multiple spatial and temporal scales is needed to provide a sound scientific framework for stream naturalization.KEY WORDS: Community-based decision making; Watershed management; Stream naturalizationhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n3p297.html PMID:10486041

  16. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciskovi?-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zuni?, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future studies has been highlighted. A preliminary study of diseases diagnosed in Lokve shows that about 18% of the total inhabitants have serious medical problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers. PMID:17203367

  17. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation methods, and discount rates applied. Further guidance on representing uncertainty and applying uncertain results in decisionmaking would benefit both tool developers and those offices in using ecosystem services to compare management tradeoffs. Decisionmakers and Bureau of Land Management managers at the State-, district-, and field-office level would also benefit from continuing model improvements, training, and guidance on tool use that can be provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Department of the Interior. Tradeoffs were identified in the level of effort needed to parameterize and run tools and the amount and quality of information they provide to the decision process. We found the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, Ecosystem Services Review, and United Nations Environment Programme–World Conservation Monitoring Centre Ecosystem Services Toolkit to be immediately feasible for application by the Bureau of Land Management, given proper guidance on their use. It is also feasible for the Bureau of Land Management to use the InVEST model, but in early 2012 the process of parameterizing the model required resources and expertise that are unlikely to be available in most Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Application of past primary valuation is feasible, but developing new primary-valuation studies is too time consuming for regular application. Value transfer approaches (aside from the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit) are best applied carefully on the basis of guidelines described in this report, to reduce transfer error. The ARIES model can provide useful information in regions modeled in the past (Arizona, California, Colorado, and Washington), but it lacks some features that will improve its usability, such as a generalized model that could be applied anywhere in the United States. Eleven other tools described in this report could become useful as the tools more fully develop, in high-profile cases for which additional resources are available for tool application or in case-st

  18. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of the water resource leads to a degradation of the water quality of the aquifer basically being reflected by an increase in sulfates, sodium and chloride. Combining the results with the hydrologic data and modeling it was possible outline high impact zones with steep water level drops of up to 15 m and high water quality deterioration as well as low impact zones with shallow water level fluctuation less tan on meter and stable water quality. These results will finally lead to a proposal how to guide the Guadalupe watershed towards a sustainable management of the aquifer.

  19. Assessment and simulation of biological soil conservation countermeasure (Case study: Northern Karoon River Watershed, Iran )

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Ghorbani; Ahmad Jalalian; Reza Habibian

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are twofold: 1) to evaluate the actual capability of EUROSEM, to simulate the biological method of the soil and water conservation, and 2) to assess the effectiveness of this technique to protect the soil and water in the mentioned study area. The study area is a part of Vanak catchment in the Northern Karoon River Watershed, Southwest of Iran. Runoff and sediment data were collected over a number of periodical rainfall events from the two catchments called...

  20. Companion modeling & watershed management in Northern Thailand : the importance of local networks

    OpenAIRE

    Promburom, Panomsak

    2010-01-01

    In the northern watershed area of Thailand, the increase in watershed resources degradation due to the combination of population and economic growths led to diverse controls and responsible agents. Thai government has put substantial effort to empower and involve local people in resource governance, to eradicate the problem and mitigate the conflict of interest. However, the people participation does not progress beyond informative and consultative levels. The Maehae is one of the complex wat...

  1. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative K?'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the K?‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  2. Watershed Dynamics: Using Web-based GIS to Access Data and Study the Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, C. K.; Jona, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Watershed Dynamics project has developed online GIS tools and curriculum to provide high school earth science students with access to data and analysis tools to perform investigations on their local watershed. Using FieldScope web-based GIS tools from National Geographic, students investigate precipitation, stream discharge, and land cover data for the US. Students use the data to study water availability across the US and the world, human impacts on the watershed, and more. Curriculum developers at the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP) at Northwestern University and the GLOBE Program have created two complete units which scaffold students on their way to independent research using GIS. In the Water Availability unit, students work with precipitation, evaporation, and surface runoff to investigate the water cycle and how it varies regionally and seasonally. In the Human Impact unit, students analyze land cover change over time and investigate stream discharge to figure out how humans are impacting their watershed. These units can be used together or individually, but provide students progressively more research independence, leading them to ask their own questions about the watershed using GIS data. Both units have been pilot tested in high school classrooms and found to be successful at increasing student content knowledge about the water cycle. They are being modified for use at the undergraduate level. The web-based GIS interface has the functionality of desktop GIS, but allows for a simpler user-experience and direct links to relevant data. Students can use these tools to learn scientific content and as a stepping-stone for further GIS investigations.

  3. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  4. Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelašnica watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risti? Ratko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia’s hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the land’s capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and the more frequent appearance of torrential floods and bed-load deposits on downstream sections. Environmental degradation creates economicsocial problems within local societies which is often followed by depopulation. Restoring watersheds to their optimal hydrologic state would reduce flood discharge and by increasing groundwater recharge would increase both low-flow and average discharges in springs and streams. Best management practices could be developed through the application of specific combinations of biotechnical, technical and administrative measures, and by using the concept of ?natural reservoirs?. The design of such practices is explored through a case study of the watershed of the river Jelašnica, southeastern Serbia. Realization of these planned restoration works should help decrease the annual yields of erosive material by 44.1% and the specific annual transport of sediment through hydrographic network by 43.6%. Representative value of the coefficient of erosion will be reduced from Z=0.555 to Z=0.379. The value of maximal discharge Qmax-AMCIII (1%=54.17 m3•s-1, before restoration, is decreased to Qmax-AMCIII (1%=41.22 m3•s-1 after restoration, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of land use changes. Administrative measures are applied through ?Plans for announcement of erosive regions and protection from torrential floods in the territory of Leskovac municipality?.

  5. Identification of hotspots for potential pyrethroid runoff: a GIS modeling study in San Joaquin River Watershed of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Zhang, Minghua; Liu, Xingmei

    2008-09-01

    This paper attempts to identify the high-risk areas for potential runoff of pyrethroid pesticides in the San Joaquin River Watershed. Pyrethroid pesticides have been detected in water and fluvial sediments in this watershed, creating concerns about potential negative impacts on water quality. However, little documentation exists regarding the distributions or the extent of the adverse effects caused by the use of pyrethroids. This study developed a geographic information systems (GIS) model to identify areas with high potential for pyrethroid runoff during the rainy season. The model was then validated using field-monitoring data. Nine factors were identified for the runoff risk assessment: amount of active ingredient used, soil erodibility factor, hydrologic group, surface layer depth, seasonal rainfall, seasonal number of rainy days, seasonal number of storm events, stream density, and land cover. The results indicated that high pyrethroid runoff risks were associated with basins such as the Stanislaus River Sub-basin, Newman Gustine Sub-basin and South Merced Sub-basin. This study demonstrated that the GIS model is capable of predicting high-risk areas of pyrethroid runoff at sub-basin scale. The model can be used to prioritize sites for water quality monitoring and guide implementations of best management practices.

  6. Avaliacao ambiental estrategica de planosde bacias hidrograficas / Strategic environmental assessment for watershed management plans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Gallo, Pizella; Marcelo Pereira de, Souza.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica (AAE) é um instrumento de avaliação de impactos ambientais de Políticas, Planos e Programas (PPPs). Tendo em vista o planejamento dos recursos hídricos no Brasil, o objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar as contribuições da AAE para a elaboração de Planos de Bacias Hidro [...] gráficas no país, tendo como objeto de estudo a Bacia do Rio Pardo, no estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, realizaram-se entrevistas com colaboradores do Comitê e acompanhou-se o Grupo de Trabalho do Relatório de Situação dos Recursos Hídricos. Verificou-se que a aplicação da AAE permitiria a incorporação dos princípios de sustentabilidade ambiental no desenvolvimento dos Planos; a integração com outros PPPs correlatos; o levantamento e avaliação de impactos de alternativas de desenvolvimento na Bacia e a identificação de indicadores para o monitoramento do Plano de forma contínua Abstract in english Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool for assessing environmental impacts of Policy, Plans and Programmes (PPPs). In view of the water resources planning in Brazil, this paper aimed to evaluate the contributions of the SEA for the development of Watershed Management Plans in the country [...] , having as object the Pardoâ€(tm)s River Basin, in state of Sao Paulo. To this end, we carried out interviews with staff of the Committee and followed the Working Group of the Status Report of Water Resources. It was found that the application of SEA allowed the incorporation of the environmental sustainability principles in the development of Plans, the integration with other related PPPs, the survey and impact assessment of the development alternatives in the Basin and the identification of indicators for monitoring the Plan

  7. Isotopic study of the upper watershed of the Rio Abancan (Province of Catamarca, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper watershed of the Rio Abaucan drains the main part of the water resources of a semi arid area in the northern Argentine Andes. An isotopic study of the flow pattern has been undertaken within the lack of relevant hydrological and hydrogeological data. Oxygen 18, deuterium and tritium data suggest that snow is not contributing to the recharge of the aquifers. The storage of the alluvial deposits capacity appears to be low. The working hypotheses drawn out from this study indicate that such a kind of study could be done in a systematic way in order to prospect the resources of the andine watersheds. In a more general way, the interest of the isotopic methodology in areas where few data are available and where the environmental isotope labelling is large, these are often the same, must be underlined

  8. A Case Study of Form-Based Solutions for Watershed Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hannah E.; Bendor, Todd K.

    2010-09-01

    Despite an array of policies at the federal and state level aimed at regulating stormwater discharges, engineered solutions enforced by local governments often fall short of meeting water quality standards. Although the implications of land use planning and development regulations are important for stormwater management, they are often overlooked as critical initial steps to improving water quality. This study explores the role of ‘form-based’ regulations as tools for achieving urban planning and water quality objectives. Form-based codes are a new generation of development codes aimed at regulating urban development based on urban form and density, rather than land use. We present an exploratory case study of the feasibility of form-based codes in the Jordan Lake Watershed in North Carolina, a rapidly growing region where fragmented local governments face stringent nutrient reduction standards under new state regulations. Through program analysis and interviews, we explore the viability of form-based codes for reducing development impacts on Jordan Lake’s water quality. We consider the legal feasibility of code enforcement, regional and local barriers and opportunities, and implementation given existing regulatory frameworks. Our findings suggest that high quality information and data modeling are foundational to gaining support for a consensus agreement on the sources and degree of water quality impairment. Furthermore, implementing form-based solutions for water quality is greatly aided by (1) experienced regional planning bodies that have regulatory authority, and (2) local governments whose staff are experienced in implementing complex development ordinances, reviewing architectural renderings, and communicating development requirements with the public and developers.

  9. Multiobjective management of ecosystem services by integrative watershed modeling and evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elias G.; Nicklow, John W.

    2005-10-01

    This paper explores the role of landscapes in generating ecosystem services while maximizing gross margin associated with agricultural commodity production. Ecosystem services considered include the reduction of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, phosphorous, and nitrogen yields from a watershed. The analysis relies on an integrative modeling framework that combines a comprehensive watershed model (SWAT) with a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2). Application of the resulting model to a watershed in southern Illinois demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach in providing tradeoff solutions between gross margin and the generation of ecosystem services. These solutions are important to policy makers and planners in that they provide information about the cost-effectiveness of alternative agricultural landscapes.

  10. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mulholland, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  11. Environmental baseline study of the Huron River Watershed, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Cannon, William F.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a study to establish water-quality and geochemical baseline conditions within a small watershed in the Lake Superior region. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a survey of water-quality parameters and soil and streambed sediment geochemistry of the 83 mi2 Huron River Watershed in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Streamflow was measured and water-quality samples collected at a range of flow conditions from six sites on the major tributaries of the Huron River. All water samples were analyzed for a suite of common ions, nutrients, and trace metals. In addition, water samples from each site were analyzed for unfiltered total and methylmercury once during summer low-flow conditions. Soil samples were collected from 31 sites, with up to 4 separate samples collected at each site, delineated by soil horizon. Streambed sediments were collected from 11 sites selected to cover most of the area drained by the Huron River system. USGS data were supplemented with ecological assessments completed in 2006 by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality using a modified version of their Great Lakes Environmental Assessment Section procedure 51, and again during 2008 using volunteers under supervision of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Results from this study define a hydrological, geological, and environmental baseline for the Huron River Watershed prior to any significant mineral exploration or development. Results from the project also serve to refine the design of future regional environmental baseline studies in the Lake Superior Basin.

  12. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  13. Site Suitability Analysis of Water Harvesting Structures Using Remote Sensing and GIS - A Case Study of Pisangan Watershed, Ajmer District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, H. C.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rajasthan is a region with very limited water resources. Water is the most crucial for maintaining an environment and ecosystem conducive to sustaining all forms of life. The principle of watershed management is the proper management of all the precipitation by the way of collection, storage and efficient utilization of runoff water and to recharge the ground water. The present study aim's to identify suitable zones for water harvesting structures in Pisangan watershed of Ajmer district, Rajasthan by using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi Criteria Evaluation (MSE). Multi criteria evaluation is carried out in Geographic Information system to help the decision makers in determining suitable zones for water harvesting structures based on the physical characteristics of the watershed. Different layers which were taken into account for multi criteria evaluation are; Soil texture, slope, rainfall data (2000-2012), land use/cover, geomorphology, lithology, lineaments, drainage network. The soil conservation service model was used to estimate the runoff depth of the study area Analytical Hierarchy Processes (AHP) is used to find suitable water harvesting structures on the basis of rainfall. Produced suitability map will help in the selection of harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, storage tank, check dams and stop dams.

  14. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  15. Runoff simulation using distributed hydrological modeling approach, remote sensing and GIS techniques: A case study from an Indian agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdary, V. M.; Desai, V. R.; Gupta, M.; Jeyaram, A.; Murthy, Y. V. N. K.

    2012-07-01

    Distributed hydrological modeling has the capability of simulating distributed watershed basin processes, by dividing a heterogeneous and complex land surface divided into computational elements such as Hydrologic Response Units (HRU), grid cell or sub watersheds. The present study was taken up to simulate spatial hydrological processes from a case study area of Kansavati watershed in Purulia district of West Bengal, India having diverse geographical features using distributed hydrological modelling approach. In the present study, overland flow in terms of direct runoff from storm rainfall was computed using USDA Soil Conservation Services (SCS) curve number technique and subsequently it served as input to channel routing model. For channel flow routing, Muskingum-Cunge flood routing technique was used, specifically to route surface runoff from the different sub watershed outlet points to the outlet point of the watershed. Model parameters were derived for each grid cell either from remote sensing data or conventional maps under GIS environment. For distributed approach, validation show reasonable fit between the simulated and measured data and CMR value in all the cases is negative and ranges from -0.1 to - 0.3. Further, this study investigates the effect of cell size on runoff simulation for different grid cell sizes of 23, 46, 92, 184, 368, 736, 1472 m resolution. The difference between simulated and observed runoff values increases with the increase of grid size beyond 184 m more prominently. Further, this model can be used to evaluate futuristic water availability scenarios for an agricultural watershed in eastern India.

  16. Grid based rainfall-runoff GIS modelling to study the anthropogenic effect on the hydrology of a small watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Senes, Giulio; Greppi, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    In the Po basin urban development, land use change and variations in rain intensity have influenced watershed runoff and increased floods. In order to better study the anthropogenic effect on the basin hydrology the Olona river watershed proved to be an interesting small catchment to test. It went through a rapid change from agricultural land to urbanized and partly forest areas over the period 1954 – 1994. The Olona River is known for frequent flooding along its course and in some district...

  17. A Total Water Management Analysis of the Las Vegas Wash Watershed, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change, land use change, and population growth are fundamental factors affecting future hydrologic conditions in streams, especially in arid regions with scarce water resources. Located in the arid southwest, Las Vegas Valley located within the Las Vegas Wash watershed is...

  18. Holistically Evaluating the Impact of Water and Land Use Management in the Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governments, tribal leaders and citizens within the Santa Cruz watershed (United States, Mexico, the Tohono O'odham and the Pascua Yaqui Tribes) face environmental and economic issues of ensuring people have access to clean water and sanitation while vital ecosystems are protect...

  19. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with the applicable terms and conditions identified in the ESA Consultation Biological Opinion (BO) and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Essential Fish Habitat Consultation, for BPA's Habitat Improvement Program (HIP), the Tapteal Bend Restoration Project meets the requirements of consistency and no further consultation is required. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. In complying with the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, BPA contracted with the Cultural Resources Protection Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) for cultural resource survey work. Shawn Steinmetz prepared a report (December 15, 2002) concluding that there were only two isolated finds in the project area. BPA and the Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation have concurred with the conclusions and recommendations set out in the report and the determination that no historic properties will be affected by the current project as proposed (January 31, 2003). It was recommended that a cultural resource monitor be present during ground disturbing activities. In the unlikely event that archaeological material is discovered during project implementation, an archaeologist should be notified immediately and work halted in the vicinity of the finds until they can be inspected and assessed. Standard water quality protection procedures and Best Management Practices should be followed during the implementation of the Tapteal Bend Restoration project. No construction is authorized to begin until the proponent has obtained all applicable local, state, and federal permits and approvals.

  20. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP: a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Condom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP, the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i, a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and simulated river flow at 16 control points in the Rio Santa watershed. At the global scale of the watershed, the glacier retreat is correctly simulated for the period 1970/1999 with a calculated retreat equals to ?23% when the observed retreat is of ?24%. Having established that the model can respond to these scientific objectives, the ultimate goal of the study was to demonstrate how this integrated modelling system can be used as a decision support tool to assist in planning water management adaptation to climate change. This sort of integrated assessment is required to adapt water resources management in the Andes to a~range of future climatic conditions, improving the resilience of developing Andean economies such Peru's in the face of a major drive of global change.

  1. The Imbalance between Nature and Management: Jurisdictional Evaluation of Headwaters in a Mountain Watershed (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    In mountain ecoregions of the semi-arid western U.S., there is an imbalance between science and policy for jurisdictional determinations of aquatic resource as ';waters of the US' that can be protected under Clean Water Act Section 404 (permitting discharge of dredged and fill materials into wetlands and other waters). This leads to continued degradation of surface waters due to the imbalance of key biophysical and societal/regulatory components; the imbalance of water across these drier landscapes, and the imbalance between the critical ecological services provided by these headwater areas and the increasing impacts from urbanization and energy development in previously undeveloped areas. This study analysed headwater streams in a mountain watershed in southwestern Colorado and developed a classification scheme and hydrological connectivity index to demonstrate jurisdictional evaluation at a watershed scale. The National Hydrography Dataset and USGS program StreamStats were used with field observations to classify flow duration and stream order used for Level 1 and 2 classification. Kruskall Wallis tests and discriminant analysis were used to evaluate differences among Level 1 and 2 classes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to develop Level 3 classes based on stream length, distance to the nearest downstream traditional navigable water (TNW), and the ratio of mean annual flow from the source stream to the TNW. Three primary metrics were used for HCI development: Avg Q/AQ, or the average streamflow metric as a proportion of the metric for the TNW, distance from the stream to the TNW, and slope to the TNW. Additional metrics were also analyzed including stream length, elevation, channel slope and type, and riparian zone types. Perennial waters constitute over a third of all streams (the highest order of which is 4th order), 64% of all reaches are intermittent or ephemeral, and almost half are ephemeral 1st order (E1). The perennial and intermittent streams are classified as jurisdictional relatively permanent waters (RPWs). All ephemeral reaches are non-RPWs and would require significant nexus evaluation to determine jurisdiction. The main stream contributes 20% of the average annual flow to the TNW, and 5% of the total to the river can come from E1 streams. There were significant differences in most metrics among Level 2 classes. There was a large range of HCI values, with 48% 1. Mean values differed among stream duration and order classes. Many ephemeral streams may be non-jurisdictional and unprotected under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The flow index (QI) component constituted the greatest proportion of the HCI for perennial streams, was sensitive to the Q metrics used, and was greatest for high flows. Ephemeral streams are only connected to the TNW <3 months of the year, but their flow contribution is proportionally larger during high flows than other flow metrics. Streams in one ephemeral Level 3 class with HCI values from 0.75-0.94 are farthest from the TNW but contribute the greatest proportion of flow and may have significant nexus with the river.

  2. Estimation of watershed hydrologic processes in arid conditions with a modified watershed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Swaney, Dennis P.; Hong, Bongghi; Wang, Jinnan; Wang, Yuqiu; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2014-11-01

    Watershed models play an important role in modern water resource management, increasingly demanding a robust hydrologic data framework to estimate watershed hydrochemical processes. The Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF), a typical watershed model with modest data requirements, has been applied to watershed-scale hydrochemical estimation worldwide. However, while it generally successfully estimates flows in humid regions, the model suffers from a weakness in hydrologic estimation during low-flow periods, which are projected to continue increasing with global climate change in many places. To address this issue, three algorithms describing functional responses of flows to saturated water storage, the segment function approach, linear function approach, and exponential function approach, have been proposed in this paper, integrated with a previous leakage mechanism for unsaturated water storage used in two earlier GWLF versions, and applied to a case study of Shuai Shui River watershed in China. Comparisons of this version, including new algorithms or algorithm linkages, with the earlier GWLF versions, show that all the new algorithms improve model accuracy in low-flow months; the linear function approach linking the leakage process has the best effect. This work refines the framework of GWLF model to address both humid and arid conditions that can be used as alternatives for future applications. These new functional dynamic responses should also have potential application in other similar watershed models.

  3. Emerging Technologies for Ecohydrological Studies during the North American Monsoon in a Chihuahuan Desert Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, R. C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2010-12-01

    Monsoonal systems are due to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation that may result in a large fraction of the annual precipitation falling within a few months. The North American Monsoon System (NAMS) contributes approximately 55% of the annual rainfall in the New Mexico Chihuahuan Desert during the summer period. Relatively frequent storm events during the NAMS result in increased soil moisture that drive greater soil microbial activity and increased ecosystem primary productivity. During severe storms, runoff production can lead to flood events that recharge the subsurface through channel losses. In this study, we present preliminary results from a network of soil, channel, and atmospheric monitoring equipment in a small watershed (~0.05 km2) located in the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Using the instrument network, we characterize the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall (5 rain gauges), soil moisture and temperature (16 profile locations), and channel runoff (4 flumes) within the watershed during the summer of 2010. In addition, we utilize CO2, H2O, and energy flux measurements by an eddy covariance tower to quantify the seasonal changes in land-atmosphere exchanges. These coordinated, spatially-distributed observations are complemented by the novel use of two Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms for watershed characterization. Using a small airplane (the MLB BAT 3), we obtained a set of very high-resolution images (~7 cm) and created an orthomosaic to characterize vegetation cover and species prior to the NAMS and after full canopy development. Several instrument packages (optical, stereo and LIDAR) on board a SR30 UAV Electric helicopter also provide detailed information on the watershed, including a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The conjunctive use of these datasets will allow for unprecedented analysis of how the onset and progression of the NAMS affects water, energy and carbon fluxes in a semiarid environment. In particular, we seek to understand the role of summer vegetation greening on soil moisture dynamics, evapotranspiration and its partitioning, and ecosystem fluxes. We also discuss how these observational efforts will help parameterize a distributed hydrologic model, the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), which will be applied to the small watershed. The combination of these emerging sensing and modeling technologies will help advance our understanding of how desert plant community dynamics affect water, energy, and CO2 fluxes during the NAMS.

  4. The Estimating of Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Using Regional Flood Analysis and Geomorphologic Parameters (Case Study: Kanisavaran and Marenj Watersheds, Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shirzadi1*, K. Chapi1 and P. Fathi2

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of flood hydrograph is of necessities in hydrological studies such as flood mitigation projects. This estimation in un-gauged watersheds is usually taken place using geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. The objective of this research is to estimate synthetic unit hydrograph using regional flood frequency analysis and geomorphological parameters of watersheds. 1-hour and 2-hour hydrographs of two watersheds, Kanisavaran and Maranj Watersheds, were generated using maximum discharge data based on regional flood frequency analysis. Estimated hydrographs were compared with observed data and the efficiency of the model was evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, absolute and bias errors. The results showed that multiple regression models give more acceptable results among others for the computation of synthetic unit hydrograph (higher coefficient of determination. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.98 for 1-hour hydrograph while it was 0.93 for the 2-hour hydrograph. The absolute error in 1-hour hydrograph and 2-hour hydrograph was 0.13 and 1.2, respectively. The bias error was close to zero for both hydrographs, indicating that the proposed model is efficient. The model may be used for estimation of synthetic unit hydrograph in similar un-gauged watersheds.

  5. Quantifying the Fecal Coliform Loads in Urban Watersheds by Hydrologic/Hydraulic Modeling: Case Study of the Beauport River Watershed in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Thériault

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-step method for the identification of the main sources of fecal coliforms (FC in urban waters and for the analysis of remedial actions is proposed. The method is based on (1 The statistical analysis of the relationship between rainfall and FC concentrations in urban rivers; (2 The simulation of hydrology and hydraulics; and (3 Scenario analysis. The proposed method was applied to the Beauport River watershed, in Canada, covering an area of 28.7 km2. FC loads and concentrations in the river, during and following rainfall events, were computed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM hydrological/hydraulic simulation model combined with event mean concentrations. It was found that combined sewer overflows (CSOs are the main FC sources, and that FC from stormwater runoff could still impair recreational activities in the Beauport River even if retention tanks were built to contain CSOs. Thus, intervention measures should be applied in order to reduce the concentration of FC in stormwater outfalls. The proposed method could be applied to water quality components other than FC, provided that they are present in stormwater runoff and/or CSOs, and that the time of concentration of the watershed is significantly lower than their persistence in urban waters.

  6. Land management, erosion problems and soil and water conservation in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezuayehu, T.; Sterk, G.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of soil erosion processes, attitude towards rational use of resources and institutional support affect the capability of farmers to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. This research was conducted to determine soil erosion problems and the factors that affect the adoption ofSWC measures in Fincha’a watershed, western Ethiopia. A total of 50 farmers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and two group discussions were held with 20 fa...

  7. Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height of water depth during dry and wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 allowed the construction of the "rating curve" in four points of water quality monitoring and to reconstruct the series of water flow in these seasons. The analysis results showed that there is indication of changes in water quality parameters due to the conservation practices adopted. The water temperature parameter was the most influenced by the seasonal variation in runoff. Several physical factors may have influenced the correlation of the other parameters with runoff, especially the different environmental recovery actions implemented in the study to achieve the sustainability of the water resources.

  8. Hydrological characterization of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pathak

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive Summary Water is one of the most critical resource and constraint in the semi-arid tropics (SAT. To minimize land degradation and sustain crop productivity in the SAT, management and efficient utilization of rainwater is important. Watershed-based resource utilization involves the optimum use of the area’sprecipitation for the improvement and stabilization of agriculture on the watershed through better water, soil, and crop management. More effective utilization of water for the production of crops canbe facilitated by one or more of the following means: (i in situ conservation of moisture; (ii proper drainage, collection, storage, and re-utilization of runoff; and (iii groundwater recovery from wells. For the proper development, conservation, and management of land and water resources, accurate information on surface and groundwater hydrology is crucial. Under the Asian Development Bank(ADB-supported project on integrated watershed management we studied the hydrological behavior of benchmark agricultural watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam. From the five benchmarkwatersheds, the information on topography, rainfall, runoff, groundwater, and other relevant data were collected and analyzed.The hydrological data from the five benchmark watersheds in India, Thailand, and Vietnam clearly show the effectiveness of improved watershed technologies in reducing runoff volume and peakrunoff rate. The highest runoff volume of 433 mm (51% of seasonal rainfall was recorded from the Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, while the lowest runoff volume of 55 mm (7% of seasonal rainfall wasrecorded from the Adarsha watershed in Kothapally, India. The highest peak runoff rate of 0.235 m3 s-1ha-1 was recorded from the untreated watershed at Kothapally. Between the treated and untreatedwatersheds the maximum difference in runoff volume was recorded at Lalatora watershed in India(290 mm in untreated compared to 55 mm in treated watershed. Among the three locations in India, the highest runoff was recorded at Lalatora watershed followed by Ringnodia and Kothapally watersheds. The groundwater observations from the three sites in India, clearly show the effectiveness of the improved watershed technologies in increasing the groundwater recharge therebyimproving the availability of water for agricultural and other uses. Throughout the season the groundwater levels in the treated areas were significantly higher compared to the groundwater levelsin the untreated areas. In terms of prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge, the Tad Fa watershed inThailand has the highest potential followed by Lalatora watershed in India. The prospects of further runoff harvesting and groundwater recharge at Ringnodia and Adarsha watersheds in India aremoderate. The region-specific hydrological data reported in this publication will be useful in the planning, design, development, and management of land and water resources in the target regions.

  9. Watershed Data Management (WDM) database for Salt Creek streamflow simulation, DuPage County, Illinois, water years 2005-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Maitreyee

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DuPage County Stormwater Management Division, maintains a USGS database of hourly meteorologic and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system, which assists in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the Salt Creek watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. Most of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorologic data (wind speed, solar radiation, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorologic data. The hydrologic data (discharge and stage) are collected at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database. An earlier report describes in detail the WDM database development including the processing of data from January 1, 1997, through September 30, 2004, in SEP04.WDM database. SEP04.WDM is updated with the appended data from October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2011, water years 2005–11 and renamed as SEP11.WDM. This report details the processing of meteorologic and hydrologic data in SEP11.WDM. This report provides a record of snow affected periods and the data used to fill missing-record periods for each precipitation site during water years 2005–11. The meteorologic data filling methods are described in detail in Over and others (2010), and an update is provided in this report.

