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1

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

Science.gov (United States)

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30

2

Optimization of Injection rate and Injection Time for Surfactant and Water Floodings in Oil Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

Although waterflooding is an effective process, surfactant flooding is used to recover oil from reservoirs by wettability alteration and interfacial tension reduction. Economical effectiveness is a main challenge in feasibility of any EOR method. In this study, we compare oil recovery of both surfactant and water flooding in Reservoirs with various conditions. One of the important optimization variables is well placement. Various methods have been suggested for this problem. Among these, direct optimization, although accurate, is impossible due to the number of simulation required. Optimal placement of up to three injection wells was studied at two fields. One of the Iranian conventional field and a hypothetic fractured field. Injection rate and injection time was also optimized. The net present value of the surfactant flooding projects was used as the objective function.

Gholamzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Chahardahcherik, Morteza

2012-08-01

3

UV disinfection of injection and drinking water - an accepted method on offshore oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultraviolet disinfection packages have been developed for the treatment of drinking water and injection water on offshore oil platforms. Large-scale tests with sulphate reducing bacteria out outlined. (Auth.)

4

Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

5

Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 µg/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6 µg/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6 µg/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. PMID:21702059

Heinz, Gary H; Hoffman, David J; Klimstra, Jon D; Stebbins, Katherine R; Kondrad, Shannon L

2011-09-01

6

Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition ...

Yuan, Hao

2010-01-01

7

Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits o...

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

2007-01-01

8

Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig. The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of barium ions.

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah

2007-01-01

9

Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan

10

New materials and treatment design improve water control in oil wells and water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent developments in job design have improved the success of polymer treatments for water control. The purpose of this study is to briefly discuss the need for polymer as a secondary recovery tool, materials, polymer effects, treatment designs, and field results. New treating designs have made it possible to tailor the treatments to fit the reservoir conditions. These designs have provided very successful treatments as shown by the field results. Moreover, the tailored treatments provide better application to individual problems such as coning or channeling.

VanLandingham, J.V.; Goddard, J.E.

1975-01-01

11

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31

12

Change in hydrochemical characteristics of the oil bed under the influence of injected water and forecasting of possible deposition of inorganic salts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of flooding oil beds with time result in a change in the hydrochemical characteristics of the bed because of mixing of the bed and injected water. On old fields such as Balakhany-Sabunchi-Ramany, Surakhany and others where the process of bed injection has been done for 40 years, deep changes occurred in the nature and genetic type of bed waters. It is necessary to have a correct selection of the water injected into the bed, since when there is incompatibility (different characteristics) with the bed water, salts will be formed during mixing. A technique is developed for predicting the process of salt deposition during flooding of oil beds. The substantiation for the necessary quality of water injected into the bed is the nature of its interaction with bed water and rock. The effect of rock is slight. The injected water must correspond to definite requirements. The main requirements from the viewpoint of salt formation are compatibility of injected and bed water, as well as stability of their mixture. Therefore the technique of prediction must include studies which determine mineralization and quantitatively the component composition of both waters, their nature, reaction of the medium, etc. Studies were made of water from the river Kura, deposits of the upper Cretaceous and Eocene and their mixtures in different ratios. The studied waters and their mixtures can be recommended for injection into the bed.

Agayeva, L.A.; Akopova, M.T.; Brodskaya, Ye.A.; Neyman-zade, L.A.; Yanenko, L.I.; Yur' yeva, L.L.

1980-01-01

13

Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

2012-12-01

14

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

15

Improved decision support within biocorrosion management for Oil and Gas water injection systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L’objectif de ce projet, réalisé dans le cadre du réseau BIOCOR, est de fournir aux opérateurs intervenant dans les systèmes d’injection d’eau, un support amélioré d’aide à la décision. L’implication de composants biologiques dans la corrosion de l’acier au carbone ainsi que les synergies potentielles avec d’autres éléments (contrainte mécanique, propriétés intrinsèques du matériau…) ont été étudiées. Les travaux ont montré que la production du sulfure (un...

Stipanicev, Marko

2013-01-01

16

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

Science.gov (United States)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

17

Cold water injection nozzles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

18

Injection Design for Simultaneous Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Storage in a Heavy Oil Reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have identified a CO2 and water injection strategy to recover moderately heavy oil and store carbon dioxide (CO2) simultaneously. We propose the use of counter-current injection of gas and water to improve reservoir sweep and trap CO2; water is injected in the upper portion of the reservoir and gas is injected in the lower portion. This process is referred to as water over gas injection or modified simultaneous water alternating gas injection (SWAG). This thesis is based on ...

Sobers, Lorraine Elizabeth

2012-01-01

19

Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between 2006 and 2011 a series of earthquakes occurred in the Cogdell oil field near Snyder, TX. A previous series of earthquakes occurring 1975–1982 was attributed to the injection of water into wells to enhance oil production. We evaluated injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gas including CO2 have been injected into Cogdell wells. If this triggered the 2...

Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

2013-01-01

20

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Co-Injection of noncondensable gas improves ES-SAGD performance in shallow oil sands reservoirs with a small top water zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CCS) are the 2 commercial in-situ steam-based oil sands recovery methods presently used in Alberta to produce Athabasca bitumen from oil sands. However, CCS cannot be used in shallow or unconfined reservoirs because of its relatively high injection pressures. Thermal reservoir simulations have shown that there are low-pressure expanding solvent SAGD (ES-SAGD) operating strategies that can be used to efficiently recover bitumen from shallow reservoirs with top water. This study presented technical details to construct feasible low-pressure ES-SAGD, with non-condensable gas co-injection, in reservoirs with top water. The process has the potential to quench the chamber and stagnate oil drainage in this type of reservoir. The complex dynamics between the depletion chamber and overlying water zone were discussed along with the operating strategies that extend the life of the chamber and increase the recovery factor. It was concluded that the addition of non-condensable gas to ES-SAGD can significantly improve recovery, rate, and efficiency. 27 refs., 7 tabs., 22 figs.

Alturki, A.A.; Gates, I.D.; Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

22

Cooling water injection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention indicates a selection for injection of water to a reactor pressure vessel or a reactor container upon occurrence of such an emergency that ECCS should not be operated. Namely, a temperature detection means detects a temperature of high temperature incondensible gases generated upon flowing out of a molten reactor core due to failure of the reactor pressure vessel and reacting with concretes in the reactor container. A pressure detecting means detects a pressure in the reactor container. When the temperature detecting means detects a temperature higher than a saturation temperature at the detected pressure, an indication device judges the rupture of the pressure vessel, and indicates the reactor container as the destination for the injection of cooling water to cool the molten reactor core. On the other hand, when the pressure vessel is not ruptured, the temperature does not exceed the saturation temperature. Accordingly, the indication device indicates the reactor pressure vessel as the destination for the injection of cooling water. (I.S.)

23

Study on the Fine Optimization of Water Injection in SZ Oilfield of Bohai Bay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bohai SZ Oilfield has entered into high water cut stage, how to realize the goal of fine optimization of water injection to enhance oil recovery is an important problem for reservoir engineers. Fine optimization of water injection needs ‘inject enough’, ‘inject well’ and ‘inject effectively’. The paper gets relationship between annual oil production rate and annual water production rate of different water cut stages of SZ Oilfield with the life cycle theory and draws the annual water injection rate and annual oil production rate chart to ensure ‘inject enough’, optimizes injection allocation method according to new reservoir research and gets a very good precipitation effect of increasing oil production. The paper also puts forward the method to recognize low effective and ineffective injection circulation to guide the oilfield ‘inject effectively’.Key words: Fine optimization of water injection; Logistic theory; Prediction of water injection; Injection allocation; Low effective and ineffective injection circulation

SUN Guangyi

2014-04-01

24

Injection technology increases oil recovery at Permian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provided a brief overview of the positive field results of the Powerwave injection technology at an oil field in the Permian Basin. The patented injection technology uses pulses of fluid pressure to create momentary elastic flexure of the pore structure to improve the flow of fluids in sedimentary soils and fractured rock, thereby optimizing the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery technologies, liquid carbon dioxide injection, water injection, and surfactant/polymer flooding to effectively increase oil recovery. In the example of the West Texas waterflood, the Powerwave technology generated an overall production increase of nearly 50 percent. The significant improvements in production and the increased profitability that resulted from the installation of the Powerwave equipment are expected generate interest in the technology from other operators seeking to maximize oil recovery in their fields. The Edmonton-based company is actively pursuing other contracts in the Permian Basin. 1 fig., 1 ref.

Anon.

2010-09-15

25

Heavy oil production by carbon dioxide injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through the use of a carbon dioxide injection simulator, it was found that over the viscosity range of 1 to 1000 mPa x s, carbon dioxide was superior to natural depletion, inert gas injection or waterflooding, for oil viscosities above 70 mPa x s. The gain over waterflooding was as much as 9 percentiles in oil recovery, being greater for the more viscous crudes. Oil saturation was an important variable, as oil recovery decreased rapidly with a decrease in saturation. Another significant factor affecting ultimate oil recovery was the critical gas saturation. Viscous oils showed a 27% increase in recovery as the critical gas saturation varied from 0 to 10%. The blowdown recovery on curtailment of carbon dioxide injection was about 1 percentile; field values are as high as 4 percentiles. Reasons for this discrepancy are outlined. The amount of carbon dioxide left in the reservoir was used as a measure of the efficiency of the process; it was high for low oil saturations, especially for the more viscous oils. An economic analysis of the carbon dioxide injection process showed that the economics are tenuous; a variety of factors in addition to the oil price would determine the economic viability of the process.

Klins, M.A.; Fazouq Ali, S.M.

1982-09-01

26

Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

27

Status of a study of the thermal regime of Uzen field and the effect of cold water injection in pattern flooding on the development of and oil production from the pay zones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The crude oil in the Uzen field contains up to 26% paraffin, and paraffin deposition begins at +62/sup 0/ + 3/sup 0/C. Massive paraffin deposition occurs at 45/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/C, and at 30/sup 0/C the oil congeals. Reservoir temperature is 65/sup 0/C. Because reservoir temperature is close to paraffin deposition temperature, great concern was felt in injecting cold water into the reservoir. A test program was conducted to determine the effect of cold water (15/sup 0/ to 25/sup 0/C) injection on reservoir behavior. This study showed that: (1) cold water rapidly lowered bottom-hole temperature in 1,400 m wells from 65/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/C; (2) after cold water injection was stopped, bottom-hole temperature increased slowly; (3) the cold water decreased reservoir temperature in an observation well, 115 m distant from the water injection well; and (4) the cold water did not reduce the water intake rates of injection wells. These observations are backed by geophysical data. Plans are in progress to test hot water (100/sup 0/C) injection at this field.

Utebaev, S.U.; Smolnikov, N.V.; Yuferov, Yu.K.; Teslyuk, E.V.; Ilyaev, V.I.

1968-11-01

28

Study on the Fine Optimization of Water Injection in SZ Oilfield of Bohai Bay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bohai SZ Oilfield has entered into high water cut stage, how to realize the goal of fine optimization of water injection to enhance oil recovery is an important problem for reservoir engineers. Fine optimization of water injection needs ‘inject enough’, ‘inject well’ and ‘inject effectively’. The paper gets relationship between annual oil production rate and annual water production rate of different water cut stages of SZ Oilfield with the life cycle theory and draws the annual wa...

Sun, Guangyi; Ma, Kuiqian; Yang, Jing

2014-01-01

29

Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate, also gives a better cooling effectiveness. In parallel with the experiments, a thermodynamic model is developed by which the compression process can be calculated for every degree of revolution of the male-rotor. This way the influence of cooling oil temperature, cooling oil mass flow rate and injection point can be analysed. Having a better heat transfer effectiveness does not give a considerable gain in specific work. Lowering oil temperature gives better results, while changing the oil flow rate only gives small gains. Furthermore it is shown that cooling oil coming from the bearings has a negative influence on the performance. This paper shows that trying to reach isothermal compression through oil atomisation is not possible. The importance of the cooling effectiveness in the thermodynamic process is too small to have a significant influence

30

Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

31

Heavy oil production by carbon dioxide injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation of the efficiency of gaseous carbon dioxide as a recovery agent for moderately viscous oils is presented. Numeric model results are given, and the findings are compared and contrasted with laboratory and field test observations, pointing out the range of conditions over which carbon dioxide is likely to be effective. The carbon dioxide injection simulator used simulates 3-phase flow, and was checked out for numeric dispersion, grid effects, material balance, etc. It was found that over the viscosity range of 10 to 1000 cp, carbon dioxide was superior to waterflooding, nitrogen, or natural gas injection, for oil viscosities above 70 cp. Oil saturation was an important variable as oil recovery decreased rapidly with a decrease in saturation. Another significant factor affecting ultimate oil recovery was the critical gas saturation. An economic analysis of the carbon dioxide injection process showed that the economics are tenuous; a variety of factors in addition to the oil price would determine the economic viability of the process. 43 references.

Klins, M.A.; Farouq Ali, S.M.

1981-01-01

32

Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

1980-01-01

33

Energy recovery by water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several analytical and numerical studies that address injection and thermal breakthrough in fractured geothermal reservoirs are described. The results show that excellent thermal sweeps can be achieved in fractured reservoirs, and that premature cold water breakthrough can be avoided if the injection wells are appropriately located.

Witherspoon, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Tsang, C.F.

1982-07-01

34

Bye-bye forms 17 and 17A : Pedigree salt water injection monitoring partners with ND Oil and Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Dakota-based Pedigree Technologies is a leading provider of web-based M2M applications for fleet, asset and supply chain management. This presentation described their simple web-based system which helps companies track, locate, monitor and control their fixed and mobile assets and equipment. It highlighted a typical class 2 injection well problem regarding compliance issues for saltwater injection well equipment. The solution was a cost-effective web-enabled remote monitoring system that activates alarms for equipment health conditions and reporting for compliance needs all in one system. In particular, the system replaces manual data entry of Forms 17 and 17A with automated remote monitoring and reporting. It allows real time access to alarms and trends of injection data. The solar powered monitoring system measures flow rate, pipe pressure and annulus pressure. It provides automated hourly readings and cellular communication. In addition to increasing process efficiency, the system decreases the costs of manual data collection at injection sites. tabs., figs.

Warner, A. [Pedigree Technologies, Fargo, ND (United States)

2010-07-01

35

Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Malaysian Sandstone Cores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Scale deposition is one of the most serious oil field problems that inflict water injection systems primarily when two incompatible waters are involved. Approach: This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulphates in sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton) and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ...

Merdhah, Amer B. B.; Yassin, Abu Z. M.

2009-01-01

36

Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

Knutsen, Trine

2011-01-01

37

Impact of edible oil injection on the permeability of aquifer sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that food-grade edible oils can be injected into the subsurface for installation of in-situ permeable reactive barriers. However to be effective, the oil must be distributed out away from the oil injection points without excessive permeability loss. In this work, we examine the distribution of soybean oil in representative aquifer sediments as non-aqueous phase liquid oil (NAPL oil) or as an oil-in-water emulsion. Laboratory columns packed with sands or clayey sands were flushed with either NAPL oil or a soybean emulsion followed by plain water, while monitoring permeability loss and the final oil residual saturation. NAPL oil can be injected into coarse-grained sands. However NAPL injection into finer grained sediments requires high injection pressures which may not be feasible at some sites. In addition, NAPL injection results in high oil residual saturations and moderate permeability losses. In contrast, properly prepared emulsions can be distributed through sands with varying clay content without excessive pressure buildup, low oil retention and very low to moderate permeability loss. For effective transport, the emulsion must be stable, the oil droplets must be significantly smaller than the mean pore size of the sediment and the oil droplets should have a low to moderate tendency to stick to each other and the aquifer sediments. In our work, oil retention and associated permeability loss increased with sediment clay content and with the ratio of droplet size to pore size. For sandy sediments, the permeability loss is modest (0-40% loss) and is proportional to the oil residual saturation.

Coulibaly, Kapo M.; Borden, Robert C.

2004-07-01

38

Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined theoretically at a larger scale.

Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina

2006-01-01

39

Oil water laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

40

Injectability of silicone oil-based tamponade agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background/aims: High viscosity silicone oils are used as tamponade agents to increase the resistance to emulsification, however this makes the oils more difficult to inject. Increasing the extensional viscosity is one way to reduce emulsification. This study aimed to evaluate how silicone oils with increased extensional viscosity behave in terms of their ease of injection. Methods: The shear viscosity and the length of time taken to inject 9mls of Siluron 1000™, Silu...

Williams, Rachel; Day, Michael; Garvey, Michael; Morphis, George; Irigoyen, Cristina; Wong, David; Stappler, Theodor

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process. (authors)

42

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process.

Jakub Siemek; Stanislaw Nagy; Andrzej Olajossy

2006-01-01

43

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process.

Jakub Siemek

2006-10-01

44

Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrog...

Siregar, S.; Hidayaturobbi, A. D.; Wijaya, B. A.; Listiani, S. N.; Adiningrum, T.; Irwan; Pratomo, A. I.

2007-01-01

45

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The...

Nath, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anish; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

46

Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

S. Siregar

2007-05-01

47

The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity channel communication, we proposed geothermal oil recovery. Broad-sense abundant geothermal resources and existing injection water technique equipment are used, deep-seated high temperature liquid (oil-gas-water mixture draws geothermal warming flowing layer to transit heat upward, decreases viscidity and increases fluidity. Reservoir temperature different offer geothermal fountain. Practicability process is analyzed. statistics and reservoir temperature variation analysis of Gudong Oilfield, Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC, we have designed flow-chart concept for geothermal oil recovery, suggested drilling multi-branch well in heavy oil reservoir as injection-well, at the same position of geothermal fountain well, using free-pressure pump to inject hot liquid directly to aimed oil layer, made oil recovery in surrounding wells. It is proposed that geothermal oil recovery forerunner test should be first conducted in favorable blocks.

Xuezhong Wang

2012-04-01

48

The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity ch...

Xuezhong Wang

2012-01-01

49

Integration of oil dehydration and water purification processes and technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formational pressure in oil deposits is maintained through increased oil flow and greater oil yield coefficients for productive layers. Both these indicators can be used in efforts to improve flooding while reducing fresh water waste and minimizing low-mineral water usage. Similarly, the waste water that is used should be free of weighted particles and oil products, especially asphalt-tar materials. An examination is conducted of prospects for integrating the processes of oil dehydration (the preparation of oil for transport and refining), the scrubbing of waste water from oil products and the removal of weighted particles with a demulsifier unit. The combining of these three processes will accordingly minimize expenses. The correlation of the allowable levels for concentrations of chemical regents is studied for normal oil products. Weighted particles in separated water are examined with regard to their relationship to technical equipment parameters. The correlations determined through analysis allow the researchers to set parameters for demulsifier regimes securing a sharp water-oil emulsion separation to the degree that the oil and water obtained is suitable for injection into formations. Temperature and chemical regent correlations are determined for demulsification and specific regent expenditure regimes as are levels for water-logged oil products. The formation of sharp water-oil emulsion regimes allows refiners to avoid the separate scrubbing of water thereby significantly reducing equipment requirements and capital expenditures.

Putokhin, V.S.

1981-01-01

50

Oil and rising water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Middle Eastern oil producers have an obligation to future generations to tackle the causes of global warming. In the Middle East, we have a special need to pay attention to these warnings. As many of the countries of the region are low-lying and short of water, we are under threat from rising sea levels and desertification. Earlier this year the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that by the end of this century sea levels could rise by as much as 88 centimetres. This could flood not only coastal areas of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), but also much of the heavily populated Nile Delta in Egypt and the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates river system in Iraq

51

Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Berea Sandstone Cores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates in Berea sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton) and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions at various temperatures (60-90°C) and differential pressures (75-100 psig). The solubility of common oil field scales formed and how their solubilities were affected by changes in salin...

Merdhah, A. B. B.; Yassin, A. A. M.

2009-01-01

52

Oil production and water management in Oman  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the development of integrated (production) water management in Petroleum Development Oman. In its existing oil fields the water cut is rising rapidly and water production is expected to increase two to three times in the next 15 years. Re-injection of production water will continue to account for less than half of the volume of co-produced water. Current subsurface disposal of production water to shallow Tertiary formations is based on thorough knowledge of the local hydrogeology and does not affect potable water resources. However, in view of the expected increase in production water volume, utilization and disposal options have been re-evaluated. This review has been facilitated by recently acquired data on production water quality and by the results of research in dehydration and de-oiling technologies and of tests with production chemicals. The combined knowledge base is used to arrive at water management strategies for individual oil fields that are sound both in principle and in practice

53

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

54

Investigation of the effect of formation water disposal on ground water in oil fields of Assam, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the major waste products of oil industry is formation water which comes with crude oil from underground and this is considered as pollutant because of the presence of several undesirable elements exceeding the permissible limits. The conventional oil field practice is to dispose the formation water by injecting underground. Such underground injection is practiced in many oil fields across the globe. The ground water pollution threat by injected formation water has been a subject matter of investigation in some oil producing regions. The oil fields in Assam (India, some of which have been operating for about 50 years, also resort to similar disposal practice through some designated wells. The present study concerning underground disposal of formation water in 15 disposal wells of 3 oil fields in Assam analysed water samples collected during three consecutive years and could not detect migration of pollutant formation water to nearby ground water.

B. N. Sahoo

2013-06-01

55

Temperature of injected water at Romashkino field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water injection temperatures were measured in 10 wells for 2 yr at this field. Depending on the time of the year, wellhead temperatures varied from 1/sup 0/ to 27/sup 0/C. Temperature variation with depth was measured in several water-injection wells, and results plotted. Temperature distribution was found to be a function of water-injection rate. Some of the curves showed a temperature inversion point. The experimental data were incorporated in a nomogram, which shows water temperatures at the wellhead and at well bottom. This information can be used to control water temperature so that paraffin deposition in the formation is prevented. Prevention of paraffin deposition in the winter requires heating of injection water.

Fatkullin, A.Kh.; Kondrashkin, V.F.

1970-12-01

56

Investigation of cyclic solvent injection process for heavy oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical and experimental studies of a cyclic solvent injection (CSI) process were presented. The study formed part of a larger research program investigating the use of solvents as a follow-up process in Cold Lake and Lloydminster reservoirs pressure-depleted using cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS). The CSI process consisted of a primary production process followed by 6 solvent injection cycles using 28 per cent propane and 72 per cent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Results of the experiments demonstrated a recovery rate of 50 per cent using the CSI process. A numerical model was developed to represent the physical characteristics of the experiments. Non-equilibrium rate equations were used to simulate the delay in the solvent reaching equilibrium concentration as it dissolved or exsolved in the oil in response to pressure and gas phase composition changes. A history match of the primary production portion of the experiment was then obtained using a foamy oil model. The history match was used validate the numerical model of the CSI process. The study showed that the quantity of gas injected in an injection period was insensitive to oil phase diffusion coefficients, but sensitive to solvent solubility in oil, dissolution rates and gas phase relative permeability. It was concluded that gas injections are also sensitive to molar densities in the oil phase and capillary pressure. 20 refs., 40 figs.

Ivory, J.; Chang, J.; Coates, R.; Forshner, K. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

57

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition with Water Injection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of water injection in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was experimentally investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it is possible to control the ignition timing and slow down the rate of combustion with the use of water injection. The effects of different water flows, air/fuel ratios and inlet pressures were studied for three different fuels, iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas. It is possible to control the ignition timing i...

Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

1999-01-01

58

Aerosol scrubbing at water pool injection sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses are performed to predict the scrubbing of polydisperse aerosol particles at the injection site of water suppression pools. Two injection modes are considered in this paper; orifice injection and side vent injection. Globule as well as vapor jet formation at the injection site are analyzed in detail. The governing conservation equations for mass, energy, steam mass fraction and aerosol mass fraction are solved numerically. The aerosol removal mechanisms considered are Brownian diffusion, sedimentation, inertial and convective deposition. Evaporation and condensation are allowed and include the effect of noncondensable gases. The hydrodynamic models used are guided by the experimental data. The results show that scrubbing during the formation of globules or vapor jets at the injection site can be significant and must be included in calculating water pool decontamination factors

59

Bubble scrub : process aims to reduce oil content and dispose of solids in produced water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil and water separation processes used by the petroleum industry typically leave behind between 5000 and 30,000 parts per million of oil in its produced water. The water is then injected back into the ground or disposed of in tailings ponds. This article described a water-oil remediation technology designed to reduce the hydrocarbon content in injected water to less than 5 parts per million. The process used aeration in a tank configuration that injected gas into the produced water. The aeration process created micron-sized gas bubbles that super-saturated the produced water in order to break the oil-water interfaces. A prototype unit has been designed to process 1000 bbls per day of water-oil mixture and is currently being used by an Alberta producer. It was concluded that the new system will help to reduce the massive amounts of water used in oil sands production. 1 fig

60

Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying controllable radial oil injection to main crankshaft journal bearings. In an actively lubricated bearing, conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with controllable hydrostatic lubrication, where the oil injection pressures can be modified depending on the operational conditions. In this study, the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance of the actively lubricated bearing is compared with the performance of the conventional lubricated bearing, giving some insights into the minimum fluid film thickness, maximum fluid film pressure, friction losses and maximum vibration levels.

Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

2006-03-15

62

Effect of oil viscosity, permeability and injection rate on performance of waterflooding, CO{sub 2} flooding and WAG process in recovery of heavy oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were undertaken to compare the performance of waterflooding, immiscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding, and CO{sub 2} water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes for potential use in the recovery of heavy oil from thin, unconsolidated heavy oil reservoirs where the application of thermal gravity drainage processes are inapplicable. In particular, the study looked at the effect of oil viscosity, permeability, and injection rate on these processes when used in the recovery of heavy oil. In waterflooding, the difference between the viscosities of the oil and the water result in an unfavourable mobility ratio, viscous finger formations, and early water breakthrough, which leads to low sweep efficiency. Immiscible CO{sub 2} flooding is more complicated when applied to heavy oil reservoirs because of an unfavourable mobility ratio, channeling, and early breakthrough. CO{sub 2}-WAG uses alternating CO{sub 2} and water injections to improve sweep efficiency and is more effective than continuous CO{sub 2} injection. The water flood experiments were conducted using laboratory sand packs with varying permeabilities containing heavy oil of differing viscosities. The results were analyzed to determine the effects of oil viscosity, rock permeability, and flow rate on water flood performance; oil viscosity and rock permeability on heavy oil recovery using immiscible CO{sub 2} displacement; and oil viscosity, rock permeability, and WAG slug ratio on heavy oil recovery by way of CO{sub 2} WAG process. For all three processes tested, oil viscosity was found to have a profound effect on the recovery factor. Waterflooding consistently yielded the highest recovery factor for both heavy oils and sand packs. The results suggested that displaced fluid viscosity plays a predominant role in the recovery of heavy oil. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

Torabi, F.; Zarivnyy, O.; Paquin, B.A.; Rumpel, N.J.; Wilton, R.R. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada); Jamaloei, B.Y. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

63

Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

Pierazzo, E.

2005-01-01

64

[Fat embolism after intrapenile injection of sweet almond oil].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of fat embolism following self injection of vegetable oil in the penis, to treat an impotence. The patient developed respiratory failure and neurological disorders as confusion. A chest roentgenogram revealed diffuse alveolar infiltrate. Initially, he presented an hemoconcentration, and fat globules in his urine. The outcome was favourable in 72 hours, with oxygen and hydration. The diagnosis of fat embolism was made after neurological improvement: the patient admitted to injection his penis with vegetable oil, in his corpus cavernosum. PMID:9677643

Thomas, P; Boussuges, A; Gainnier, M; Quénée, V; Donati, S; Ayem, M L; Barthélemy, A; Sainty, J M

1998-06-01

65

Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing (n-1-/sup 14/C) octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs.

Franchini, A.; Piretti, M.V.; Tubertini, O.; Govoni, S.; Sapigni, R.

1984-12-01

66

Measurement of oil on water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the measurement of oil on water in the cooling water outflow, in the outfall and intaked of effluent treatment plants, in waterways and in process plants, many methods of measurement available in the market have duration problems or basic difficulties as a result of associated conditions. A series of methods of measurement and equipment has been investigated for the measurement of oil on water. It was been established that the fluorescence method of measurement which operates without contact is especially suitable for this task. (orig.)

67

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

68

Water conservation and allocation guideline for oilfield injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper was prepared as a guide for regulatory agencies and developers using non-saline water sources in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. A systems approach was used to achieve specific environmental outcomes that adhered to the Water Conservation and Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection. The guide was applicable to licence renewal applications for projects operating and licensed to use non-saline water resources, as well as new licence applications for oilfield injection use. The guide provided recommended water conservation practices and application requirements, and outlined regulatory procedures and steps for obtaining a Water Act licence. The guideline was prepared to eliminate the use of non-saline water in EOR projects where feasible alternatives existed, as well as to identify areas with water shortages and reduce the use of non-saline water. The guide included monitoring and reporting requirements to improve the evaluation of water use practices and outlined current initiatives to address water conservation and research. It was concluded that outcomes from the program will include reliable quality water supplies for a sustainable economy, healthy aquatic ecosystems, and safe, secure drinking water supplies for Albertans. 3 tabs., 5 figs

69

Downhole cuttings injection allows use of oil-base muds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that of the potential methods for handling oily drill cuttings, the most attractive is their injection downhole. This approach, which has been used by BP on its Gyda platform in the North Sea where stringent new environmental regulations are expected, will enable operators to enjoy the economic advantages of using oil-based muds. The discharge of oil-based-mud-contaminated cuttings form offshore drilling operations has a significant, though localized, environmental impact. This is despite the change from diesel-based fluids to less toxic, low aromatic, base oils which occurred in the late 1970s

70

Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of ?-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells. PMID:25149457

da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

2014-11-01

71

Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fuels’ physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels’ characteristics and also by different operating regimes....

Bambuleac Dumitru

2012-01-01

72

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

Science.gov (United States)

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01

73

Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO2 storage: CO2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO2, CO2-brine, and CO2-oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO22 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO2 and crude oil is ?100 kg/m3 and between CO2 and brine is ?350 kg/m3); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m3); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing properties and processes by performing numerical simulations. Results suggest that deep saline CO2 injection immediately below oil formations reduces buoyancy-driven CO2 migration and, at the same time, minimizes the amount of mobile CO2 compared to conventional deep saline CO2 injection (i.e., CO2 injection into brine formations not below oil-bearing strata). Finally, to investigate practical aspects and field applications of this injection paradigm, we characterized oil-bearing formations and their thickness (capacity) as a component of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) field deployments. The field-testing program includes specific sites in Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and western Texas of the United States.

74

Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO2 storage: CO2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO2, CO2-brine, and CO2-oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO22 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO2 and crude oil is ?100 kg/m3 and between CO2 and brine is ?350 kg/m3); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m3); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing properties and processes by performing numerical simulations. Results suggest that deep saline CO2 injection immediately below oil formations reduces buoyancy-driven CO2 migration and, at the same time, minimizes the amount of mobile CO2 compared to conventional deep saline CO2 injection (i.e., CO2 injection into brine formations not below oil-bearing strata). Finally, to investigate practical aspects and field applications of this injection paradigm, we characterized oil-bearing formations and their thickness (capacity) as a component of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) field deployments. The field-testing program includes specific sites in Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and western Texas of the United States. (author)

75

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was ...