  10. Influence of Land Management and Hydrology on Urea Fate and Transport Within a Coastal Plain Watershed Dominated by Intensive Poultry Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R.; May, E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing nutrient loads delivered from the landscape to coastal ecosystems has widely been recognized as a major contributor to coastal eutrophication and as a driver of the escalation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and septic waste, and is gaining recognition as a preferred nutrient for the development of toxic HABs. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining the Delmarva Peninsula and in the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the key factors that influence urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters. Here, in attempt to address the need to better understand urea behavior, we investigated land management and hydrologic controls on urea loss, both spatially and temporally, in the Manokin River. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (300 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Monthly synoptic sampling during baseflow conditions was conducted throughout the watershed in order to represent the variety of potential point and non-point sources of urea. Sampling was also conducted during stormflow conditions using time-weighted automated (SIGMA) samplers at select sites within the watershed. Temporal baseflow trends illustrate higher average urea concentrations through the summer months (0.61 ?M L-1) and generally lower (0.35 ?M L-1) concentrations during the winter months. Spatial trends show higher average baseflow urea concentrations in the agricultural ditches and headwaters (0.93?M L-1) with decreasing concentrations moving downstream (0.37 ?M L-1). Stormflow was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations typically increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations (0.27 ?M L-1) during storms, with peaks in urea concentration generally following peaks in discharge. Results from this study will be used to determine whether there is a link between urea delivery from the Manokin River and harmful algal blooms in the Chesapeake Bay as well as to guide the development of best management practices to control urea loss from agricultural activities.

  11. Watersheds in disordered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Joséi, Jr.; Araújo, Nuno; Herrmann, Hans; Schrenk, Julian

    2015-02-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF SEDIMENT SOURCES IN A SEMIARID WATERSHED USING MULTIPLE DIAGNOSTIC PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification of sediment source areas in watersheds is important for the development of sediment budgets, and for the design of management practices to reduce sediment and chemical loadings in receiving streams. This study was conducted to determine the primary sources of sediment at a watersh...

  13. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  14. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Rajamanickam, G. Victor; Kumaravel, P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes - low, very low, uncertain, high and very high - 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  15. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed. PMID:24483100

  16. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  17. Scaling Relations for Watersheds

    CERN Document Server

    Fehr, E; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    We study the morphology of watersheds in two and three dimensional systems subjected to different degrees of spatial correlations. The response of these objects to small, local perturbations is also investigated with extensive numerical simulations. We find the fractal dimension of the watersheds to generally decrease with the Hurst exponent, which quantifies the degree of spatial correlations. Moreover, in two dimensions, our results match the range of fractal dimensions $1.10 \\leq d_f \\leq 1.15$ observed for natural landscapes. We report that the watershed is strongly affected by local perturbations. For perturbed two and three dimensional systems, we observe a power-law scaling behavior for the distribution of areas (volumes) enclosed by the original and the displaced watershed, and for the distribution of distances between outlets. Finite-size effects are analyzed and the resulting scaling exponents are shown to depend significantly on the Hurst exponent. The intrinsic relation between watershed and invas...

  18. Perceiving Patagonia: An Assessment of Social Values and Perspectives Regarding Watershed Ecosystem Services and Management in Southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, Jean-Paul A.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Veteto, James R.

    2014-04-01

    Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management.

  19. Perceiving patagonia: an assessment of social values and perspectives regarding watershed ecosystem services and management in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, Jean-Paul A; Anderson, Christopher B; Veteto, James R

    2014-04-01

    Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management. PMID:24477552

  20. Lake Jackson watershed study: description of sites, methodology and scope of research. [Impact of urbanization on water quality and geochemistry of watershed of recreational lake in north Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.R.; Burton, T.M.; Harriss, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Lake Jackson watershed study was undertaken to quantify changes in water quality and geochemical exports resulting from urbanization within the 11,900 hectare watershed of a recreational lake in north Florida. Three subbasins of 430, 611, and 792 hectares in size and otherwise similar in all respects except land-use were instrumented for intensive hydrologic and chemical monitoring during a two-year period (June 1973--May 1976). Two of these subbasins offered considerable contrast in major land use: rapidly developing urban versus stable forested-agricultural. The third subbasin was intermediate between these extremes of land use. The streams draining the subbasins were generally intermittent with respect to flow and thus major emphasis was placed on characterizing storm events. Hydrologic records for each water sampling station were studied and water samples were collected both manually and by automatic discrete samplers. Constituents measured included suspended solids, dissolved solids, chloride, dissolved silicon, and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The data obtained in this study are being used to identify and explore the hydrochemical consequences of urbanization on a small drainage basin scale.

  1. Hydrological year 2009 in the small watersheds ?ervík and Malá Ráztoka

    OpenAIRE

    Zden?k Vícha; Kate?ina Janová; Milan Bíba

    2011-01-01

    Unique experiment, not only with respect to time, is ongoing within the two small watersheds in Beskid Mts. The year 2009 represents already the 56-th year of this long-term forestry-hydrological research. Experimental watershed ?ervík (CE) is situated near the village Staré Hamry, watershed Malá Ráztoka (MR) near Trojanovice. The aim of the research is to study the impact of forest on the water runoff from the watershed, and the impact of forest management on water balance in the headwa...

  2. Simulation of streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the upper Guadalupe River watershed, south-central Texas, 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Thompson, Florence E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and the Upper Guadalupe River Authority, developed and calibrated a Soil and Water Assessment Tool watershed model of the upper Guadalupe River watershed in south-central Texas to simulate streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the watershed and to Canyon Lake for 1995-2010. Model simulations were done to quantify the possible change in water yield of individual subbasins in the upper Guadalupe River watershed as a result of the replacement of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) with grasslands. The simulation results will serve as a tool for resource managers to guide their brush-management efforts. Model hydrology was calibrated with streamflow data collected at the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 08167500 Guadalupe River near Spring Branch, Tex., for 1995-2010. Simulated monthly streamflow showed very good agreement with measured monthly streamflow: a percent bias of -5, a coefficient of determination of 0.91, and a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of model efficiency of 0.85. Modified land-cover input datasets were generated for the model in order to simulate the replacement of ashe juniper with grasslands in 23 brush-management subbasins in the watershed. Each of the 23 simulations showed an increase in simulated water yields in the targeted subbasins and to Canyon Lake. The simulated increases in average annual water yields in the subbasins ranged from 6,370 to 119,000 gallons per acre of ashe juniper replaced with grasslands with an average of 38,900 gallons. The simulated increases in average annual water yields to Canyon Lake from upstream subbasins ranged from 6,640 to 72,700 gallons per acre of ashe juniper replaced with grasslands with an average of 34,700 gallons.

  3. Participatory Scenario Planning for the Cienega Watershed: Embracing Uncertainty in Public Lands Management in the U.S. Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Land managers and communities struggle to sustain natural landscapes and the benefits they provide--especially in an era of rapid and unpredictable changes being driven by shifts in climate and other drivers that are largely outside the control of local managers and residents. The Cienega Watershed Partnership (CWP) is a long-standing multi-agency partnership involved in managing lands and resources over about 700,000 acres in southeast Arizona, surrounding the Bureau of Land Management's Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. The region forms a vital wildlife corridor connecting the diverse ecosystems of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and grasslands with the Sierra Madrean and Rocky Mountain forests and woodlands. The CWP has long-standing forums and relationships for considering complex issues and novel approaches for management, including practical implementation of adaptive management, development of monitoring programs and protocols, and the use of nested objectives to adjust management targets. However, current plans have objectives and strategies based on what is known or likely to become known about natural and socio-cultural systems; they do not incorporate uncertainties related to rapid changes in climate or have well developed feedback mechanisms for routinely reconsidering climate information. Since 2011, more than 50 individuals from over 20 federal and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and private landowners have participated in scenario planning for the Cienega Watershed. Scenario planning is an important tool for (1) managing risks in the face of high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity; (2) integrating quantitative climate projections, trend and impact assessments, and local expertise to develop qualitative scenario narratives that can inform decisions even by simply provoking insights; and (3) engaging jurisdictions having different missions, objectives, and planning processes. Participants are helping to extend and refine participatory scenario planning methods from the development of regional qualitative narratives to (1) development of scenario narratives that are relevant at the local management level, (2) creation and evaluation of portfolios of management options that can accommodate changes in management objectives, connect to formal agency planning processes, and that can be adjusted as the future evolves, and (3) explicit identification of the data and information that link qualitative narratives to quantitative scenario and adaptation assessments, which can be used to drive the timing and implementation of activities within the adaptation portfolios, and to prioritize monitoring and research activities to resolve near-term uncertainties. Project tasks are structured around four resource teams that focus on their specific management concerns (Montane, Riparian, Upland and Cultural), but that come together periodically to consider interaction and conflict among their scenarios or prospective adaptation. Participants are finding that embracing uncertainty enables them to approach climate change with a sense of empowerment rather than a sense of reacting to crises, and they appreciate the methods and opportunities for thinking differently and crossing boundaries that the scenario planning exercises provide.

  4. Predictive Model of Rainfall-Runoff: A Case Study of the Sanaga Basin at Bamendjin Watershed in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Kibula Lukong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the energy deficit recorded in Cameroon, management of watersheds where storage dams are situated plays a vital role. The Bamendjin dam situated upstream of the river Sanaga in Cameroon plays a significant role in regulating the flow of the river Sanaga which is used to generate hydroelectric energy for the South Interconnected Network (SIN of AES SONEL (the main producer and distributor of electricity in Cameroon at the power plants of Edea and Songloulou downstream of the Sanaga in Cameroon. This paper proposes a model of the watershed that gives an accurate estimation of the quantity of water that will enter the dam given an estimated future rainfall. The model captures the relationships between rainfall and streamflow and to reliably estimate initial watershed states. While future runoff are mainly dependent on initial watershed states and future rainfall, use of the rainfall-runoff models together with estimated future rainfall can produce skillful forecasts of future runoff which is the basis of this prediction system. The result we obtained is a simulated discharge or hydrograph at the outlet (entrance of the dam. To validate it, a comparison of the simulated flowrate and the observed flowrate is carryout using historic data with the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency Criterion and we obtained an efficiency of 0.833, meaning that the simulation was good.

  5. Developing a Framework to Measure Watershed Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that landuse (both type and location impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

  6. Potential and limitations of Payments for Environmental Services (PES as a means to manage watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Planchon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on two case studies conducted at local sites in Northern Thailand and Lao PDR, the objectives of this paper are (i to assess whether conditions for the establishment of PES at the watershed level exist in the uplands of mainland SE Asia and (ii to examine and discuss limitations that are likely to impinge on direct transfer of the PES concept as well as the institutional adaptations and support that are required for the successful implementation of PES markets in this regional context. The study's main findings are that: (i acceptance of PES principles and constraints are directly related to stakeholders' perception of their land rights irrespective of their actual rights; (ii willingness to pay (WTP is very low among local stakeholders, making any PES market unlikely to emerge without external support; (iii the classical scheme for watershed services hardly applies in its original form because environmental service (ES providers and buyers are generally the same people; (iv where potential ES buyers feel that ES providers are better-off or wealthier than them, they do not have any WTP for ES; (v good governance, including a strong liaising at various levels between people and the authorities is a strong prerequisite for the successful establishment of PES markets, even without direct government funding

  7. Application of analytic and mechanistic hydrologic models to the study of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.; Henderson, G.S.; Begovich, C.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Jones, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrologic studies at Walker Branch Watershed combine field data collection, use of analytic methods for data processing, and the use of models to explore hypotheses that result from analysis. For example, examination of delayed flow from the two sub-basins of Walker Branch showed a quantitative exchange from one sub-basin to the other. The data also suggested a relationship between delayed flow rate and fraction of delayed flow volume exchanged. Simulation results supported the analysis, but raised additional questions for further field study and data analysis. A similar approach to studies of quick-flow and evapotranspiration leads to a suggestion that storm runoff is uniform for both sub-basins and is related to the moisture content of surface soils, as influenced by evapotranspiration.

  8. Managing Managerialism in Management Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The paper addresses the dominance of an instrumental or “managerialist” conception of rationality within management. Many critics have made clear that this conception of rationality is reductionist, but the critique often dismisses rationality altogether as the failed project of the Enlightenment. My paper will argue that rationality should be seriously engaged with as a concept, but that such a serious engagement will illuminate rationality as a multi-faceted concept. This conception allows us to engage with rationality in a theoretical fruitful and ethically engaged manner that challenges us to see rationality as a form of activity or labor.

  9. Endangered ecosystem conservation: a 30-year lesson from the evolution of saline-alkali soil management in Manasi river watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies on saline-alkali soil management mostly followed an instrumental 'prediction and control' approach dominated by technical end-of-pipe solutions. However, those 'integrated' instrumental solutions frequently perished due to the growing social and economic uncertainties in financial support, legal insurance, expertise service and other factors. This investigation summarizes the 30-year period of saline-alkali soil management - the social and economic and ecological (SEE) management innovation - its adoption, diffusion, adaptation and transformation in Manasi River watershed of northern Xinjiang. This area was experiencing three distinct SEE management stages from pure instrumental desalination techniques to integrated desalination technique system following the SEE supporting system. The results of GIS analysis (Fragatats 3.3) and historical documents provide data evidence for above three transition stages. The total area of saline and alkali land was increased by 32.7%, 47.6% during the first two decades but decreased by 11.9% in the recent decade. The numbers of saline land patches were 116, 129 and 121 in 1989, 2000 and 2007 respectively, a similar trend to the changes of total area. However, both perimeter-area fractal dimension (PAFD) and splitting index (SI) continued to increase, with values of 1.265, 1.272 and 1.279 for PAFD and 259.29, 269.68, 272.92 for SI in 1989, 2000 and 2007, respectively. It suggests that saline and alkaline land distribusts that saline and alkaline land distribution had been fragmented, and sequestrated into salt micro-catchments within whole oasis ecosystems. This case is largely associated with effective adoption of integrated engineering and biological desalination programs as a result of local SEE saline-alkali soil management innovation. (author)

  10. Comparison of Precipitation data from NEXRAD and ARS-NSERL Rain Gauges for hydrological study in the St. Joseph River Watershed, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation is a major driving force variable behind all hydrologic processes needed for watershed modeling studies. The use of point-scale rain gauge data in watershed hydrologic models may not effectively capture the spatial distribution of rainfall; thereby, directly affecting the water balance...

  11. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2004-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  12. Variations in Streamflow: A Comparison Among ARS Experimental Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, M. W.; Garbrecht, J.; Starks, P. J.

    2001-12-01

    : The integrated effects of climatic, physiographic, and anthropogenic factors govern the hydrologic response of a watershed. In the absence of changes in landcover, channel properties or water resource development, variations in streamflow are primarily due to climatic factors, such as precipitation, temperature, wind, and relative humidity. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in precipitation and air temperature particularly lead to changes in watershed runoff characteristics that can have either beneficial or adverse impacts on agricultural, domestic, industrial and ecosystem water needs. Also heavily dependent on climatic variations are water supply, flood control and low stream-flow management, as well as rules and protocols for reservoir operations. Better estimates of watershed hydrologic response characteristics are needed to relate variations in precipitation to watershed runoff and to describe variations in flow frequency as a function of climatic, soils, topographic, and land use regimes. In this study variations in annual and daily streamflow were compared on USDA ARS's four largest experimental watersheds over a 26-year period from 1972 to 1997. Observations were made from two subwatersheds at each site. The watersheds included Reynolds Creek, ID (55 and 239 sq km), Walnut Gulch, AZ (114 and 149 sq km), Little Washita River, OK (160 and 538 sq km) and Little River, GA (115 and 334 sq km). Each of the ARS watersheds represents a unique physiographic region within the United States, and is comprised of climate, geologic, topographic, soils, and land use features that are distinct from one another. Results of this study show that the Little River Watershed exhibited the smallest variation in inter-annual stream flow, followed by the Little Washita, Reynolds Creek, and Walnut Gulch Watersheds. The year-to-year variation in annual stream flow for a given watershed varied inversely with the long-term average annual precipitation for that location. The Reynolds Creek Watershed, characterized predominantly by runoff from snowmelt, exhibited the smallest variation in daily streamflow within a given year, followed by the Little River, Little Washita, and Walnut Gulch Watersheds. In most cases the variation in daily discharge was greater in the lower flow ranges and lesser in the higher ranges. Findings of this study accentuate the distinct role of climatic and physiographic factors in governing surface runoff from watersheds across the country.

  13. Assessing the role of spatial rainfall variability on watersheds response using weather radar A case study in the Gard region, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraheni, Evi; Payrastre, Olivier; Emmanuel, Isabelle; Andrieu, Herve

    2014-05-01

    The consideration of spatial rainfall variability in hydrological modeling is not only an important scientific issue but also, with the current development of high resolution rainfall data from weather radars, an increasing request from managers of sewerage networks and from flood forecasting services. Although the literature on this topic is already significant, at this time the conclusions remain contrasted. The impact of spatial rainfall variability on the hydrological responses appears to highly depend both on the organization of rainfall fields and on the watershed characteristics. The objective of the study presented here is to confirm and analyze the high impact of spatial rainfall variability in the specific context of flash floods. The case study presented is located in the Gard region in south east of France and focuses on four events which occurred on 13 different watersheds in 2008. The hydrological behaviors of these watersheds have been represented by the distributed rainfall - runoff model CINECAR, which already proved to well represent the hydrological responses in this region (Naulin et al., 2013). The influence of spatial rainfall variability has been studied here by considering two different rainfall inputs: radar data with a resolution of 1 km x 1 km and the spatial average rainfall over the catchment. First, the comparison between simulated and measured hydrographs confirms the good performances of the model for intense rainfall events, independently of the level of spatial rainfall variability of these events. Secondly, the simulated hydrographs obtained from radar data are taken as reference and compared to those obtained from the average rainfall inputs by computing two values: the time difference and the difference of magnitude between the simulated peaks discharge. The results highly depend on the rainfall event considered, and on the level of organization of the spatial rainfall variability. According to the model, the behavior of the studied watersheds may sometimes remain very similar with a homogeneous rainfall input, whereas for some cases the differences in the peak discharges can reach up to 80%. A detailed analysis illustrates the possible role of the watershed in enhancing the effect of rainfall spatial variability. In a further step, the objective is to test the ability of four rainfall variability indicators to identify the situations for which spatial rainfall variability has the greatest influence on the watershed response. The selected indicators include those of Zoccatelli et al. (2010), and all rely on a detailed analysis of spatial rainfall organization in function of hydrological distances (i.e. the distances measured along the stream network from one point of the watershed to the outlet). The analysis of the links between these indicators and the hydrological behaviors identified is currently in progress. Reference: Naulin, J.P., Payrastre, O., Gaume, E., 2013. Spatially distributed flood forecasting in flash flood prone areas: Application to road network supervision in Southern France. Journal of Hydrology, 486, 88-99, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.01.044 Zoccatelli, D., Borga, M., Zanon, F., Antonescu, B., Stancalie, G., 2010. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania. Journal of Hydrology, 394, 148-161

  14. Mapping Soil Properties for Ecohydrological Studies in Small Semi-Arid Watersheds using Electromagnetic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. A.; Jones, S. B.

    2007-05-01

    While traditional methods of soil mapping provide a qualitative description of soil properties across a landscape they fail to provide spatially detailed quantitative data needed in ecohydrological studies. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping is a useful tool for mapping soil properties where the penetration depth of a handheld sensor is just over a meter when carried 0.2 m above the soil surface, and the measurement integrates over a volume of several cubic meters, similar to the scale of a soil pedon. Our recent research efforts have focused on mapping soil properties in a semi-arid watershed at Reynolds Creek, ID, using geophysical methods with the idea of complimenting point-measured data using distributed sensors. In the Reynolds Creek environment the stream flow response is controlled largely by the subsurface and hence the identification of soil hydrological properties and the delineation of soil boundaries is important for modeling the watershed hydrology. Data collected using electromagnetic induction provide spatially informative maps tied to the subsurface bulk electrical conductivity (EC). The utility of bulk EC measurements for delineating soils stems from measured sensitivity to the physical and biogeochemical properties. Instrument output tends to increase in soils with more 2:1 clay, higher water content and higher solute concentration. Therefore, maps of bulk electrical conductivity are good for differentiating between coarse and fine textured soils and for identifying hydrological flow pathways. Preliminary data suggest EMI maps can be correlated to provide detailed spatial information of soil texture, water content, hydraulic conductivity and hydrological flow pathways in catchment hydrology, potentially improving hydrological model parameter estimation.

  15. Using multiple-criteria decision-making techniques for eco-environmental vulnerability assessment: a case study on the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pi-Hui; Tsai, Jing-Shyan; Lin, Wen-Tzu

    2010-09-01

    The Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, located in the area of the upstream Da-Chia River in central Taiwan, is famous for slopeland agriculture and the land-locked salmon. Improper agricultural activities have caused apparent ecosystem vulnerability and sensitivity. In this study, a system that combined three watershed-based environmental indicators with multiple-criteria decision-making techniques, the Analytical Hierarchy Process, and the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations was developed to assess eco-environmental vulnerability. The composite evaluation index system was set up including sediment, runoff, and nutrient factors. Supported by geographic information system and K-means clustering and taking the subwatershed as the evaluation unit, the vulnerability is classified into four levels: potential, low, moderate, and high. The evaluated results show that 8.82% of subwatersheds (six subwatersheds) are in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones. These subwatersheds represent vertical-belt distribution, mainly concentrated in the right side of the studied area and near the riparian zone along the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream. The exploited farmland in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones is about 142.21 ha, occupying 75.38% of the total farmland in the studied watershed. These seriously vulnerable zones that have caused degradation in the quality of the eco-environment should be treated with more best management practices for eco-environmental rehabilitation. Additionally, the proposed model can effectively evaluate the eco-environmental vulnerability grade for reference in policy planning and ecological restoration in this area. PMID:19629735

  16. Criteria for evaluating sediment quality. Case study: sub-watershed of Espirito Santo Stream, affluent of the Sao Francisco river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Sediment Quality Values Guidelines' (SQVG) have been used for evaluating ecological risk associated with the sediment contamination for benthic organisms. The main objective of this work was to develop methodologies and to collect data that allowed the application of SQVG for the following metals: Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn. The location chosen for the case study was the sub-watershed of the Espirito Santo Stream, which is part of the Unit Planning and Hydrologic Resources Management- UPGRH SF4, of the Sao Francisco river watershed, located in the area of the city of Tres Marias. The life in the sub-watershed is significantly affected by the installation of a waste dam that controls effluents coming from the zinc-ore beneficiation plant. Our studies addressed the biogeochemical characterization of the sediments of those environments through the determination of the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), the study of the partitioning of metals is among the total sediments and interstitial waters, and the determination of the fraction of metals is associated with AVS in the total sediments. The data obtained were analyzed in association with those related to the analysis of the structure of the benthic community and eco-toxicity tests. The studies also included analysis of the physico-chemical variables and concentration of metals is in the samples of the surface water; mineralogical and granulometric analyses, quantity of organic matter and concentration of inorganrganic matter and concentration of inorganic contaminants in the samples of sediments. High levels of electrical conductivity and total solids diluted were found in one surface water sample site. The results of a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) showed that the chemical elements predominant in the samples were Ti, Al, V, Mn and Fe. The results of the total metal analysis in sediment samples showed that only one point located in the Lavagem stream, situated immediately downstream the dam and before flowing into the Espirito Santo stream, presented concentration values of the evaluated metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) above those of the 'background' value. The TEL limits ('Threshold Effect Level') and PEL ('Probable Effect Level') were not exceeded in any of the sampling campaigns. The Guidelines Interstitial Water Toxic Units (IWTU), established by the USEPA, was violated for all samples. The application of SQVG, based on the equilibrium partition theory, showed that metals are controlled by the sulfide-phase present in sediments. This indicates that the metals presented in the sediments may have low bio-availability. The results of the evaluation of the benthic community structure indicated a possible influence of the waste dam in the Lavagem stream and in the Espirito Santo stream, downstream the confluence with the Lavagem stream. The results of eco-toxicity tests showed that contaminated sediment can cause only chronic effects. (author)

  17. Prioritizing watersheds for conservation actions in the southeastern coastal plain ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts. PMID:25528594

  18. Prioritizing Watersheds for Conservation Actions in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts.

  19. APEX simulation of best irrigation and N management strategies for off-site N pollution control in three Mediterranean irrigated watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Cavero Campo, Jose?; Barros, Roci?o; Sellam, F.; Topcu, S.; Isidoro, Daniel; Lounis, A.; Ibrikci, H.; Cetin, M.; Williams, J. R.; Aragu?e?s Lafarga, Ramo?n

    2012-01-01

    One of the main constraints of irrigated agriculture is off-siteNpollution due to export of nitrate in irrigation return flows (IRF). Models capable of simulating the growth of crops and the N loads in IRF as affected by irrigation and N fertilization may be valuable tools in watershed studies. The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used to assess bestmanagement practices for reducing off-siteN loads in the IRF of three Mediterranean irrigated watersheds (Akarsu in Tu...

  20. Analysis and adaption of tools for water system management of the Lièvre River watershed, Quebec, Canada, to the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, R.; Trudel, M.; Krau, S.; Côté, P.

    2012-04-01

    The basin of the Lièvre River (9542 km2), Quebec, Canada, has a water system consisting of three high-capacity reservoirs. During floods, the reservoir management gives priority to flood control and hydropower generation but also tries to respect constraints associated with environmental issues. Nevertheless, the basin is subject to floods, raising the need for improved water system management tools. Since these reservoirs are also part of the Ottawa River system, the main tributary of the St. Lawrence River, reservoirs of the Lièvre River also impact floods and low flows in the Montreal Archipel, through their influence on streamflows in the Mille-Îles and Des Prairies Rivers. Low flow is an important issue in this area since a large population relies on the streamflow of the Mille-Îles River for freshwater. The effect of an anticipated increase of extreme meteorological events as a result of climate change makes the evaluation of water system capacity of the Lièvre River even more important to reduce the impacts of such hydrometeorological events. This kind of optimization problem has been studied in the past and there are many approaches to obtain, or at least to find an optimal solution, such as linear programming, nonlinear programming and dynamic programming. The later is widely used, but difficult to apply to systems with more than three reservoirs since computational time exponentially increases as the number of state variables increases. One of the goals of this study is to eventually extend the water system management to the entire Ottawa River watershed, which includes more than 40 reservoirs. A nonlinear programming approach using an interior-point algorithm has therefore been chosen for the Lievre reservoir system. Constraints related to the Montreal Archipel constitute a further challenge as the many reservoirs on the Ottawa River watershed upstream from the Lièvre River are managed by various owners. It is therefore difficult to know with precision the management of the various reservoirs. Instead of explicitly simulating these reservoirs, it was decided to approximate the overall behaviour of the entire Ottawa River system using a neural network method to produce regulated streamflow hydrographs from natural streamflows, the latter simulated using a hydrological model. As regulation on the Ottawa River is mainly dictated by the spring melt, the performance of the neural network was improved by adding variables such as snow water equivalent simulated by the hydrological model and degree days of the last ten days. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient between the observed (regulated) streamflow and the simulated streamflow with the neural network reached more than 0.84. This allowed establishing inflow constraints to the Montreal Archipel that could be entered in the Lièvre river system optimisation algorithm. The developed tool was used to simulate the management of the Lièvre reservoir system over previous years taking into account flow constraints of the Montreal Archipel. The next step will be to study the Lièvre River water system susceptibility to floods and low flow under climate change conditions and to investigate adaptation strategies to reduce adverse impacts of climate change.

  1. Effects of grassed buffer strip management on potential denitrification in a belgian agricultural watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Cors, Marie; Tychon, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Riparian buffer strips are managed for the enhancement of water quality through control of non point source pollution. Denitrification in riparian buffer strips is thought to be the major process -with nitrate uptake by plant growth- that reduces nitrate input in surface water. We investigated the Denitrifier Enzyme Activity (DEA) to test how the buffer strip management modifies the denitrification process. The experimental site is composed of a crop field and a 11 m wide grassed buffer st...

  2. Long-term monitoring of waterborne pathogens and microbial source tracking markers in paired agricultural watersheds under controlled and conventional tile drainage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C; Jones, Tineke H; Khan, Izhar U H; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R

    2014-06-01

    Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization. PMID:24727274

  3. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be accomplished in a virtual environment. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Índice simplificado de gestión de la cuenca del río Naranjo, municipio Majibacoa, provincia Las Tunas / Watershed management simplified index of Naranjo river, Majibacoa municipality, Las Tunas province

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yoandris, García Hidalgo; Carlos E, Balmaseda Espinosa.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sostenibilidad de las cuencas es de vital importancia para el desarrollo de las comunidades que conviven en ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la gestión ambiental de la cuenca del río Naranjo a través de un índice. Para ello se empleó el Índice simplificado de Gestión de Cuenca [...] s (IsGC) propuesto por especialistas del Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidráulicos. Se convocó a 14 expertos para definir el peso de cada variable utilizada. Los valores del IsGC obtenidos para los años 2009-2011, indican que la gestión se clasifica como Media, lo que implica el desarrollo e implementación de estrategias por parte de todos los actores sociales y las comunidades. Abstract in english Watershed sustainability is very important for communities’ development that cohabits in them. The objective of this research was to evaluate the environmental management of the watershed Naranjo River through an index. For it was used the watershed management simplified index (IsGC, for its initial [...] s in Spanish) proposed by specialists of the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources. It was consulted 14 experts to define the weight of each used variable. The values of the IsGC obtained for the years 2009-2011, indicate that the administration is classified Moderate, what implies the development and implementation of strategies on the part of all the social actors and the communities.