R Raghu, G. Ramadoss

2011-01-01

76

Evaluating oil/water separators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

77

Water injection profiling by nuclear logging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the injection of water into a cased well borehole, the injection water is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV energy or greater and the subsequent gamma radiation from the exposed water is detected by a pair of detectors spaced along the borehole. Counting rates of the two detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. The geometry of the borehole and that of the casing are used in conjunction with the count rate data to determine the volume flow rates of water moving upwardly behind the casing, downwardly behind the casing, along the inside of the casing below the perforation, and horizontally behind the casing into the formation

78

Water vapor - Stratospheric injection by thunderstorms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infrared radiometric inference measurements of the mass of water vapor injected into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by a number of plains thunderstorms show an average threefold increase over the fair weather background mass of water vapor. These airborne measurements, made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Convair 990 jet laboratory, extended over a sample size much larger than that possible by balloon and other techniques.

Kuhn, P. M.; Lojko, M. S.; Petersen, E. V.

1971-01-01

79

Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Malaysian Sandstone Cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Scale deposition is one of the most serious oil field problems that inflict water injection systems primarily when two incompatible waters are involved. Approach: This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulphates in sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions at various temperatures (60-90°C and differential pressures (125-175 psig. The solubility of common oil field scales formed and how their solubilities were affected by changes in salinity and temperatures (40-90°C were also studied. The morphology and particle size of scaling crystals formed as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were also presented. Results: The results showed that a large extent of permeability damage caused by calcium, strontium and barium sulphates that deposited on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions. Conclusion: At higher temperatures, the deposition of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales increases and the deposition of BaSO4 scale decreases since the solubilities of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales decreases and the solubility of BaSO4 increases with increasing temperature. The deposition of CaSO4, SrSO4 and BaSO4 scales during flow of injection waters into porous media was shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM micrographs.

Amer B.B. Merdhah

2009-01-01

80

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

CERN Document Server

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

82

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effects of microorganisms in the injected waters on microbial community compositions in the produced waters is. In addition, microbes inhabiting in the produced waters of the four water-flooded oil reservoirs were varied but all dominated by Proteobacteria. Moreover, most of the detected microbes were not identified as indigenous. The objective of this study was to expand the pictures of the microbial ecosystem of water-flooded oil reservoirs. PMID:23094135

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Chai, Lu-Jun; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

2012-01-01

83

Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

Bambuleac, Dumitru

2012-04-01

84

Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates. It comprises introducing the emulsion into vessel in an extraction system, pressurizing the vessel with a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon is in the liquified state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, maintaining the pressure for a period of time sufficient to effect the replacement of at least some of the oil in the emulsion phase with the volatile hydrocarbon, the replaced oil being dissolved in the volatile hydrocarbon phase, withdrawing at least a portion of the oil-containing volatile hydrocarbon phase while maintaining the pressure on the two-phase system, reducing the pressure on the two-phase system whereby volatile hydrocarbon dissolved in the emulsion is vaporized, and the emulsion separates into a water phase and an oil phase, and recovering the oil phase from the water phase

85

Core cooling in pressurized-water reactor during water injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the reactor core cooling and its melt progression terminating is evaluated, and the initiation criterion for reactor cavity flooding during water injection is determined. The core cooling in pressurized-water reactor of severe accident is simulated with the thermal hydraulic and severe accident code of SCDAP/RELAP5. The results show that the core melt progression is terminated by water injection, before the core debris has formed at bottom of core, and the initiation of reactor cavity flooding is indicated by the core exit temperature. (authors)

86

Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water  

Science.gov (United States)

Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

Wörman, A.

2009-04-01

87

Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

88

Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

Daggett, David L.

2005-01-01

89

The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

2014-12-01

90

Removal of oil from water by bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many materials, included activated carbon, peat, coal, fiberglass, polypropylene, organoclay and bentonite have been used for removing oils and grease from water. However, bentonite has been used only rarely for this purpose. In this study Na-bentonite was used to remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions of various kinds such as standard mineral oil, cutting oils, refinery effluent and produced water from production wells at Estevan, Saskatchewan. Removal efficiencies obtained were 85 to 96 per cent for cutting oils, 84 to 86 per cent for produced water and 54 to 87 per cent for refinery effluent. Bentonite proved to be more effective in the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsions than from actual waste waters; up to 96 percent from oil-in-water emulsions to only 87 per cent from actual waste water. The percentage of oil removed was found to be a function of the amount of bentonite added and the adsorption time up to the equilibrium time. Result also showed that the Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms are well suited to describe the adsorption of oil by bentonite from the various oily waters employed in this study. 15 refs

91

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21{sup o} CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

Raghu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayam College of Engineering and Technology, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramadoss, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Peter' s University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-07-01

92

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester, raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21° CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

R. Raghu1, G. Ramadoss

2011-07-01

93

Deep Injection of Waste Water in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23?km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins. PMID:24841226

Ferguson, Grant

2014-05-19

94

Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement. PMID:19131711

Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

2009-01-01

95

Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from t...

Mckinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

1988-01-01

96

Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum  

Science.gov (United States)

A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

1997-01-01

97

Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

2010-07-01

98

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the e...

Fan Zhang,; Yue-Hui She; Lu-Jun Chai; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Xiao-Tao Zhang; Fu-Chang Shu; Zheng-Liang Wang; Long-Jiang Yu; Du-Jie Hou

2012-01-01

99

Study on the Determination of Separated Layer Water Injection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to determine the separated layer water injection is a problem which reservoir engineers concern in flood development oil field. These various influential factors of dividing coefficient method are analyzed in this study. Grey correlation analysis method is used to determine the dominant influential factors. And the weight of different dominant influential factors is determined, which realizes the quantitative comparison among them in dividing coefficient formula. This method considers the impact of these factors which are consist of the measure transformation coefficient, perforation thickness, injector producer distance, location coefficient and the number of injector and producer. The separated layer water injection formula is determined. The scientific and reasonable injection allocation is realized. The problem which the contradiction exists in the same layer or between the layer and the layer is obvious in the S block through combining with the current water injection development. The separated layer water injection method is proposed necessarily. The formula for water injection is determined by grey correlation analysis method in Block S. These factors considered are more with the actual situation. And the reasonable injection allocation is realized. It is directive and referenced for other oil field or block.

Junting Zhang

2013-04-01

100

Separation of oil and water in oil spill recovery operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The separation of water from oil that is collected in any oil spill recovery operation is a continuing and necessary requirement during every stage of the effort. Its importance is reflected in the cost of transport and storage of large volumes of oily water, the salvage value of separated oil and the added labor costs associated with long-term recovery operations. This paper addresses the effects of weathering and emulsion generation which increase the problems normally associated with water extraction. Separation theory, practical separation technology and recommendations for the future direction of research and development are presented. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

STUDYING OF THE EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON ENHANCED HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY STEAM INJECTION  

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High viscosity of some crude oil makes difficult to recover with primary or secondary production methods. Therefore, thermal oil recovery techniques are recommended for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) of heavy oil. In this experimental study, steam injection was used to investigate the effectiveness parameters on heavy oil production rate. The result is shown that, by increasing pressure, steam reaches the breakthrough point sooner, but recovery decreases. If the oils are a little different i...

Kh. Mohamadbeigy; Monavarian, M.

2006-01-01

102

Produced water re-injection at PETROBRAS: challenges and perspectives; Reinjecao de agua produzida na PETROBRAS: perspectivas e desafios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PETROBRAS handles over 3 MMbbl/day of water, among injection, re-injection and production. Rate maintenance and produced water management are the main challenges of the water management process. Produced water destination is also an important issue. The petroleum industry has been increasingly concerned about the effects of produced water disposal in the environment, particularly in offshore fields. Increasing amounts of produced water are being processed by companies and the search for alternatives for the produced water destination has become a priority for the major operators. As oil fields reach their maturity, the water cut increases, and Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) in the producing formation seems to be a suitable option for the produced water destination. Disposal in adjacent, non-oil bearing formations is also an attractive alternative to be considered. This paper presents an overview of the main PWRI projects in PETROBRAS. PETROBRAS has been re-injecting water in their mature onshore fields for many years, and it is starting re-injection projects in offshore Campos Basin. Technical, economical and environmental aspects of PWRI are presented. Related topics, such as injectivity loss due to PWRI, injection above the fracture propagation pressure, PWRI effects on oil recovery and reservoir souring potential are discussed. (author)

Souza, Antonio Luiz Serra de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Geoengenharia de Reservatorios], e-mail: alserra@petrobras.com.br; Furtado, Claudio Jose Alves [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Recuperacao e Analise de Reservatorios], e-mail: cfurtado@petrobras.com.br

2006-12-15

103

Study on Technical Measures of Romashkino Oil Field after Entering Ultra-High Water Cut Stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romashkino oil field has large oilfield area, small formation dip, many reservoir layers, wide oil-water transition zone and complicated sedimentary environment. Since development, 3 overall development plannings and adjustments of individual block have been established. This achieves a high oil production. However, the recoverable reserves of major oil layer with high production become smaller and smaller and the water cut increases over time, the production ability of oil layer decreases. The development status of oil layer of mining siltstone, oil-water transition zone and oil layer with upswept injected water cannot be changed under present dilute well network condition, because there is no reinforced measurement to water well. This results the low oil production of Romashkino oil field. In order to improve oil production rate and reach the designed oil recovery, Romashkino oil field has been implemented many added cuttings since development. Resent researches about Romashkino oil field show: in later oilfield development stage, sidetrack and lateral drilling horizontal wells technology is very reasonable; formation hydraulic fracturing technology has been widely used in recent years; in tertiary oil recovery, sweep efficiency and flooding efficiency related technologies have been taken. This offers reference and guidance for the effective and reasonable oil field development in later period.

Liuli Lu

2013-07-01

104

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NOx emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

105

Results of hot water flooding in block No. 6 of the W. German Emlichheim oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By end 1966, only 10.8% of the IOIP had been recovered from the Emlichheim Oil Field. Because of such a low expected recovery, Wintershall A.G. ordered a Thermal Reservoir Study. Results indicated, that a hot water-flood would increase recovery more than a cold water-flood. Hot water-drive in Block No. 6 was started up in May 1967 with the injection-well Em 28. In consequence of problems with the convection heating section or demaged convection tubes, the hot-water boiler was shut down temporarily. At the end of 1968, corrosion problems related to the demaged section were observed. This required shutting down the hot-water boiler and hot water injection end 1969. After substituting the boiler, well Em 28 was placed back on hot-water injection end 1970. Every temporary interruption of the hot water injection and replacement by cold water injection to maintain pressure caused significant losses on oil production over several years. In 1977 a Simulation Study of Block No. 6 was undertaken with the objective of determining the effect of cold, hot water and steam injection on oil recovery. Several prediction runs were made, one category consisted of cold water injection runs which form a basis for comparison over other prediction runs of the existing production history of hot water injection in well Em 28. This shows, that hotwater injection in well Em 28 has recovered 81,000 m/sup 3/ of incremental oil, approx. 3% of the IOIP in Block No. 6 by the end of July 1980. Also other empirically and analytically determined methods showed similar results for the oil recovery in the vicinity of 4% of the IOIP.

Chaziteodorou, G.; Proyer, G.

1982-06-01

106

Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fuels’ physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels’ characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

Bambuleac Dumitru

2012-04-01

107

Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a s approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

108

Feasibility of steam injection process in a thin, low-permeability heavy oil reservoir of Arkansas -- a numerical simulation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the findings of an in-depth study undertaken to assess the viability of the steam injection process in the heavy oil bearing Nacatoch sands of Arkansas. Published screening criteria and DOE`s steamflood predictive models were utilized to screen and select reservoirs for further scrutiny. Although, several prospects satisfied the steam injection screening criteria, only a single candidate was selected for detailed simulation studies. The selection was based on the availability of needed data for simulation and the uniqueness of the reservoir. The reservoir investigated is a shallow, thin, low-permeability reservoir with low initial oil saturation and has an underlying water sand. The study showed that the reservoir will respond favorably to steamdrive, but not to cyclic steaming. Steam stimulation, however, is necessary to improve steam injectivity during subsequent steamdrive. Further, in such marginal heavy oil reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterized by thin pay zone and low initial oil saturation) conventional steamdrive (i.e., steam injection using vertical wells) is unlikely to be economical, and nonconventional methods must be utilized. It was found that the use of horizontal injectors and horizontal producers significantly improved the recovery and oil-steam ratio and improved the economics. It is recommended that the applicability of horizontal steam injection technology in this reservoir be further investigated.

Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

1993-12-01

109

Tracing the fate of injected CO{sub 2} during enhanced oil recovery using stable isotope techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable isotope data were used to detect and quantify carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration applications. The study demonstrated that when injected CO{sub 2} is isotopically distinct from CO{sub 2} already present in the reservoir, measurable variations in the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of CO{sub 2} and water can be used to determine the fate of injected CO{sub 2} in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Monitoring data obtained from the Penn West Pembina Cardium CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery monitoring pilot study and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO{sub 2} monitoring and storage project were used to demonstrate the method. Isotopic variations included carbon isotope ratios and oxygen isotope ratios. It was concluded that carbon isotope ratios are an effective means of tracing the movement and reaction of injected CO{sub 2} in mature oil fields. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Johnson, G.; Raistrick, M.; Mayer, B.; Taylor, S.; Shevalier, M.; Nightingale, M.; Hutcheon, I. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

110

Characterization of crude oil-water and solid -water interfaces and adsorption / desorption properties of crude oil fractions: The effect of low salinity water and pH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reservoirs of conventional oil are rapidly depleting because of increased production and consumption of crude oil in the world. Mature and mostly depleted oil reservoirs require advanced recovery techniques to sustain the production rates. During the past years, a variety of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been developed and implemented to increase the oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an emerging EOR process of injecting water containing low concentrations (<4000 ppm) of total dissolved solids into the reservoir. This moderate cost process yields relatively higher incremental recoveries than other water based recovery methods. Investigation of mechanisms for increased recovery is quite challenging because this process depends upon complex crude oil/water/rock properties. This work was done to study the surface chemistry of typical reservoir surfaces where LSW can be used for EOR. The oil water and solid-water interfaces were characterised in low salinity aqueous solutions and investigated how the electrolytes and pH of solutions affect the interfacial and surface properties. The influence of low saline aqueous solution on the desorption behaviour of different fractions (acid-free oil and base-free oil) of crude oils was also explored. Reservoir minerals are sensitive to small changes in solution properties and therefore model, outcrop and reservoir particles were characterized in low salinity aqueous solutions. The extent of ionic adsorption on the mineral surfaces was found by various techniques. Particles were also characterized with respect to their elemental compositions. Asphaltene adsorption/desorption on reservoir rock surfaces play an important role in EOR processes. Various injection sequences of low saline aqueous solution of Na +, Ca2+ and sea water were considered to study the desorption of asphaltenes from silica surfaces. Composition of the aqueous phase influenced the interfacial properties of crude oil. Acids, bases and asphaltenes were selectively removed from crude oils and demonstrated the significance of each component on the interfacial behaviour in the aqueous phase under various electrolyte concentrations, type of electrolytes and pH ranges. It was determined that the crude oil acids and electrolyte type played an important role for interfacial properties at high pH conditions. Adsorption/desorption properties of various crude oil fractions on silica coated quartz surfaces were also studied. The influence of electrolyte types and pH conditions of low salinity aqueous solutions on desorption behaviour of different oil fractions was considered. Finally, the dynamic interfacial behaviour of two different crude oils and their fractions were evaluated in different aqueous solutions. The effects of mono and divalent ionic concentrations on interfacial properties were compared. (Author)

Farooq, Umer

2010-09-15

111

PCA: uma ferramenta para identificação de traçadores químicos para água de formação e água de injeção associadas à produção de petróleo / PCA: a tool for identification of chemical tracers for formation and injection waters associated with oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This study describes the use of Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the chemical composition of water produced from eight oil wells in three different production areas. A total of 609 samples of produced water, and a reference sample of seawater, were characterized according to their levels of [...] salinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium and sulphate (mg L-1) contents, and analyzed by using PCA with autoscaled data. The method allowed the identification of variables salinity, calcium and strontium as tracers for formation water, and variables magnesium and sulphate as tracers for seawater.