  5. Synthesizing Drainage Morphology of Tectonic Watershed in Upper Ing Watershed (Kwan Phayao Wetland Watershed)

    OpenAIRE

    Rangsan Ket-ord; Nipon Tangtham; Veerasak Udomchoke

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to synthesize drainage morphology of tectonic watershed in upper Ing Watershed in Phayao province, northern Thailand. The morphometric analysis of 12 sub-watersheds was carried out using Geographic Information System (GIS) software-ArcGIS 9.3 for analysing drainage pattern and calculating the 16 theoretical values of drainage morphometric parameters in 3 aspects including linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect. The geologic formation and structure are also overlain ...

  6. Overall uncertainty study of the hydrological impacts of climate change for a Canadian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Brissette, FrançOis P.; Poulin, Annie; Leconte, Robert

    2011-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) and greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (GGES) are generally considered to be the two major sources of uncertainty in quantifying the climate change impacts on hydrology. Other sources of uncertainty have been given less attention. This study considers overall uncertainty by combining results from an ensemble of two GGES, six GCMs, five GCM initial conditions, four downscaling techniques, three hydrological model structures, and 10 sets of hydrological model parameters. Each climate projection is equally weighted to predict the hydrology on a Canadian watershed for the 2081-2100 horizon. The results show that the choice of GCM is consistently a major contributor to uncertainty. However, other sources of uncertainty, such as the choice of a downscaling method and the GCM initial conditions, also have a comparable or even larger uncertainty for some hydrological variables. Uncertainties linked to GGES and the hydrological model structure are somewhat less than those related to GCMs and downscaling techniques. Uncertainty due to the hydrological model parameter selection has the least important contribution among all the variables considered. Overall, this research underlines the importance of adequately covering all sources of uncertainty. A failure to do so may result in moderately to severely biased climate change impact studies. Results further indicate that the major contributors to uncertainty vary depending on the hydrological variables selected, and that the methodology presented in this paper is successful at identifying the key sources of uncertainty to consider for a climate change impact study.

  7. Monitoring Pasture Best Management Practices in the Spring Creek Watershed of Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) for grazing farms such as streambank fencing, cattle crossings and conservation buffers are intended to reduce sediment and nutrient movement into streams, but the effects of these practices are difficult to measure. A large interdisciplinary team is exa...

  8. REMOTE SENSING, VISUALIZATION AND DECISION SUPPORT FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The integration of satellite and airborne remote sensing, scientific visualization and decision support tools is discussed within the context of management techniques for minimizing the non-point source pollution load of inland waterways and the sustainability of food crop produc...

  9. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques in red soil hilly region: a case study of Xiangjiang watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Zhongwu; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Jianbing; Fang, Yong; Yuan, Qingshui; Wang, Yamei; Ye, Fangyi

    2009-05-01

    In the study, multivariate statistical methods including factor, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to analyze surface water quality data sets obtained from Xiangjiang watershed, and generated during 7 years (1994-2000) monitoring of 12 parameters at 34 different profiles. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 34 sampling sites into three clusters, including relatively less polluted (LP), medium polluted (MP) and highly polluted (HP) sites, and based on the similarity of water quality characteristics, the watershed was divided into three zones. Factor analysis/principal component analysis, applied to analyze the data sets of the three different groups obtained from cluster analysis, resulted in four latent factors accounting for 71.62%, 71.77% and 72.01% of the total variance in water quality data sets of LP, MP and HP areas, respectively. The PCs obtained from factor analysis indicate that the parameters for water quality variations are mainly related to dissolve heavy metals. Thus, these methods are believed to be valuable to help water resources managers understand complex nature of water quality issues and determine the priorities to improve water quality. PMID:18535918

  10. Development of Watershed Evaluation Index for Water Resources Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. S.; Oh, J.; Lee, S.; Chung, E.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development is the center of issue between economic development and environmental protection. Water resources development and management is a main part of the issue. With this, integrated watershed management (IWM) which considers flood, drought and water quality control together is needed for watershed management. The Green house effect has been increased by the carbon based and thoughtless development, and climate change caused by global warming will affect all human activities. Accordingly, this study developed watershed evaluation index for water resources to assess water resources of watershed considering flood, drought, water quality control, and climate change and then applied results to actual watershed. This study consists of mainly 2 parts. The first is development of watershed evaluation index to analyze water resources vulnerability considering flood, drought, water quality, and climate change. Watershed evaluation index for water resources consists of flood indicator with climate change, drought indicator with climate change, and water quality indicator with climate change. There are two frameworks to make indices. One is a cause-effect chain framework and the other is a theme framework. Watershed evaluation index for water resources has been developed using DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Impact-Response) framework by EEA (European Environment Agency) that can explain interactions between socio-economic and water resources. The second is applying the index to study watershed. Three kinds of date sets are needed to apply the index. These are socio-economic data, meteorological and hydrologic data, and GCM (General Circulation Model) as a future climate change scenario. In this study, the North Han River watershed was selected as a study area. The socio-economic data set was collected using municipal statistics. The meteorological and hydrologic data, especially flow and water quality (BOD, DO et al.) data has been simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). In this study, using CGCM (Canadian Global Coupled Model) 3 simulation results based on Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) A1B and A2 scenario of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled by using the Statistical DownScaling Method (SDSM) model. From this study, the water resources in North Han River watershed except North Korea area have been assessed using watershed evaluation index. The index, developed in this study, can be used to estimate the potential risks of watershed for sustainable IWM planning procedures.

  11. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the course of 2009-2010, student teams carried out two independent research projects focused on the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The first investigated the threat of invasive species to forests in Maryland. The second investigated the detection of winter cover crops throughout the watershed from satellite data.

  12. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  13. Lithological and Geological Impacts on Gully Erosion (Case Study: Seif Abad Watershed, Lorestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Yousofvand

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility and gully erosion and their expansion occur under geological formation and soil characteristics. This study aims to find the rate of soil and formation effects on gully erosion in Seifabad watershed. To that end, aerial and field work were used together to determine the rate & expansion of 17 gullies in 12 years' period from 1997 to 2009. The soils were sampled for each gully in 50% interval distance with 0-30 cm horizontal surfaces and >30 cm depth. Some factors were estimated from the soil such as EC, PH, Silt, Clay, Sand & limeston percentages. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14 through non-parametric tests such as Kruskal-Wallis & Mann-Whitney. Spearman coefficient was used to investigate the relation between volume of gully & litological factors. The results showed a positive correlation at 1% level for the PH with the gully erodibility in surface soil, but for the depth of soil this relation belonged to the silt percentage, and sand showed a negative relation at 5%level with the volume of the gully sediments. Finally, there was no statistical relationship between geological formation and the sediment yield in gullies.

  14. Sr isotopic characteristics in two small watersheds draining silicate and carbonate rocks: implication for studies on seawater Sr isotopic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. H.; Zheng, H. B.; Cao, J. H.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-02-01

    We systematically investigated the Sr isotopic characteristics of a small silicate watershed, the Xishui River a tributary of the Yangtze River, and a small carbonate watershed, the Guijiang River a tributary of the Pearl River. The results show that the two rivers have uncommon Sr isotopic characteristics compared with most small watersheds. Specifically, the silicate watershed (Xishui River) has relatively high Sr concentrations (0.468 to 1.70 ?mol L-1 in summer and 1.30 to 3.17 ?mol L-1 in winter, respectively) and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708686 to 0.709148 in summer and 0.708515 to 0.709305 in winter). The carbonate watershed (Guijiang River) has low Sr concentrations (0.124 to 1.098 ?mol L-1) and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.710558 to 0.724605). As the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Xishui River are lower than those in seawater, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater will decrease after the river water is transported to the oceans. Previous studies have also shown that some basaltic watersheds with extremely high chemical weathering rates reduced the seawater Sr isotope ratios. In other words, river catchments with high silicate weathering rates do not certainly transport highly radiogenic Sr into oceans. Therefore, the use of the variations in the seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratio to indicate the continental silicate weathering intensity may be questionable. In the Guijiang River catchment, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of carbonate rocks and other sources (rainwater, domestic and industrial waste water, and agricultural fertilizer) are lower than 0.71. In comparison, some non-carbonate components, such as sand rocks, mud rocks, and shales, have relatively high Sr isotopic compositions. Moreover, granites accounted for only 5% of the drainage area have extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratios with an average of greater than 0.8. Therefore, a few silicate components in carbonate rocks obviously increase the Sr isotopic compositions of the river water.

  15. Restore McComas Watershed; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Designs for replacement are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. Twenty miles of road were contracted for decommissioning. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  16. Landscape processes, effects and the consequences of migration in their management at the Jatún Mayu watershed (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna; Jaquet, Stephanie; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Kaenzig, Raoul; Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Liniger, Hanspeter; Machaca, Angelica; Cuba, Edgar; Boillat, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Bolivia has a large rural population, mostly composed of subsistence farmers that face natural and anthropogenic driven processes affecting their livelihoods. In order to establish sustainable management strategies, it is important to understand the factors governing landscape changes. This work explores the geomorphic imprint and effects of natural and anthropogenic driven processes on three mountain communities undergoing de-population in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Based on satellite image interpretation, field work and household surveys, we have identified gullies and landslides as main active processes, causing land losses, affecting inter-communal roads, etc. While landslides are mostly occurring in the middle and lower section of the basin, gullies are especially affecting the upper part (especially the southern slope). Our analysis indicated that in the middle and lower part of the basin, landslides are developing in response to the Jatún Mayu incision (slopes reach a critical angle and slope failures increase). However in the upper part, where no river down-cutting is taking place, preliminary analysis indicates that past and present human interventions (over-grazing, agriculture, road construction, etc.) play a key role on driving land degradation toward the formation of gullies. Based on the comparison of high resolution images from 2004 and 2009, we determined an agricultural land loss rate of 8452 m2/year, mostly in the form of landslides. One single event swept away 0.03 km2 of agricultural lands (~13 parcels), approximately 87% of an average household property. People's main concerns are hail, frost and droughts because they cause an "immediate" loss on family incomes, but the impacts caused by landslides and gullies are not disregarded by the communities and the government. Communities are organized to set up and maintain key infrastructure such as irrigation canals and roads. They also intend to develop protective measures against erosion like check dams based on tyres filled with rocks. In addition, organizations supported by government and institutions from abroad have built dams, reforested some slopes, and raised local capacities to improve soil conservation measures e.g. through slow-forming terraces. However, rural-to-urban migration could be affecting the management of processes leading to land degradation. Around 77% of the 22 households surveyed have at least one migrant family member (permanent, seasonal or double residence migrant). Labour force is reduced and because of de-population, two of the three schools in the area have closed. In spite of the support that communities receive, our findings indicate that high population mobility is affecting land management practices and the capacity of communities to cope with land degradation processes.

  17. Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

  18. Community-Based Water Monitoring in Nova Scotia: Solutions for Sustainable Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Weston

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-based water monitoring (CBWM has developed significantly over the last decade, both in Nova Scotia and around the world. Concurrently, the literature has thoroughly examined elements of effective CBWM as well as common barriers to its development. Researchers have subsequently recommended ways to increase the capacity of community-based stewardship organizations to ensure that CBWM work is meaningful and is integrated into governmental decision-making and water management. This paper will review the current state and efficacy of CBWM in Nova Scotia using these recommendations as guidelines. Further, it will examine the role of CURA H2O* in aligning CBWM activities in the Atlantic Region with these guidelines through the implementation of a standardized water quality monitoring training program and an accompanying set of equipment. Additional capacity-building activities led by CURA H2O include participatory research, training workshops, technical support, and the provision of a central database to house data collected through this program. This paper will discuss transferable strengths of this work, and will suggest ways in which developmental barriers can be overcome through adequate financial resources, using an integrated water management model, applying consistent technical standards, maintaining reciprocity with volunteers, and ensuring knowledge and resource-sharing. *CURA H2O (http://curah2o.com/ is a Community University Research Alliance project funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada that is focused on increasing capacity for integrated water monitoring and management in Canada and internationally. It is run by the Community-Based Environmental Monitoring Network at Saint Mary’s University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  19. The impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle and on the water resource management of the Peribonka watershed; Impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique et la gestion du systeme hydrique du bassin versant de la Riviere Peribonka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minville, M.; Leconte, R. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada)]|[Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering; Brissette, F. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering; Larouche, B. [Alcan Arvida Research and Development Centre, Jonquiere, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of climate change on the water resource management in the Peribonka watershed by comparing the hydropower production of 3 power houses with the reliability and vulnerability associated with two climate change scenarios. The Peribonka catchment area was described along with scenarios of climate change for the watershed over a time horizon up to 2080. Synthetic time series for each scenario were then produced with a stochastic weather generator and were introduced in the HSAMI hydrological model in order to simulate future hydrological cycles. The reservoir system simulation model ResSim showed that the hydroelectric power plant Passes-Dangereuses, will experience either an increase in the annual hydroelectric production of 8 per cent or a reduction of 20 per cent, depending on the scenario considered. The simulation showed that the reliability of upstream reservoirs, namely Lakes Manouane and Peribonka, could decrease while their vulnerability could increase. This paper described the procedure used to develop the climatic change scenarios, the stages of hydrological modeling and the modeling of the hydrological cycle. The impacts of the climatic change scenarios on the flows were also presented along with a short discussion of recommendations to be considered for the next stages of the project. Subsequent stages of this water management project will relate specifically to the quantification of partial and total uncertainties associated with general circulation models, methods of reduction of scale and the applied hydrological models. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Evaluation of an operational streamflow forecasting system driven by ensemble precipitation forecasts : a case study for the Gatineau watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, M.-A.; Perreault, L.; Tremblay, D.; Gaudet, J.; Minville, M.; Anctil, F.

    2009-04-01

    Among the various sources of uncertainty for hydrological forecasts, the uncertainty linked to meteorological inputs prevail. Precipitation is particularly difficult to forecast and observed values are often poor representation of the true precipitation field. In order to account for the uncertainty related to precipitation data, it can be interesting to produce ensemble streamflow forecasts by feeding a hydrological model with ensemble precipitation forecasts issued by atmospheric models. In this study, we use ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive Hydrotel, a distributed hydrological model. We concentrate on the Gatineau watershed, which serves as an experimental watershed for Hydro-Québec, the major hydropower producer in Quebec. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate that ensemble precipitation forecasts can improve streamflow forecasting for the watershed of interest. The ensemble precipitation forecasts were produced by Environnement Canada from march first of 2002 to december 31st of 2003. They were obtained using two atmospheric models, SEF (8 members plus the control deterministic forecast) and GEM (8 members). The corresponding deterministic precipitation forecast issued by SEF model is also used with Hydrotel in order to compare ensemble streamflow forecasts with their deterministic counterparts. The quality of the precipitation forecasts is first assessed, using the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the logarithmic score, rank histograms and reliability diagrams. The performance of the corresponding streamflow forecasts obtained at the end of the process is also evaluated using the same quality assessment tools.

  1. Participação comunitária e implementação dos instrumentos de gestão da água em bacias hidrográficas / Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Fabrício, Malheiros; Mariza Guimarães, Prota; Mario Alejandro, Perez Rincón.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O modelo atual de gestão dos recursos hídricos no Brasil é descentralizado, participativo e integrado, e tem como unidade de planejamento a bacia hidrográfica. Baseia-se na atuação de comitês de bacia, sendo que cada comitê possui composição e regras de funcionamento próprias, regidas por seu estatu [...] to, os quais apresentam semelhanças básicas. Os princípios básicos desta gestão foram ditados pela Constituição Brasileira de 1988 e detalhados pela Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos em 1997. Em nível estadual, São Paulo promulgou sua Política Estadual de Recursos Hídricos em 1991. Este artigo faz análise do processo de participação nos comitês de bacia do Estado de São Paulo e suas implicações na implementação dos instrumentos de gestão de recursos hídricos, por meio de um estudo de caso no Comitê da Bacia Hidrográfica do Tietê - Jacaré, adotando como metodologia a aplicação de questionários aos seus membros titulares da gestão 2009-2011. Observou-se engajamento e integração entre seus diversos integrantes. Mesmo assim, os resultados encontrados apontam para a necessidade de revisão do estatuto deste comitê, sendo evidenciadas distorções causadas pelas divergências entre a legislação estadual e a federal, principalmente quanto aos segmentos participantes e atores envolvidos. Mostraram também a necessidade de uma maior divulgação das questões de recursos hídricos nesta bacia e no Estado de São Paulo, como um todo. Ao mesmo tempo, recomenda-se colocar esforços para ampliar o exercício da representatividade das instituições no comitê e fortalecer os resultados dos trabalhos desenvolvidos nas câmaras técnicas no espaço de tomada de decisão do comitê de bacia hidrográfica. Abstract in english The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. Th [...] e basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee's members (2009 - 2011). Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews' results have shown that the Committee's statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

  2. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  3. NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

  4. Watershed management and farmer conservation investments in the semi-arid tropics of India: analysis of determinants of resource use decisions and land productivity benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele A Shiferaw

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated watershed management has been promoted as a suitable strategy for improving productivity and sustainable intensification of agriculture in rainfed drought-prone regions. The paper examines the socioeconomic and biophysical factors influencing farmers' soil and water conservation investment decisions and the resulting economic incentives (productivity benefits from watershed management interventions in the semi-arid tropics of India. The paper develops a theoretical framework to test hypotheses and to explore (a the interlinkages between land productivity, soil quality, input use and conservation investments, and (b the influence of local market imperfections on production and conservation decisions. These relationships are analyzed using plot-level data in six semi-arid villages. A systems approach (3SLS is used for the joint estimation of structural equations related to land productivity, input use, resource investments and land values. The results show that after controlling for input use and germplasm technologies, soil quality and access to supplemental irrigation significantly affect the productivity of land. Off-farm income is negatively associated with resource investments and land productivity. The watershed program seems to have a greater impact on dryland crops (cereals and pulses than on other crop not supported by the project. A plot-wise analysis found some degree of substitution between private and public investments in land and water management. Differential effects of family labor on the decision to invest in agriculture revealed that male labor plays a key role in this decision while female workers significantly influence the level of labor use in production and resource conservation. This indicates that labor market imperfections, especially for female labor, are most likely to affect production and conservation investment.

  5. A machine-to-machine architecture for the real-time study of urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Complex patterns of water quality across urban watersheds are driven by yet to be understood dynamics between natural and human-induced phenomena. More spatiotemporally representative data are required to improve our understanding of the contributions of various land-use patterns on water quality. This is particular true of the Great Lakes watersheds in the mid-western United States, where significant stream nutrient loading is adversely affecting ecosystem health. We discuss the development of a machine-to-machine architecture to enable the long-term, reliable, real-time measurement of water parameters across large, urbanized watersheds. Our sensor network is presently being deployed in a 2300km2 watershed in southeastern Michigan, where temperature fluctuations between -10C to 32C and annual precipitation of up to 750mm impose significant challenges on deployed hardware. Exploiting the cellular coverage of urban environments enables the use of ultra-low-power, low-cost, embedded wireless modules for measurement, computation and communication. Bi-directional links between sensor nodes and cloud-based services permit extreme network configurability and ease of deployment, while permitting seamless access to sensors via an IP-based addressing scheme. We show how hardware and software selection will enable years of battery life without sacrificing temporal data resolutions. Initial results indicate that the system provides a reliable means by which to collect and analyze real-time water quantity and water quality data.

  6. Ecosystem health assessment of the Jinghe River Watershed on the Huangtu Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, An-Ning; Xiong, You-Cai; Wang, Tian-Ming; Yue, Dong-Xia; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2008-06-01

    An improved Costanza model was developed to assess the health of the Jinhe River Watershed ecosystem. The watershed is located at the center of the Huangtu Plateau in China and has suffered a severe disturbance in the last few decades. Three indicators including vigor, organization, and resilience were calculated respectively by merging ground-based observations with remotely sensed data on a watershed scale. Health indices of 12 topographic sub-watersheds were calculated using a modified Costanza formula. Health evaluated results indicated that sub-watersheds in the Huangtu mountain region were relatively healthy ecosystems with scores over 0.673. The sub-watersheds in the loess mountain and the loess gully regions, e.g., Jinghe, Heihe, and Honghe regions, scored moderately; their evaluated value ranged from 0.505 to 0.606. The two sub-watersheds in the loess gully region and all sub-watersheds in the loess hilly region scored the lowest, less than 0.50 and were considered unhealthy ecosystems. It can be argued that the loess hilly region and the loess gully regions should be in primary consideration for ecological protection and rehabilitation. This study provided a possible quantitative model for ecological planning and landscape management with respect to topographic conditions in this area. PMID:18787916

  7. Development of cost effective nutrient management strategies for a watershed with the DSS FyrisCOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D.; Johnsson, H.; Larsson, P.; Markensten, H.; Widén Nilsson, E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes an application of the FyrisCOST model to calculate the cost efficiency of alternative scenarios for nitrogen management in a small agricultural catchment in Southern Sweden. The scenarios include the spatial distribution by sub-catchment of a set of nitrogen abatement measures that have been identified as eligible for financial support under the Swedish Rural Development Program (wetlands, catch crops, spring plowing and a combination of these) with alternative crop distributions. The model FyrisCOST is a catchment scale DSS that has been developed for the evaluation of alternative nutrient mitigation strategies. This model is able to evaluate a range of mitigation approaches for phosphorous and nitrogen from several sources (point and diffuse). This allows cost efficiency to be estimated for a catchment based on a combination of measures. The model is currently being used to develop a data base for the Swedish Water Authorities on the cost efficiency of buffer zones for all small catchments in Sweden. Hydrological flows in the FyrisCOST model are built on the dynamic model FyrisNP and nutrient losses are derived from simulations from the Nutrient Leaching Coefficient Calculation System (NLeCCS) which includes the ICECREAMDB model for estimating phosphorus losses and the SOILNDB model for soil nitrogen leaching. FyrisCOST calculates nitrogen concentrations in effluent water for each sub-catchment. The concentration of nitrogen is dependent on the current land use and geographical conditions. In order to evaluate agricultural scenarios in FyrisCOST a method for calculating N leaching from agricultural land was constructed. The calculation includes crop rotations and tillage systems and differentiates between annual and perennial crops. The model is able to take into account the probability that a primary crop is followed by a specific crop/tillage system and the effect on nutrient losses estimated using a specially developed leaching concentration calculator. Each measure or combination of measures in a scenario is evaluated based on reduction effects and costs for each sub-catchment. The measures can be ranked by gross cost efficiency in a sub-catchment or on net cost efficiency in a recipient. The recipient may be a lake, a coastline or a sub-catchment. An important feature in calculating cost efficiency is downstream retention. In the application described in this paper, the scenarios illustrate how comparative costs of abatement measures can be used to support informational campaigns for individual sub-catchments based on the expected change in loads to the Baltic Sea. Sub-catchment targeted informational campaigns would promote adoption of voluntary measures where they have the highest cost efficiency to achieve environmental targets.

  8. Little River Experimental Watershed Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term, watershed-scale hydrologic and climatic data are invaluable for natural resource and environmental planning and management. Historically, long-term hydrologic records have proved critical for flood forecasting, water conservation and management, agricultural and drought planning, and for...

  9. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  10. Your Watershed's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students describe the interaction between the river, its quality and the lives of people in the watershed where they live. Students will design a questionnaire, interview local people, and compile the oral histories collected to establish the recent history of a river and its watershed. Suggested equipment for the activity are notebooks and audio or video recording instruments. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices.

  11. Longitudinal study of the impacts of land cover change on hydrologic response in four mesoscale watersheds in New York State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Marrs, John; Bhattarai, Nishan; Quackenbush, Lindi

    2014-11-01

    In humid, temperate regions, there remains limited direct evidence of the influence of land cover changes on hydrologic response (e.g. storm event discharge volume), especially across larger watersheds. Using historic aerial photography dating back to the 1930s in conjunction with long-term stream gaging data, we assessed the role of land cover change on hydrologic response over multi-decadal periods in four mesoscale watersheds in New York State. All four watersheds had increases in forest cover accompanied by small increases in urban land cover. Using a relatively novel methodology for land cover change studies, hydrologic response was evaluated by establishing an empirical function relating precipitation, watershed wetness, and discharge for each era of distinct land cover. This function was then used to estimate discharge for fixed precipitation amounts and wetness levels, allowing weather variables to be controlled across eras. One watershed (Limestone Creek) exhibited virtually no change in hydrologic response despite forest cover increasing by over 100%. One watershed (Fall Creek) exhibited a slight increase in hydrologic response with a greater than 100% increase in forest cover. The two other watersheds exhibited a greater than 20% decrease in hydrologic response, but we speculate the changes in these two watersheds were in part due to the construction of numerous small dams (Wappinger Creek) and a possible loss of riparian wetlands (Sterling Creek). This work demonstrates that the effects of land cover on hydrologic response are not always consistent with standard hydrologic intuition (i.e. increasing forested land does not always reduce storm event discharge volumes) and that often other factors may be more important than basic land cover in controlling hydrologic response.

  12. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP): a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Condom, T.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D.; Pouget, J. C.; Suarez, W.; Ramos, C.; Apaestegui, J.; Zapata, M.; Gomez, J.; Vergara, W.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper d...

  13. Consideration of Experimental Approaches in the Physical and Biological Sciences in Designing Long-Term Watershed Studies in Forested Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of biological processes in controlling weathering, erosion, stream-water composition, soil formation, and overall landscape development is generally accepted. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Project in eastern Puerto Rico and Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Panama Canal Watershed Experiment (PCWE) are landscape-scale studies based in the humid tropics where the warm temperatures, moist conditions, and luxuriant vegetation promote especially rapid biological and chemical processes - photosynthesis, respiration, decay, and chemical weathering. In both studies features of small-watershed, large-watershed, and landscape-scale-biology experiments are blended to satisfy the research needs of the physical and biological sciences. The WEBB Project has successfully synthesized its first fifteen years of data, and has addressed the influence of land cover, geologic, topographic, and hydrologic variability, including huge storms on a wide range of hydrologic, physical, and biogeochemical processes. The ongoing PCWE should provide a similar synthesis of a moderate-sized humid tropical watershed. The PCWE and the Agua Salud Project (ASP) within the PCWE are now addressing the role of land cover (mature forests, pasture, invasive-grass dominated, secondary succession, native species plantation, and teak) at scales ranging from small watersheds to the whole Panama Canal watershed. Biologists have participated in the experimental design at both watershed scales, and small (0.1 ha) to large (50 ha) forest-dynamic plots have a central role in interfacing between physical scientists and biologists. In these plots, repeated, high-resolution mapping of all woody plants greater than 1-cm diameter provides a description of population changes through time presumably reflecting individual life histories, interactions with other organisms and the influence of landscape processes and climate, thereby bridging the research needs and conceptual scales of hydrologists and biogeochemists with those of biologists. Both experiments are embedded in larger data-collection networks: the WEBB within the hydrological and meteorological monitoring programs of the USGS and other federal agencies, and the PCWE in the long-term monitoring conducted by the Panama Canal Authority (ACP), its antecedents, and STRI. Examination of landscape-scale processes in a changing world requires the development of detailed landscape-scale data sets, including a formulation of reference states that can act as surrogate experimental controls. For example, the concept of a landscape steady state provides a convenient reference in which present-day observations can be interpreted. Extreme hydrological states must also be described, and both WEBB and PCWE have successfully examined the role of droughts and large storms and their impact on geomorphology, biogeochemistry, and biology. These experiments also have provided platforms for research endeavors never contemplated in the original objectives, a testament to the importance of developing approaches that consider the needs of physical and biological sciences.

  14. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira; Neylor Alves Calasans Rego; José Wildes Barbosa dos Santos; Max de Menezes; Jadson Luiz Simões Rocha

    2010-01-01

    In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated...

  15. Biogeochemistry of forested watersheds in the Southeastern U.S. prior to conversion to short-rotation pine for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N. A.; Mulholland, P. J.; Jackson, C. R.; McDonnell, J. J.; Blake, J. I.; Du, E.; Klaus, J.; Langholtz, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the southeastern U.S., intensively-managed pine plantations are projected to be a significant source of feedstocks for bioenergy, and the environmental sustainability (water quality, quantity) of this practice needs to be addressed at the watershed scale. In the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we are examining water quality in 3 forested watersheds (1 reference [R], 2 treatment watersheds [B, C]) before and after the conversion to loblolly pine for bioenergy. We collected pre-treatment water quality data (nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], herbicides) from all watersheds for two years (2009-2011) to determine baseline conditions. In May 2012, 40% of the extant forest in the two treatment watersheds was harvested and planting of loblolly pine will begin in early 2013. We will discuss our pre-treatment water quality results from the 3 study watersheds in context with our watershed-scale experiment. Baseline stream chemistry differed among the three watersheds, with higher mean concentrations of ammonium (59 ?g/L) and DOC (8.1 mg/L) in Watershed R than in Watersheds B (ammonium = 17 ?g/L, DOC = 6.9 ?g/L) and C (ammonium = 17 ?g/L, DOC = 6.1 ?g/L), suggesting that anaerobic conditions in Watershed R may influence stream chemistry. Stream nitrate concentrations were higher in Watershed B (111 ?g/L) than in Watersheds R (29 ?g/L) and C (30 ?g/L), suggesting that shallower flowpaths may be contributing to stream water chemistry. Dual isotope analysis of nitrate (15N, 18O) suggests that riparian groundwater is the source of nitrate in streams. However, nitrate in precipitation can be an important source to these watersheds during storms, as nitrate in flowing soil water had similar ?18O-NO3 values to precipitation. Nitrate may travel more conservatively in these watersheds than ammonium or phosphorus, as an irrigation experiment which simulated nutrient deposition from rainwater showed that the majority of added ammonium and phosphorus is removed (via uptake and/or sorption) compared to nitrate. Overall, quantifying baseline water chemistry among the three watersheds prior to the establishment of loblolly pine is necessary in order to determine any potential effects that short-rotation pine management may have on water quality.