Fabiana Alves de Lima, Ribeiro; Guilherme Alvarenga, Mantovani; Ronei Jesus, Poppi; Francisca Ferreira do, Rosário; Maria Carmen Moreira, Bezerra; Andre Luis Mathias, Bastos; Vera Lúcia Alves de, Melo.

1281-12-01

112

Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

113

Displacement of crude oil by water in continuously stratified systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical treatment of the following problem is presented: displacement of oil by water in a linear system with 50 layers of equal thickness; no residual water saturation; log normal permeabillity distribution; the layers having the same characteristics except for permeability; and Buckley-Leverett type displacement in every layer. The necessary formulas are given, and the results represented as curves of recovery vs. cumulative water injection. The results are also compared to those of a Dykstra-Parsons calculation. As expected, the recovery decreases as the nonuniformity of the system increases.

Codreanu, D.; Ioachimciuc, R.

1968-06-01

114

Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum. - This study was conducted to advance our understanding of dispersion chemistry in fresh waters.

115

Method of separating the recovery of fluid and injection of water in a multi-bed site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is proposed for separating fluid recovery and water injection in the joint operation of oil beds by generalized statistical characteristics. The results of separating fluid recovery and injection, as obtained by the proposed method in the Yakushkinskii field, are compared to data on hydrodynamic tests and electro-simulation. 1 table.

Maslyantsev, Yu.V.; Kashchavtsev, V.E.

1977-03-01

116

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturated porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

Bruining, J.; Marchesin, D.; Duijn, C. J.

2003-01-01

117

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturated porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

J. Bruining

2003-01-01

118

Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

119

Microscopic structure of water in a water/oil emulsion  

Science.gov (United States)

We have determined the microscopic structure of water within a water/oil emulsion, by combining neutron diffraction data, exploiting the isotopic H/D substitution, and a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of a portion of a water droplet, containing the water/oil interface. The dependence of the data on the simulation box size and the reliability of the water-water radial distribution functions are discussed. Although water in the emulsion forms shorter and stronger hydrogen bonds compared to pure bulk water, its overall microscopic structure looks more disordered.

Mancinelli, R.; Bruni, F.; Ricci, M. A.; Imberti, S.

2013-05-01

120

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : formation of water-in-oil states from heavy oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of water-in-oil states from heavy oils was examined. Previous studies have demonstrated that viscosity is a significant factor affecting the formation and stability of water-in-oil emulsions. It was suggested that a viscosity window is a necessary requirement for the formation of stable emulsions. Highly viscous oils produce an entrained water state. A stable or meso-stable emulsion is rarely produced by heavy oils. In most cases, heavy oils result in an entrained water-in-oil state that lasts days longer than the entrained water-on-oil state of lighter oils. This can be explained by the lower migration rate of water droplets from a heavy oil compared to that of a light oil. These results were used to conduct an evaluation of the basis for using the stability index. This index provides a quantitative characterization of the stability of an emulsion, under varying formation regimes. The stability factor has been previously defined as the complex modulus of the water-in-oil state after emulsion formation, divided by the starting oil viscosity. It was shown that this stability factor remains a robust indicator, despite being less predictive in the case of heavy oils. The use of the newly developed stability scale produced values that were similar for water-in-oil states of both light and heavy oils. It was concluded that this new stability scale is complex, but the discriminating power over the old stability scale is not better. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figss not better. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

 
 
 
 
121

Explorers Science Experiment - Oil and Water Interactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this experiment is to examine how oil and water interact physically when undisturbed and to examine how this interaction is changed both physically and chemically by the addition of effervescent tablets.

Institute, Marine; Atlantaquaria, Galway

2012-01-01

122

Nuclear reactor with emergency cooling water injection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a PWR one conduit, at least, is provided for injecting water under pressure, providing an emergency tank in case of primary circuit rupture. A channel, thermally isolated from the lining of the reactor vessel, at least at the level of the core, brings the injected water to below the support plate of the core

123

Water injection control device for emergency core cooling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable reliable abnormality detection in the water injection line for emergency core cooling systems, by providing a pair of flow rate detectors to the water injection line and further providing a pair of water injection controllers which are actuated on the flow rate signals obtained from the detectors. Constitution: Water injection pumps, control valves and exit stop valves as dynamic equipments are disposed in the dual system of branched pipeways respectively for the water injection line. A pair of flow rate detection elements are provided to the same location of the water injection line where the two pipeways are joined. The flow signal generators convert the flow rate values obtained in the flow rate detection elements into predetermined electric signals (flow rate signals) respectively and apply them to a pair of water injection controllers. In this arrangement, if one of the two water injection controller systems generates an abnormality the abnormality can surely be detected and backup operation by the other of the system is possible. (Seki, T.)

124

Operation and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Esterified Cotton Seed Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable oils are renewable in nature and can be directly used as fuels in diesel engines.  However, their high viscosity and poor volatility lead to reduced thermal efficiency and increased hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. Transesterification is one of the methods by which viscosity could be drastically reduced and the fuel could be adopted for use in diesel engine.  This Esterified vegetable oil is popularly known as Bio-diesel and that is commercially available in the developed countries due to its distinct advantage over the conventional diesel. In this work, neat cotton seed oil was converted into  Bio diesel  by  the   transesterification  process  and  the  viscosity  was  reduced from 21.4 ×10-6 m2/s to 4.8×10-6 m2/s (viscosity of the neat Cotton seed oil. A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm was used for the experimental investigations which include combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. Base data was generated for diesel first and subsequently, it was replaced by the Bio diesel and both the results were compared and discussed.

Murugu Mohan Kumar Kandasamy

2009-02-01

125

Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

2014-07-15

126

Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR) operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require a...

Mehrnoosh Moradi; Xiuyu Wang; Vladimir Alvarado

2011-01-01

127

Secondary Water Recovery by Air Injection: 3. Evaluation of Feasibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical simulation indicated that secondary water recovery by air injection could be technically feasible in aquifers with thick unsaturated zones, confining top layers, high ratio of horizontal-to-vertical permeability, and low intrinsic permeability, and high irreducible air saturations, i.e., clayey textures. Injection at the top of the unsaturated zone, venting the well to the atmosphere immediately after the end of air injection, low-to-moderate injection rates and large volumes of injected air seemed to enhance water recovery. Simulated water recovery volumes were significantly lower than the recovery estimates based on water level elevations in observation wells during field tests. The model helped interpret some of the observations made during the field tests of secondary water recovery and helped identify areas of inadequacy in available information needed for representative numerical simulations.

Moridis, George J.; Reddell, Donald L.

1991-09-01

128

Study on Advanced Water Injection Time in Low Permeability Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A certain formation pressure level must be kept due to the threshold pressure of the low-permeability reser-voir during the seepage. Advanced water injection can keep the formation pressure at a higher level and keep a higher pressure gradient, which is an effective way to develop low-permeability reservoir. Based on the mechanism of advanced water injection and characteristic of porous flow in low permeability reservoir, a seepage model considering threshold pressure gradient is established to determine the formation pressure distribution at anytime as the water is injected at a constant speed. The optimum water injection time for the advanced water injection technology can be determined by using this model. The calculated result coincides basically with the numerical simulation result, which indicates that the model put forward in this paper is feasible.

Linli Wei

2011-05-01

129

Modelling of water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-in-oil emulsions are grouped into the following four states: stable, mesostable, unstable and entrained water. Only stable and mesostable states are characterized as emulsions. The states are established by their stability over time, their appearance, and by rheological measurements. This paper described the development of a new modelling scheme in which density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin contents are used to compute a class index, which predicts an unstable or entrained water-in-oil state of a meso-stable or stable emulsion. A prediction scheme was also presented to estimate the water content and viscosity of the resulting water-in-oil state and the time to formation given a sea wave-height. The study demonstrated that empirical data can be used to predict the formation and characteristics of emulsions. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

130

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by miscible CO{sub 2} and water flooding of asphaltenic and non-asphaltenic oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO{sub 2} flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years) it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO{sub 2}, after which (> 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO{sub 2} flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 {sup o}C/90 bar and 70 {sup o}C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 {sup o}C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO{sub 2} flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure. (author)

Chukwudeme, E. A.; Hamouda, A. A. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

2009-07-01

131

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

Edwin A. Chukwudeme

2009-09-01

132

Organically modified clay removes oil from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more

133

Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

2013-01-01

134

DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

135

Water Local Volume Fraction on Oil in Water Dispersion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phase distribution of water-oil flows was studied experimentally from a separated flow without mixer to a oil in water or water in oil dispersed in horizontal tubes. Under most conditions the pattern was oil continuous in water dispersed or water continuous in oil dispersed flow continuously and there is entrainment in the form of drops of phase into the other. The investigations were carried out through the cross-sectional phase distribution in the flow of mixtures of water and kerosene such as EXXSOL-D80 in a horizontal 25.4 mm bore stainless steel section. The phase fraction distribution was determined using a traversing beam gamma densitometer, with the beam being traversed in three directions (00, 450 and 900 of the vertical line passing through the axis of the tube. Measurements were made at three positions spaced along the 9.7 m test section length (1.0 m, 5.85 m and 7.72 m along the horizontal tube. The measurements were done in the Two-phase Oil Water Experimental Rig (TOWER facility. This facility allows the two fluids to be fed to the test section before they are separated and returned once more to the test line. The flow developed naturally from an initial stratified flow in which the oil and water were introduced separately at the top and the bottom of the test section respectively. It was found that the liquids were fully inter-dispersed by the end of the test section. The results were also used to define the flow patterns in water-oil liquid-liquid flow system. The phase fraction distribution was shown to be homogeneously mixed near to the outlet of the test section.

siti aslina hussain

2008-01-01

136

Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

2006-03-15

137

Enhanced Oil Recovery by CO2 and CO2-foam Injection in Fractured Limestone Rocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is part of an ongoing study of integrated enhanced oil recovery methods in Reservoir Physics group at the Department of Physics and Technology at the University of Bergen. This experimental thesis investigates through laboratory tests the miscible, liquid CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in an outcrop limestone rock, analogue to carbonate reservoirs. A total of 18 CO2 injection experiments have been performed to study the influence on CO2 EOR from parameters such as presenc...

Langlo, Stig Andre Winter

2013-01-01

138

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

139

Subconjunctival cysts following silicone oil injection: A clinicopathological study of five cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To study the occurrence, risk factors and management of subconjunctival cysts formed following the use of intraocular silicone oil as a tamponade. Methods: We analysed 5 cases of single and multioculated subconjunctival oil cysts between 1986 and 1996. Results: Cysts were observed 15 days to 4 months following silicone oil injection. Clinically they showed minimal inflammatory signs but histopathology of removed cysts showed emulsified silicone oil globules with chronic inflammatory cellular infiltration. Conclusion: Though silicone oil is considered to be nontoxic, it can cause chronic inflammation when spilled into the subconjunctival space

Biswas Jyotirmay

1999-01-01

140

Study on the Determination of Separated Layer Water Injection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How to determine the separated layer water injection is a problem which reservoir engineers concern in flood development oil field. These various influential factors of dividing coefficient method are analyzed in this study. Grey correlation analysis method is used to determine the dominant influential factors. And the weight of different dominant influential factors is determined, which realizes the quantitative comparison among them in dividing coefficient formula. This method considers the...

Junting Zhang; Hongjun Yin; Ye Zhang; Huanhuan Zhang; Jiafeng Teng

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A New Mathematical Model for Pipe Friction Coefficient Inversion in Oilfield Water Injection System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In simulation and operation optimization of oil field water-injection system, pipe friction factors are important parameters. Because pipelines have been corroded and they have been built for a long time, the pipe friction factors have been changed and we need to correct friction factors. Now the optimization model of friction factors inversion is mainly established by using multi-operating mode dates. Because dates of multi-operating mode are not easy to get, it...

Wang Yu-xue; Zhou Shao-hua; Wei Shu-hui; Wang Yin-feng

2013-01-01

142

Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

1999-07-01

143

The reconstitution of powders for injection with ?-irradiated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earlier studies on the use of ?-radiation for the sterilization of water for injections have demonstrated the production of H2O2. The effect of irradiated water on oxidation-susceptible drugs has been tested. The results show that such drugs are not generally degraded by radiation-sterilized water. (author)

144

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

145

Study on Advanced Water Injection Time in Low Permeability Reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A certain formation pressure level must be kept due to the threshold pressure of the low-permeability reser-voir during the seepage. Advanced water injection can keep the formation pressure at a higher level and keep a higher pressure gradient, which is an effective way to develop low-permeability reservoir. Based on the mechanism of advanced water injection and characteristic of porous flow in low permeability reservoir, a seepage model considering threshold pressure gradient is established ...

Linli Wei; Lijun Wang,

2011-01-01

146

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved t...

Tamilvendhan, D.; Ilangovan, V.

2011-01-01

147

Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

Norum, Thomas D.

2004-01-01

148

Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, thved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

149

Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole fracturing injections : slurry product specifications issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of using on-site injection of oil contaminated drill cuttings is attracting considerable attention as a cost effective means of complying with environmental legislation concerning discharges of drilling wastes. The slurrification and injection of oil based cuttings into a casing annulus, a process developed in 1989 by a major oil and gas producer/ operator, has proven to be a significant step toward reduction of such environmental waste. This paper discusses the development of the cuttings reinjection, slurrification, slurry properties and benefits of quality slurry, and behaviour of solid laden slurries in a fracture in conjunction with down-hole disposal operations

150

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Mun?iz, M.

2009-01-01

151

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Inter-well tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Campina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results. (authors)

152

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test, SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test, TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test, information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru M.

2013-05-01

153

Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil reservoir management methodology to maximize both fluid recovery and free up currently injected HC gases for domestic consumption. Moreover, this study identified the main uncertainty parameters impacting the gas and oil production performance with all proposed alternatives. Maximizing both fluids oil and gas in oil rim reservoir are challenging. The reservoir heterogeneity will have a major impact on the performance of non hydrocarbon gas flooding. Therefore, good reservoir description is a key to achieve acceptable development process and make reliable prediction. The lab study data were used successfully to as a tool to identify the range of uncertainty parameters that are impacting the hydrocarbon recovery.

Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

154

Phase equilibria in oil-water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents a selection of results obtained with the FHYD program. This software allows simulation of mixtures composed of petroleum fluids and water, with determination of the nature of thermodynamically stable phases (oil-gas-water-hydrate) under given conditions of temperature and pressure, along with the quantity, composition and properties of these different phases.Additionally, the program can automatically produce phase diagrams. Several examples of these have been included here, ranging from binary systems (water-ethane) and ternary systems (water-methane-propane) to the most complex petroleum fluids. The presence of dissolved salts (sodium chloride) has also been taken into consideration, as well as the calculation of conditions for the deposition of solid salt. A number of petroleum problems are highlighted: water-saturated separator gas, water-saturated oil in reservoir conditions, and oil in the presence of salt water. Estimates for the quantities and the composition of hydrates formed are compared with experimental data and with results obtained using other software. The FHYD program can serve to give a more realistic representation of petroleum fluid behaviour with more accurate determination of the transportation properties of their different phases, which is essential for the new generation of simulation models for multiphase pipeline design and operation. (authors). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Peneloux, A.; Rebufa, C.; Avaullee, L. [Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Centre Universitaire de Luminy; Bernicot, M.; Duchet-Suchaux, P. [Compagnie Francaise des Petroles, 75 - Paris (France)

1996-05-01

155

Melt quenching by water injection from below; co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below were conducted. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was lead-bismuth alloy. For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: 1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and 2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these findings for ALWR (Advanced Light Water Reactor) ex-vessel coolability are discussed. (authors)

Cho, D.H.; Page, R.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Anderson, M.H.; Klochow, H.B.; Corradini, M.L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Abdulla, S.H. [Thermal Systems Lab., Energy and Propulsion Technologies, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

2004-07-01

156

Control system for emergency water injection facility in nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To economize water of the emergency water injection facility by controlling to maintain the reactor water at a normal level upon loss of feedwater accidents or other rapture accidents in the nuclear reactor and controlling to stop the pump driving if the water in the reactor rises to an abnormally high level. Constitution: If the water level in the reactor should be lowered abnormally upon occurrence of rapture accidents or the likes, a switch for detecting the abnormal level lowering is actuated to drive a pump. The water level in the reactor can thus be maintained at a normal level. As the result of water injection, if the water level in the reactor goes abnormally high, a switch for detecting the abnormal level increase is actuated to operate a stopping circuit to close the valve and stop the pump driving. (Kawakami, Y.)