  16. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results showed that using Toutin's Model, enabling Wallis filter and specifying high DEM detail, along with restricting the holes filling option gave the best position accuracy and the least number of failure values. This is mainly due to the ruggedness of the studying area. Comparing GPS heights with the extract DEM showed a Minimum and a maximum error of (-11.9 m, 10.56 m), Mean error (1.32 m) and RMSE of (4.7 m). While extracting the drainage lines showed 80 to 90 % of coincidence of the upper water heads and an order of less than one pixel for the main river course and mountainous road intersection.

  17. The effect of watershed scale on HEC-HMS calibrated parameters: a case study in the Clear Creek watershed in Iowa, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS to simulate two flood events to investigate the effect of watershed subdivision in terms of performance, the calibrated parameter values, the description of hydrologic processes, and the subsequent interpretation of water balance components. We use Stage IV hourly NEXRAD precipitation as the meteorological input for ten model configurations with variable sub-basin sizes. Model parameters are automatically optimized to fit the observed data. The strategy is implemented in Clear Creek Watershed (CCW, which is located in the upper Mississippi River basin. Results show that most of the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to the basin partition scheme and that the relative relevance of physical processes, described by the model, change depending on watershed subdivision. In particular, our results show that parameters derived from different model implementations attribute losses in the system to completely different physical phenomena without a notable effect on the model's performance. Our work adds to the body of evidence demonstrating that automatically calibrated parameters in hydrological models can lead to an incorrect prescription of the internal dynamics of runoff production and transport. Furthermore, it demonstrates that model implementation adds a new dimension to the problem of non-uniqueness in hydrological models.

  18. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1-3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14-15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  19. Make a Watershed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students will create a three-dimensional model from a two-dimensional topographic map. They will use the model to trace the path that a water droplet takes across the watershed and into the watercourse, and will describe the relationship between the physical features of the watershed and the location of human activities. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals. This activity is part of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, which provides more than 20 activities to build student understanding of global change and remote sensing, and includes background chapters for teachers, glossary, and appendices. Resources needed vary, depending on the kind of model that is to be build, but may include: a topographic map of the local watershed, tracing paper, tempera paints, paint brushes, cutting knife or saw, plaster of Paris or paper maché, plasticene or other waterproofing, and corrugated cardboard, plywood or other media from which to cut layers representing each of the contour intervals.

  20. Water Balance Principles: A Review of Studies on Five Watersheds in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Moghaddam, S. M. R.; Ghandhari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Originally, water balance models were introduced to evaluate the importance of different hydrologic parameters under a variety of hydrologic conditions but its present applications are the most common studies at water resources management. In spite of the simple concept of water balance equation, specific considerations are need to proper application. With numerous affecting factors on hydrologic processes, the parsimony trait of water balance equation can cause huge errors or complexities th...

  1. The deposition of mercury in throughfall and litterfall in the lake champlain watershed: A short-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Anne W.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Scherbatskoy, Timothy

    As part of an ongoing study of the atmospheric deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed, event throughfall, event precipitation, ambient, green foliage, and litterfall samples were collected and analyzed for Hg from a mixed hardwood forest in Underhill Center, VT, for six weeks during the months of August and September 1994. During this time period, the volume-weighted mean Hg concentration in throughfall (12.0 ± 8.5 ng ? -1) was higher than in precipitation (6.5 ± 2.8 ng ? -1). In August and September 1994, the total deposition of Hg in throughfall was estimated to be 3.1 ?gm -2 (1.9 ?g m -2 in precipitation) to the deciduous hardwood forests in the Lake Champlain basin. The mean Hg concentration in litterfall (53.2± 11.4 ng g -1) was significantly greater than the mean concentration in green foliage (34.2 +7.2 ng g -1), suggesting uptake of Hg from the atmosphere by foliage. Estimated annual litterfall deposition to the Lake Champlain basin was 13 ?g m -2. This study suggests that throughfall and litterfall play a significant role in the cycling and deposition of Hg in the Lake Champlain watershed.

  2. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 ahe sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210ex. (author)

  3. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. PMID:22784807

  4. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also have limited availability of effects-based data, an important consideration as expanding human activities impact water resources in less densely monitored regions.

  5. Application of the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees: Methodological approach and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; White, Sue; Navas, Ana; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia

    2013-04-01

    Modelling runoff and sediment transport at watershed scale are key tools to predict hydrological and sediment processes, identify soil sediment sources and estimate sediment yield, with the purpose of better managing soil and water resources. This study aims to apply the SWAT model in an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, where there have been a number of previous field-based studies on sediment sources and transfers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a process based semi-distributed watershed scale hydrologic model, which can provide a high level of spatial detail by allowing the watershed to be divided into sub-basins. This study addresses the challenge of applying the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed that drains to a central lake, without external output, and without a network of permanent rivers. In this case it has been shown that the SWAT model does not correctly reproduce the stream network when using automatic watershed delineation, even with a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (5 x 5 metres). For this purpose, different approaches needed to be considered, such as i) user-defined watersheds and streams, ii) burning in a stream network or iii) modelling each sub-watershed separately. The objective of this study was to develop a new methodological approach for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes in an endorheic and complex karst watershed of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. The Estanque de Arriba Lake watershed (74 ha) is an endorheic system located in the Spanish Central Pre-Pyrenees. This watershed holds a small and permanent lake of fresh water (1.7 ha) and is a Site of Community Importance (European NATURA 2000 network). The study area is characterized by an abrupt topography with altitude range between 679 and 862 m and an average slope gradient of 24 %. Steep slopes (> 24 %) occupy the northern part of the watershed, whereas gentle slopes (

  6. Hydrological Study of Watersheds Arid and Semi-Arid South-Eastern Algeria (Chott Melghir, Chott El Hodna and Highlands Constantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Belagoune

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to establish the hydrological characteristics, the hydrological behavior of river basins in arid and semi-arid south-eastern Algeria (establish of methodologies and necessary working tools for planning the development and management of water resources. The study on floods in Algeria is established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm. The duration of the flood is in the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damages caused by these floods are still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid, arid south and Algeria. There are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2, highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2 and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2. The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2. Studies of protection against floods and design studies of hydraulic structures (spillway, storm basin, etc. require the raw data which are often unknown in several places particularly at ungauged wadis of these areas.

  7. Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

    2013-12-01

    Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

  8. Optimization of the Relationship Between Water and Sediment Discharge Rates (Case Study; Amameh Indicator Watershed of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Habibnejad Roshan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, first by using Smirnov-Kolmogorov method, the consistency of data was applied in order to optimize the relationship between water and sediment discharge rates in Amameh indicator watershed of Iran. After the consistency and authenticity of data were confirmed, by means of daily mean discharge and a software called Technical Hydrology (TH, monthly hydrograph was sketched for total period of 1969-2000 in Kamarkhani station in Amameh watershed outlet. Then, different models were tested using the equation of sediment transport and considering hydrological, climatic and biological parameters such as hydrograph situation, classification of discharge rate and the time of flow measurement. In all models, the regression relationships between the rates of water and sediment discharges were established. To choose an optimized model, the sum of the error sum of squares index was used. According to the index, the least sum of squares shows the optimized model. The results showed that the common model in which only one equation is used as a sediment rating equation has the highest error in estimation of suspended sediment. But, a model in which the data are separated based on wet and dry months and classification of the discharge rates, has the lowest error sum of squares and is considered as the optimized model.

  9. A preliminary study of the Hg flux from selected Ohio watersheds to Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New measurements of riverine dissolved and particulate Hg fluxes into Lake Erie from 12 northern Ohio watersheds have been determined from samples collected in April 2002 and analyzed using ultra-clean techniques with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total Hg concentrations ranged through 2.5-18.5 ng L-1, with a mean of 10.4 ng L-1 with most Hg in particulate form. Dissolved Hg concentrations ranged through 0.8-4.3 ng L-1, with a mean of 2.5 ng L-1. Highest total Hg concentrations were observed in western rivers with primarily agricultural land use and eastern rivers with mixed land use in their watersheds. Total suspended solid concentrations ranged through 10-180 mg L-1 with particulate Hg concentrations ranging through 47-170 ng g-1, with a mean of 99 ng g-1. Particulate Hg was similar to published data for central Lake Erie bottom sediments but much lower than for bottom sediments in western Lake Erie. Total Hg concentrations were positively correlated with suspended sediment concentrations and negatively with dissolved NO3- concentrations. The total estimated annual Hg fluxes from these rivers into Lake Erie is estimated to be 85 kg, but because only one event was sampled during high flow conditions, this may be an overestimate. This is much lower than previous published estimates of riverine Hg input into Lake Erierie

  10. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Jayakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  11. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  12. Técnicas avanzadas para la evaluación de caudales ecológicos en el ordenamiento sostenible de cuencas hidrográficas / Advanced techniques for evaluating instream flows in sustainable watershed management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Manuel, Diez-Hernández; Liliana, Burbano Burbano.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La potencialidad de las corrientes fluviales ha fascinado al hombre por su capacidad para satisfacer las demandas crecientes del recurso hídrico superficial a escala temporal y espacial. Actualmente la idea de que los caudales naturales de un río deban reservarse para preservar el funcionamiento prí [...] stino del ecosistema resulta utópica, al menos en sociedades que progresan. Una ordenación eficaz del recurso hídrico se caracteriza por ser racional y ecosistémica, con una gestión fundamentada en un régimen de caudales ecológicos (RCE) que compagina los usos del agua asegurando una condición aceptable del ecosistema. Este trabajo analiza la problemática de la regulación de caudales y aborda la necesidad de fijar los RCE para salvaguardar la integridad ambiental. Se presentan los métodos para calcular caudales ecológicos y las pautas especificadas en la legislación colombiana. Con la pretensión de estipular un procedimiento para determinar los RCE en Colombia, se resume la metodología IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology), ampliamente utilizada en el mundo, y que consideramos aplicable en los sistemas fluviales locales. Finalmente, se concretan las pautas operativas básicas de IFIM y el procedimiento que optimiza el balance entre el coste y la confiabilidad de un estudio convencional de caudales ecológicos. Abstract in english Rivers’ potential for satisfying growing water demands has always fascinated human beings. The current idea that a river’s natural flow should be reserved to conserve pristine dynamics is a utopian ideal, at least in countries having established a certain level of progress. Effective watershed plann [...] ing is characterised by being rational and ecological, employing management based on instream flows (IF), combining water use and ensuring acceptable ecosystem conditions. This work addresses the environmental consequences of regulating rivers and focuses on the need to fix IFs to protect fluvial systems’ ecological integrity. The methods for calculating instream flows are presented as well as approaches provisionally specified in Colombia’s legislative framework. Instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM), which is widely used around the world, is summarised to provide a basis for developing a procedure for determining IFs in Colombia as it would seem applicable to local streams. IFIM basic operative rules are then summed up, as is the procedure optimising the balance between a conventional instream flow study’s costs and reliability.

  13. Simulation of hydrologic response in an arid and a humid watershed using a distributed hydrologic model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A.; Yu, Z.; Kreamer, D.; Zhu, J.

    2006-12-01

    Arid and humid watersheds are likely to show different spatial and temporal variation of runoff generation and groundwater table levels. In this study, we simulate and compare hydrologic response to rainfall in both the arid Lower Virgin Valley in Nevada and the humid Meiling Watershed in southeastern China, using a physically distributed watershed model system that can incorporate spatial variability of hydraulic parameters. In the Lower Virgin Valley, precipitation, groundwater level, discharge and aquifer test data are used for the development of surface runoff and floodplain aquifer interaction model. In the Meiling Watershed, precipitation, groundwater level and discharge data will be used to model rainfall-runoff partitioning. In both watersheds, a Terrestrial Hydrology Model is used to simulate surface runoff while the USGS MODFLOW-2005 is used to simulate groundwater flow in the floodplain. The precipitation data from each watershed are used to drive simulations of hydrologic processes in response to rainfall events at a one-hour time step, which will then be validated by groundwater level data collected from the riparian areas as well as discharge from each watershed. The modeling results are used to compare the changes of floodplain water table levels in arid and humid watersheds. The developed model also provides practical tools for water management problems in both environments.

  14. Prediction of stream flow by utilizing artificial neural network in flood plain (Case study: Sepidroud watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mardookhpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For knowing the hydrological behavior and water management of Sepidroud River (North of Iran-Gilan the present study focused on stream flow forecasting with artificial neural network. Ten years (2000-2009 historical inflow data, observed from the Sepidroud River, were selected ; then 10 years inflow of the Sepidroud River have been forecasted by neural network. Finally, the results obtained from forecasted data compared with observed data. The results showed that neural network could predict stream flow with high precision and the maximum error between predicted and observed data was 3% approximately.

  15. Assessment and mapping of desertification sensitivity in an insular sahelian mountain region - case study of the Ribeira Seca Watershed, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present the assessment and mapping of the environmental areas sensitive to desertification in an insular sahelian mountain region, in the catchment area of Ribeira Seca, island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Desertification is a threat for the global environment and it represents a serious ecological problem in Cape Verde. To fight both successfully, it requires an evaluation of its consequences and the building of cartography of the sensitivity for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The model MEDALUS was the basis for this study with the use of six indicators of quality: climate, soil, vegetation, management, water runoff and social. Several sub-indicators were assigned to each indicator with weights variable between 1 (low) and 2 (high) according to the DESIRE Project (WB2). The geometric mean of each of the six indicators of quality was employed to produce the map of environmental sensitivity areas to desertification. The results of this study show that more than 50% of the watershed present obvious evidence of becoming a desertification area. Key words: Cape Verde, desertification, indicators, MEDALUS model, DESIRE project.

  16. Citizen Participation in Collaborative Watershed Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  17. Surf Your Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surf Your Watershed is the Environmental Protection Agency's effort to provide a comprehensive center for geographically relevant information about drinking water regulations, drinking water publications, public water systems, ground water, and water quality and pollution issues. Resources include how to locate your watershed anywhere in the United States, state and tribal information, an index of watershed indicators, how to adopt your watershed, a watershed atlas, and a link to environmental websites.

  18. Estudio de los procesos hidrológicos de la cuenca del Río Diguillín / Study of the hydrological processes of the Río Diguillín watershed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    René, Zúñiga; Enrique, Muñoz; José Luis, Arumí.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el valle central del centro sur de Chile existe una gran demanda por recursos hídricos por parte de las actividades económicas como también por las demandas de una mejor calidad del ambiente. La agricultura es una de las principales actividades económicas de la zona, la cual requiere asegurar la [...] disponibilidad de recursos con una planificación y gestión adecuada, en especial para escenarios hidro-meteorológicos que se alejan de las condiciones normales o medias. Para la gestión y planificación de recursos hídricos de la zona resulta necesario conocer los procesos hidrológicos que predominan en la generación de escorrentía y almacenamiento, y disponer de herramientas que permitan estimar condiciones futuras. En el presente estudio se implementa un modelo hidrológico sobre la cuenca del río Diguillín. El modelo incorpora una conexión entre el agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la zona alta de la cuenca con el objeto de reproducir el comportamiento de la cuenca de modo realista. El modelo una vez calibrado es capaz de reproducir condiciones pasadas. Luego, el modelo se utiliza para evaluar el comportamiento de la cuenca ante diferentes escenarios de variabilidad climática producidos por el fenómeno El Niño Oscilación del Sur. Abstract in english In the central valley in South-Central Chile there is a high demand for water resources from the different economical activities as well as from an increasing demand of better environment quality. Agriculture is among the main economic activities in this area, which requires ensuring the availabilit [...] y of water resources with a proper planning and management, especially for not normal or mean hydro-meteorological scenarios. For the planning and management of water resources it is necessary to understand the main hydrological processes that predominate in the runoff generation and storage, and to dispose of tools for the estimation of future conditions. In this study a hydrological model for the Río Diguillín Watershed is implemented. The model incorporates a surface water and groundwater connection in the upper part of the watershed to reproduce by a realistic manner the observed behavior in the basin.Once the model is calibrated it is able to reproduce past conditions. Then, the model is used to evaluate the basin behavior under different scenarios of climate variability caused by El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  19. Nitrogen Losses in Runoff from Row-cropped Watersheds: Environmental Benefits of Native Prairie Filter Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Helmers, M. J.; Asbjornsen, H.; Kolka, R. K.; Tomer, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Loss of nitrogen in runoff from agricultural landscapes is a serious problem in the Midwestern United States due to inappropriate/intensive management practices. Among other best management practices, vegetative filter strips have been effectively adopted to reduce pollutant transport with agricultural runoff. In this study, twelve ephemeral watersheds at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Central Iowa were used to evaluate the effectiveness of native prairie filter strips (NPFS) in reducing total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-N (NO3-N) loss from row-cropped watersheds. Small amounts of NPFS were incorporated at different locations within the watersheds in fall 2006 using a balanced incomplete block design. A no-till 2-yr corn-soybean rotation was adopted in nonperennial areas since spring 2007. Each watershed was instrumented with an H-flume, a flow-monitoring device, and an ISCO water sampler in 2007. Runoff samples during the growing season between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed for TN and NO3-N concentrations for each individual rainfall event. The 4-year mean annual TN loss for watersheds with NPFS was 6.9 kg ha-1, approximately 85% lower than TN loss from 100% row-cropped watersheds (47.7 kg ha-1). Mean annual NO3-N loss during the growing season was 4.2 and 1.3 kg ha-1 for the watersheds with and without NPFS, respectively. The results of this study suggest that incorporation of small amounts of NPFS within annual rowcrop systems could greatly reduce TN and NO3-N loss from agricultural watersheds.

  20. Calibration of SWAT2009 using crop biomass, evapotranspiration, and deep recharge: Calera watershed in Zacatecas, Mexico case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater is the main source of water in the semi-arid Calera watershed, located in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Due to increasing population, rapid industrial growth, and increased irrigation to meet growing food demand, groundwater extraction in the Calera watershed are exceeding recharge rat...

  1. Watershed Export and Estuarine Ecosystem Response to Pulsed Inputs of Nitrogen to South Texas Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. W.; Mooney, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Precipitation and associated watershed export from land to sea along the south Texas coast is highly variable within and between years. Past studies in this region have emphasized the effects of variable salinity on estuarine ecosystems, and in particular the response of benthic communities. This presentation will focus on (1) patterns of nitrogen export from watersheds to coastal waters of south Texas and (2) nitrogen dynamics in coastal waters following major watershed export events. Recent work in the Guadalupe, San Antonio, Mission, and Aransas river watersheds shows a strong positive correlation between river discharge and organic nitrogen concentrations in river water. At the same time, nitrate concentrations in river water are diluted as discharge increases. Although variable, ammonium concentrations in river water do not correlate strongly with discharge. Results from Copano Bay (which receives direct inputs from the Mission and Aransas rivers) following major watershed export events in July 2007 exemplify the estuarine ecosystem response to such inputs. Salinity in Copano Bay dropped from 12 to 2 psu within 5 days of the first event and did not reach pre-event salinity again until December. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations in the bay increased substantially with each watershed export event, but showed different patterns of subsequent recovery. Nitrate decreased rapidly while ammonium was more variable and decreased more slowly. Dissolved organic nitrogen decreased immediately after the first watershed export event and then increased to concentrations greater than pre-event values within a week. Although the entire bay showed a large salinity response, variations in nitrogen concentrations associated with the storm events decreased with increasing distance from the river mouth. With changes in the magnitude and timing of precipitation events in the south western US predicted over the coming decades, understanding linkages between pulsed watershed inputs and estuarine ecosystem responses is increasingly important with respect to management of south Texas estuaries. These systems also provide a good model for thinking about the role of storm events in watershed-estuary systems more generally.

  2. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. Van, Jr.; Clair, Michael G., II; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  3. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of “self-/peer-appraisal” of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: ? We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. ? It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. ? The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. ? The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  4. Simulação da expectativa de perdas de solo em microbacia sob diferentes manejos florestais / Soil loss expectancy in a watershed under different forest managements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.G., Castro; M., Valério Filho.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi designado a avaliar, por meio de simulação cartográfica em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG), o impacto de diferentes estratégias de manejo florestal na escala de uma microbacia hidrográfica. O projeto foi desenvolvido em uma pequena microbacia (2,8 km²), localizada na porção [...] norte do litoral capixaba (Estado do Espírito Santo), inserida em um a área de plantação industrial de eucalipto pertencente ao complexo agroindustrial da Aracruz Celulose S.A. A avaliação dos impactos potenciais foi efetuada por meio da aplicação da equação universal de perdas de solo (EUPS), sendo diferentes cenários simulados com base no processamento digital da base primária de dados (dados ancilares relativos a cobertura pedológica, relevo, clima e vegetação). A simulação considerou quatro diferentes estratégias de manejo, variando de uma situação mais crítica (completa ausência de qualquer técnica conservacionista) até uma abordagem mais próxima da situação atualmente observada (onde diferentes técnicas de manejo têm sido empregadas). Os primeiros resultados permitem denotar a adequacidade do uso dessas técnicas de investigação prospectiva em suporte ao manejo operacional de florestas de produção. Todavia, alguns cuidados devem ser adotados quanto ao alcance desta abordagem, especificamente quanto ao modelo EUPS e, ainda, a uma tendência à dispersão multiplicativa de erros detectada durante o processamento digital. Abstract in english A cartographic simulation in a Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of different forest management strategies on a watershed scale. The project was conducted in a small (2 km²) watershed located at northern coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, [...] which is inserted in an area of eucalypt-clone plantation comprised by the agro-industrial complex Aracruz Celulose S.A. Potential impacts were assessed by applying the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in a GIS, where different scenarios were simulated by primary data processing (auxiliary data relating to the surface soil, relief, climate and vegetation). The simulation considered four different management strategies: from the worst possible situation, such as the complete absence of any conservation practice, to a more realistic assumption where management techniques are currently applied. First results demonstrated the adequacy of these technologies for prospective investigations and as guidelines to operational management of forest plantations. Nevertheless, caution must be taken concerning the scope of this approach, specially regarding the USLE model, and the multiplicative error dispersion trend during data processing.

  5. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  6. Detection of Critical LUCC Indices and Sensitive Watershed Regions Related to Lake Algal Blooms: A Case Study of Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Su, Zhihu; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China has suffered from severe eutrophication over the past 20 years which is partly due to significant land use/cover change (LUCC). There is an increasing need to detect the critical watershed region that significantly affects lake water degradation, which has great significance for environmental protection. However, previous studies have obtained conflicting results because of non-uniform lake indicators and inadequate time periods. To identify the sensitive LUCC indices and buffer distance regions, three lake divisions (Meiliang Lake, Zhushan Lake and Western Coastal region) and their watershed region within the Taihu Lake basin were chosen as study sites, the algal area was used as a uniform lake quality indicator and modeled with LUCC indices over the whole time series. Results showed that wetland (WL) and landscape index such as Shannon diversity index (SHDI) appeared to be sensitive LUCC indices when the buffer distance was less than 5 km, while agricultural land (AL) and landscape fragmentation (Ci) gradually became sensitive indices as buffer distances increased to more than 5 km. For the relationship between LUCC and lake algal area, LUCC of the WC region seems to have no significant effect on lake water quality. Conversely, LUCC within ML and ZS region influenced algal area of corresponding lake divisions greatly, while the most sensitive regions were found in 3 km to 5 km, rather than the whole catchment. These results will be beneficial for the further understanding of the relationship between LUCC and lake water quality, and will provide a practical basis for the identification of critical regions for lake. PMID:25642691

  7. Hydrologic response to climatic variability in a Great Lakes Watershed: A case study with the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kangsheng; Johnston, Carol A.

    2007-04-01

    SummaryProcess-based hydrologic models are usually calibrated prior to application to ensure that they closely match reality. However, different hydrologic response to varied climatic conditions might affect model calibration and validation. A case study was conducted for a 901 km 2 watershed of northern Michigan to compare the effects of calibrating the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model with different climatic datasets representing drought (1948-1949) versus average (1969-1970) conditions. The effects of the different climatic conditions on parameter response and sensitivity were evaluated, and performance of the two calibration versions was compared using a common validation period, 1950-1965. For the drought- and average-calibration periods, models were well calibrated, as indicated by high Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients ( E = 0.8 and 0.9), and low deviation of discharge values ( D = 2.9% and 3.4%). Evapotranspiration parameters differed under the two sets of climatic conditions. The plant water uptake compensation factor (EPCO), appropriately reflected plant water uptake patterns in varied climatic conditions. Snow melting parameters differed between the two scenarios. A comparison of baseflow values simulated by SWAT versus those computed by a hydrograph separation method showed that the SWAT method treated most snowmelt as surface runoff, whereas the latter method treated much of it as baseflow. The drought-calibrated version of the model performed much better during the validation period (1950-1965) ( E = 0.8, D = 2.6%) than did the average-calibrated version ( E = 0.4, D = 41.4%).

  8. Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin): spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Henrique C., Marques; Haydée Torres de, Oliveira; Eunice da Costa, Machado.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A bacia hidrográfica do rio Piraquara (Bacia do Alto Rio Iguaçu - PR) foi estudada como sistema ecológico ao longo de um ciclo sazonal completo, abrangendo os períodos seco e chuvoso. Análises de 16 variáveis físicas e químicas da água (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade, DBO5, temperatura, nitr [...] ogênio total, fósforo total, ortofosfato, nitrito, nitrato, amônio, silicato, sólidos totais em suspensão, clorofila-a, profundidade e velocidade da corrente) demonstraram correlações entre a composição da água e as características fisiográficas da bacia. Os gradiente espaciais e as diferenças sazonais foram evidenciadas pela Análise de Componentes Principais, e a bacia foi dividida em trechos de comportamento homogêneo, sendo identificadas descontinuidades seriais: Trecho 1, com forte influência da Serra do Mar; Trecho 2, curso médio do rio, sob influência da Represa do Piraquara e Trecho 3, sob influência das várzeas. O trabalho Pretende subsidiar ações de pesquisa, planejamento e biomonitoramento para este manancial público. Abstract in english The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil) was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivit [...] y, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth) showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.

  9. Limnological study of Piraquara river (Upper Iguaçu basin: spatiotemporal variation of physical and chemical variables and watershed zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique C. Marques

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Piraquara river basin (Upper Iguaçu River basin - Brazil was studied as an ecological system throughout a complete seasonal cycle, comprising the rainy and dry season. Analyzes of 16 physical and chemical water variables (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ortophosphates, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, reagent silicate, total suspended solids, chlorophyll - a, flow velocity and depth showed correlations between water composition and watershed physiographic features, and the Principal Component Analysis allowed to evidence spatial gradients and seasonal differences. The sampling points were clustered in patches with homogeneous behavior, according to ecologycal concepts: patch 1, with strong influence of Serra do Mar mountains; patch 2, medium course, under Piraquara Dam influence and patch 3, under wetlands influence. Two main factors of serial discontinuity were identified: the Piraquara dam effect and the influence of wetlands. The watershed zoning based on limnological characteristics seeks to subsidize research and biomonitoring for this public springs area.A bacia hidrográfica do rio Piraquara (Bacia do Alto Rio Iguaçu - PR foi estudada como sistema ecológico ao longo de um ciclo sazonal completo, abrangendo os períodos seco e chuvoso. Análises de 16 variáveis físicas e químicas da água (oxigênio dissolvido, pH, condutividade, DBO5, temperatura, nitrogênio total, fósforo total, ortofosfato, nitrito, nitrato, amônio, silicato, sólidos totais em suspensão, clorofila-a, profundidade e velocidade da corrente demonstraram correlações entre a composição da água e as características fisiográficas da bacia. Os gradiente espaciais e as diferenças sazonais foram evidenciadas pela Análise de Componentes Principais, e a bacia foi dividida em trechos de comportamento homogêneo, sendo identificadas descontinuidades seriais: Trecho 1, com forte influência da Serra do Mar; Trecho 2, curso médio do rio, sob influência da Represa do Piraquara e Trecho 3, sob influência das várzeas. O trabalho Pretende subsidiar ações de pesquisa, planejamento e biomonitoramento para este manancial público.

  10. Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of a Semi-Distributed Model in a Semi-Arid Region, Case Study: Nishabour Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Davari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of conceptual hydrological models is an important issue in watersheds for researchers, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The hydrological behaviors are complicated in such watersheds and their calibration is more difficult. In this article, the conceptual and semi-distributed SWAT model is used for a semi-arid Nishabour watershed with 9350 km2 area. Streamflow simulation is considered for 8 years. Nishabour watershed modeling led to 22 subbasins and 146 Hydrologic response units. SUfI2 approach is used for calibration and uncertainty analysis of watershed modeling. Results showed that calibration and validation of watershed model is not satisfactory, because of uncertainties in conceptual model such as dam structures, and land subsidence. Another reason is related to the complexity of hydrological system in arid regions which has simplified in hydrological models. Moreover, the complex behavior between runoff and subsurface flow in low depth of rainfall events usually effects in hydrological simulation results. Finally, it concluded that we cannot rely on conceptual hydrologic models with different sources of uncertainty without including them in hydrological modeling at arid and semi-arid watersheds.