157

Emergency water injection mechanism for a nuclear reactor primary loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A water injection mechanism for the emergency cooling of a reactor core is disclosed in which the passage of cooling water during an emergency and cooling of the core are assured despite rupture of any point of the loop. Flow meters are provided at the main steam pipe, recirculating pump check valve and the down pressure tube of the reactor core and automatically operable water injection valves are installed at the upper and lower headers. Should a rupture develop in the loop, a transducer upon receipt of a rupture signal generated by a sudden increase or reversal in the flow meter values automatically cause the appropriate water injection valves to open and direct a stream of water toward the reactor core. (Owens, K.J.)

158

Oil production in shallow reservoirs by carbon dioxide injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, there is a great deal of interest in carbon dioxide for the recovery of both heavy and light oils. This work deals with the efficiency of gaseous carbon dioxide as a recovery agent for moderately viscous oils. The study gives model results, and compares and contrasts the findings with laboratory and field test observations, pointing out the range of conditions over which carbon dioxide is likely to be effective. Also, the current status of carbon dioxide for light oils is considered. 27 references.

Klins, M.A.; Farouq Ali, S.M.

1981-01-01

159

Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working bl...

Ren, Hong-yan; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-ping

2011-01-01

160

In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

Robertson, Eric P

2011-05-24

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of ultrasonic waves on the interfacial forces between oil and water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ultrasound on flow through a capillary using the pendant drop method was investigated. Water was injected into a 0.1 mm Hastelloy C-276 capillary tube submersed into several mineral oils with different viscosity, and kerosene. The average drop rate per minute was measured at several ultrasonic intensities. We observed that there exists a peak drop rate at a characteristic intensity, which strongly depends on oil viscosity and the interfacial tension between water and the oil. The semi-quantitative results reveal that the remarkable change in the interfacial forces between oil and water could be the explanation to the enhancement of oil recovery when the ultrasonic waves are applied. PMID:17981069

Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

2008-04-01

162

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

163

Laboratory investigation of air injection process for depleted light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air injection into light oil reservoirs is now a proven field technique, because of its unlimited availability and low access cost of the injectant. Laboratory experimental set up was developed to understand air injection process, assess oxygen consumption and to sustain the combustion front for improving oil recovery from depleted light oil reservoirs. Non-Isothermal experiments from 40-500 degree C and a pressure of 300 and 500 psig were conducted. Unconsolidated formation impregnated with light crude oil was used in these experiments. Oxidation of the impregnated formation for sustaining the combustion front through the combustion cell carried out by injecting synthetic air (79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen). The produced combustion gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen and nitrogen were analyzed using Gas Chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector. Higher consumption of oxygen was observed at a temperature immediately after an ignition of oil, generating high temperature oxidation zone. This also resulted more efficient carbon oxides, and created an oil bank ahead of thermal front. (author)

164

Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. In order to meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling and foaming the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years. In order to inhibit gas hydrate formation in subsea pipelines monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and to evaluate their impact on marine life. Furthermore distribution of chemicals is important information for downstream processing of oil and gas. The purpose of this project is the experimental measurement and the thermodynamic modeling of distribution of these complex chemicals in oil-water systems. Traditionally distribution of chemicals in oil-water system is calculated using octanol-water partition coefficients. But experiments carried out by StatoilR & D have shown that octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) do not always mimic oil-water partition coefficients (Koil-water) and therefore calculations may not be always correct. In the first phase of this project experimental data on Kow, Koil-water and Khw (hexane-water partition coefficients) are collected and investigations were carried out to develop correlations so that Koil-water can be predicted using Kow and Khw. However, due to scarcity of experimental data and limited information about the molecular structure of production chemicals the correlation could only be obtained for few families like alcohols, glycols and alkanolamines with varying degree of reliability. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. When methanol and MEG are used as gas hydrate inhibitors, the most significant disadvantage, especially for methanol, is their loss in hydrocarbon phase(s). The successful estimation of inhibitor loss would enable the inhibitors injection optimization as a function of the system parameters such as temperature and water cut. In this project the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol, MEG) in various phases is modeled using the CPA EoS. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems containing mixture-1 over a range of temperature and pressure. Similarly the methanol content in gas phase of mixture-1 + water + methanol systems is predicted satisfactorily with accuracy in the range of experimental uncertainty. For VLLE of mixture-2 + water, mixture-2 + MEG + water and mixture-2 + methano

Riaz, Muhammad

2011-01-01

165

Phase behaviour of China reservoir oil at different CO{sub 2} injected concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high-pressure PVT unit was used in this study to investigate the phase behaviour of oil from a reservoir in China. The study examined different carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection concentrations at 385.2 K. Seven groups of reservoir fluids with CO{sub 2} mole contents ranging from 0 to 71.29 percent were prepared. The saturation pressure of reservoir fluids and CO{sub 2} solubility in oil for seven CO{sub 2} injected contents were measured from PVT relation curves. The reservoir oil density and viscosity at different pressures under reservoir temperature were also obtained. The study showed that the saturation pressure increases with an increase in CO{sub 2} concentration, and that it can increase from 4.7 MPa to 25.7 MPa after 71.29 mol percent of injected CO{sub 2}. The reservoir viscosities decrease as CO{sub 2} concentration increases when the system pressure rises above the bubble point for different injection concentrations. The reservoir viscosity can decrease by 70 percent if 71.29 mol CO{sub 2} is injected. It was concluded that the results of this study will be useful in evaluating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection as an enhanced oil recovery method. tabs., figs.

Yang, X.; Sun, C.Y.; Tang, X.L.; Peng, B.Z.; Chen, G.J. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing

2010-07-01

166

Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

167

Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

Mehrnoosh Moradi

2011-07-01

168

Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of formations at elevated water injection pressures in water intake wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of high and low water injection pressures was studied in Romashkino field. Pressure fall-off curves and water intake profiles were determined for several water injection wells. When water injection pressure was increased from 130 to 250 kg/sq cm water intake rates increased 10 times. Permeability of the well-bore area increased more than permeability of distant areas, as injection pressure was increased. Pressure fall-off data were analyzed, and it is concluded that the permeability increase at higher water injection pressures cannot be satisfactorily explained on the basis of: (1) opening of formation fractures; or (2) water invasion of previously noninvaded zones. It is suggested that additional study of this phenomenon is necessary. (13 refs.)

Diyashev, R.N.; Zainullin, N.G.

1970-09-01

169

The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation of continuous CO2 flooding with uniform initial water saturation. As a follow-up of the previous study, this study extends theinvestigation to two more realistic scenarios (1) CO2 injection into water flooded reservoir and (2) water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection with CO2 as the injection gas. A series of 1-D simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different factors, including temperature, pressure, salinity, water injection pore volume, WAG ratio and CO2 slug size, on the simulation results was also discussed. In addition, the results for CO2 injection into water flooded reservoirs were also compared with those from the previous study.

Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

2010-01-01

170

Role of resins, asphaltenes and aromatics on water-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following primary and secondary oil recovery, the remaining oil within the reservoir can be trapped by capillary forces within a network of rock pores. Tertiary oil recovery can then be based upon carbon dioxide flooding, alkaline flooding, steam injection and chemical flooding-with polymers or surfactants. However, surfactants can only be useful if they are soluble in the aqueous phase at reservoir temperature, salinity and pH. Surfactants are only modestly adsorbed on the reservoir rock and are responsible for oil-water emulsions, phase equilibria, surface tensions and viscosities. Maximum additional oil-phase displacement can be achieved when the correct surfactant blend is selected. This presentation included a table demonstrating the composition of middle phase emulsions formed with brine. GC-HPLC, phase equilibria, conductivity, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to determine how the asphaltene-resinous-aromatic content of crude oils affect the ease of formation of water-oil emulsions. The study showed that the ratio of water to oil in the emulsions formed depends on the proportion of asphaltenes and resins in the oil. This information can be used to ensure that the ratio reaches a plateau in production, thus optimizing oil production.

Jones, C.; Sermon, P.A.; Skidmore, P.G.; Collins, I.R. [Surrey Univ., Sunbury (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

2008-07-01

171

Radiating chemical decomposition of oil hydrocarbons in water environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Water resources purification problems from natural oil and mineral oils has an important value as for extracting additional oil resources from oilcontained waste waters, so for safeguard of water resources from pollution. For the past 150 years there were 250 artificial lakes formed on the territory of Absheron peninsula of Azerbaijan as a result of oil deposits exploitation, concentration of which sometimes exceeds 25 mg/l. Every year enterprises of Azerbaijan oil industry reset more than 4-5 tons of waste waters to an environment during production of 1 ton of oil. Taking into account the fact that the larger danger for environment represents an oil slicks and emulsified mineral oils in it, the possibility of application of ionizing radiation for mineral oils of waste waters becomes the more important circumstance during solving of some ecological problems. The possibilities radiation-chemical technology application while purification of waste waters from oil pollutions had been studied and also it is studied some legitimacies of radiation-chemical molding of oil hydrogens in water sphere. In case of radiation purification of water from oil impurities it is possible the radiation-chemical molding of oil hydrogens during the process and removal of molding products from water. Data given in this article proves that there are happens an effective interaction between active particles of different origin.

172

Modeling of Ion Injection in Oil-Pressboard Insulation Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To make a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission more energy efficient, the voltage of the system has to be increased. To allow for that the components of the system must be constructed to handle the increases AC and DC stresses that this leads to. One key component in such a transmission is the HVDC converter transformer. The insulation system of the transformer usually consists of oil and oil-impregnated pressboard. Modeling of the electric DC field in the insulation system is curr...

Sonehag, Christian

2012-01-01

173

Study of an Oil Field (Hassi Messaoud) by Injection of Tritiated Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas is injected into a deposit to increase the yield of oil contained in the rock and to maintain the pressure of the fluids at a value sufficient for the wells to remain naturally eruptive. The efficiency of this technique depends mainly on establishing a uniform displacement front in spite of heterogeneities. When the gas is injected simultaneously into several wells, the gas-oil displacement can be checked only if the origin of the gas reaching the producer wells is known with certainty. This is achieved by mixing with the gas from each of the injection wells a radioactive tracer whose path in the oil-bearing rock faithfully reproduces the movement of the gas-oil front. The tracers used are tritiated methane, ethane, propane and butane, which are injected respectively into four wells in amounts of up to 200 Ci. The distance separating each injection well from a producer well is considerable (1-6 km) and the oil volume is great, so that the radioactive tracer undergoes very marked dilution during its displacement. For industrial-scale detection of the arrival of the different tracers at the producers, it is therefore necessary to use very sensitive methods. Samples of oil are taken at the head of the producers at a pressure of approx. 50 kg/cm2. The gas in solution in the oil is separated into four fractions, which are respectively rich in C1, C2, C3 and C4 with a degree of purity better than 90%. The beta radia of purity better than 90%. The beta radiation of each of the fractions is then measured using a double-envelope proportional counter placed in a lead container and connected to an anti-coincidence counting system. The long-term possibility of isotopic exchange between the different tracers and the hydrocarbons present in the rock were studied experimentally under the conditions of pressure and temperature at the deposit. (author)

174

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs

175

Comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas versus conventional oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) for oil versus gas production within the Eagle Ford shale. We then compared HF water use for Eagle Ford oil with Bakken oil, both plays accounting for two-thirds of U.S. unconventional oil production in 2013. In the Eagle Ford, we found similar average water use in oil and gas zones per well (4.7-4.9 × 10(6) gallons [gal]/well). However, about twice as much water is used per unit of energy (water-to-oil ratio, WOR, vol water/vol oil) in the oil zone (WOR: 1.4) as in the gas zone (water-to-oil-equivalent-ratio, WOER: 0.6). We also found large differences in water use for oil between the two plays, with mean Bakken water use/well (2.0 × 10(6) gal/well) about half that in the Eagle Ford, and a third per energy unit. We attribute these variations mostly to geological differences. Water-to-oil ratios for these plays (0.6-1.4) will further decrease (0.2-0.4) based on estimated ultimate oil recovery of wells. These unconventional water-to-oil ratios (0.2-1.4) are within the lower range of those for U.S. conventional oil production (WOR: 0.1-5). Therefore, the U.S. is using more water because HF has expanded oil production, not because HF is using more water per unit of oil production. PMID:25233450

Scanlon, B R; Reedy, R C; Nicot, J-P

2014-10-21

176

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field

177

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

178

Comparison of asymmetric with symmetric feed oil injection parameters in a riser reactor.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code was used to determine the effects of product yields of three feed injection parameters in a fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) riser reactor. This study includes the effects of both symmetrical and non-symmetrical injection parameters. All these parameters have significant effects on the feed oil spray distribution, vaporization rates and the resulting product yields. This study also indicates that optimum parameter ranges exist for the investigated parameters.

Bowman, B. J.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

1999-04-20

179

Nuclear-energy application studied as source of injection steam for heavy-oil recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study into the feasibility of adapting a well-proven nuclear reactor as a centralized source of injection steam for the recovery of heavy oil has shown that the reactor modifications are practicable and well within the bounds of current technology. The gas-cooled reactor is capable of meeting the highest steam supply pressure requirement and it possesses a high degree of inherent safety. The injection of steam for the recovery of heavy oil is the most well developed of the available options. At current price levels of oil and uranium, nuclear heat can be generated at a fraction of the running costs of oil fired thermal plant. Taken over a project lifetime of 25 years for the field model used for this assessment, the improved earnings for the nuclear option could amount to as much as /10 billion. The program requirements for a typical development have been examined and the construction times for the gas reactor steam plant, the oil-field development and the upgrading plant are compatible at between five and six years. The economic advantage of steam generation by nuclear energy gives a further recovery breakthrough. It becomes possible to continue the steam drive process up to much more adverse recovery ratios of steam quantity injected for unit oil produced if nuclear energy is employed

180

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

 
 
 
 
181

Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

Mac Dowall, J.

1969-01-01

182

Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

183

OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright with development ongoing and a commercialization plan in place. We expect that this DOE sponsored technology will be a major technical and commercial success story in the coming years.

Michael Wilt

2004-02-01

184

Correlation Study Between Streaming Potential Signal and Waterfront Progression During Water Alternate Gas (WAG Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous Potential (SP is commonly measured during reservoir characterization. The SP signals are also generated during hydrocarbon production due to the streaming potential occurrence. Measurement of streaming potential has been previously proposed to detect the water encroachment towards a production well. The objectives of this study are to quantify the magnitude of the SP signal during production by WAG injection and to investigate the possibility of using SP measurements to monitor the sweep efficiency. The peak of the signal corresponds to the waterfront, where there is a change of saturation from ionic water to non-polar hydrocarbon. Similar trend is predicted in the case of WAG, where we have several interfaces between the injected water and the injected gas. This project involves numerical modeling and experimental work. Results from the experimental work will be used in the simulation work to correlate the measured SP signals with the distance of the waterfront in the WAG process. These observations suggest that WAG displacement process can be monitored indirectly from the signal acquired. Water or gas override can be detected and controlled if wells were equipped with inflow-control valves. This study is significant because monitoring the progress of water and gas in a WAG process is key in the effectiveness of this enhanced oil recovery method. Measurement of the streaming potential provides another method besides using tracers to monitor the WAG profile. Better monitoring will lead to more efficient displacement and great benefits in term of economy and environment.

S.M.M. Anuar

2014-01-01

185

Bio-physicochemical treatment of oil contaminated sea water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article introduces a combined physicochemical and biological process for treatment of oil contaminated sea water. In this process, a new polymeric surfactant is successfully applied with a dosage of 0.0015 g/g of crude oil to accumulate oil spots on the sea water in a microcosm. In the next step, microbial degradation of accumulated oil spots using isolated bacteria from oil contaminated Caspian Sea water was studied. The results of a proposed process for treatment of contaminated sea water in a pilot scale, using a 1500-l microcosm with several basins at different conditions are presented

186

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

187

Enhancement of Spin Injection into Graphene by Water Dipping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We immerse single layer graphene spin valves into purified water for a short duration (<1 min) and investigate the effect on spin transport. Following water immersion, we observe an enhancement in nonlocal magnetoresistance. Additionally, the enhancement of spin signal is correlated with an increase in junction resistance, which produces an increase in spin injection efficiency. This study provides a simple way to improve the signal magnitude and establishes the robustness o...

Mccreary, K. M.; Wen, Hua; Yu, H.; Han, Wei; Johnston-halperin, E.; Kawakami, R. K.

2011-01-01

188

Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

2002-01-01

189

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23

190

Evaluating the injectivity pattern of water injection wells and the state of the producing string from temperature surveys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Temperature surveys and water injectivity surveys were run in several water-injection wells. Each temperature survey curve had 3 distinct sections. The first section showed condition of the well bore, the second section reflected conditions around the perforations, and the third section reflected conditions below the perforations. By comparing the water-injectivity survey and the temperature survey, it was possible to interpret characteristic curvatures in the temperature curve. The temperature survey indicates condition of the tubing, water injectivity rate of a well, and presence of leaks in the seal at the tube bottom. Typical temperature surveys from several wells are shown, and an interpretation of the temperature curves is given.

Martirosyan, V.B.

1971-01-01

191

Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

1976-10-01

192

Injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents an introduction to beam injection. Especially considered are single-turn injection, multi-turn injection, H- charge-exchange injection, and injection from a cyclotron into a synchrotron. Finally some novel injection schemes are briefly mentioned. (HSI)

193

A simplified approach for the simulation of water-in-oil emulsions in gravity separators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new method of simulating 3-phase flow separation processes in a crude oil product was presented. The aim of the study was to increase the liquid capacity of the vessels and develop methods of testing variable flow entry procedures. The simulated system was based on gravity separation. Oil well streams were injected into large tanks where gas, oil and water were separated under the action of inertia and gravity. An interface tracking technique was combined with a Euler-Euler model developed as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Emulsion physics were modelled by interface tracking between the gas and oil-in-water liquid mixture. Additional scalar transport equations were solved in order to account for the diffusive process between the oil and water. Various settling velocity models were used to consider the settling of the dispersed water phase in oil. Changes in viscosity and non-Newtonian emulsion behaviour were also considered. The study showed that the interface tracking technique accurately predicted flow when combined with an emulsion model designed to account for the settling of water in the oil phase. Further research is now being conducted to validate computational results against in situ measurements. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

Lakehal, D.; Narayanan, C. [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland); Vilagines, R.; Akhras, A.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research and Development Center

2009-07-01

194

Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup. PMID:22607241

Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

2012-06-26

195

Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of wateržoil emulsified fuel (W/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to study indirectly the physical effects of wat...

Samec, Niko; Kegl, Breda; Dibble, Robert W.

2012-01-01

196

Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

2012-07-01

197

EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL  

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Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cyl...

Mahalingam, S.; Rameshbapu, B. R.

2014-01-01

198

Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

Seibert, D. L.

1985-08-13

199

Oil-based formulation as a sustained-released injection for a novel synthetic peptide.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, sustained-released injections in which therapeutic peptides were solubilized in oils were developed and their releasing characteristics in vitro and in vivo were investigated. As the presence interaction of cationic charged peptide LXT-101 with negative charged phospholipid, phospholipid-peptide complex formed which displayed altered solubility properties of LXT-101. The technology process involved steps that aqueous solution of LXT-101 and empty SUV (small unilamellar liposomes) containing EPC (phosphatidylcholine) and DPPG (1, 2-dipalmitog-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) were mixed at appropriate ratio and subsequently lyophilized, then upon addition of oil, the lyophilizes formed a clear oily solution containing solubilized peptide. By the method of atomic force microscopy combined with Langmuir-Blodgett technology, the morphology of particles in oily solution were examined which exhibited oval-shaped and mean particle size of 150 nm. In vitro behavior in the medium of pure water at 37? showed that 70~90 % of LXT-101 was released slowly from the oily formulation over 7 days. The data indicated that an effectively sustained suppression of testosterone could be achieved over a period of seven days in vivo after LXT-101 oily formulation administration by i.m. at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg (2 mg/ml), while aqueous solution maintained only one day. It was also found interestingly that when the concentration of peptide LXT-101 was up to or over 10 mg/ml in aqueous solution, there was no significant difference between the oily formulation and aqueous solution, which meant that LXT-101 itself could maintain sustained release in vivo due to the peptide LXT-101 self-assembly into nanofibers. PMID:25391244

Zhang, Guiying; Li, Jinglai; Wang, Tao; Gao, Lijun; Quan, Dongqin

2014-11-10

200

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

Science.gov (United States)

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for different conditions will be shown and predictions of the growth rate will be discussed.

Soto, Enrique; Zenit, Roberto; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University via test and analyses. In this paper, experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below are addressed. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was molten lead or a lead alloy (Pb-Bi). For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: (1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with lumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and (2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these current experimental findings for ALWR ex-vessel coolability are discussed

202

Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University via test and analyses. In this paper, experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below are addressed. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was molten lead or a lead alloy (Pb-Bi). For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: (1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and (2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these current experimental findings for ALWR ex-vessel coolability are discussed.

Cho, Dae H. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Division, 9700 S. Cass, Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: cho@anl.gov; Page, Richard J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Division, 9700 S. Cass, Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Abdulla, Sherif H. [Thermal Systems Lab, Energy and Propulsion Technologies, GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Anderson, Mark H. [Wisconsin Institute for Nuclear Systems, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr. Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Klockow, Helge B. [Thermal Systems Lab, Energy and Propulsion Technologies, GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Corradini, Michael L. [Wisconsin Institute for Nuclear Systems, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr. Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2006-10-15

203

Spontaneous Formation of Water Droplets at Oil-Solid Interfaces  

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We report observations of spontaneous formation of micrometer-sized water droplets within micrometer-thick films of a range of different oils (isotropic and nematic 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), and silicone, olive and corn oil) that are supported on glass substrates treated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and immersed under water. Confocal imaging was used to determine that the water droplets nucleate and grow at the interface between the oils and OTS-treated glass with a contact an...

Yang, Zhongqiang; Abbott, Nicholas L.

2010-01-01

204

Evaluation of centrifugal compressor performance with water injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of water injection on a compressor are presented. To determine the effects of varying water-air ratio, the compressor was operated at a constant equivalent impeller speed over a range of water-air ratios and weight flows. Operation over a range of weight flows at one water-air ratio and two inlet air temperatures was carried out to obtain an indication of the effects of varying inlet air temperature. Beyond a water-air ratio of 0.03 there was no increase in maximum air-weight flow, a negligible rise in peak total-pressure ratio, and a decrease in peak adiabatic efficiency. An increase in inlet air temperature resulted in an increase in the magnitude of evaporation. An analysis of data indicated that the magnitude of evaporation within the compressor impeller was small.

Beede, William L; Hamrick, Joseph T; Withee, Joseph R , Jr

1951-01-01

205

Modelling the effect of gas injections on the stability of asphaltene-containing crude oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In oil fields where asphaltene deposits occur, they present major remediation problems and can halt production due to flow blockage. Crude oils which precipitate asphaltenes generally contain both asphaltene molecules and lighter resin molecules. Resins are thought to solvate the asphaltene molecules, thus stabilizing the solution, while light gases have the opposite effect. In order to model asphaltene phase behaviour, it is important to understand the impact of adding gas to asphaltene-containing crudes. This study presented several experimental investigations of gas injection into asphaltene-containing crudes. The trends of asphaltene destabilization were discussed. The injection gases ranged from pure gases to a gas condensate. The data were modelled using a conventional equation of state together with an extra term that considered the association between asphaltene molecules and their solvation by resins. Since the model could simultaneously described the gas, oil and asphaltene phases, it was possible to calculate phase stability and phase equilibria. However, a different model had to be used to obtain the gas-oil equilibrium because the use of solubility parameters only allows the stability of the asphaltene phase to be calculated. The model correctly predicted that the gases will promote asphaltene precipitation. In its original form, the model tended to over-predict the trend. The optimal parameter values needed to represent all the available experimental data were determined. The extent to which the effect of gas injection on asphaltenes can be predicted was then discussed.

Zhang, X.; Moorwood, T. [Infochem, Munich (Germany); Merino Garcia, D.; Pena Diez, J.L. [Repsol YPF, Madrid (Spain)

2008-07-01

206

A refining system used to treat hydrogen-sulfide-containing formation water at the ''Suleevneft'' oil and gas production administration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The initial drainage of formation water in horizontal sumps under differential pressure is described. As a result of this process, a need for oil pumps arises. Because of the stable injection of demulsifier in the clustered measuring devices as it approaches a thermochemical device, the emulsion separates into oil and water. A sealed formation water purification system makes it possible to significantly decrease the corrosion speed of the water conduits. This scheme is particularly essential in purifying hydrogen-sulfide-containing formation waters.

Tachaev, V.A.; Lazarev, E.D.; Nurgaliev, F.N.

1981-01-01

207

Mercury ion responsive wettability and oil/water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel Hg(2+) responsive oil/water separation mesh with poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel coating is reported. The mesh can separate oil and water because of the superhydrophilicity of the poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel coating on the mesh, and switch the wettability based on the chelation between Hg(2+) and poly(acrylic acid) . The reversible change in oil contact angle of as-prepared mesh is about 149° after immersion in Hg(2+) solution. This mesh is an ideal candidate for oil-polluted water purification, especially for water that contains Hg(2+) contaminant. PMID:25110804

Xu, Liangxin; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lu, Fei; Chen, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Feng, Lin; Wei, Yen

2014-08-27

208

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters thanvalues of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

209

Foam as an agent to reduce gravity override effect during gas injection in oil reservoirs. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-dimensional, vertical, rectangular plexiglas model holding a 45-1/2 in. high by 11-3/8 in. wide by 1/4 in. thick sandpack (1.147 x 0.237 x 0.008 m) was used to investigate gravity override of injected gases in gas drive processes. Saturation of the sandpack by a surfactant solution instead of pure water sharply increased liquid recovery and breakthrough time in a nitrogen flooding process. The improvement in production was shown to be due to a reduction of gravity override caused by in-situ generation of foam at the gas-liquid interface. Solutions of two different surfactants (Suntech IX and IV) of various concentrations with different amounts of alcohol were studied to determine their effectiveness as foamers. Surface tension and rate of drainage of the foamers as functions of surfactant concentration were measured. In-situ foaming in the model increased generally with surfactant concentration until an optimum concentration was reached; above this concentration, additional amounts of surfactant had very little effect on the phenomenon. Alcohols seem to improve the performance of low molecular weight surfactants and exhibitied a negative effect on the others. A similar increase of recovery and delay in the breakthrough time was observed in the oil flooding process. A slug of surfactant solution was injected into the pack which was saturated with a white mineral oil and water at irreducible water saturation, and then nitrogen was injected. Gravity override was much less than in the cases when no surfactant was present.

Chiang, J.C.; Sanyal, S.K.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.; Shah, D.O.

1980-08-01

210

Impact of iodized oil injection during pregnancy on thyroid function tests of offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that injection of iodized oil in pregnant women can be used as a prophylactic strategy for iodine deficiency disorders and may improve the growth indices of their offspring. Since administration of pharmacological doses of iodine may lead occasionally to large goiter and rarely to hypothyroidism, in the present study the thyroid function tests of neonates and infants born to women who had received 480 mg iodized oil intramuscularly during pregnancy were assessed and compared to those of a control group. Off 277 cord blood samples obtained from Mazandaran and Khohkiluyeh-Boyerahmad provinces, 125 made up the case (injected) and 152 the control (non-injected) group. Of 1026 blood samples of the neonates and infants from Mazandaran province. 544 made up the case and 482 the control group. Serum T4, T3 and TSH concentrations were measured with RIA kits. in the cord blood samples, mean serum T4 in cases who had received iodized oil was lower than that of the control group:140± 32 vs. 149± 33 nmol/L, respectively; p3 and TSH were not however different. In the neonates and infants, T4 and T3 concentrations were significantly higher in the case than control group:178± 40 vs. 168± and 3.5±0,02 nmol/L, respectively, both p3 and decreased TSH were seen in infants of mothers who were injected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Injection of iodized oil in pregnant women does not cause hypothyroidism in the offsprings, however it does cause a transient increase in serum thyroid hormones and a decrease in TSH concentrations

211

Experimental study of low flow steam injection into subcooled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an experimental study of low-flow vapor injection, three different modes of steam chugging were observed. For one of these modes, the encapsulating bubble chug, photos are presented from detailed motion pictures of the steam/water interface; and the pressure oscillations at the pool solid boundaries are plotted. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic motion is not severely affected by the heat transfer except when turbulence is generated at the interface. 9 refs

212

The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates the water footprint of Spanish olives and olive oil over the period 1997-2008. In particular, it analyses the three colour components of the water footprint: green (rainwater stored in the soil), blue (surface and groundwater) and grey (freshwater required to assimilate load of pollutants). Apparent water productivity and virtual water embedded in olive oil exports have also been studied. Results show more than 99.5% of the water footprint of one liter of bottled olive oi...