  11. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  12. Modelado hidrológico de grandes cuencas: caso de estudio del río Senegal, África Occidental / Hydrological modeling of large watersheds: case study of the Senegal River, West Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Khalidou M., Bâ; Carlos, Díaz-Delgado; Emmanuelle, Quentin; Víctor Hugo, Guerra-Cobián; Jaime Israel, Ojeda-Chihuahua; Alin Andrei, Cârsteanu; Roberto, Franco-Plata.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la modelación de los escurrimientos diarios de grandes cuencas bajo el empleo del modelo de parámetros distribuidos CEQUEAU y del software de sistemas de información geográfica IDRISI. Se implementó un módulo hidrogeomático que proporciona, bajo un proceso sup [...] ervisado, la información de entrada requerida por el modelo hidrológico. Se han utilizado imágenes de radar SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-USGS), con resolución espacial de 30" (? 1 km) para la delimitación del parteaguas de la cuenca, con lo cual se eliminan fuentes de incertidumbre significativas, reduciendo tiempos de procesamiento. El caudal del río Senegal ha sido aforado en la estación hidrométrica Bakel desde inicios del siglo XX y se cuenta con una serie de datos relativamente abundante. Se han llevado a cabo diversos estudios hidrológicos sobre la cuenca, donde se reporta un área de captación cercana a 289 x 10³ km², pero altamente subestimada, según revela este estudio. La cuenca presenta condiciones climáticas muy diversas, con alta variabilidad en la precipitación total anual, desde 2 000 mm en el sur hasta 50 mm en el norte. Los parámetros fisiográficos han sido calculados considerando la extensa superficie de la cuenca localizada en Mauritania, despreciada en estudios previos como parte de ésta. Las simulaciones de caudales para el periodo 1970-2000 generan buenos resultados (coeficiente de Nash, por lo general superiores a 0.80), por ello se concluye que utilizando el nuevo módulo hidrogeomáico y el modelo CEQUEAU, las simulaciones son más adecuadas y representan una base sólida para la gestión de recursos hídricos de la zona. Abstract in english The present paper is focusing on improving the rainfall-runoff modeling in a large basin, at a daily scale, using the distributed hydrological model CEQUEAU and the GIS IDRISI. A hydrogeomatic module was implemented using a supervised process to provide the input data required by the hydrological mo [...] del. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, USGS) images were used, with a spatial resolution of 30" (? 1 km), for the purpose of defining watershed divides, which eliminates significant sources of uncertainty and reduces processing times. On the other hand, the discharge of the Senegal River has been gauged at the Bakel hydrometric station since the beginning of the 20th century until today, so a relatively long time series of data is now available. Various hydrologic studies about this basin have been performed, reporting a watershed area of roughly 289 × 103 km2, which is greatly underestimated according to the present study. The basin contains very diverse climatic conditions, with high variability in total annual precipitation, from 2 000 mm in the south to 50 mm in the north. Physiographic parameters have been computed taking into account the extensive area of the basin located in Mauritania, which had been neglected as part of this watershed by previous studies. Since the simulations of daily volumes for the period 1970-2000 produced good results (Nash coefficients generally above 0.80), it is concluded that simulations are more suitable when using the new hydrogeomatic module and the CEQUEAU and represent a solid basis for water resources management in the area.

  13. Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in a Suburbanizing Watershed: The Importance of Wetlands, People, and Flowpaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Daley, M. L.; Potter, J.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Human development of a watershed often yields fundamental and quantifiable changes in water quality and inorganic nutrient cycling. The effects of suburban development on the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM), however, have received relatively less attention, and the understanding of local dissolved organic matter dynamics is rarely a stated goal of watershed management. In this study, we examine the effects of suburbanization on concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) as well as the optical properties of DOM using 17 study sites in the Lamprey River watershed, NH that integrate varying levels of human development and population density. We show that concentration of DOC and DON is related to wetland cover but is not correlated with population density. Further, we observed no response in DOC concentration with increased flow at the mainstem site, while DON concentration is diluted. The optical properties of dissolved organic matter, however, showed different trends. Fluorescence Index (FI) decreases with increasing wetland cover and lower population density. We show that in a coastal watershed, while DOM quantity is driven by the presence of wetlands, DOM quality changes with both wetland cover and human development. The decoupling of DOM quantity and quality in this suburbanizing watershed indicate that DOM quality may be an important yet overlooked control on watershed-scale biogeochemical cycling and nutrient export.

  14. Assessing Watershed-Wildfire Risks on National Forest System Lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires can cause significant negative impacts to water quality with resultant consequences for the environment and human health and safety, as well as incurring substantial rehabilitation and water treatment costs. In this paper we will illustrate how state-of-the-art wildfire simulation modeling and geospatial risk assessment methods can be brought to bear to identify and prioritize at-risk watersheds for risk mitigation treatments, in both pre-fire and post-fire planning contexts. Risk assessment results can be particularly useful for prioritizing management of hazardous fuels to lessen the severity and likely impacts of future wildfires, where budgetary and other constraints limit the amount of area that can be treated. Specifically we generate spatially resolved estimates of wildfire likelihood and intensity, and couple that information with spatial data on watershed location and watershed erosion potential to quantify watershed exposure and risk. For a case study location we focus on National Forest System lands in the Rocky Mountain Region of the United States. The Region houses numerous watersheds that are critically important to drinking water supplies and that have been impacted or threatened by large wildfires in recent years. Assessment results are the culmination of a broader multi-year science-management partnership intended to have direct bearing on wildfire management decision processes in the Region. Our results suggest substantial variation in the exposure of and likely effects to highly valued watersheds throughout the Region, which carry significant implications for prioritization. In particular we identified the San Juan National Forest as having the highest concentration of at-risk highly valued watersheds, as well as the greatest amount of risk that can be mitigated via hazardous fuel reduction treatments. To conclude we describe future opportunities and challenges for management of wildfire-watershed interactions.

  15. Application of a Distributed Hydrologic Model and RUSLE for Watershed Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Traeumer, D.

    2001-12-01

    The highly publicized decline in salmon populations in the rivers of the Pacific Northwest has led to the Clearwater Subbasin watershed assessment project to evaluate the degradation of salmon habitat in the 9,645 square mile basin. With limited financial resources to restore critical salmon habitat areas, watershed managers use distributed hydrologic and erosion models to identify specific problem areas within a watershed to direct restoration. For this study, the Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model were applied in a geographic information system (GIS) to sub-watersheds in the Clearwater Basin that are mostly used in agricultural production. The SMR model, a distributed hydrologic model, uses publicly available soils, landuse, and elevation maps with daily weather data to simulate the flow of water through a landscape. The SMR model was used to predict the average amount of runoff generated throughout the sub-watersheds. The sub-watersheds were then delineated into regions of high, medium, and low risk of runoff. The accuracy and applicability of the model to the region was assessed using measured streamflow data from two sub-watersheds. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation was also applied to the watersheds to identify regions of high, medium, and low risk of erosion. Sub-watersheds that had a high risk of runoff and a high risk of erosion were identified as having, potentially, the highest risk of habitat degradation. The strength of this approach is that the models can identify the areas with the highest risk of pollutant loading within a sub-watershed using publicly available data with little calibration. The assessment can then focus on 5% - 10% of the total basin, depending on the time and available financial resources. The weakness of this approach is that some hydrologic features of a watershed must be assumed or generalized due to unavailable data such as the hydraulic conductivity and connectivity of underlying geologic features in the watershed. Calibration of the model to match total measured streamflow showed that as much as 20% of the total yearly precipitation can be lost to deeper aquifers. Combining both the SMR model and the RUSLE model also showed that runoff producing areas do not necessarily coincide with areas with high erosion.

  16. Watershed inventory, Ravenna Training and Logistics Site, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostheimer, Chad J.; Tertuliani, John S.

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG) conducts training activities on the lands it manages to fulfill its primary mission of maintaining combat readiness. One of the training areas OHARNG manages is the Ravenna Training and Logistics Site (RTLS). This facility is co-located with the Ravenna Army Ammunition Plant (RVAAP) in Portage and Trumbull Counties, Ohio. Training activities can subject watersheds to various effects. Although environmental effects from training activities cannot be completely avoided, OHARNG is actively seeking for ways to minimize such effects in accordance with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the OHARNG, to inventory current conditions of the watersheds that drain the RTLS/RVAAP facility. As part of the inventory, a digital geographic database was developed.

  17. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  18. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  19. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  20. Watershed safety and quality control by safety threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Wei Tsai, David; Mengjung Chou, Caroline; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Honglay Chen, Paris

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan was warned as one of the most dangerous countries by IPCC and the World Bank. In such an exceptional and perilous island, we would like to launch the strategic research of land-use management on the catastrophe prevention and environmental protection. This study used the watershed management by "Safety Threshold Method" to restore and to prevent the disasters and pollution on island. For the deluge prevention, this study applied the restoration strategy to reduce total runoff which was equilibrium to 59.4% of the infiltration each year. For the sediment management, safety threshold management could reduce the sediment below the equilibrium of the natural sediment cycle. In the water quality issues, the best strategies exhibited the significant total load reductions of 10% in carbon (BOD5), 15% in nitrogen (nitrate) and 9% in phosphorus (TP). We found out the water quality could meet the BOD target by the 50% peak reduction with management. All the simulations demonstrated the safety threshold method was helpful to control the loadings within the safe range of disasters and environmental quality. Moreover, from the historical data of whole island, the past deforestation policy and the mistake economic projects were the prime culprits. Consequently, this study showed a practical method to manage both the disasters and pollution in a watershed scale by the land-use management.

  1. The impact of topographical characteristics and land use change on the quality of Umbaniun micro-watershed water resources, Meghalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllbor Rymbai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A watershed is a geohydrological unit draining at a common point. Such natural unit has evolved through rain water interaction with land mass, typically comprising arable land, non-arable land and natural drainage lines in rain-fed areas. Sustainable production depends on the health, vitality and purity of a particular environment in which land and water are important constituents. A pilot study was thus undertaken to study the geomorphology, land-use systems and their impact on water resource management on the Meghalaya Umbaniun micro-watershed. In this Micro-watershed (3951.18 ha, water body covers an area of 5.69ha (0.14%. The paper highlights the linkage between geomorphology, land use systems and its impact on quality of water resources on the Umbaniun Micro-Watershed, Meghalaya. Topographical and physical-chemical characteristics, such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and water temperature, were used as environmental degradation indicators

  2. Surf Your Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This service allows users to locate, use, and share environmental information about watersheds where they live. Individual watersheds can be searched by map, place name, or Zip code. "Adopt your watershed" encourages individuals to become involved in stewardship and conservation of watersheds where they live. An environmental website database contains hundreds of URLs and can be searched by state, full text, information type, or keyword.

  3. Hydrological year 2009 in the small watersheds ?ervík and Malá Ráztoka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zden?k Vícha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique experiment, not only with respect to time, is ongoing within the two small watersheds in Beskid Mts. The year 2009 represents already the 56-th year of this long-term forestry-hydrological research. Experimental watershed ?ervík (CE is situated near the village Staré Hamry, watershed Malá Ráztoka (MR near Trojanovice. The aim of the research is to study the impact of forest on the water runoff from the watershed, and the impact of forest management on water balance in the headwater regions. Compared to the long-term time series, the data measured in 2009 seems to be relatively balanced. In 2009 the year precipitation amount within two watersheds was only slightly higher than the long-term average. Snowing had started in the middle of November; more intensive snow fall was registered in February, March, and also at the end of the hydrological year (mid-October. The average year temperatures within the two watersheds are again much higher than the averages of the last 56 years. During the vegetation season only few short period without precipitation was recorded, forest vegetation was not threatened by dryness in this year.

  4. Traditional and Host-Associated Fecal Indicator Bacterial Patterns in Southern California Watersheds: Field Source Identification Studies and Laboratory Microcosms Investigating Presence and Persistence in Water and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Kathryn Beth

    Overall, recreational beach water quality remains an issue of concern in Southern California and across the globe. Many factors come into play when determining water quality, including physical issues such as the myriad sources that contribute pollution to the site and financial and political issues that control the way water quality is monitored and determined. Current national regulations require the monitoring of fecal indicator bacteria in order to determine recreational water quality. However, it is also important to identify biological and geographical sources of pollution to consistently impaired locations. A commonly applied approach to meet the goals of source identification is to sample sites that have been high in FIB for further study. A tiered approach such as this, however, assumes a correlation between FIB and the sources of interest in the watershed. The research described in this dissertation tests this assumption in two Southern California watersheds, Santa Monica Canyon and Ventura Harbor. In both cases, a tiered approach to sampling using FIB as a first tier to guide sampling would have failed to identify sources of human fecal pollution (as identified by the presence of the human-associated Bacteroides marker HF183). Every watershed is a distinct environment that has different potential sources of bacteria and many factors contributing to the persistence of the bacteria. Rather than attempting to apply an indicator that has worked as a first tier in other watersheds, it would be better to have as a first tier an in-depth study of the watershed using historical data or local experts to provide information on the most likely sources of pollution in the watershed. Using this information it would be possible to design a study using FIB and one or more source-associated parameters to identify specific sources of pollution in the watershed. In addition, sampling FIB and other parameters such as HF183 allow the application of other microbial source tracking tools including indicator ratios and detection frequencies. Source identification studies do not necessarily have to be long-term to identify consistent sources of pollution. For example, within the first four months of sampling at Ventura, the increased frequency of detection of HF183 at the Marina Dock sample location was apparent, and a dry weather influx of HF183 was seen in the Keys channels. In addition to the many sources of FIB to the environment such as storm drains, leaking sewers, and wildlife, there are important environmental reservoirs such as sand and seaweed that can foster FIB growth and persistence in the environment. As such, it is important to understand the effect of different factors on the ability of bacteria to survive and persist in these reservoirs. Microcosm experiments conducted during the course of this dissertation research found that in dry beach sand (0.1% moisture), the addition of moisture was detrimental to the survival of the indicators studied (General Bacteroidales, E. coli, and enterococci). While increased moisture was not always detrimental to bacterial survival, these results point to the ability of bacteria to persist for long periods of time in beach environments under in-situ conditions (including dry sand). These findings point to the importance of understanding the behavior of indicator bacteria populations that have evolved to survive in environmental conditions so that their potential impact on overlying or adjacent water quality can be better understood. In summation, results from this research point to the importance of selecting indicators and sample locations that are most relevant to watershed concerns rather than using a first tier such as FIB to preferentially select sites for further analysis. Measuring a marker for human fecal pollution in both watershed studies provided useful information for potential human inputs that would have been missed if sites were chosen based on high FIB levels. In addition it is very important to underst

  5. Role of glaciers in watershed hydrology: a preliminary study of a "Himalayan catchment"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Thayyen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Himalayan glacier catchments are under the influence of humid climate with snowfall in winter (November–April and south-west monsoon in summer (June–September dominating the regional hydrology. Such catchments are defined as "Himalayan catchment", where the glacier meltwater contributes to the river flow during the period of annual high flows produced by the monsoon. The winter snow dominated Alpine catchments of the Kashmir and Karakoram region and cold-arid regions of the Ladakh mountain range are the other major glacio-hydrological regimes identified in the region. Factors influencing the river flow variations in a "Himalayan catchment" were studied in a micro-scale glacier catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, covering an area of 77.8 km2. Three hydrometric stations were established at different altitudes along the Din Gad stream and discharge was monitored during the summer ablation period from 1998 to 2004, with an exception in 2002. These data have been analysed along with winter/summer precipitation, temperature and mass balance data of the Dokriani glacier to study the role of glacier and precipitation in determining runoff variations along the stream continuum from the glacier snout to 2360 m a.s.l. The study shows that the inter-annual runoff variation in a "Himalayan catchment" is linked with precipitation rather than mass balance changes of the glacier. This study also indicates that the warming induced an initial increase of glacier runoff and subsequent decline as suggested by the IPCC (2007 is restricted to the glacier degradation-derived component in a precipitation dominant Himalayan catchment and cannot be translated as river flow response. The preliminary assessment suggests that the "Himalayan catchment" could experience higher river flows and positive glacier mass balance regime together in association with strong monsoon. The important role of glaciers in this precipitation dominant system is to augment stream runoff during the years of low summer discharge. This paper intends to highlight the importance of creating credible knowledge on the Himalayan cryospheric processes to develop a more representative global view on river flow response to cryospheric changes and locally sustainable water resources management strategies.

  6. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210), the strength in relationship (R2) between in-lake total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and the proportion of agricultural land use in the watershed increased markedly, from 10–12% to 39–42% for deep lakes and from 10–12% to 21–23% for shallow lakes, with the highest increase for TN. Relationships between TP and agricultural land use were even stronger for lakes with rivers in their watershed (55%) compared to lakes without (28%), indicating that rivers mediate a stronger linkage between landscape activity and lake water quality by providing a “delivery” mechanism for excess nutrients in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion of agricultural land use in the entire watershed was best in explaining lake water quality, both relative to estimated nutrient surplus at agricultural field level and near-lake land use, which somewhat contrasts typical strategies of management policies that mainly target agricultural nutrient applications and implementation of near-water buffer zones. This study suggests that transport mechanisms within the whole catchment are important for the nutrient export to lakes. Hence, the whole watershed should be considered whenmanaging nutrient loadings to lakes, and future policies should ideally target measures that reduce the proportion of cultivated land in the watershed to successfully improve lake water quality. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-1831.1

  7. Regolith mass balance inferred from combined mineralogical, geochemical and geophysical studies: Mule Hole gneissic watershed, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Jacques; Descloitres, Marc; Riotte, Jean; Fleury, Simon; Barbiéro, Laurent; Boeglin, Jean-Loup; Violette, Aurélie; Lacarce, Eva; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, M.; Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Subramanian, S.; Dupré, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a method to assess the long-term chemical weathering mass balance for a regolith developed on a heterogeneous silicate substratum at the small experimental watershed scale by adopting a combined approach of geophysics, geochemistry and mineralogy. We initiated in 2003 a study of the steep climatic gradient and associated geomorphologic features of the edge of the rifted continental passive margin of the Karnataka Plateau, Peninsular India. In the transition sub-humid zone of this climatic gradient we have studied the pristine forested small watershed of Mule Hole (4.3 km 2) mainly developed on gneissic substratum. Mineralogical, geochemical and geophysical investigations were carried out (i) in characteristic red soil profiles and (ii) in boreholes up to 60 m deep in order to take into account the effect of the weathering mantle roots. In addition, 12 Electrical Resistivity Tomography profiles (ERT), with an investigation depth of 30 m, were generated at the watershed scale to spatially characterize the information gathered in boreholes and soil profiles. The location of the ERT profiles is based on a previous electromagnetic survey, with an investigation depth of about 6 m. The soil cover thickness was inferred from the electromagnetic survey combined with a geological/pedological survey. Taking into account the parent rock heterogeneity, the degree of weathering of each of the regolith samples has been defined using both the mineralogical composition and the geochemical indices (Loss on Ignition, Weathering Index of Parker, Chemical Index of Alteration). Comparing these indices with electrical resistivity logs, it has been found that a value of 400 Ohm m delineates clearly the parent rocks and the weathered materials. Then the 12 inverted ERT profiles were constrained with this value after verifying the uncertainty due to the inversion procedure. Synthetic models based on the field data were used for this purpose. The estimated average regolith thickness at the watershed scale is 17.2 m, including 15.2 m of saprolite and 2 m of soil cover. Finally, using these estimations of the thicknesses, the long-term mass balance is calculated for the average gneiss-derived saprolite and red soil. In the saprolite, the open-system mass-transport function ? indicates that all the major elements except Ca are depleted. The chlorite and biotite crystals, the chief sources for Mg (95%), Fe (84%), Mn (86%) and K (57%, biotite only), are the first to undergo weathering and the oligoclase crystals are relatively intact within the saprolite with a loss of only 18%. The Ca accumulation can be attributed to the precipitation of CaCO 3 from the percolating solution due to the current and/or the paleoclimatic conditions. Overall, the most important losses occur for Si, Mg and Na with -286 × 10 6 mol/ha (62% of the total mass loss), -67 × 10 6 mol/ha (15% of the total mass loss) and -39 × 10 6 mol/ha (9% of the total mass loss), respectively. Al, Fe and K account for 7%, 4% and 3% of the total mass loss, respectively. In the red soil profiles, the open-system mass-transport functions point out that all major elements except Mn are depleted. Most of the oligoclase crystals have broken down with a loss of 90%. The most important losses occur for Si, Na and Mg with -55 × 10 6 mol/ha (47% of the total mass loss), -22 × 10 6 mol/ha (19% of the total mass loss) and -16 × 10 6 mol/ha (14% of the total mass loss), respectively. Ca, Al, K and Fe account for 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% of the total mass loss, respectively. Overall these findings confirm the immaturity of the saprolite at the watershed scale. The soil profiles are more evolved than saprolite but still contain primary minerals that can further undergo weathering and hence consume atmospheric CO 2.

  8. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Watershed evaluation and habitat response to recent storms; annual report for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and afcomparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems

  10. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes evaluated and the methods used to evaluate them. Watershed responses and attributes evaluated include mass failures, historic soil loss, the integration of roads with the drainage network, estimated flood recurrence intervals, and headwater channel morphology. Habitat attributes evaluated include large woody debris, pool frequency and depth, substrate conditions, and bank stability. Multiple analyses of habitat data in the Tucannon and Wenaha subbasins remain to be completed due to difficulties stemming from data characteristics that indicated that some of the pre-existing data may have be of questionable accuracy. Diagnostic attributes of the questionable data included a change in monitoring protocols during the pre- to post-flood analysis period, physically implausible temporal trends in some habitat attributes at some sites, and conflicting results for the same attribute at the same locations from different data sources. Since unreliable data can lead to spurious results, criteria were developed to screen the data for analysis, as described in this report. It is anticipated that while the data screening will prevent spurious results, it will also truncate some of the planned analysis in the Tucannon and Wenaha systems.

  11. Comparison of Watershed Hydrological Modeling with Different Rainfall Data: Case Study in Wulie River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Shi, X.; Yu, Y.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important inputs of watershed hydrological model and its accuracy directly affects the modeling results. To address the effect of different rainfall datasets on hydrological modeling, the SWAT model and three different rainfall datasets were applied in Wulie River Basin. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated with a fine resolution rainfall and observed runoff during the period of 1972-1988, and the result shows the good performance of model with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) greater than 0.8 and slightly overestimated discharge less than 5% ( Shown in Fig.1 ). The three rainfall datasets were built from different data sources: (I) interpolated from 8 rain gauges; (II) interpolated from 1 inner weather station and 6 outer weather station; (III) only used 1 inner weather station. The comparison of modeling results driven by different rainfall datasets show (in Table 1): (a) The difference of average rainfall generated from the three rainfall dataset was quite small with the largest gap of 5.4%, but the difference of spatial distribution and in some specific years was quite large, which could be caused by the failure of capturing some storms. (b) The rainfall data had significant effects on runoff modeling, which could be seen from the fact that the Ens of dataset I (using data of 8 rain gauges) reached 0.84, while that of dataset III(using data of the single weather station) reduced to 0.59. (c) Importing the surrounding weather station can significantly improve the modeling result. Compared to dataset III (using data of the single weather station), the dataset II imported 6 surrounding weather stations and Ens improved from 0.59 to 0.64. This indicated that importing surrounding stations is an applicable way to improve the hydrological modeling in sparse gauged basins. Fig.1 Comparison of the simulated and the observed monthly hydrograph at Chengde Table 1 Comparison of model performance driven by different rainfall dataset; R2: coefficient of determination; Ens: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency.

  12. Spate Irrigation Systems and Watershed Development in Eritrea: the case of Sheeb watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfai, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the interactions of the Spate Irrigation System (SIS) in Eritrea with their upper watersheds, as a case study in Sheeb watershed. The spate irrigation practices, among others, include techniques to harvest runoff water, sediments, and nutrients. A strong relationship exists between the SIS in the lowlands of Eritrea and their upper watersheds. For example, the spate irrigation system in the lowlands of Sheeb area entirely depends for water, soils and nutrients on the reso...

  13. The Watershed Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberty Science Center

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners interact with a 3-D model of a watershed to better understand the interconnectedness of terrestrial and aquatic environments. The instructions contain suggestions for "polluting" the watershed (with shredded paper “litter” and chocolate sprinkle “animal droppings”), and for modeling how the watershed cleans itself (using sponges for wetlands). Questions are included for discussing watersheds, how they get polluted, the water cycle, and "actions I can take" based in part on identifying potential pollutants on a real map of the local watershed. The commercial model from EnviroScape is expensive ($800), but the instructions could be used with a more homemade model using bowls and plastic bags.

  14. Knowledge Management System- A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Every organization and institute is facing the savior problem of generating the knowledge on the basis of their assets. Knowledge management is very indispensable for any organization. We discuss about the knowledge management through this paper. This paper provide an outline of knowledge management and how knowledge management is useful to improve the quality of the educational institute. With the help of knowledge management system we can manage any information. We can defin...

  15. A novel solution for outlier removal of ICESat altimetry data: a case study in the Yili watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Xie, Hongjie; Zhang, Guoqing; Liang, Tiangang

    2013-06-01

    Due to the influence of cloud and saturated waveforms, ICESat data contain many contaminated elevation data that cannot be directly used in examining surface elevation and change. This study provides a novel solution for removing bad data and getting clean ICESat data for land applications by using threshold values of reflectivity, saturation, and gain directly from ICESat's GLAS (Geoscience Laser Alteimeter System) 01, 05, and 06 products. It is found that each laser campaign needs different threshold compositions to assure qualified ICESat data and that bad data removal rates range from 9.6% (laser 2A) to 62.3% (laser 2B) for the test area in the Yili watershed, China. These thresholds would possibly be used in other regions to extract qualified ICESat footprints for land applications. However, it is recommended to use the steps proposed here to further examine the transferability of threshold values for other regions of different elevations and climate regimes. As an example, the resulting ICESat data are applied to examine lake level changes of two lakes in the study area.

  16. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area. PMID:25154685

  17. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS VS. RETENTION POND BMPS: MESOCOSM STUDIES FOR IMPROVED POLLUTANT MANAGEMENT IN URBAN STORMWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased urbanization has increased the amount of directly connected impervious area that results in large quantities of stormwater runoff. This runoff can contribute significant amounts of debris and pollutants to receiving waters. Urban watershed managers often incorporate b...

  18. Hydrological response of a High-Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years: a case study of Bayelva watershed, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Aga Nowak; Andy Hodson

    2013-01-01

    Our study considers climate change and its influence upon the hydrology and water balance of the glacierized Bayelva watershed in Svalbard. We find that changes are most noticeable within the last 10 years, when winters have become warmer and wetter. The change is most significant during the shoulder months, especially September, when the transition from summer ablation to winter accumulation is taking place. Winter rainfalls, when extreme, produce ground icings and runoff outside the summer ...

  19. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona: a project of the Rural Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an investigation of the hydrogeology of the middle San Pedro watershed in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). This project is part of the Rural Watershed Initiative (RWI), which is a program established by the State of Arizona and managed by the ADWR. The primary objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the middle San Pedro watershed.

  20. Fecal Contamination of Groundwater in a Small Rural Dryland Watershed in Central Chile Contaminación Fecal en Agua Subterránea en una Pequeña Cuenca de Secano Rural en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Valenzuela; Bernardo Lagos; Marcelino Claret; Mondaca, Mari?a A.; Claudio Pérez; Oscar Parra

    2009-01-01

    Research on microbiological groundwater quality was conducted in Chile in a rural watershed that has almost no other water source. Forty-two wells were randomly selected and levels of indicator bacteria - total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), and fecal streptococci (FS) - were repeatedly measured during the four seasons of 2005. The aim of this study was to characterize microbiological groundwater quality, relate indicator levels to certain watershed features and management characterist...

  1. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  2. Real time Measurement of Nitrate in Stream Water for a Paired Basin Study within the Choptank River Watershed, Maryland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Greg

    2013-04-01

    For this study, a robust water quality monitoring system was designed to measure nitrate and sediment using a commercially available UV-Vis spectrometer probe. To increase reliability for monitoring highly dynamic small streams and reduce susceptibility to vandalism in public place installations, an innovative the monitoring system was implemented around the use of a flow cell attachment for the probe with automated stream water sample delivery using a peristaltic pump. This permitted all instrumentation and electronics to be housed in secure enclosures with maximum flexibility in sampling location in the dynamic stream cross section. Monitoring systems were successfully deployed at two USGS stream gauge stations located at public parks near the towns of Ruthsburg and Greensboro within the Choptank Watershed which established a paired basin comparison of water quality. Both basins have a mixed land use of cropland in largely corn - soybean rotation and forests containing extensive wetland complexes. The basins have very similar amounts of cropland area but the Greensboro basin contains more wetlands and cropland formed from wetland drainage. Monitoring data has shown that the Ruthsburg basin exports about 25% more nitrate per area of cropland than the Greensboro basin. These results are indicative of greater landscape processing of nitrate in the Greensboro basin due to greater prevalence of wetlands and poorly drained soils in crop production.

  3. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  4. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Liem T., E-mail: ltran1@utk.edu [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); O& #x27; Neill, Robert V. [OTIE and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Elizabeth R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of 'self-/peer-appraisal' of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  5. Critical Management Studies: Some Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alcadipani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to challenge some assumptions associated with Critical Management Studies (CMS. This is done based on insights originating from the Actor-Network Theory (ANT, an approach that can be considered as an empirical form of post-structuralism and that has gained prominence in social sciences. Fundamentally, this paper broadly reviews some key CMS ideas associated with this perspective ontology to argue that what CMS usually tends to take as explanation is exactly what has to be explained. Moreover, it discusses CMS’ problematic view of objects and its tendency to neglect how existence is kept and maintained.