Salmoral Portillo, Gloria; Aldaya, Maite M.; Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto; Llamas Madurga, Manuel Ramo?n

2011-01-01

213

Conceptual design of safety injection tanks using saturated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) which is the one of Safety Injection System (SIS) play an important role in mitigating the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). APR1400 has the advanced 4 SITs directly connected to a reactor vessel. We expect the capacity of the SITs is getting more important since the coolant from SITs equipped with a FD during LBLOCA can replace the injection from low pressure safety injection pumps (LPSIPs). In designing a larger capacity SIT, we may have three problems; the excessively large volume for pressurized N2 gas, which is about 1/3 of the total volume, the difficulties controlling injection flowrate and the solubility of the non-condensable N2 gas in the coolant. In here, there is the contradiction which is 'there must be nitrogen gas for pressurization but there must not be nitrogen gas for more coolant.' For this problem, the axiomatic design (AD) theory enabled us to define or regularize the intrinsic problem which is termed the coupling and the contradiction. TRIZ facilitates creating solutions on the contradiction. This study proposes a conceptual design of SITs which are pressurized by steam from the saturated water as a demonstration of the conceptual design framework, AD theory and TRIZ. The purpose of this conceptual design is to increase coolant volume and to reduce N2 gas volume in SITs. In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design, we derived an aty of the proposed design, we derived an analytical model to find the heat loss of saturated water and thermo-hydraulic safety analysis using MARS3.1. To confirm the safety and integrity of core, we conducted LBLOCA simulation to find peak cladding temperature (PCT) of design using the proposed SITs comparing with the conventional SITs. From the analysis results, the benefits of the new SIT design were observed in terms of the PCT, the quenching time and the size. And the new SIT design may enable emergency core cooling water to be injected efficiently and can be applicable to SIT which has smaller size than the existing and simplified design of SIS

214

Flow oscillations induced by subcooled water injection into steam flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Condensation of steam occurs when subcooled water is injected into steam flow in pipe, and steam-water condensing flow oscillates under a certain condition. The mechanisms of the oscillations and also the predominant parameters to them were made clear through both small scale simulation experiments and simplified analyses. Oscillation threshold was analyzed using the linear stability criterion. Frequencies of both plug oscillation and ON-OFF oscillation were analyzed basing on the linear oscillation theory and on a simplified analytical model, respectively. The analyses were also applied to explain the experiments by Akimoto et al. and CREARE. Heat transfer coefficients at direct contact condensation during oscillation were also discussed

215

Sensitivities to Component Characterizations of Heavy Oil Viscosity in Numerical Reservoir Simulation of Steam-Injection Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work examines heavy oil viscosity modelling during simulation of steam injection processes, such as steam-line-drive and SAGD, and the sensitivity of oil recovery predictions to the uncertainty in the oil viscosity. Analytical models to predict the sensitivity have been developed, confirmed by numerical simulation. Heavy oil compositional component viscosities are modelled with the Free Volume model. The model is extended in this thesis to estimate the viscosities of long-chain n-alka...

La Porte, Jacoba

2013-01-01

216

Oil biodegradation. Water droplets in oil are microhabitats for microbial life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons, typically occurring at the oil-water transition zone, influences the quality of oil reservoirs. In Pitch Lake, Trinidad and Tobago--the world's largest asphalt lake--we found that microorganisms are metabolically active in minuscule water droplets (1 to 3 microliters) entrapped in oil. Pyrotag sequencing of individual droplet microbiomes revealed complex methanogenic microbial communities actively degrading the oil into a diverse range of metabolites, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. High salinity and water-stable isotopes of the droplets indicate a deep subsurface origin. The 13.5% water content and the large surface area of the droplets represent an underestimated potential for biodegradation of oil away from the oil-water transition zone. PMID:25104386

Meckenstock, Rainer U; von Netzer, Frederick; Stumpp, Christine; Lueders, Tillmann; Himmelberg, Anne M; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philipp; Harir, Mourad; Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

2014-08-01

217

Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) present promising ''greener'' substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported in the literature, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. Experiments were also conducted using various blends of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), smoke opacity, CO2, CO and HC emissions. Wty, CO2, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on Jatropha oil (preheated and blends), performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior. (author)

218

Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

None

1982-02-01

219

Effect of an in-situ-produced oil shale processing water on metabolism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effect of an in-situ produced oil shale processing water on metabolism and on liver enzyme activities in rats were studied by allowing rats to consume retort water. When rats were injected with sodium hexobarbital, at 125 mg/kg of body weight, the length of sleep time in rats drinking retort water was less than control rats drinking tap water. Sodium hexobarbital was metabolized by liver homogenates in vitro at a faster rate by rats drinking retort water than those drinking tap water. In-vivo and in-vitro studies showed no change in the rate of metabolism of zoxazolamine pretreated with retort water. Ethylmorphine demethylation activity was significantly increased in liver microsomes obtained from rats maintained on retort water. Concentrations of terminal cytochrome P-450 were considerably higher in animals pretreated with retort water, but protein levels were not significantly higher. The data indicate that retort water is a Type I inducer.

Nelson, K.F. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie); Poulson, R.E.

1978-01-01

220

HYDERAULIC/CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING GROUND-WATER RECHARGE BY INJECTION.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground-water recharge by injection of reclaimed water is a feasible method of improving ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer system in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Franciso Bay. Ground water was initially more saline than sea water. Reclaimed water was injected at a rate of 10 gallons per minute from June 5, 1980, to July 1, 1980. At the completion of injection, water from an observation well 31 feet from the injection well was 98 percent injected water - in essence, fresh water. An abrupt rise in the water level in the injection well of about 1. 5 feet during the initial injection test was the result of a 3. 5 percent density difference between injected fresh water and saline ground water. The arrival of injected water at observation wells showed the same effect, allowing monitoring of chemical and hydraulic changes entirely through water-level data. Prior to injection the saline ground water was super-saturated withn calcite. Dilution, as injection proceeded, eventually produced an undersaturation of calcite. An increase in well specific capacity indicates that calcite dissolved from the aquifer matrix, improving hydraulic conductivity.

Hamlin, Scott N.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Water-in-oil emulsification and development of model EMU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil-spill at sea represents one of the greatest threats for the environment. Immediately after occurence of an oil-spill several physical, chemical and biological processes occur, among which the process of emulsification is one of the most important. Emulsified oil is very difficult to clean; therefore, understnding of the emulsification processes is of great importance for successful clean-up. Preconditions for formation of water-in-oil emulsion are adequate chemical conditions ...

Kvoc?ka, Davor

2013-01-01

222

Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly ...

Nikolovski Branislava G.; Ili? Jelena D.; Sovilj Milan N.; Nikoli? Milan P.; Milanovi? Jadranka L.

2011-01-01

223

Performance of Scroll-Type Helium Compressor with Oil Injection Cooling Device  

Science.gov (United States)

In the cryoelectronics field where the helium gas is utilized as a working field, rotary-type and reciprocating-type compressors are popular for the discharge capacity of less than 200Nm3/h and screw-type compressor for a larger capacity. In this study, scroll-type fluid machinery, featuring both high efficiency and high reliability, is applied to a helium compressor with the discharge capacity of 50 Nm3/h. Experimental investigations are performed about oil injection cooling methods and improvement of the compression efficiency. As a result, a volumetric efficiency of 92 % and an overall adiabatic efficiency of 79 % are obtained under the condition of a theoretical compression ratio of 5.2 by a developed scroll compressor with a nominal motor output 2.2 kW. At the same time an effective cooling method with a single oil injection port is obtained.

Shiibayashi, Masao; Tomita, Yoshikatsu; Izunaga, Yasushi; Maeda, Naoki

224

CO2 injection: reducing Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) in Reconcavo basin oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide miscible injection application as a tertiary recovery method in Reconcavo Basin fields is limited by the pumping costs associated with the process and the risk of fracturing the reservoir formation. Addition of solvents to CO2 may reduce the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP), thus lowering the injection costs. The aim of this paper is to present a strategy to identify, amongst the solvents available in Reconcavo Basin region, the alternatives which promote the greatest reduction in MMP. It covers the screening of potential additives through phase behavior simulation and the experimental determinations of MMP. The use of CO2 in enhanced oil recovery projects, besides increasing the final oil recovery factor, has a strong ecological appeal, since it brings the possibility of using an industrial pollutant, which otherwise would be discarded into the atmosphere. (author)

225

Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

226

CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

227

Radiation protection considerations for boiling water reactors utilizing zinc injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of zinc injection in boiling water reactors to limit the buildup of the activated corrosion product Co-60 has resulted in the presence of Zn-65 in plant contamination. The detection of Zn-65 is difficult using standard monitoring methods for personnel and equipment. An analysis of the 1 cm whole body depth dose, skin dose, and ingestion dose from plant contamination in zinc injection boiling water reactors is used to illustrate the relative health hazards from Zn-65 and other radionuclides at levels which may cause them to go undetected. The 1 cm depth for the whole body depth dose is chosen as an industry standard because incident photons of energies between 0.05 and 3 MeV yield the maximum dose equivalent at a depth less than or in the vicinity of 1.0 cm in the body. In this paper, adjustment factors are presented which may be applied to radiological work in zinc injection plants to help in the selection of protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment

228

Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

2010-01-01

229

Alternative water injection device to reactor equipment facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention injects water to the reactor and the reactor container continuously for a long period of time for preventing occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type reactor and maintaining the integrity of the reactor container even if the accident should occur. Namely, diesel-driven pumps disposed near heat exchangers of a reactor after-heat removing system (RHR) are operated before the reactor is damaged by the after heat to cause reactor melting. A sucking valve disposed to a pump sucking pipeline connecting a secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. A discharge valve disposed to a pump discharge pipeline connecting a primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. With such procedures, sea water is introduced from a sea water taking port through the top end of the secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and water is injected into the inside of the pressure vessel or the reactor container by way of the primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger. As a result, the reactor core is prevented from melting even upon occurrence of a severe accident. (I.S.)

230

Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage  

Science.gov (United States)

The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

1984-01-01

231

Agents which promote and stabilize water-in-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of research groups have investigated the formation and stabilisation of water-in-oil emulsions. A variety of compounds and mixtures have been shown to promote and stabilise these emulsions, including sea water particulates, as well as fractions or compounds found in crude oil. Asphaltenes, resins and waxes in crude oil contribute to the formation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. Within the asphaltene fraction, the nickel porphyrins appear to play an essential role in emulsion formation. The vanadium porphyrins, although more abundant than nickel porphyrins in most crude oils, do not play an important role in emulsion formation, possibly because of their higher polarity. It appears that compounds with higher solubility in the oil phase than in the aqueous phase are the emulsifying agents that can promote stable water-in-oil emulsions. Crude oils that form very unstable emulsions, e.g. Gullfaks crude oil from the North Sea, require weathering as well as the addition of nickel porphyrins before a stable emulsion will form. The weathering may cause the formation of colloidal asphaltene particles and highly polar compounds that contributes to emulsion stabilisation. Essential to the formation of stable water-in-oil emulsions are sufficient amounts of certain polar compounds. If there are insufficient amounts of these compounds, then even the presence of particles and waxes will not lead to the formation of stable emulsions. (Author)

Lee, Richard F. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)

1999-07-01

232

DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIDETECTOR PETROLEUM OIL-IN-WATER MONITOR  

Science.gov (United States)

This research report describes an effort to develop a prototype petroleum oil-in-water monitoring system that will continuously measure oil (whether free, suspended, dissolved, or emulsified) in water carrying a variety of potential interfering substances. An extensive desk-top s...

233

The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721. PMID:12748749

Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

2003-05-01

234

Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

235

Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

236

A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

237

Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

238

Alternating Injection of Steam and CO2 For Thermal Recovery of Heavy Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A combination of rising oil demand and declining supply from the conventional sources is drawing global attention to the vast heavy-oil resources. These are commonly developed with steam-based processes which, in most cases, burn fossil fuel to generate the required steam. However, tightening constraints on fuel, water, and the environment are some of the factors currently fuelling the interests in enhancements to the traditional steaming operations. To mitigate some of the ste...

Lawal, Kazeem Akintayo

2011-01-01

239

Stability Investigation of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water in-crude oil emulsion has great importance in the oil industry. Experimental data are presented to investigate the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions in both creaming and coalescence states were measured as a function of sodium chloride concentration. Also the stability of w/o emulsion is investigated over a wide range of parameters. These parameters are salt concentration (0-5.5%, mixing speed (800-1600 rpm, water concentration (10-80% and temperature. For economic and operational reasons, it is necessary to separate the water completely from the crude oils before transporting or refining them. The emulsions were found to fall into three categories on the basis of both rheological properties and visual appearance: stable; mesostable and unstable. The present research found that, microwave radiation method can enhance the demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions in a very short time compared to the conventional methods.

Abdurahman H. Nour

2006-01-01

240

Isotopic composition of uranium, water and oils of some oil-gas bearing provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study into the pattern of distribution of uranium isotopes and 234U/238U ratio in the stratal waters, oils and water-bearing rocks of active water-exchange zones and oil fields in Central Asia, the Terek-Sunzha region, and the Volga region has been made. The radioactive ratios for stratal waters in the water-oil contact area are suggestive of an active isotopic exchange which leads to an isotopic equilibrium at the water-oil interface. The less intensive interphase isotopic exchange of uranium in the ''oil-rock'' system, as compared to the ''water-rock'' system, is indicative of a stronger link between uranium and oil, than between uranium and water. The deficit of the 234U isotope in the hypergenesis zone attests to the fact that, in the active water-exchange zone, depletion of rocks in 234U is currently taking place, while the values of 234U/238U ratios close to equilibrium, in water-bearing rocks indicate the absence of processes of intensive uranium migration in the rocks of the oil-gas provinces studied

 
 
 
 
241

Upgrading of crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the influence of a Pt/C catalyst, high-pressure H2, and pH on the upgrading of a crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water (SCW). The SCW treatment led to a product oil with a higher heating value (?42 MJ/kg) and lower acid number than the crude bio-oil. The product oil was also lower in O and N and essentially free of sulfur. Including the Pt/C catalyst in the reactor led to a freely flowing liquid product oil with a high abundance of hydrocarbons. Overall, many of the properties of the upgraded oil obtained from catalytic treatment in SCW are similar to those of hydrocarbon fuels derived from fossil fuel resources. Thus, this work shows that the crude bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of a microalga can be effectively upgraded in supercritical water in the presence of a Pt/C catalyst. PMID:20801646

Duan, Peigao; Savage, Phillip E

2011-01-01

242

Investigation of the two- and three-phase relative permeability relation in carbon dioxide-oil-water systems for light and heavy oil reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 flooding has gained increased interest in regard to both light and heavy oil reservoirs, as a means of combining improved oil recovery and geological storage of CO2 in partially depleted oil reservoirs. Distribution and movement of CO2 in oil reservoirs is a function of the relative permeability of three phases of water, oil, and CO2 in oil reservoirs. In general, three-phase relative permeability relations are required with respect to the design of CO2 field projects for accurate predictions via numerical reservoir simulation of CO 2 flood performance and to model production and injection problems. However, a two-phase relative permeability relation is used to generate the three-phase relative permeability relation for use in reservoir simulations. An overview of the available literature indicates few attempts have been made to experimentally determine the three-phase relative permeability relation for CO2-oil-water systems under practical reservoir conditions. This research attempts to investigate the two- and three-phase relative permeability relation of CO2-oil-water systems through a series of carefully designed laboratory experiments. Fourteen experiments in two-phase systems, and four experiments in three-phase systems with heavy and light oils, were conducted in order to study the effect of pressure, temperature, viscosity, and flow rate on the relative permeability relation. It was shown that relative permeability is temperature dependent and increases with an increase in temperature. Pressure and oil viscosity had similar effects, although higher pressure caused a decrease in relative permeability to water in water-oil and water-oil-gas systems. Investigating the effect of flow rate it was found that higher injection flow rate caused increase in relative permeability values. The effect of the injection flow rate on relative permeability behaviour can be explained by the formation of emulsion during the displacement process. A set of new correlations with which to calculate two- and three-phase relative permeabilities was developed. The new correlations, when compared to existing correlations, can better predict relative permeability values which take into account the effects of pressure, viscosity, and flow rate.

Zarivnyy, Ostap

243

40 CFR 63.137 - Process wastewater provisions-oil-water separators.  

Science.gov (United States)

...wastewater provisions-oil-water separators...Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations...wastewater provisions—oil-water separators...at all times that the oil-water separator contains...equipment inspection, maintenance, or repair....

2010-07-01

244

Challenging conventional wisdom, water-flooding experience on heavy oil fields in southern Oman  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the water flooding and infill technologies used in southern Oman's heavy oil fields. The technologies were implemented after bottom-hole image logs showed the presence of previously unmapped faults and fracture that were known to be detrimental to water injection schemes. The viscous oil sandstone reservoirs in Oman are located at a depth of 1000 meters, and contain very heavy oil with weak to strong aquifer support. The heterogenous reservoirs have widely varying permeabilities, and artificial lift is widely used in the region's oil production processes. However, the adverse mobility ratio often results in early water breakthrough and rapid watercut development. This paper described the development states used in the reservoirs, including primary depletion with vertical wells and horizontal infilling water flooding. Cost-effective pattern drilling has also been used. Horizontal wells have been segmented with swellable elastomers in order to allow for targeted chemical and mechanical shut-offs. Jet drilling and ultra-short radius drilling techniques are now being tested in the region. Fields with little aquifer support are currently being waterflooded. It was concluded that effective well reservoir management of water flood patterns is needed in order to optimize waterflood development and other other enhanced oil recovery mechanisms. 6 refs., 16 figs.