  6. Critical management studies: some reflections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christine, McLean; Rafael, Alcadipani.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to challenge some assumptions associated with Critical Management Studies (CMS). This is done based on insights originating from the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), an approach that can be considered as an empirical form of post-structuralism and that has gained prominence in social sci [...] ences. Fundamentally, this paper broadly reviews some key CMS ideas associated with this perspective ontology to argue that what CMS usually tends to take as explanation is exactly what has to be explained. Moreover, it discusses CMS' problematic view of objects and its tendency to neglect how existence is kept and maintained.

  7. Influence of land use on nutrients transport using SWAT model: Study case of Ardila Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Dura?o, A.; Brito, D.; Morais, M.; Fernandes, R. M.; Neves, R.

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural activities in the environment are due to the lixiviation and soil erosion. Pollution of agricultural origin presents diffuse characteristics reaching the environment through surface runoff, lateral flow and groundwater flow. Models can contribute to understand the sources and the processes responsible for pollution, also identifying areas of concern. To evaluate the status of river water bodies is important to consider management options, being water quality models...

  8. Hydrologic analysis for selection and placement of conservation practices at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.

    2012-12-01

    When a water body is exceeding water quality standards and a Total Maximum Daily Load has been established, conservation practices in the watershed are able to reduce point and non-point source pollution. Hydrological analysis is needed to place conservation practices in the most hydrologically sensitive areas. The selection and placement of conservation practices, however, is challenging in ungauged watersheds with little or no data for the hydrological analysis. The objective of this research is to perform a hydrological analysis for mitigation of erosion and total phosphorus in a mixed land use watershed, and to select and place the conservation practices in the most sensitive areas. The study area is the Hangman Creek watershed in Idaho and Washington State, upstream of Long Lake (WA) reservoir, east of Spokane, WA. While the pollutant of concern is total phosphorus (TP), reductions in TP were translated to total suspended solids or reductions in nonpoint source erosion and sediment delivery to streams. Hydrological characterization was done with a simple web-based tool, which runs the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for representative land types in the watersheds, where a land type is defined as a unique combination of soil type, slope configuration, land use and management, and climate. The web-based tool used site-specific spatial and temporal data on land use, soil physical parameters, slope, and climate derived from readily available data sources and provided information on potential pollutant pathways (i.e. erosion, runoff, lateral flow, and percolation). Multiple land types representative in the watershed were ordered from most effective to least effective, and displayed spatially using GIS. The methodology for the Hangman Creek watershed was validated in the nearby Paradise Creek watershed that has long-term stream discharge and monitoring as well as land use data. Output from the web-based tool shows the potential reductions for different tillage practices, buffer strips, streamside management, and conversion to the conservation reserve program in the watershed. The output also includes the relationship between land area where conservation practices are placed and the potential reduction in pollution, showing the diminished returns on investment as less sensitive areas are being treated. This application of a simple web-based tool and the use of a physically-based erosion model (i.e. WEPP) illustrates that quantitative, spatial and temporal analysis of changes in pollutant loading and site-specific recommendations of conservation practices can be made in ungauged watersheds.

  9. Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them. PMID:21853280

  10. The Role of Agency Partnerships in Collaborative Watershed Groups: Lessons from the Pacific Northwest Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Mahler, Robert L.; Wulfhorst, J. D.; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative watershed group experiences reveal commonalities in their approaches to facilitate decentralized and inclusive watershed planning and management in the United States, and increasingly around the world. Although watershed groups are widely recognized in the United States for positive accomplishments across local, state, and regional scales, the role of government agencies as watershed group partners often remains ambiguous and inconsistent. This paper details results of a survey used to determine the status of Pacific Northwest (PNW) watershed group-agency partnerships relative to planning and management. Specific inquiry was directed toward: (1) the role of technical information flow; and (2) watershed group needs. Mail surveys were administered to 304 watershed group participants in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Sixty-nine percent of the surveys were completed and returned. Based on the collected survey data, PNW watershed groups rely heavily on agency officials for technical watershed information. Respondents perceive support of state government to be the highest relative to federal agencies, local governments, and university Extension offices. However, evidence from the survey suggests that partnerships are underutilized across all agencies and organizations concurrently vested in watershed planning and management in the PNW. Sustained operational funding, increased group participation, and baseline watershed data are the most pressing needs of PNW watershed groups and present a significant opportunity for expanding watershed group-agency partnerships.

  11. Ingestion risks of metals in groundwater based on TIN model and dose-response assessment - A case study in the Xiangjiang watershed, central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater samples were collected in the Xiangjiang watershed in China from 2002 to 2008 to analyze concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, manganese, and zinc. Spatial and seasonal trends of metal concentrations were then discussed. Combined with geostatistics, an ingestion risk assessment of metals in groundwater was performed using the dose-response assessment method and the triangulated irregular network (TIN) model. Arsenic concentration in groundwater had a larger variation from year to year, while the variations of other metal concentrations were minor. Meanwhile, As concentrations in groundwater over the period of 2002-2004 were significantly higher than that over the period of 2005-2007, indicating the improvement of groundwater quality within the later year. The hazard index (HI) in 2002 was also significantly higher than that in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Moreover, more than 80% of the study area recorded an HI of more than 1.0 for children, suggesting that some people will experience deleterious health effects from drinking groundwater in the Xiangjiang watershed. Arsenic and manganese were the largest contributors to human health risks (HHRs). This study highlights the value of long-term health risk evaluation and the importance of geographic information system (GIS) technologies in the assessment of watershed-scale human health risk.

  12. Watershed Based, Institutional Approaches to Developing Clean Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy; Genge, Cole

    2005-04-01

    Access to clean and sufficient amounts of water is a critical problem in many countries. A watershed approach is vital in understanding pollution pathways affecting water resources and in developing participatory solutions. Such integration of information with participatory approaches can lead to more sustainable solutions than traditional "crisis-to-crisis" management approaches. This study aims at applying a watershed based joint action approach to manage water resources. Since most watersheds have urban and rural sources of pollution and a wide disparity in access to and use of water, alternative solutions need to take an integrated approach through cooperative actions. An institutional model was applied to seven subwatersheds in Honduras to evaluate various sources and effects of water contamination and water shortages. Two specific pathways of water resources degradation were studied (contamination from coffee pulp manufacturing and urban nonpoint sources) to develop alternative solutions that mitigate downstream impacts of access to clean water. A locally driven joint mechanism to reuse coffee pulp in farming systems is proposed. Such an institutional solution can maximize benefits to both farms and the coffee pulp industry. A combination of education and investment in sanitary facilities in urbanizing areas is proposed to minimize urban sources of water contamination.

  13. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  14. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  15. Prioritization of sub-watersheds in semi arid region, Western Maharashtra, India using Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit M.Zende

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - The study area is one of the sub-river basin of Krishna river, covering an area of 3035 km² and lies in west part of Maharashtra state bounded by Latitude 16055’ to 17028’ N and Longitude 74020’ to 74040’ E. Poor soil cover, sparse vegetation, erratic rainfall and lack of soil moisture characterize the study area for most part of the year. Due to unavailability/poor managed of surface water storage structures, more than 50% area depends upon groundwater for their daily needs. Recurring drought coupled with increase in ground water exploitation results in decline in the ground water level. So the entire study area has been further divided into 9 sub-watersheds named SWS1 to SWS9, ranging in geographical area from 76 km² to 492 km² and has been taken up for prioritization based on morphometric analysis using Geographical information system (GIS and remote sensing techniques. The drainage density of sub-watersheds varies between 2.07 to 3.26 km/km² and low drainage density values of sub-watershed SWS5 indicates that it has highly resistant, impermeable subsoil material with dense vegetative cover and low relief. The elongation ratio varies from 0.2 to 0.35 which indicates low relief and gentle ground slope. The high value of circularity ratio for SWS 8 sub-watershed 0.6 indicates the late maturity stage of topography. This anomaly is due to diversity of slope, relief and structural conditions prevailing in this sub-watershed. The compound parameter values are calculated and the sub-watershed with the lowest compound parameter is given the highest priority. The sub-watershed SWS3 has a minimum compound parameter value of 1.68 and SWS 8 has a maximum compound parameter 3.08. Hence it should be provided with immediate soil conservation measures because sedimentation is the major problem for surface water storage structures.

  16. Effect of watershed subdivision on simulation of water balance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, M. P.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Rao, G. P.

    2006-03-01

    The present effect of watershed subdivision on simulated water balance components using the thoroughly tested Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been evaluated for the Nagwan watershed in eastern India. Observed meteorological and hydrological data (daily rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and runoff) for the years 1995 to 1998 were collected and used. The watershed and sub-watershed boundaries, slope and soil texture maps were generated using a geographical information system. A supervised classification method was used for land-use/cover classification from satellite imagery of 1996. In order to study the effect of watershed subdivision, the watershed was spatially defined into three decomposition schemes, namely a single watershed, and 12 and 22 sub-watersheds.The simulation using the SWAT model was done for a period of 4 years (1995 to 1998). Results of the study showed a perfect water balance for the Nagwan watershed under all of the decomposition schemes. Results also revealed that the number and size of sub-watersheds do not appreciably affect surface runoff. Except for runoff, there was a marked variation in the individual components of the water balance under the three decomposition schemes. Though the runoff component of the water balance showed negligible variation among the three cases, variations were noticed in the other components: evapotranspiration (5 to 48%), percolation (2 to 26%) and soil water content (0.30 to 22%). Thus, based on this study, it is concluded that watershed subdivision has a significant effect on the water balance components.

  17. Nitrogen flows from European watersheds to coastal marine waters

    OpenAIRE

    Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Grizzetti, Bruna; Leip, Adrian; Garnier, Josette; Voss, Maren; Howarth, Robert; Bouraoui, Faycal; Lepisto, Ahti; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Johnes, Penny; Curtis, Chris; Humborg, Christoph; Smedburg, Erik; Kaste, Oyvind

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen flows from European watersheds to coastal marine waters Executive summary Nature of the problem • Most regional watersheds in Europe constitute managed human territories importing large amounts of new reactive nitrogen. • As a consequence, groundwater, surface freshwater and coastal seawater are undergoing severe nitrogen contamination and/or eutrophication problems. Approaches • A comprehensive evaluation of net anthropogenic inputs of reactive nitro...

  18. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  19. OPTIMIZING BMP PLACEMENT AT WATERSHED-SCALE USING SUSTAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for environmental quality restoration and protection needs in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale decision-support system, based on cost optimization, provides an essential tool to suppo...

  20. USING WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PROTECTING DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first manuscript describes the application of watershed ERA principles to the development of a strategic watershed management plan for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where the primary focus was on the protection of drinking water quality, a concern typically addressed by...

  1. Impact of Statistical Disaggregation of Precipitation in Physically-Based Distributed Hydrological Modeling. Case Study: June 2002 Flood on the Des Anglais Watershed, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, P.; Rousseau, A. N.; Mailhot, A.

    2011-12-01

    Physically-based distributed hydrological models (PBDHM) can simulate streamflow at local scale. When an extreme precipitation event is imminent, meteorological forecasts may be used as input in a PBDHM to estimate the resulting peak flow. However, meteorological forecasts are generally available on mesoscale grids (102 - 103 km2), which might not be accurate enough to simulate local scale stream flows. Statistical disaggregation models can rapidly provide several series of high-resolution precipitation data while preserving the total amount of precipitation of the mesoscale grid. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the potential of using disaggregated precipitation series in a PBDHM to predict local stream flows within a watershed. As a case study, we analyze the June 2002 flood on the Des Anglais watershed (730 km2), located in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada, using the PBDHM HYDROTEL. A recently developed Gibbs sampling disaggregation model is used to downscale a 52-km precipitation field onto a 4-km precipitation grid. Results from the watershed's 182 relatively homogeneous hydrological units (RHHU) show that disaggregated precipitation series produce a large spectrum of runoff estimations, especially on the smaller units. The physical processes simulated by HYDROTEL leading to these different runoff estimations are analyzed to understand the impact of disaggregation and provide guidelines for its application in local flood forecasting.

  2. Helping Pacific salmon survive the impact of climate change on freshwater habitats : case studies : perspectives from the Okanagan, Quesnel, Nicola, Cowichan, Nass and Englishman River watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelitz, M.; Alexander, C.A.D.; Wieckowski, K. [ESSA Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    This document addressed the challenge threatening the survival of 5 species of Pacific salmon in British Columbia that have always responded to changes in climate. It follows a previous document in which proactive and reactive adaptation strategies were proposed. This companion document integrates the general ideas of the adaptation strategies, but not the framework, into a local context of geography, people and salmon at 3 interior and 3 coastal basins across British Columbia. Rather than provide definitive answers in a particular watershed, this case study focused on the range of climate issues facing salmon in 6 locations in the province. This document described what is happening in terms of the biophysical features of the watershed, and provided some basic information on salmon and water resources. The natural and human factors that limit salmon production were identified. The state of knowledge about cause-effect linkages was also discussed, including linkages between climate change-salmon habitats. The significance of what is happening in the watershed was investigated in terms of economic importance and social-regulatory relevance. 82 refs., 2 tabs., 34 figs.

  3. Study of industry safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces outline of disaster, measures for disaster prevention, frequency and strength of disaster occurrence, and safety and safety management in companies. It also deals with responsible system for safety management, measures for machinery safety disaster such as placement of machinery, environmental safety in working places including disaster relationship according to temperature and humidity, measures for electricity safety disaster such as electric shock, safety management of facilities, examination of safe works including gas explosion, and safety management of construction places.

  4. Identifying major sources of uncertainty in watershed water quality modeling: an application of the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed water quality models are widely used in management practices such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). However, the modeling often involves significant uncertainty, especially in addressing non-conventional pollutants on which both knowledge and data are very limited. In this study, the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM), incorporating the Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), is used as an efficient alternative to conventional Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) for uncertainty analysis. DEMM is one of the Response Surface Methods (RSMs) which calculates uncertainty in output variables based on the direct effect of every uncertain input parameter. This study aims to 1) examine the applicability of DEMM to complex watershed models; 2) develop strategies for identifying major uncertainty sources in watershed water quality modeling. A case study of watershed diazinon (an organophosphorus pesticide) pollution modeling is explored. The results demonstrate that the stochastic response of the output variables to the uncertain input parameters can be adequately approximated by DEMM. A low-order DEMM can save a great amount of CPU time, compared to MCS. Also, DEMM can be used for parameter sensitivity analysis and preliminary model validation without a full calibration of the watershed model. Overall, if designed appropriately, DEMM can be used to identify major sources of uncertainty in watershed water quality modeling, and provides useful information on improving the modeling.

  5. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km2, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Collaborative environmental planning in river management: An application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C.; Erickson, J.; Noordewier, T.; Sheldon, A.; Kline, M.

    2007-01-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A gestão integrada de recursos hídricos e do uso do solo em bacias urbano-metropolitanas: o controle de inundações na bacia dos rios Iguaçu/Sarapuí, na Baixada Fluminense The integrated water resources management and land use in urban-metropolitan watersheds: flood control in the Iguaçu/Sarapuí watershed, Baixada Fluminense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ferreira Carneiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da necessidade de integração do planejamento do uso do solo à gestão dos recursos hídricos, buscando estabelecer relações entre as formas de uso e ocupação do solo urbano e os problemas envolvendo as inundações urbanas. Que novos paradigmas de planejamento e gestão poderão emergir da articulação dos marcos regulatórios recentemente aprovados? O artigo traz essas questões para o debate.This research concerns the integration of urban land use planning to water resources management, focusing on flood control. What new planning and management paradigms may emerge from the articulation of recent regulatory frameworks? This paper brings up theseissues, proposing alternatives that lead to an integrated management in urban watersheds.

  9. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment load decreases to occur; (4) long-term monitoring on the order of decades can be required to detect meaningful changes in water quality in response to BMP implementation; and (5) all consequences of specific BMPs need to be considered when considering strategies for watershed protection.

  10. Surf Your Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this lesson plan covers watersheds. Students will discover in which watershed they live and describe water quality issues at local, county, and state levels. A worksheet and teaching guide are included. The document is available in Microsoft Word format at: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/GISSurfYourWatershed.doc.

  11. CARANGA Y EL MANEJO SIMBÓLICO DE LA VERTIENTE OCCIDENTAL ANDINA (PRECORDILLERA DE ARICA / THE CARANGA AND THE SYMBOLIC MANAGEMENT OF THE WESTERN ANDEAN WATERSHED (PRECORDILLERA OF ARICA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Chacama Rodríguez.

    Full Text Available Se propone que durante la prehistoria tardía de la precordillera de Arica o Altos de Arica se llevó a cabo en dicha zona una interacción cultural, política y económica entre poblaciones de tradición de valles occidentales y poblaciones altiplánicas, específicamente Caranga. Paralelamente a las menci [...] onadas formas de interacción, la etnia Caranga habría sostenido además un manejo simbólico del espacio cordillerano, al que hoy podemos acceder mediante ciertos tipos de representaciones que han dejado sus huellas en el imaginario de estas poblaciones así como en el paisaje cultural dejado por ellas. Dichas representaciones hacen referencia a la invocación de los cerros y a la construcción de estructuras arquitectónicas vinculadas al ámbito ritual, que en su conjunto nos aproximan a la ideología Caranga y por ende al manejo simbólico de la vertiente occidental andina. Abstract in english It is proposed that during the late prehistory of the precordillera of Arica or 'Altos de Arica', there were cultural, political and economic interactions between populations of the western valleys and the highland populations, specifically the Caranga. Parallel to the above forms of interaction, th [...] e ethnic Caranga have also held the mountain as a symbolic space, which today can be unders-tood through certain types of representations that have left their mark in the minds of these populations as well as in the cultural landscape. These representations make reference to the invocation of the hills and the construction of architectural structures linked to the ritual sphere, which when together allow us to approximate the Caranga ideology and therefore the symbolic management of the Andean western watershed.

  12. Comparative analysis of integrated water resources management models and instruments in South America: case studies in Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and Colombia are rich in terms of water supply, ranking as world leaders in the supply of water resources. Despite this, both countries have problems of relative scarcity of this vital liquid in highly populated areas with much economic activity. Establishing policies and legal environmental standards has long tradition in both countries. However, although there are provisions and instruments for water management at the water basin level, these do not necessarily follow the conceptual development of integrated water resources management (IWRM. As a result, the two countries have partially implemented IWRM elements but with different characteristics both in its structure and instrumentality. In Colombia the State Government, through the Regional Environmental Corporations, implements IWRM (concessions, fee for water use, pollution rate, basin plans, etc, with no formal involvement of civil society management. In Brazil, however, IWRM management structure and tools are decentralized and participatory, as are the Water Basin Committees, entities where the State Government, municipalities and users participate, those with the greatest weight in water management. In Brazil, however, this model is not yet implemented in all watersheds. Thus, the aim of this paper is to compare the institutional and legal aspects of water management models in Brazil and Colombia with regard to the integrated water management concept. For the latter, we worked with a case study for each country regarding Nima River watershed (Colombia and Tietê Jacaré (Brazil.

  13. Simulation of Runoff and Sediment Yield for a Himalayan Watershed Using SWAT Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sanjay K.; Jaivir Tyagi; Vishal Singh

    2010-01-01

    Watershed is considered to be the ideal unit for management of the natural resources. Extraction of water-shed parameters using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) and use of mathematical models is the current trend for hydrologic evaluation of watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) having an interface with ArcView GIS software (AVSWAT2000/X) was selected for the estimation of runoff and sediment yield from an area of Suni to Kasol, an intermediate watershe...

  14. Evaluating natural gas development impacts on stream ecosystems in an Upper Colorado River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Bern, C.; Schmidt, T. S.; McDougal, R. R.; Clark, M. L.; Stricker, C. A.; Wolf, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Oil and gas development in the western United States is increasingly placing at odds the management of two critical natural resources: fossil fuels and water. Muddy Creek, part of the Upper Colorado River watershed, is a semi-arid catchment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Muddy Creek flows throughout the year and includes both perennial and ephemeral tributaries. Primary land use includes livestock grazing, oil and gas development, and recreational activities. A multi-discipline study has been initiated to determine potential impacts of the projected increase of coal bed natural gas development. Hundreds of permits for drilling co-produced waters have been issued, but low energy prices have slowed development. A watershed assessment was conducted in 2010 to determine areas within the watershed that are more susceptible to mobilization of trace elements that occur in soils forming on marine shales. Soil, stream sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for major elements and a suite of trace elements, with arsenic and selenium identified as potential elements of concern. A study of benthic and riparian invertebrates is being conducted to evaluate the uptake of these elements into the food web at targeted locations in the Muddy Creek watershed. Continued work will address sources of salinity to Muddy Creek, and ultimately to the Upper Colorado River. Impacts from energy development can include mobilization of naturally occurring sulfate salts through soil disturbance. Formation waters currently discharged to the surface from two failed wells within the watershed will be evaluated for their contribution to salinity, as well as dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen species, and trace elements, to the Upper Colorado River. Upon completion, this study will provide a baseline that can assist in land-use management decisions as oil and gas extraction expands in the Upper Colorado River watershed.

  15. Choosing Different Contour Interval on a Fully Raster-Based Erosion Modeling: Case Study at Merawu Watershed, Banjarnegara, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sulistyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to study the efect of choosing different contour interval to produce Digital Elevation Model on a fully raster-based erosion modeling of The Universal Soil Loss Equation using remote sensing data and a geographical information system technique. Methods were applied by analyzing all factors that affecting erosion in GIS environment such data were in the form of raster. Those data were R , K, LS, C and P factors. LS factor was derived from Digital Elevation Model by taking flow direction from each pixel into consideration. Research used 3 contour intervals to produce Digital Elevation Model, i.e. 12.5, 25 and 50 meter. C factor was derived from the formula after applying linearly regression analysis between Normalized Difference Vegetation index of remote sensing data and C factor measured directly on the field. Another analysis was the creation of map of Bulk Density used to convert erosion unit as from Mg ha-1mo-1 to mm mo-1. To know the model accuracy, validation of the model was done by applying statistical analysis and by comparing the result of erosion model (Emodel with actual erosion (Eactual which was measured regularly in Merawu watershed. A threshold value of > 0.80 or > 80% was chosen to justify whether the model was accurate or not. The results showed that all Emodel using 3 countour intervals have correlation value of > 0.8. These results were strenghtened with the result of analysis of variance which showing there were no difference between Emodel and Eactual. Among the 3 models, only Emodel using 50 meter countour interval reached the accuracy of 81.13% while the other only had 50.87% (using countour interval 25 meter and 32.92% (using countour interval 12.5 meter.

  16. Spatio-temporal variation in stream water chemistry in a tropical urban watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban activities and related infrastructure alter the natural patterns of stream physical and chemical conditions. According to the Urban Stream Syndrome, streams draining urban landscapes are characterized by high concentrations of nutrients and ions, and might have elevated water temperatures and variable oxygen concentrations. Here, we report temporal and spatial variability in stream physicochemistry in a highly urbanized watershed in Puerto Rico. The main objective of the study was to describe stream physicochemical characteristics and relate them to urban intensity, e.g., percent impervious surface cover, and watershed infrastructure, e.g., road and pipe densities. The Río Piedras Watershed in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, is one of the most urbanized regions on the island. The Río Piedras presented high solute concentrations that were related to watershed factors, such as percent impervious cover. Temporal variability in ion concentrations lacked seasonality, as did all other parameters measured except water temperature, which was lower during winter and highest during summer, as expected based on latitude. Spatially, stream physicochemistry was strongly related to watershed percent impervious cover and also to the density of urban infrastructure, e.g., roads, pipe, and building densities. Although the watershed is serviced by a sewage collection system, illegal discharges and leaky infrastructure are probably responsible for the elevated ion concentration found. Overall, the Río Piedras is an example of the response of a tropical urban watershed after major sewage inputs are removed, thus highlighting the importance of proper infrastructure maintenance and management of runoff to control ion concentrations in tropical streams.

  17. Effects of hydrodynamically rough grassed waterways on dissolved reactive phosphorus loads coming from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, P; Auerswald, K

    2009-01-01

    A modified type of grassed waterway (GWW) with large hydrodynamic roughness has proven ability to reduce sediment load and surface runoff under conditions where best management practices on the delivering fields reduce sediment inputs that could otherwise damage the grass cover. It is unknown how such a GWW affects the loading of surface runoff with dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP). The effect on DRP was tested in a landscape-scale study where DRP concentrations and loads in surface runoff were measured in two watersheds in which GWWs were newly installed and increased in effectiveness over time. Both watersheds were compared with paired watersheds without GWW installation; all watersheds were continuously monitored over 5 yr (1993-1997). Additionally, DRP concentrations were measured in open field and throughfall precipitation under growing grass and crops in field experiments, and DRP concentrations in surface runoff from straw covered surfaces were determined with laboratory rainfall simulation experiments. Dissolved reactive P in throughfall for the different cover types was highly variable, and the highest concentrations (up to 2.8 mg L(-1)) occurred especially during flowering of the respective crop and after frost events. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff from straw-covered surfaces were slightly higher compared with those from bare soil. On average, there was a small difference in DRP concentrations between throughfall under growing crops and grass and in runoff from bare or straw covered soil surfaces. Hence, the introduction of a relatively small grassed area has little effect on the DRP concentration in surface runoff from the total watershed. This finding was supported by the watershed data, where watersheds with and without GWW showed similar DRP concentrations. No change in DRP concentrations occurred over the 5-yr period. Such GWWs will thus reduce the DRP load analogously to the reduction in total surface runoff. PMID:19202025

  18. Use of USLE/GIS methodology for predicting soil loss in a semiarid agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Emrah H; Erpul, Günay; Bayramin, Ilhami

    2007-08-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is an erosion model to estimate average soil loss that would generally result from splash, sheet, and rill erosion from agricultural plots. Recently, use of USLE has been extended as a useful tool predicting soil losses and planning control practices in agricultural watersheds by the effective integration of the GIS-based procedures to estimate the factor values in a grid cell basis. This study was performed in the Kazan Watershed located in the central Anatolia, Turkey, to predict soil erosion risk by the USLE/GIS methodology for planning conservation measures in the site. Rain erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), and cover management factor (C) values of the model were calculated from erosivity map, soil map, and land use map of Turkey, respectively. R values were site-specifically corrected using DEM and climatic data. The topographical and hydrological effects on the soil loss were characterized by LS factor evaluated by the flow accumulation tool using DEM and watershed delineation techniques. From resulting soil loss map of the watershed, the magnitude of the soil erosion was estimated in terms of the different soil units and land uses and the most erosion-prone areas where irreversible soil losses occurred were reasonably located in the Kazan watershed. This could be very useful for deciding restoration practices to control the soil erosion of the sites to be severely influenced. PMID:17171276

  19. Assessing the potential for conservation tillage: a case study in the Maple Creek Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, H.R.; Erickson, M.W.; Hoover, H.

    1983-01-01

    A case study of the selected areas shows about 95 percent of the soils are suitable for all forms of conservation tillage. Critical erosion areas are lands of 12 to 13 percent slope. These lands comprise one-fourth of the land but contribute over half the total sediment. Preharvest costs are shown for four tillage methods. Labor, energy and other inputs for reduced, no-till and conventional tillage are compared for nonirrigated corn production.

  20. Tucannon River Temperature Study, Prepared for : Watershed Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Engineering.

    2006-06-30

    This report presents the results of a temperature analysis of the Tucannon River completed for the WRIA 35 Planning Unit. The Tucannon River is located in southeastern Washington and flows approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) from the Blue Mountains to the Snake River. High water temperature in the Tucannon River has been identified as a limiting factor for salmonid fish habitat (Columbia Conservation District, 2004). Several segments of the Tucannon River are included on Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to temperature. Ecology is currently conducting scoping for a temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study of the Tucannon River. The WRIA 35 Planning Unit retained HDR Engineering to evaluate water temperature in the Tucannon River. The project objectives are: (1) Review recent and historic data and studies to characterize temperature conditions in the river; (2) Perform field studies and analyses to identify and quantify heating and cooling processes in the river; (3) Develop and calibrate a computer temperature model to determine the sources of heat to the Tucannon River and to predict the temperature of the river that would occur with increased natural riparian shading assuming the current river morphology; (4) Evaluate differences in river temperatures between current and improved riparian shading during the 'critical' period - low river flows and high temperatures; and (5) Determine the potential benefits of riparian shading as a mechanism to decrease river temperature.

  1. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings. PMID:25169808

  2. WATERSHED INFORMATION NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource Purpose: The Watershed Information Network is a set of about 30 web pages that are organized by topic. These pages access existing databases like the American Heritage Rivers Services database and Surf Your Watershed. WIN in itself has no data or data sets. L...

  3. Study of environmental degradation of the Bodocongó Watershed, at Campina Grande, State of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Miguel de Moraes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in the western region paraiban marsh at the county of Campina Grande. The study aimed to develop thematic maps that depict the expansion space-temporal of the vegetation and degradation of the Bodocongó stream basin, for the period from 1989 to 2007, through the analysis of TM/Landsat-5, CCD / CBERS - 2 images and data from fieldwork. The digital processing of Landsat imagery was conducted at SPRING - 4.3. The results showed that the area presented classes of dense vegetation ranging from the exposed soil and levels of degradation ranging from very low to severe. In the period between the years 1989 and 2007, the classes of semi-dense vegetation, semi-sparse and sparse had this areas of occurrence decreased to 23.6%, 3.22% and 25.3% of the total area of the basin, respectively. From opposite way, the classes of dense vegetation and soil exposed increased in the period, and will occupy 7.13% and 39.9% of the total area of the basin, respectively. The levels of degradation low, moderate and moderately severe had their areas of occurrence decreased to 13.8%, 10.24% and 40.24% of the total area of the basin. From opposite way, the areas of low and very serious degradation increased in the period, going to occupy, respectively, 5.15% and 29.81% of the total area of the basin.

  4. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    changwen, ye

    2014-05-01

    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  5. Gully control in SAT watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pathak

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Gully erosion is geographically a widespread problem. It is common in the semi-arid region, characterized by denuded landscape and flash floods. An estimated 4 million ha land in India and 29 million ha of land in Africa are affected by severe gully erosion. Gully erosion is more difficult and expensive to control than other types of soil erosion. A full understanding of erosion processes at various stages of gully development is essential to achieve gully stabilization. Without proper understanding often the measures taken for controlling gully were found unnecessary or ineffective. This report provides the basic knowledge of gully formation and its causes. The classification of gullies and the basic principles of its control are explained. Drawing primarily the experiences from the several on-farm watershed projects implemented by ICRISAT, the report provides the practical approach for gully control in the context of overall watershed development and management. The basic considerations and the design details of various gully control structures, viz, loose rock dam, double-row post-brush dam, double-row post-stone dam, single-row post-stone dam, stone wall dam, masonry check-dam, earthen check-dam and gabion structures are covered in detail. The key hydrological data, ie, runoff volume and peak runoffrate measured at the watershed scale along with design peak runoff rate for the various locations in India are given. These data will greatly assist the watershed implementing agencies in the selection, design, construction and maintenance of gully control structures.

  6. A Synthesis of Sierran Forest Biomass Management Studies and Potential Effects on Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Weisberg, Peter J.; Walker, Roger F.; Karam, Sarah L.; Johnson, Dale W.; Miller, Watkins W.

    2010-01-01

    The Lake Tahoe basin, located along the California and Nevada border between the Carson and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges, represents a complex forested ecosystem consisting of numerous sub-watersheds and tributaries that discharge directly to Lake Tahoe. This synthesis focuses on historical and current nutrient pools and the effects of biomass management in watersheds of the basin relative to their potential impacts on nutrient (N, P) related discharge water quality. An accumulating forest f...

  7. Application of SWAT2000 Model for Estimating Runoff and Sediment in Beheshtabad Watershed, a Sub-basin of Northern Karun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rostamian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is an important economical, social and environmental problem requiring intensive watershed management for its control. In recent years, modeling has become a useful approach for assessing the impact of various erosion-reduction approaches. ?Due to limited hydrologic data in mountainous watersheds, watershed modeling is, however, subject to large uncertainties. In this study, SWAT2000 was applied to simulate runoff and sediment discharge in Beheshtabad watershed, a sub-basin of Northern Karun catchment in central Iran, with an area of 3860 km2. Model calibration and uncertainty analysis were performed with SUFI-2. Four indices were used to assess the goodness of calibration, viz., P-factor, d-factor, R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe (NS. Runoff data (1996-2004 of six hydrometery stations were used for calibration and validation of this watershed. The results of monthly calibration p-factor, d-factor, R2 and NS values for runoff at the watershed outlet were 0.61, 0.48, 0.85 and 0.75, respectively, and for the validation, these statistics were 0.53, 0.38, 0.85 and 0.57, respectively. The values for calibration of sediment concentration at the watershed outlet were 0.55, 0.41, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively, and for the validation, these statistics were 0.69, 0.29, 0.60 and 0.27, respectively. In general, SWAT simulated runoff much better than sediment. Weak simulation of runoff at some months of the year might be due to under-prediction of snowmelt in this mountainous watershed, model’s assumptions in frozen and saturated soil layers, and lack of sufficient data. Improper simulation of sediment load could be attributed to weak simulation of runoff, insufficient data and periodicity of sediment data.

  8. Study of industry safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with general remarks, industrial accidents, statistics of industrial accidents, unsafe actions, making machinery and facilities safe, safe activities, having working environment safe, survey of industrial accidents and analysis of causes, system of safety management and operations, safety management planning, safety education, human engineering such as human-machines system, system safety, and costs of disaster losses. It lastly adds individual protective equipment and working clothes including protect equipment for eyes, face, hands, arms and feet.

  9. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, Timor Leste using GIS, remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Domingos; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.; Ninsawat, Sarawut

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater plays an important role for socio-economic development of Comoro watershed in Timor Leste. Despite the significance of groundwater for sustainable development, it has not always been properly managed in the watershed. Therefore, this study seeks to identify groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, using geographical information systems and remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process technique. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five classes and validated with the recorded bore well yield data. It was found that the alluvial plain in the northwest along the Comoro River has very high groundwater potential zone which covers about 5.4 % (13.5 km2) area of the watershed. The high groundwater potential zone was found in the eastern part and along the foothills and covers about 4.8 % (12 km2) of the area; moderate zone covers about 2.0 % (5 km2) of the area and found in the higher elevation of the alluvial plain. The poor and very poor groundwater potential zone covers about 87.8 % (219.5 km2) of the watershed. The hilly terrain located in the southern and central parts of the study area has a poor groundwater potential zone due to higher degree of slope and low permeability of conglomerate soil type. The demarcation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed will be helpful for future planning, development and management of the groundwater resources.

  10. Environmental Perceptions of Surface Water Quality and Management: a tool to strengthen public participation in the search for solutions to the imbalance of water in nature. A study applied in Chiapas's Río Fogótico Microbasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benez, M. C.; Kauffer Michel, E. F.

    2013-05-01

    The study of environmental perceptions can expose interstings aspects involved in imbalance of water in nature. The main objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of quality and management of surface water in the Fogótico River microbasin in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, from the perspective of differents social groups. Secondary objectives consisted in analyzing the differences of perception according to social groups and considering the potential contribution of perception studies for watershed management.; t;

  11. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing streambanks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. During the years 2000-2003, trees were planted in riparian areas of headwater streams to Lolo Creek. Inventory of culverts is an on-going practice, being completed by sub-drainage, and are being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage and 100-year flow events throughout the watershed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  12. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  13. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  14. Impervious Surface Assessment of the Towne Creek Watershed, Etowah County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, D. A.; Blalock, C.

    2004-12-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) based approach was used to do a preliminary assessment of a watershed's vulnerability and has been proven to be a quick, inexpensive, and effective means to provide guidance to the watershed manager. This GIS-based approach was used in an assessment of a watershed's proportion of impervious surface as a quantifiable measurement its vulnerability. The percent of a watershed area that is impervious was determined by utilizing the Impervious Surface Analysis Tool (ISAT), which is an extension of the ArcGIS program. ISAT uses landuse/landcover, watershed boundary, and population density data sets to calculate the percent impervious surface (%IS). The Towne Creek watershed covers 24,730 acres in southern Etowah County, Alabama, was investigated. The watershed, which empties into the Middle Coosa River, includes the suburbs of the City of Gadsden. The watershed was delineated into 75 catchments ranging from 230 to 3,163 acres. Initial assessment of the watershed estimated 10.5% of the area is impervious. Individual catchments within the watershed were then classified as being degraded (>25 %IS), impaired (10 to 25 %IS) or protected (<10 %IS). According to this classification scheme, 5 catchments covering 2.6% of the watershed is classified as being degraded, and 5 catchments covering 3.6% of the watershed is impaired, and the remaining 65 catchments covering 93.8% of the watershed is protected.

  15. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: sediment database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-C; Garbrecht, J D; Steiner, J L; Blazs, R L

    2014-07-01

    One main objective for studying sediment in the Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds was to improve the scientific understanding of the effectiveness of watershed conservation practices and floodwater-retardation structures in controlling floods and soil erosion in southwest Oklahoma. This paper summarizes the sediment data collection program in the watersheds during the 1961 to 2012 time period. Gaging sites, record lengths, sampling procedures, data processing, and instrumentation are described. Examples of data use and analyses are presented to illustrate the potential use and relevance of the sediment data and to highlight past research findings. The sediment data, especially the breakpoint data from the unit source watersheds, are of great importance in understanding erosion processes, assessing the effectiveness of conservation practices, and evaluating and validating process-based soil erosion models. Data formats and availability are discussed, and the download URLs for accessing the data are specified. PMID:25603075

  16. C-BAND RADAR MONITORING OF HYDROLOGY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN FORESTS: IMPLICATION FOR IMPROVED WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Bay Watershed has lost over half of its historic wetlands, and most of those that remain are forested, Coastal Plain wetlands. Unfortunately, remaining wetlands are at high risk for future loss, due to inadequate legal protection and rapid population growth. Hydrology (flooding and so...

  17. Watershed: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Manrai #; Rajiv Bansal #

    2011-01-01

    Morphological gradient is often used to find the gradient of an image which is further used for the transformation. However, noise in the gradient image results in to over-segmentation which have an undesirable bad effect on resulting segmented image. For the fine segmentation results the quality of the gradient estimate has a major influence on the segmentation performance. In this paper it is shownthat different types of gradient are computed with the help of different operators and further...

  18. Sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento aplicados ao uso da terra em microbacias hidrográficas, Botucatu - SP / Remote sensing and gis applied to study the land use in watersheds in Botucatu, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio, Campos; Armindo A., Araújo Júnior; Zacarias X., Barros; Lincoln G., Cardoso; Edson L., Piroli.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar o uso da terra em dez microbacias ocorrentes na bacia do Rio Capivara, município de Botucatu - SP, a partir da estruturação de um banco de dados utilizando o Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG) - IDRISI. Os resultados mostram que [...] as classes de uso da terra, "uso agrícola" e "pastagem", foram as mais significativas, pois ocuparam mais da metade da área das microbacias. O alto índice de uso da terra por pastagens, capoeiras, reflorestamento e matas reflete a predominância de solos arenosos com baixa fertilidade. As imagens obtidas do satélite LANDSAT 5 permitiram o mapeamento do uso da terra de maneira rápida, além de fornecer um excelente banco de dados para futuro planejamento e gerenciamento das atividades agropecuárias regionais. O SIG-IDRISI permitiu identificar, por meio de seus diferentes módulos para georreferenciamento, classificação digital e modelo matemático, as classes de uso da terra com rapidez. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify and quantify the land use in ten watersheds in the Capivara river-basin, in the municipality of Botucatu - SP, Brazil. A database was made using the Geographical Information System - IDRISI. The results showed that the classes of agriculture and pasture were the most sig [...] nificant land use, as they occupied more than half of the area of the watersheds. The high index of land use by pasture, brushwood, reforestation and forests, reflected the predominance of sandy soils with low fertility. The images of the satellite LANDSAT-5 allowed the mapping of the land use in a fast and reliable way. In addition they supplied an excellent database for future planning and management of the regional agricultural activities. GIS - IDRISI allowed the identification, digital classification and mathematical modeling of several areas of land use.

  19. Sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento aplicados ao uso da terra em microbacias hidrográficas, Botucatu - SP Remote sensing and gis applied to study the land use in watersheds in Botucatu, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Campos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar o uso da terra em dez microbacias ocorrentes na bacia do Rio Capivara, município de Botucatu - SP, a partir da estruturação de um banco de dados utilizando o Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG - IDRISI. Os resultados mostram que as classes de uso da terra, "uso agrícola" e "pastagem", foram as mais significativas, pois ocuparam mais da metade da área das microbacias. O alto índice de uso da terra por pastagens, capoeiras, reflorestamento e matas reflete a predominância de solos arenosos com baixa fertilidade. As imagens obtidas do satélite LANDSAT 5 permitiram o mapeamento do uso da terra de maneira rápida, além de fornecer um excelente banco de dados para futuro planejamento e gerenciamento das atividades agropecuárias regionais. O SIG-IDRISI permitiu identificar, por meio de seus diferentes módulos para georreferenciamento, classificação digital e modelo matemático, as classes de uso da terra com rapidez.This study aimed to identify and quantify the land use in ten watersheds in the Capivara river-basin, in the municipality of Botucatu - SP, Brazil. A database was made using the Geographical Information System - IDRISI. The results showed that the classes of agriculture and pasture were the most significant land use, as they occupied more than half of the area of the watersheds. The high index of land use by pasture, brushwood, reforestation and forests, reflected the predominance of sandy soils with low fertility. The images of the satellite LANDSAT-5 allowed the mapping of the land use in a fast and reliable way. In addition they supplied an excellent database for future planning and management of the regional agricultural activities. GIS - IDRISI allowed the identification, digital classification and mathematical modeling of several areas of land use.

  20. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of Nairobi. A dam was constructed in 1994 with a water reservoir of 70 million m3. Thika River also supplies water to Masinga Reservoir to supply the seven forks dams, which together supply 75% of the nation's electricity. The quantity of water in rivers and reservoirs is decreased due to sedimentation while water quality is degraded by sediments, and sediment-borne nutrients and pesticides. The focus of this pilot twinning project is watershed erosion and reservoir sedimentation assessment. This will be accomplished by (1) a rapid watershed/catchment erosion assessment using ground based measurements and remote sensing/GIS techniques, 2) use of Acoustic Profiling Systems (APS) for reservoir sedimentation measurement studies, and 3) advanced water quality modeling using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. Data acquired will be used for sediment transport modeling to1) determine sediment "hot spots" and management practices that will minimize sediments into reservoirs in order to 2) maintain the reservoirs on which many farmers depend for their livelihood and a cleaner environment. This project will provide an opportunity for 1) sharing knowledge and experience among the stakeholders, 2) building capacity through formal and informal education opportunities through reciprocal hosting of decision makers and water experts, and 3) technology transfer of pilot results with recommended management practices to reduce reservoir sedimentation rates.

  1. LOCAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY ON SOKSHING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Wangchuk

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Local resource management institutions have evolved as a result of the need to have some form of measures to control the resource use to ensure sustainability and reduce access-deferential to the resources in and around the local communities. While some of the local resource management institutions have died away, others have become more relevant. This may be a reflection of the relevancy of the institutions to the present socioeconomic state, and the institutionalisation of some of these local resource management institutions in the laws and by-laws of the country. Land Act 1978 and Forest and Nature Conservation Act 1995 have been responsible for the disappearance of some of the local resource management institutions as these were either over-ruled by the provisions of the acts, or just were overlooked while enacting these acts. However, some of the local resource management institutions have been incorporated into laws and by-laws, and have been adopted as effective resource management strategies. The results of the case study carried out in Trashigang, Bumthang and Paro on the local resource management institutions are presented below.

  2. Abundance of adult saugers across the Wind River watershed, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, K.; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of adult saugers Sander canadensis was estimated over 179 km of continuous lotic habitat across a watershed on the western periphery of their natural distribution in Wyoming. Three-pass depletions with raft-mounted electrofishing gear were conducted in 283 pools and runs among 19 representative reaches totaling 51 km during the late summer and fall of 2002. From 2 to 239 saugers were estimated to occur among the 19 reaches of 1.6-3.8 km in length. The estimates were extrapolated to a total population estimate (mean ?? 95% confidence interval) of 4,115 ?? 308 adult saugers over 179 km of lotie habitat. Substantial variation in mean density (range = 1.0-32.5 fish/ha) and mean biomass (range = 0.5-16.8 kg/ha) of adult saugers in pools and runs was observed among the study reaches. Mean density and biomass were highest in river reaches with pools and runs that had maximum depths of more than 1 m, mean daily summer water temperatures exceeding 20??C, and alkalinity exceeding 130 mg/L. No saugers were captured in the 39 pools or runs with maximum water depths of 0.6 m or less. Multiple-regression analysis and the information-theoretic approach were used to identify watershed-scale and instream habitat features accounting for the variation in biomass among the 244 pools and runs across the watershed with maximum depths greater than 0.6 m. Sauger biomass was greater in pools than in runs and increased as mean daily summer water temperature, maximum depth, and mean summer alkalinity increased and as dominant substrate size decreased. This study provides an estimate of adult sauger abundance and identifies habitat features associated with variation in their density and biomass across a watershed, factors important to the management of both populations and habitat. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  3. Ion balances between precipitation inputs and Rhode River watershed discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past research on the Rhode River system has included the effects of nutrients in precipitation on the estuary and the watershed. It also has documented changes in the pH of precipitation and stream discharges for 7-10 years. The objectives of the project reported here were: 1. a comparison of ion inputs from precipitation with outputs in land discharge for a mature forest; 2. assessing how cropland and pasturelands differ in their ion balances due to management practices; and 3. tracing changes in ionic composition as water moves down through the watershed either over the soil/litter surface during storms or through the soils as shallow groundwater. Available data indicate that the coastal plain region might be especially sensitive to displacement of potassium, magnesium and calcium by hydrogen ions, since these elements are present only in low concentrations in the soils and no calciumcontaining minerals occur in the surface soils. Thus, it was anticipated that the data resulting from this study would allow us to test whether important losses of these essential plant nutrients were occurring from the watershed

  4. Multi-Layer Assessment of Land Use and Related Changes for Decision Support in a Coastal Zone Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Gitau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the challenges in coastal regions, there is the need to understand the extent and impacts of past changes and their implications for future management. Land use data and remotely-sensed imagery are often used to provide insights into these changes. Often, however, existing land use data are inconsistent, thus differences observed through their analyses could also be attributable to error. The use of multiple layers of data, in addition and as related to basic land use layers, has been suggested in the literature as a method to mitigate such error. This study used existing land use data, population, stream flow, climate and water quality data with a view to determining what information could be discerned from multi-layer analyses and whether or how it could be used in watershed-level management decision making. Results showed that all the datasets provided useful, but not necessarily complemental, insights into spatial and temporal changes occurring in the watershed. The information obtained did, however, provide a broader perspective on watershed dynamics, which would be useful for watershed-level decision making. Overall, the multi-layer approach was found suitable in the absence of consistent land use data, provided results were interpreted in context, considering the historical perspective and with a working knowledge of the watershed.

  5. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  6. Integrated river basin management - the Narew River case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okruszko, Thomas; Gielczewski, Marek [Warsaw Agricultural Univ. Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Recultivation (Poland)

    2004-09-01

    An integrated approach to river basin management seems to be the most appropriate and promising way to achieve sustainable development of the large river catchment. Such approach is especially essential in the areas where economical activities are occurring together with great needs for nature protection due to its unique values, and, local and global importance for ecological completeness. The Narew River Basin is a perfect example of such area. Therefore, the basin was selected as a pilot watershed for testing the implementation of EU Water Framework Directive issues in Poland. The main water management problems (key pressures and impacts) of the basin were identified. The present state of components of the integrated water management was recognized. Finally, the main directions for achieving integrated management, with their strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities, were elaborated. (orig.)

  7. Experimental Study of Splash Erosion and Its Relation With Some Soil Properties in Three Adjacent Land Uses (A Case Study: Kasilian Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaie Pasha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the first event in soil erosion, rain splash erosion causes movement of soil fragments. Splash is an important process in interrill erosion. The amount of soil particles detached from the surface is associated with soil and rain characteristics and may be affected by rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility. Therefore, in this study, splash erosion rate and its relation with some soil properties were studied. 120 soil samples were collected from three adjacent land uses including forest, rangeland and agriculture in two depths of 0-10 and10-20 cm in Kasilian Watershed. Soil samples were investigated under the experimental condition using splash cup and rainfall simulator. Results showed no significant differences between splash erosion in different land uses. Cultivated and rangeland soils were found to show a significantly lower organic matter (OM by 59.93% and 33.62% in depth (0-10cm and 33.33% and 25.59% in depth (10-20cm, respectively. We also found significance positive correlation between percent of silt and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.69, p=0.018 and significance negative correlation between soil organic matter and splash erosion rate in rangeland (r=0.767, p=0.001 and significance positive correlation between K-USLE and splash erosion rate in agriculture (r=0.00, p=0.758.

  8. Application of a virtual watershed in academic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Horn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models of watersheds often represent complex systems which are difficult to understand regarding to their structure and dynamics. Virtual watersheds, i.e. watersheds which exist only in the virtual reality of a computer system, are an approach to simplify access to this real-world complexity. In this study we present the virtual watershed KIELSHED-1, a 117 km2 v-shaped valley with grassland on a "Cambisol" soil type. Two weather scenarios are delivered with the watershed: a simplified artificial weather scenario based on long-term data of a German weather station as well as an unmodified data record. The input data and parameters are compiled according to the conventions of the SWAT 2000 hydrological model. KIELSHED-1 is mainly used for education, and illustrative application examples, i.e. calculation of water balance, model calibration, development of land use scenarios, give an insight to the capabilities of the virtual watershed.

  9. Santa Rita Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southwest Water Resource Center/ USDA provides data on precipitation and runoff, and meteorological data for the Santa Rita Experimental Watersheds in Arizona. Data are available in .zip, .tar.z, or .txt formats, with accompanying instructions for downloading.

  10. What is a Watershed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document discusses watersheds. Topics include pollution, elevation, and drainage divides. A worksheet and teaching guide are also included. The document is available in Microsoft Word format at: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/GISWhatisA%20Watershed.doc

  11. Modeling nitrogen loading in a small watershed in southwest China using a DNDC model with hydrological enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Deng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality has been observed worldwide, and inputs of nitrogen (N, along with other nutrients, play a key role in the process of contamination. The quantification of N loading from non-point sources at a watershed scale has long been a challenge. Process-based models have been developed to address this problem. Because N loading from non-point sources result from interactions between biogeochemical and hydrological processes, a model framework must include both types of processes if it is to be useful. This paper reports the results of a study in which we integrated two fundamental hydrologic features, the SCS (Soil Conservation Service curve function and the MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss, into a biogeochemical model, the DNDC. The SCS curve equation and the MUSLE are widely used in hydrological models for calculating surface runoff and soil erosion. Equipped with the new added hydrologic features, DNDC was substantially enhanced with the new capacity of simulating both vertical and horizontal movements of water and N at a watershed scale. A long-term experimental watershed in Southwest China was selected to test the new version of the DNDC. The target watershed's 35.1 ha of territory encompass 19.3 ha of croplands, 11.0 ha of forest lands, 1.1 ha of grassplots, and 3.7 ha of residential areas. An input database containing topographic data, meteorological conditions, soil properties, vegetation information, and management applications was established and linked to the enhanced DNDC. Driven by the input database, the DNDC simulated the surface runoff flow, the subsurface leaching flow, the soil erosion, and the N loadings from the target watershed. The modeled water flow, sediment yield, and N loading from the entire watershed were compared with observations from the watershed and yielded encouraging results. The sources of N loading were identified by using the results of the model. In 2008, the modeled runoff-induced loss of total N from the watershed was 904 kg N yr?1, of which approximately 67 % came from the croplands. The enhanced DNDC model also estimated the watershed-scale N losses (1391 kg N yr?1 from the emissions of the N-containing gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and dinitrogen. Ammonia volatilization (1299 kg N yr?1 dominated the gaseous N losses. The study indicated that process-based biogeochemical models such as the DNDC could contribute more effectively to watershed N loading studies if the hydrological components of the models were appropriately enhanced.

  12. Modeling nitrogen loading in a small watershed in Southwest China using a DNDC model with hydrological enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water quality has been observed worldwide, and inputs of nitrogen (N, along with other nutrients, play a key role in the process of contamination. The quantification of N loading from non-point sources at a watershed scale has long been a challenge. Process-based models have been developed to address this problem. Because N loading from non-point sources result from interactions between biogeochemical and hydrological processes, a model framework must include both types of processes if it is to be useful. This paper reports the results of a study in which we integrated two fundamental hydrologic features, the SCS (Soil Conservation Service curve function and the MUSLE (Modified Universal Soil Loss, into a biogeochemical model, the DNDC. The SCS curve equation and the MUSLE are widely used in hydrological models for calculating surface runoff and soil erosion. Equipped with the new added hydrologic features, DNDC was substantially enhanced with the new capacity of simulating both vertical and horizontal movements of water and N at a watershed scale. A long-term experimental watershed in Southwest China was selected to test the new version of the DNDC. The target watershed's 35.1 ha of territory encompass 19.3 ha of croplands, 11.0 ha of forest lands, 1.1 ha of grassplots, and 3.7 ha of residential areas. An input database containing topographic data, meteorological conditions, soil properties, vegetation information, and management applications was established and linked to the enhanced DNDC. Driven by the input database, the DNDC simulated the surface runoff flow, the subsurface leaching flow, the soil erosion, and the N loadings from the target watershed. The modeled water flow, sediment yield, and N loading from the entire watershed were compared with observations from the watershed and yielded encouraging results. The sources of N loading were identified by using the results of the model. In 2008, the modeled runoff-induced loss of total N from the watershed was 904 kg N yr?1, of which approximately 67 % came from the croplands. The enhanced DNDC model also estimated the watershed-scale N losses (1391 kg N yr?1 from the emissions of the N-containing gases (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and dinitrogen. Ammonia volatilization (1299 kg N yr?1 dominated the gaseous N losses. The study indicated that process-based biogeochemical models such as the DNDC could contribute more effectively to watershed N loading studies if the hydrological components of the models were appropriately enhanced.

  13. Hydrological response of a High-Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years: a case study of Bayelva watershed, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aga Nowak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our study considers climate change and its influence upon the hydrology and water balance of the glacierized Bayelva watershed in Svalbard. We find that changes are most noticeable within the last 10 years, when winters have become warmer and wetter. The change is most significant during the shoulder months, especially September, when the transition from summer ablation to winter accumulation is taking place. Winter rainfalls, when extreme, produce ground icings and runoff outside the summer period. Dependent upon summer air temperatures, these icings may either melt and produce additional runoff or persist until the following hydrological year. These processes have a direct influence upon the water budget. They represent sources of error for water-balance calculations that either ignore winter runoff events and/or assume water storage is negligible. We show that even when the watershed is underlain by permafrost and accommodates cold-based glaciers, storage can no longer be ignored. Furthermore, we find that the use of a precipitation gradient correction of 19% per 100 m, a gauge catch correction and glacier mass-balance data (for snow accumulation and icemelt runoff should be used for accurate water-balance calculations. We also find that despite sustained glacier retreat, annual runoff volume showed no trend during 1989–2010. Discharge is more variable and longer during the last decade due to the winter rainfalls. Finally, flow recession analyses reveal increasingly efficient evacuation of meltwater from the catchment and the increasing occurrence of a delayed flowpath through the glaciers’ forefield.

  14. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean ?(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The ?(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. PMID:25481652

  15. Tennessee Hollow Watershed in the Presidio: Science Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. B.; Kern, D.

    2007-12-01

    Planning for restoration of the Tennessee Hollow watershed in the Presidio of San Francisco, an urban national park, has been used in teaching and research in environmental science courses at University of California Berkeley for several years. Scientists and staff with the Urban Watershed Project, The National Park Service, and the Presidio Trust have collaborated with UC Berkeley faculty and students in discussing the watershed restoration and the first steps in implementation of it. Scientists come to the Berkeley campus to talk to classes about the geology, hydrology, and features of the vegetation of the watershed as well as the many aspects of "daylighting" a creek buried in a culvert many tens of feet under soil and other forms of landfill. The many social and political issues involved in implementing restoration are also presented and discussed. Students are conducted through the watershed by Urban Watershed staff not only to view the several features of the watershed but also to obtain data for individual studies. Students have made water quality analyses of the creek waters. Students have worked collaboratively with Urban Watershed staff in developing studies of the watershed that will be of use in future education programs and also in developing features that may interest visitors to the national park.

  16. Watershed vulnerability to herbicide transport in northern Missouri and southern Iowa streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, R N; Blanchard, P E

    2003-12-15

    Herbicide contamination of streams has been well documented, but little is currently known about the specific factors affecting watershed vulnerability to herbicide transport. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to document herbicide occurrence and transport from watersheds in the northern Missouri/southern Iowa region; (2) to quantify watershed vulnerability to herbicide transport and relate vulnerability to soil properties; and (3) to compute the contribution of this region to the herbicide load of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Grab samples were collected under baseflow and runoff conditions at 21 hydrologic monitoring stations between April 15 and July 15 from 1996 to 1999. Samples were analyzed for commonly used soil-applied herbicides (atrazine, cyanazine, acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metribuzin) and four triazine metabolites (deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, hydroxyatrazine, and cyanazine amide). Estimates of herbicide load and relative losses were computed for each watershed. Median parent herbicide losses, as a percentage of applied, ranged from 0.33 to 3.9%; loss rates that were considerably higher than other areas of the United States. Watershed vulnerability to herbicide transport, measured as herbicide load per treated area, showed that the runoff potential of soils was a critical factor affecting herbicide transport. Herbicide transport from these watersheds contributed a disproportionately high amount of the herbicide load to both the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Based on these results, this region of the Corn Belt is highly vulnerable to transport of herbicides from fields to streams, and it should be targeted for implementation of management practices designed to reduce herbicide losses in surface runoff. PMID:14717159

  17. ??????????????? Digital Management Study of World Heritage Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????In recent years, China’s world heritage tourism is ever-increasing. It has become a difficult problem to the management authorities that how to scientifically guide tourists in large groups and rationally use valuable resources of world heritage. To the key issues of world heritage management, such as: controlling tourist flow, displaying cultural content, guiding identification direction, preventing disaster & damage, gathering tourists’ opinions, this study points out that we should diverge tourists, and classify utilization, and share information through digital management, while this study researches & judges its necessity and analyzes its strengths & weaknesses and constructs its framework graph, in order to improve scientific and technological content and management efficiency of world heritage management.

  18. Co Relational Study On High School Managers

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA FATEMI REZVAN

    2012-01-01

    Aim. This paper examined the relationship between transformational leadership and life skills among high school managers in Iran.Background. Previous studies have found significant positive relationship between transformational leadership and life skills.Method. Acorrelation study was carried out with a randomly sample contained of 98 (52 males and 46 females) of high school managers. The participants responded to a Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire – MLQ (by Bass & Avolio...

  19. Hydrological Modeling in a watershed of the Lower Araguaia River Basin, TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Viola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological simulation is an important tool for water resources management since it allows for practitioners toevaluate the impacts of anthropic activities and climatic changes on water availability. The Lontra River watershedis situated in the Lower Araguaia River Basin which is an important economic region of Northern Tocantins State.The understanding of its hydrological features is fundamental for the development of environmental studies forsupporting the decision-making related to the water resources management as strong pressure has been observeddue to both the agricultural frontier expansion and installed economic center. The LASH hydrological model (standsfor Lavras Simulation of Hydrology is characterized as a deterministic, semi conceptual and spatially distributedmodel and has been successfully applied in watersheds located in Southeastern Brazil. It was found in this study thatthe model was able to adequately capture the overall hydrological regime in the studied watershed. Three statisticalcoefficients used for measuring the model goodness-of-fit, Nash-Sutcliffe (CNS, Log (CNS and determinationcoefficient (R², have shown values greater than 0.74, 0.80 and 0.90, respectively. The simulated flow duration curvepresented a good fit in relation to the observed one, with small errors for prediction of minimum and maximumstream flows. Thus, we can be conclude that LASH model simulated properly the hydrological regime in the LontraRiver Watershed and it can be applied for either evaluation water availability or planning and management ofwater resources in the Lower Araguaia River Basin.

  20. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
    Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  1. Evaluation of the current state of distributed watershed nutrient water quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher; Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad-Reza; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-03-17

    Watershed models have been widely used for creating the scientific basis for management decisions regarding nonpoint source pollution. In this study, we evaluated the current state of watershed scale, spatially distributed, process-based, water quality modeling of nutrient pollution. Beginning from 1992, the year when Beven and Binley published their seminal paper on uncertainty analysis in hydrological modeling, and ending in 2010, we selected 257 scientific publications which (i) employed spatially distributed modeling approaches at a watershed scale; (ii) provided predictions of flow, nutrient/sediment concentrations or loads; and (iii) reported fit to measured data. Most "best practices" (optimization, validation, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis) are not consistently employed during model development. There are no statistically significant differences in model performance among land uses. Studies which used more than one point in space to evaluate their distributed models had significantly lower median values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (0.70 vs 0.56, p < 0.005, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test), and r(2) (p < 0.005). This finding suggests that model calibration only to the basin outlet may mask compensation of positive and negative errors of source and transportation processes. We conclude by advocating a number of new directions for distributed watershed modeling, including in-depth uncertainty analysis and the use of additional information, not necessarily related to model end points, to constrain parameter estimation. PMID:25691078

  2. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. Designs for culvert replacements are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. 20 miles of roads were decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  3. Dissolved organic carbon source integration in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P. J.; Spencer, R. G.; Dyda, R. Y.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) chemistry and concentration at the mouth of a watershed represents an integrated signal of all sources and process that occur upstream of the mouth, however, the relative contributions of all those sources and processes to the chemistry and concentration is not equal. We sampled an agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley in California synoptically on multiple occasions in order to better identify the most important contributors to DOC chemistry. Our samples included headwater samples from native grasslands in three sub-catchments, samples within the agricultural portions of those sub-watersheds, samples near the conjunctions, and irrigation field inputs and outputs. DOC concentrations increase considerably in the agricultural portion of the watershed, demonstrating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance of landscapes as well as the potential for local landscapes to contribute significantly to the overall DOC concentration and chemistry. The central sub-catchment in particular had significantly greater DOC concentrations, which appears to correspond to the much greater proportion of flood irrigation land management in this portion, as our field runoff measurements indicate much higher added DOC during flood irrigation than during furrow irrigation. Flow-weighted averaging of the three sub-catchment DOC concentrations does not replicate concentrations at the mouth (1-6 km downstream of the confluences), indicating the importance of in-stream processing and/or source inputs from riparian zones even along the mainstem. Optical characterization of DOC demonstrates changing chemistry from season to season, and differences in chemistry from different areas of the catchment. The storm-influenced spring sampling yielded higher carbon-specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), indicating a higher proportion of aromaticity, while the southern sub-catchment consistently yielded the highest spectral slope values, which generally correlates to a greater proportion of low molecular weight DOC. Lignin concentrations and compositions also demonstrated considerable variance within the watershed. While relative proportions of syringyl to vanillyl and cinnamyl to vanillyl rations are consistent with angiosperm nonwoody tissues as the primary source of lignin in the watershed, values differed by up to a factor of four, indicating different sources or relative amounts of diagenesis from different locations in different seasons. Lignin concentrations correlated well with the absorption coefficient at 350 nm (r2 = 0.74), but not quite as well as previous correlations from mouth-only samples across the entire year (r2 = 0.83) suggesting that integration masks variability within the watershed. Similarly, strong correlations between lignin concentrations and total suspended sediments at the mouth (r2 = 0.79) were not replicated in this synoptic study (r2 = 0.02), again demonstrating that integration at the mouth masks sources and processing within the watershed.

  4. Management in Practice : A Multiple Case Study of Contemporary Managers in a Management Theory Context

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Julien; Scho?rling, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the distance between theory and practice in the field of management. Theoretical perspective In the literature review we have chosen to give insights on the concepts that aresurrounding management students: organization, management, leadership and culture. Bydoing we were able to get a better understanding of the concepts that are fundamental tomanagement studies. In addition to that, by selecting these concepts we could assimilate thekey p...

  5. Conservation tillage in dryland agriculture impacts watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wie, J. B.; Adam, J. C.; Ullman, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryDryland (non-irrigated) crop production in semi-arid regions requires sufficient water storage in the soil profile to ensure adequate plant available water, particularly in areas where the majority of annual precipitation occurs during the non-growing season. Producers can increase soil water storage through the adoption of best management practices (BMPs) for tillage and crop residue management. The objective of this study was to assess our hypothesis that watershed-wide adoption of no-till (NT) farming would decrease winter water losses and increase early growing season plant available water as compared with conventional tillage (CT) methods. We analyzed water storage potential under assumed full-scale adoption of NT and CT cropping practices in the Palouse region of eastern Washington State by applying the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with modifications to represent the physical changes to infiltration, evaporation, and runoff that result from tillage management. DHSVM yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) for streamflow of 0.69 for the watershed-scale simulations over the Palouse River basin, which falls within the NSE ranges reported for DHSVM (0.57-0.91). Surface temperature predictions resulted in an NSE of 0.60, and the model was able to predict the soil state (frozen or unfrozen) 81% of the time. Simulated soil moisture was approximately 50% greater under widespread adoption of CT versus NT management during the majority of the winter months. Predicted volumetric soil moisture content for April 1, 2005 was 29% and 34% under CT and NT management, respectively. This difference in winter and spring soil moisture was caused primarily by decreased evaporation under NT, with minimal effects resulting from changes in infiltration. Two simple crop yield estimation methods indicated that increased spring soil moisture under NT management may result in a 21-26% wheat yield increase. We concluded that NT has the potential to increase soil water storage of winter precipitation in the root-zone, which may lead to higher wheat yields in the Palouse region. Furthermore, DHSVM was found to be suitable for investigating some watershed-scale agricultural management opportunities and has the potential to address additional questions pertaining to sustainable farming.

  6. Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Dissolved Organic Matter: A Case Study of the Boulder Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, R. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) performs a number of vital functions in aquatic ecosystems, playing a substantial role in carbon and nitrogen cycles and the bioavailability of metals as well as generally affecting water chemistry. Additionally, it is considered the main cause of the the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts during water treatment processes. Because DOM is vital for ecosystem functioning, but potentially problematic for some direct human uses of water, it proves a complex case study for the application of the ecosystem services framework. To add to the complexity, human behavior can affect the amount and composition of DOM in water. Increasing concentrations of DOM have been observed in many areas of Northern Europe and North America. Hypotheses which have been suggested to explain these increased concentrations include changing land use, thawing peatlands, increased nitrogen deposition, and a lessening of acid rain, a particularly interesting idea because it would be an unintended consequence of a policy designed to protect other ecosystem functions. This multi-year study investigates DOM in the Boulder Creek Watershed in Colorado to better understand seasonal cycling of DOM and the link between DOM in the river and organic matter in the catchment, which is a substantial DOM source. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical character of the DOM in an attempt to elucidate the watershed processes driving changes in DOM concentration. Because flow in Boulder Creek is partially controlled by Barker dam and reservoir, this study site provides an opportunity to investigate both natural DOM cycling and the impact of an anthropogenic influence. By better understanding DOM cycling and the ecosystem services it provides, we can better predict how DOM dynamics may shift in the future and be prepared to adjust our behavior and water treatment processes accordingly.

  7. Adjustment of the San Francisco estuary and watershed to decreasing sediment supply in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Wright, Scott A.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2013-01-01

    The general progression of human land use is an initial disturbance (e.g., deforestation, mining, agricultural expansion, overgrazing, and urbanization) that creates a sediment pulse to an estuary followed by dams that reduce sediment supply. We present a conceptual model of the effects of increasing followed by decreasing sediment supply that includes four sequential regimes, which propagate downstream: a stationary natural regime, transient increasing sediment supply, transient decreasing sediment supply, and a stationary altered regime. The model features characteristic lines that separate the four regimes. Previous studies of the San Francisco Estuary and watershed are synthesized in the context of this conceptual model. Hydraulic mining for gold in the watershed increased sediment supply to the estuary in the late 1800s. Adjustment to decreasing sediment supply began in the watershed and upper estuary around 1900 and in the lower estuary in the 1950s. Large freshwater flow in the late 1990s caused a step adjustment throughout the estuary and watershed. It is likely that the estuary and watershed are still capable of adjusting but further adjustment will be as steps that occur only during greater floods than previously experienced during the adjustment period. Humans are actively managing the system to try to prevent greater floods. If this hypothesis of step changes occurring for larger flows is true, then the return interval of step changes will increase or, if humans successfully control floods in perpetuity, there will be no more step changes.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaci, Reviewed By Dr Adnan

    2005-01-01

    161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEski?ehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM) as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity...

  9. Sr isotopic characteristics in two small watersheds draining typical silicate and carbonate rocks: implication for the studies on seawater Sr isotopic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. H.; Zheng, H. B.; Yang, J. D.

    2013-06-01

    We systematically investigated Sr isotopic characteristics of small silicate watershed - the tributary Xishui River of the Yangtze River, and small carbonate watershed - the tributary Guijiang River of the Pearl River. The results show that the Xishui River has relatively high Sr concentrations (0.468-1.70 ?mol L-1 in summer and 1.30-3.17 ?mol L-1 in winter, respectively) and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708686-0.709148 in summer and 0.708515-0.709305 in winter), which is similar to the characteristics of carbonate weathering. The Guijiang River has low Sr concentrations (0.124-1.098 ?mol L-1) and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.710558-0.724605), being characterized by silicate weathering. In the Xishui River catchment, chemical weathering rates in summer are far higher than those in winter, indicating significant influence of climate regime. However, slight differences of 87Sr/86Sr ratios between summer and winter show that influence of climate on Sr isotope is uncertainty owing to very similar Sr isotope values in silicate and carbonate bedrocks. As 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Xishui River are lower than those in seawater, they will decrease 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater after transported into oceans. Previous studies also showed that some basaltic watersheds with extremely high chemical weathering rates reduced the seawater Sr isotope ratios. In other words, river catchments with high silicate weathering rates do not certainly transport highly radiogenic Sr into oceans. Therefore, it may be questionable that using the variations of seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratio to indicate the continental silicate weathering intensity. In the Guijiang River catchment, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of carbonate rocks and other sources (rainwater, domestic and industrial waste water, and agricultural fertilizer) are lower than 0.71. In comparison, some non-carbonate components, such as, sand rocks, mud rocks, shales, have relatively high Sr isotopic compositions. Moreover, granites accounted for only 5% of the drainage area have extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratios with an average of over 0.8. Therefore, a few silicate components contained in carbonate rocks obviously increases the Sr isotopic compositions of the river water, and results in a positive effect on the rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater. Therefore, the relation between Sr isotope evolution of seawater and continental weathering rate is complex, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of underlying bedrock in catchment could be an important controlling factors.

  10. Water fluxes and their control on the terrestrial carbon balance: Results from a stable isotope study on the Clyde Watershed (Scotland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gradients between precipitation and runoff quantities as well as their water isotopes were used to establish a water balance in the Clyde River Basin (Scotland). This study serves as an example for a European extreme with poorly vegetated land cover and high annual rainfall and presents novel water stable isotope techniques to separate evaporation, interception and transpiration with annual averages of 0.029 km3 a-1, 0.220 km3 a-1 and 0.489 km3 a-1, respectively. Transpiration was further used to determine CO2 uptake of the entire basin and yielded an annual net primary production (NPP) of 352 x 109 g C (Giga gram) or 185.2 g C m-2. Compared to other temperate areas in the world, the Clyde Basin has only half the expected NPP. This lower value likely results from the type of vegetation cover, which consists mostly of grasslands. Subtracting the annual heterotrophic soil respiration flux (Rh) of 392 Gg (206.1 g C m-2 a-1) from the NPP yielded an annual Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of -40 Gg C, thus showing the Clyde Watershed as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite the unusual character of the Clyde Watershed, the study shows that areas with predominant grass and scrub vegetation still have transpirational water losses that by far exceed those of pure evaporation and interception. This infers that vegetation can ineption. This infers that vegetation can influence the continental water balances on time scales of years to decades

  11. Simulation of Runoff and Sediment Yield for a Himalayan Watershed Using SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Jain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Watershed is considered to be the ideal unit for management of the natural resources. Extraction of water-shed parameters using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS and use of mathematical models is the current trend for hydrologic evaluation of watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT having an interface with ArcView GIS software (AVSWAT2000/X was selected for the estimation of runoff and sediment yield from an area of Suni to Kasol, an intermediate watershed of Satluj river, located in Western Himalayan region. The model was calibrated for the years 1993 & 1994 and validated with the observed runoff and sediment yield for the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the run-off and sediment yield from the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2 for the daily and monthly runoff was obtained as 0.53 and 0.90 respectively for the calibration period and 0.33 and 0.62 respectively for the validation period. The R2 value in estimating the daily and monthly sediment yield during calibration was computed as 0.33 and 0.38 respectively. The R2 for daily and monthly sediment yield values for 1995 to 1997 was observed to be 0.26 and 0.47.

  12. Report of the Coquitlam Watershed pipeline Inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    An inquiry was held to review all the technical matters relating to the routing of the considered natural gas pipeline, the availability of alternatives, and the identification and management of water quality and environmental impacts. The inquiry's methods and findings in these matters are discussed in detail. The submissions received from a wide range of groups and associations, from the municipalities in the pipeline service area, and from individuals, are summarized. The main preoccupations expressed were water quality and the intergrity of the watershed, the balance to be stuck between acceptance of risk and foregoing the benefits of providing natural gas to the Vancouver Island service area, pipeline safety and the concern over potential pipline leaks, fire hazards and contamination, and, finally the fear of setting a precedent for the incussion of other uses in watershed areas. The report discusses the selection of the watershed route and the alternative routes, the point of view of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD) and that of the Greater Victoria Water District, watershed management activities, environment, land use and cost considerations, and water quality preservation measures. In his statement of principle, the Commissioner contends that a workable agreement and careful joint planning of construction and operations are necessary. The Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline is allowed through the Coquitlam Watershed; the other aspects of the decision deal with water quality, with the safety of the water system during construction time, with the relations between the GVWD and the Pacific Coast Energy Corporation (PCEC), with the timing of the construction of the pipeline, and with the arbitration of future disputes. 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Managing uncertainty in typical mining project studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Kühn; J.K., Visser.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mining project studies and their evaluation are characterised by high uncertainties. These uncertainties range in magnitude from, and are prevalent in, the geological data on which the project is based, through to the final prices received for the ore, metal, or mineral being sold to the market. The [...] process for managing uncertainties in mining projects could have a huge impact on the decision about the final option and on the project composition. It is therefore critical that a systematic process is followed that manages these uncertainties effectively and consistently throughout the project phases, and when evaluating various options one against the other. This paper discusses the results of an investigation to determine the extent to which risk management was applied in twenty different project studies in the mining environment. The results of these studies indicate that uncertainties relating to typical mining project studies are not well understood or managed. A process to manage these uncertainties throughout the project development phases was developed and used in a typical pre-feasibility study. The results indicate that the process can be successfully implemented; and that the process helps to develop the project faster by focusing the project teams most on the uncertainties that affect the project need or requirement.

  14. Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil C balance is determined by the difference between inputs (e.g., plant litter, organic amendments, depositional C) and outputs (e.g., soil respiration, dissolved organic C leaching, and eroded C). There is a need to improve our understanding of whether soil erosion is a sink or a source of atmospheric CO2. The objective of this paper is to discover the long-term influence of soil erosion on the C cycle of managed watersheds near Coshocton, OH. We hypothesize that the amount of eroded C that is deposited in or out of a watershed compares in magnitude to the soil C changes induced via microbial respiration. We applied the erosion productivity impact calculator (EPIC) model to evaluate the role of erosion-deposition processes on the C balance of three small watersheds (?1 ha). Experimental records from the USDA North Appalachian Experimental Watershed facility north of Coshocton, OH were used in the study. Soils are predominantly silt loam and have developed from loess-like deposits over residual bedrock. Management practices in the three watersheds have changed over time. Currently, watershed 118 (W118) is under a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) no till rotation, W128 is under conventional till continuous corn, and W188 is under no till continuous corn. Simulations of a comprehensive set of ecosystem processes including plant growth, runoff, and water erosion were used to quantify sediment C yields. A simulated sediment C yield of 43 ± 22 simulated sediment C yield of 43 ± 22 kg C ha-1 year-1 compared favorably against the observed 31 ± 12 kg C ha-1 year-1 in W118. EPIC overestimated the soil C stock in the top 30-cm soil depth in W118 by 21% of the measured value (36.8 Mg C ha-1). Simulations of soil C stocks in the other two watersheds (42.3 Mg C ha-1 in W128 and 50.4 Mg C ha-1 in W188) were off by -1. Simulated eroded C re-deposited inside (30-212 kg C ha-1 year-1) or outside (73-179 kg C ha-1 year-1) watershed boundaries compared in magnitude to a simulated soil C sequestration rate of 225 kg C ha-1 year-1 and to literature values. An analysis of net ecosystem carbon balance revealed that the watershed currently under a plow till system (W128) was a source of C to the atmosphere while the watersheds currently under a no till system (W118 and W188) behaved as C sinks of atmospheric CO2. Our results demonstrate a clear need for documenting and modeling the proportion of eroded soil C that is transported outside watershed boundaries and the proportion that evolves as CO2 to the atmosphere

  15. Watershed assessment and in-stream monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to fundamental issues for watershed and regional assessments and identifies the needs for physical, chemical, and biological monitoring and research to be designed and integrated to support such assessments. Regional management requires organizing paradigms or conceptual models, and an assessment framework can serve this purpose; risk assessment is used as an example. Spatial scale (watersheds and ecoregions) can also serve as a strong organizing paradigm for management The role of federal and state monitoring and assessment programs is discussed with examples for biomonitoring. The two classes of biomonitoring methods are discussed: ecological surveys and toxicity testing. Biological criteria can provide an appropriate reference for monitoring and assessment and can establish statistical and ecological (practical) significance. This paper is based on Chapter 5 of Water Environment Federation`s new book, Biomonitoring, in the Water Environment.

  16. An object-oriented watershed management tool (QnD-VFS) to engage stakeholders in targeted implementation of filter strips in an arid surface irrigation area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M. A.; Perez-Ovilla, O.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kiker, G.; Ullman, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution cause the majority of the 1,224 different waterbodies failing to meet designated water use criteria in Washington. Although various best management practices (BMPs) are effective in mitigating agricultural pollutants, BMP placement is often haphazard and fails to address specific high-risk locations. Limited financial resources necessitate optimization of conservation efforts to meet water quality goals. Thus, there is a critical need to develop decision-making tools that target BMP implementation in order to maximize water quality protection. In addition to field parameters, it is essential to incorporate economic and social determinants in the decision-making process to encourage producer involvement. Decision-making tools that identify strategic pollution sources and integrate socio-economic factors will lead to more cost-effective water quality improvement, as well as encourage producer participation by incorporating real-world limitations. Therefore, this study examines vegetative filter strip use under different scenarios as a BMP to mitigate sediment and nutrients in the highly irrigated Yakima River Basin of central Washington. We developed QnD-VFS to integrate and visualize alternative, spatially-explicit, water management strategies and its economic impact. The QnDTM system was created as a decision education tool that incorporates management, economic, and socio- political issues in a user-friendly scenario framework. QnDTM, which incorporates elements of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and risk assessment, is written in object-oriented Java and can be deployed as a stand-alone program or a web-accessed tool. The model performs Euler numerical integration of various rate transformation and mass-balance transfer equations. The novelty of this object-oriented approach is that these differential equations are detailed in modular XML format for instantiation within the Java code. This design allows many levels of complexity to be quickly designed and rendered in QnDTM without time-consuming additions of new Java code. Thus, temporal and spatial scales used in the equations become part of model development and iteration. A salient aspect is that QnDTM links spatial components within GIS (ArcInfo Shape) files to the abiotic (e.g., climate), biotic and chemical/contaminant interactions. QnD-VFS integrates environmental, management and socio-economic/cultural factors identified through stakeholder input. Several scenarios have been studied. Thus one of the main results show that changing water management, improved irrigation, is equivalent to changing length of vegetative filter strips, with a low economic impacts for farmers. Concurrently, these interactive tools allow resource managers to identify economic and social determinants that may impede conservation efforts.

  17. Challenge and opportunities of space-based precipitation radar for spatio-temporal hydrology analysis in tropical maritime influenced catchment: Case study on the hilly tropical watershed of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Numata, S.; Matsuyama, H.; Hosaka, T.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper highlights two critical issues regarding hilly watershed in Peninsular Malaysia; (1) current status of spatio-temporal condition of rain gauge based measurement, and (2) potential of space-based precipitation radar to study the rainfall dynamics. Two analyses were carried out represent each issue consecutively. First, the spatial distribution and efficiency of rain gauge in hilly watershed Peninsular Malaysia is evaluated with respect to the land use and elevation information using Geographical Information System (GIS) approach. Second, the spatial pattern of rainfall changes is analysed using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite information. The spatial analysis revealed that the rain gauge distribution had sparse coverage on hilly watershed and possessed inadequate efficiency for effective spatial based assessment. Significant monthly rainfall changes identified by TRMM satellite on the upper part of the watershed had occurred occasionally in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2006, and 2009 went undetected by conventional rain gauge. This study informed the potential and opportunities of space-based precipitation radar to fill the gaps of knowledge on spatio-temporal rainfall patterns for hydrology and related fields in tropical region.

  18. Prediction of sediment associated Organic mater loss in a Hyrcanian watershed, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Noor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment moving in watershed provides a path way for the transport of sediment associated contaminant. Information on sediment and nutrient export from catchments and about related erosive processes is required by catchment managers and decision-makers. Presently, only the MUSLE model is preferably applied in storm-wise sediment yield prediction in developing country such as Iran, due to a lack of adequate data in one side and necessity of getting access to accurate sediment yield estimates for running developmental projects in other side. The present study aims to estimate the Organic matter (OM associate sediment due to storm rainfall and runoff in the Kojour forest watershed, Iran. The prediction was made using the MUSLE. The results of the study approved the efficient application of the Calibrated MUSLE in estimating storm-wise OM losses in the study area with an acceptable estimation error of some 33%. The results could facilitate the application of given methods obtained in the present study to other ungauged watershed with similar conditions and leading to the suitable soil and water management.

  19. Morphometric analysis of landslide in the Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazi: the case study of D'anta's watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Araújo, João Paulo; da Silva, Lúcia Maria; Avear, Marcello; Dourado, Francisco; Ferreira Fernandes, Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Mass movements are recurrent phenomena in the whole Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. These events actively participate in the relief evolution and are also responsible for many damages and loss of human lives. The triggering of these events depends on the natural environment and the preparatory and immediate action of the physical, biotic and human agents responsible for these processes. This work is based on the hypothesis in which the topographical conditions have a major effect on the spatial distribution of translational landslides caused by decreased of the internal resistance of the material mobilized. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the topographical conditions favorable to landslide triggering based on morphometric analysis in a pilot watershed - D'antás watershed - located in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The indices include the topographic wetness index (TWI), contributing area, slope angle and elevation and were derived from 5-m grid digital terrain model, computed on a Geographic Information System (GIS). The maps produced allowed the analysis of topographic influence on the landslides distribution from the indices of frequency classes (F), concentration of scars (CC) and potential of landslide (PL). The landscape sectors that are more likely to be affected by landslides were the ones where the elevation ranges from 1070m - 1187m, slope angle between 40.95° and 47.77°, contributing area between (log10) 1.32 m² - 1.95 m² and topographic wetness index between 7.11 to 9.59. This work provides important information which may help in the decision-making process, using fewer data and indices of easy application. Finally, the results obtained will subsidize of a landslide susceptibility map through the implementation of the conditional probability method aimed at predicting and mitigating of the damage caused by landslides.

  20. Management by Values: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen LIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable management theory is stemmed from the practice of management, and the premise is that there must have great enterprise first then the effective management way could be concluded, therefore, many management theories are created in America because that the US have many great organizations other countries did not have at that time. However, after more than thirty years’ efforts and accumulation of the development of reform and openingup in China, it is our pride that such accumulation has lead to a lot of successful enterprises in China, one of such great companies is Alibaba, which is created at the right time and the right place. Alibaba is chosen because that the reason of its success is different with other enterprises in China and even in the world, it is a company which never place high value on benefit, however, it is more successful than any other companies which are benefit-oriented, by the case study we find out that the secret of its success is nothing but an innovational practice of management, that is, Management by Values (MBV. As it is shown in this paper: Alibaba, the mission of which is to create easy way to trade anywhere. Such visionary mission gives Alibaba a dream of unlimited growth space, but only the mission itself is not enough, effective management by values helps Alibaba to realize this potential. Its practice implies the content of values and how to manage it in an organization; besides, it tells us the bases of managing by values, which are about the character of the leader and the purpose of the organization, Jack ma and Alibaba are good cases in point, Jack ma himself is poor in education, but he is really a practical dreamer and is also a leader who is good at developing others, as an organization , the purpose of Alibaba is the benefit of outside instead of its profit, both are really precious in today’s business; and what is more, its experience also witnesses the process of management by values: start an enterprise with an agreeable basic principles of values ; shaping the values when the enterprise begin to take shape; evaluating the values of all the employees when the enterprise become big; at last, the developing of values itself should be an important part of this management, which part of the values should be persisted, which part might be changed, Alibaba provide us a good case in point.

    Key words: Management; Values; Business

  1. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa; Naik Sinukaban; Suria Darma Tarigan; Dudung Darusman

    2008-01-01

    Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. ...

  2. A tool for rapid assessment of erosion risk to support decision-making and policy development at the Ngenge watershed in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mutekanga, F. P.; Visser, S. M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tests a rapid, user-friendly method for assessing changes in erosion risk, which yields information to aid policy development and decision-making for sustainable natural resources management. There is currently a lack of timely, up-to-date and current information to support policy development on sustainable natural resources management in Uganda. The study was carried out in the Ngenge watershed, a typical catchment in the Ugandan Highlands, characterised by deforestation in favour...

  3. Analysis of non-point and point source pollution in China: case study in Shima Watershed in Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huaiyang; Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    China economy has been rapidly increased since 1978. Rapid economic growth led to fast growth of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. A significant portion of fertilizers and pesticides entered the water and caused water quality degradation. At the same time, rapid economic growth also caused more and more point source pollution discharge into the water. Eutrophication has become a major threat to the water bodies. Worsening environment problems forced governments to take measures to control water pollution. We extracted land cover from Landsat TM images; calculated point source pollution with export coefficient method; then SWAT model was run to simulate non-point source pollution. We found that the annual TP loads from industry pollution into rivers are 115.0 t in the entire watershed. Average annual TP loads from each sub-basin ranged from 0 to 189.4 ton. Higher TP loads of each basin from livestock and human living mainly occurs in the areas where they are far from large towns or cities and the TP loads from industry are relatively low. Mean annual TP loads that delivered to the streams was 246.4 tons and the highest TP loads occurred in north part of this area, and the lowest TP loads is mainly distributed in middle part. Therefore, point source pollution has much high proportion in this area and governments should take measures to control point source pollution.

  4. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  5. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts of different extents and...

  6. Modeling Watershed Hydrologic Water Balance Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Lower Coastal Plain, South Carolina USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, E. B.; Amatya, D. M.; Callahan, T. J.; Levine, N. S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the hydrology at the watershed scale can be complex due to the variability of land use, soil type, climate, and vegetative cover. Hydrological models are valuable tools to fill the gaps in not only understanding the processes, but also assessing the impact of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality. The objective of this study is to test a spatially-distributed hydrologic model, SWAT, for a third-order, low- gradient forested watershed using spatial watershed characteristics and 2.5-years of continuous stream flow and climate data. SWAT is a public domain model, actively supported by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service; it couples a Geographic Information System (GIS) with a distributed parameter hydrological model in order to predict runoff, water quality and other hydrologic parameters. The model has been developed to evaluate the impact of land management practices on the hydrology and water quality in large,