Al Sikaiti, S.H. [Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman); Regtien, J. [Shell International, The Hague (Netherlands)

2008-07-01

245

Geochemical monitoring of fluid-rock interaction and CO2 storage at the Weyburn CO2-injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Weyburn Oil Field, Saskatchewan is the site of a large (5000 tonnes/day of CO2) CO2-EOR injection project By EnCana Corporation. Pre- and post-injection samples (Baseline and Monitor-1, respectively) of produced fluids from approximately 45 vertical wells were taken and chemically analyzed to determine changes in the fluid chemistry and isotope composition between August 2000 and March 2001. After 6 months of CO2 injection, geochemical parameters including pH, [HCO3], [Ca], [Mg], and ?13CO2(g) point to areas in which injected CO2 dissolution and reservoir carbonate mineral dissolution have occurred. Pre-injection fluid compositions suggest that the reservoir brine in the injection area may be capable of storing as much as 100 million tonnes of dissolved CO2. Modeling of water-rock reactions show that clay minerals and feldspar, although volumetrically insignificant, may be capable of acting as pH buffers, allowing injected CO2 to be stored as bicarbonate in the formation water or as newly precipitated carbonate minerals, given favorable reaction kinetics

246

Oil-water flow in vertical and deviated wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil-water flow in vertical and inclined pipes has been investigated theoretically and experimentally to identify and characterize the flow patterns, and to model the flow pattern transitions, holdup and pressure drop for conditions pertinent to oil-water producing wells. A comprehensive new oil-water flow pattern classification is proposed based on data acquired in a transparent test section (2 in. ID, 51 ft long) using a mineral oil and water (?o/?w = 0.85, ?o/?w = 20.0 and ?o-w = 33.5 dyne/cm at 90oF). The tests covered inclination angles of 90o, 75o, 60o and 45o from the horizontal. The oil-water flow patterns have been grouped into two major categories based on the status of the continuous phase, including water dominated and oil dominated flow patterns. Water dominated flow patterns generally show significant slippage but relatively low frictional pressure gradients. In contrast, oil dominated flow patterns show negligible slippage but significantly large frictional pressure gradients. Six flow patterns have been characterized in vertical flow, three were water dominated and three were oil dominated. In inclined flow there were also three water dominated flow patterns, three oil dominated and a transitional flow pattern. Flow pattern maps for each of the tested inclination angles are presented. Flow parameters, including frictional pressure drop, holdup and spatial phase distribution are functions of the oil-water flow patterns and can be effectively used in flow pattern identification. A newly designed conductance probe assisted significantly in the objective identification of the oil-water flow patterns. Mechanistic models are proposed to predict oil-water flow pattern transitions, and to calculate water holdup and pressure drop in vertical wells. The transitions to very fine dispersed flows were evaluated by combining the turbulent kinetic energy with the surface free energy of the droplets, while the transition to churn flow was predicted based on the concept of agglomeration. A Drift Flux model was found adequate to calculate the holdup for high slippage flow patterns and a homogenous model was used for the non-slip cases. New closure relationships for the two-phase friction factor for oil dominated and water dominated flow patterns are proposed. Overall, the models compare favorably with the measured data.

Flores, Jose Gonzalo

1997-08-01

247

Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determination. Test setup and procedure for verification and calibration of moisture sensor with specific-oil solubility parameters is described then tested and evaluated. This allows greater accuracy of online water content monitoring in the operating transformers under the changing temperature conditions.

PANKAJSHUKLA

2013-01-01

248

Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

249

The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

250

The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeability when sandstones are heated from 20°C to 70–200°C. The pore surface area per unit pore volume was used to normalise permeability data, so that the temperature effect on samples with different pore size could be compared. In sandstones containing the clay mineral kaolinite, heating reduced permeability, suggesting that the observed permeability reduction was due to kaolinite mobilisation. The effect was partly reversible.

Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian

2014-01-01

251

Treatment of Renal Colic Using Intracutaneous Injection of Sterile Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To evaluate the intracutaneous injection of sterile water in the treatment of renal colic.

Materials and Methods:

Hassan Ahmadnia; Mahdi Younesi Rostami

2004-01-01

252

Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID:16347649

McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

1988-06-01

253

Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1?7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images PMID:16347649

McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

1988-01-01

254

Research on Dispersed Oil Droplets Breakage and Emulsification in the Dynamic Oil and Water Hydrocyclone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil and water dynamic hydrocyclone is one type of facilities that separate two phases or multiple phases applied widely in the fields such as food processing, environmental protection, biological pharmacy, petroleum and chemistry. The dispersed oil droplets in the dynamic oil and water hydrocyclone were often broken into small drops by shear force, which decreased the separation efficiency of dynamic oil-water hydrocyclone greatly. To avoid the breakage of the oil droplets, the turbulence field and the velocity field of the dynamic hydrocyclone were studied by the software of Fluent to analyze the main reason that led to breakage of oil droplets. Results indicated that the deformation of oil droplets was caused by the viscous shear force; the breakage of oil droplets was caused by the Reynolds shear stress and the local pressure fluctuations. The main area that the drops were prone to breakup of the dynamic hydrocyclone is that the rotating grating nearby, the wall boundary layer of the drum and center axis of the drum. Finally, the breakage of oil droplets and emulsification of oil and water in the dynamic hydrocyclone were verified by the experiments.

Guangdong Guo

2013-08-01

255

Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils. PMID:18970302

Burguera, José L; Burguera, Marcela; Antón, Raquel E; Salager, Jean-Louis; Arandia, María A; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo

2005-12-15

256

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

Carlson, Mike R. [RPS Energy Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2012-05-15

257

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

258

A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water : Results for Crude and Pure Oils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil (Grane) and two pure oils (n-Octane and dodecane) with different initial oil layer thicknesses include burning efficiency, burning rate, regression rate, flame height and boilover. Pyrex glass cylinders (157 and 260 mm ID) placed on top of a steel foot in a water basin (1m x 1m x 0.5m) enabled free circulation of the water, which, along with the large water-to-oil ratios (up to 10,000) ensured that the oil burning barely increased the temperature of the surrounding water environment, which created more realistic offshore conditions than seen in many other laboratory studies. The burning efficiency was found to be nearly 100% for n-Octane and of dodecane, whereas the crude oil burning efficiency ranged between 35% and 65%. The main reason for this variation proved to be the onset of an extremely violent boilover, which occurs for oils with relatively high boiling temperatures when the water sub layer is superheated. When the initial crude oil layer thickness exceeded 20 mm the oil became solid and no boilover occurred. The heat-loss to the water sub-layer also had an effect on the burning efficiency and the regression rate was found to reach a constant value after increasing continuously as the oil was heated. Similar results were found regarding the flame height which reached a steady flame height. The pure fuels, n-Octane and dodecane, produced a much higher steady flame height than the crude oil, however they did not reach boilover, though dodecane showed boilover tendencies. Theoretical predictions with existing correlations and input data specific for the current oils generally compared well with the experimental data for both the time to boilover and the regression rates. As such, the COFA is envisioned to produce high-fidelity results in the future and thereby contribute to the further development of in-situ burning as an alternative response technique for oil spills on water.

Brogaard, Nicholas L.; SØrensen, Martin X.

2014-01-01

259

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

260

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

 
 
 
 
261

Simultaneous injection of polymer and surfactant for improving oil recovery; Injecao simultanea de polimero e surfactante para aumento da recuperacao de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injection of polymeric solutions in petroleum reservoirs is a supplemental method of petroleum recovery, that seeks to increase the volumetric efficiency of swept of the oil with the decrease of the mobility of the injection water. In the contact between two non miscible fluids, superficial tensions are established, that can influence the relations between the rock and the fluids, depending on the nature of both. Therefore, the combined injection of a surfactant and a polymer can promote improvements in the injectivity and in the global recovery efficiency. In this work it was used samples of commercial polyacrylamide, which were characterized through hydrolysis degree, molecular weight and rheological behavior. From these results it was chosen one sample to be used associated to a polymeric surfactant. Through a core flood system, the following tests were done: injection of polymer solution; injection of surfactant solution followed by polymer solution and injection of surfactant / polymer mixture. The results showed that the injection of surfactant / polymer mixture promoted a significant increase in the residual resistance factor, in relation to the other situations. (author)

Medeiros, Ana C.R.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Fagundes, Fabio P.; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

2004-07-01

262

Resolution of oil-in-water emulsions containing uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of resolving oil-in-water emulsions resulting from the organic solvent extraction of uranium from aqueous acidic leach liquors which comprises treating the emulsions in accordance with the following steps: (a) adding to the emulsions a water-in-oil emulsion which contains from 2 to 50% by weight of a water-soluble acrylamide copolymer which contains from 5 to 50% by weight of a lower alkyl substituted tertiary aminoethyl methacrylate and quaternary ammonium salts thereof in an amount to provide at least 20 parts per million of the acrylamide copolymer; (b) adjusting the pH of the emulsion being treated with ammonia to at least 9; (c) adding to the ammonia treated emulsion a water-soluble surfactant which is capable of inverting the water-in-oil emulsion which contains the polymer; and then (d) slowly mixing the treated oil-in-water emulsion for at least one-half hour to obtain good resolution thereof

263

EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cylinder constant speed direct injection (DI diesel engine has been used to analyze the emission characteristics of biodiesel.The diesel engine for various fuel injection pressures (210,220 and 240 bar at no load to full load wasinvestigated. The injection pressure was changed in the engine head by adjusting the fuel injector spring tension. The two proportions of biodiesel were used in diesel engine such as 20% of biodiesel (Jatropha oil and Rubber seed oil with 80% of pure diesel fuel named as B20 and 40% of biodiesel with 60% of pure diesel fuel named as B40.From the test result,the nitric oxide (NOx was analyzed for different injection pressures. In emission characteristicsanalysis, it was found that the increase in injector opening pressure increases the NOxemission. The injection pressure of 240 bar and B20 proportion gives better emission reduction compared to other blended fuels.

S. Mahalingam

2014-04-01

264

Hot solvent injection for heavy oil-bitumen recovery : an experimental investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam injection and generation costs can have a significant influence on the overall economics of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes. The economic feasibility of miscible recovery methods is based on the use of effective solvent retrieval procedures. This study investigated the performance of solvents at higher temperatures. Glass bead packs and Berea sandstone cores were used to represent different types of pore structures in a series of laboratory experiments. The samples were saturated with heavy oil and exposed to paraffinic solvent vapors at temperatures above boiling point at a pressure of 1500 kPa. The solvents were then collected from each sample and analyzed in order to determine composition, viscosity, and asphaltene content. The amounts of oil recovered were also analyzed and the quantity of the asphaltene precipitated with each of the tested solvents was determined. Results of the study were then used to determine optimal conditions for each solvent type and to assess which solvents had the highest recovery rates. Butane diluted the oil more than propane, which resulted in a lower asphaltene content and decreased viscosity in the oil samples. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Edmunds, N.R. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

265

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressurefor the Omani Oils for CO2 Injection EOR Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Oman there are still large remaining oil reserves that require implementation of Enhanced Oil Recovery processes such as CO2 injection, for light oil. CO2-Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) is the key parameter for the design and operations of successful CO2 flood. This study is based on developing a method of calculating the MMP for Omani oil reservoirs. Part-1 of the studyis the experimental work based on the Rising Bubble Apparatus (RBA) measurement of MMP and part-2 is the examinat...

Khalid Al-Hinai; Ali Al-Bemani; Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad

2014-01-01

266

State-scale perspective on water use and production associated with oil and gas operations, Oklahoma, U.S.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common goal of water and energy management is to maximize the supply of one while minimizing the use of the other, so it is important to understand the relationship between water use and energy production. A larger proportion of horizontal wells and an increasing number of hydraulically fractured well bores are being completed in the United States, and consequently increasing water demand by oil and gas operations. Management, planning, and regulatory decisions for water, oil, and gas are largely made at the state-level; therefore, it is necessary to aggregate water use and energy production data at the state-scale. The purpose of this paper is to quantify annual volumes of water used for completion of oil and gas wells, coproduced during oil and gas production, injected via underground injection program wells, and used in water flooding operations. Data from well completion reports, and tax commission records were synthesized to arrive at these estimates for Oklahoma. Hydraulic fracturing required a median fluid volume of 11,350 m(3) per horizontal well in Oklahoma. Median fluid volume (~15,774 m(3)) and volume per perforated interval (15.73 m(3) m(-1)) were highest for Woodford Shale horizontal wells. State-scale annual water use for oil and gas well completions was estimated to be up to 16.3 Mm(3) in 2011 or less than 1% of statewide freshwater use. Statewide annual produced water volumes ranged from 128.5 to 146.6 Mm(3), with gas wells yielding an estimated 72.4% of the total coproduced water. Volumes of water injected into underground injection control program wells ranged from 206.8 to 305.4 Mm(3), which indicates that water flooding operations may use up to 167.0 Mm(3) per year. State-scale water use estimates for Oklahoma could be improved by requiring oil and gas operators to supplement well completion reports with water use and water production data. Reporting of oil and gas production data by well using a unique identifier (i.e., API number) would also allow for refinement of produced water quantity information. Reporting of wastewater disposal and water flooding volumes could be used to further develop state-scale water accounting and best management practices. PMID:23531128

Murray, Kyle E

2013-05-01

267

Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement) and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method) were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determinat...

PANKAJSHUKLA; Sood, Y. R.; Jarial, R. K.

2013-01-01

268

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experi...

Abdurahman, H. Nour; Rosli Mohd. Yunus; Zulkifly Jemaat

2007-01-01

269

Multisyringe flow injection spectrophotometric determination of uranium in water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multisyringe flow injection analysis method for the determination of uranium in water samples was developed. The methodology was based on the complexation reaction of uranium with arsenazo (III) at pH 2.0. Uranium concentrations were spectrophotometrically detected at 649 nm using a light emitting diode. Under the optimized conditions, a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 4.0 ?g mL-1, a 3? detection limit of 0.04 ?g mL-1, and a 10? quantification limit of 0.10 ?g mL-1 were obtained. The reproducibility (%) at 0.5, 2.5, and 4.0 ?g mL-1 was 2.5, 0.9, and 0.6%, respectively (n = 10). The interference effect of some ions was tested. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of uranium in water samples. (author)

270

Paclitaxel Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

271

Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

272

Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor  

Science.gov (United States)

NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

1996-01-01

273

Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2004-07-01

274

An oil removal system for an oil-injected screw compressor on helium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent emergence of small capacity closed cycle helium refrigeration used in conjunction with industrial superconducting devices has placed great emphasis on the long term reliability of the refrigerator. Formerly the limitations of the refrigeration plant were in the reciprocating expansion machines. With the advent of the gas-lubricated expansion turbine, which, when operated with a reasonably clean gas supply, has a virtually infinite life, the limitations of the compressor have become dominant. Developments are discussed in the improvement of oil removal equipment used in conjunction with a rotary screw compressor having an overall potential reliability of that presently being achieved by the refrigerator turboexpanders. (author)

275

Use of new materials for control of water intake into water-injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1959, a new procedure for improving the water intake profile of wells was developed in Romashkino field. In this procedure, a mixture of suspended chalk and 5% acrylamide monomer is squeezed into the formation. Chalk concentration is 150 to 250 kg/cu m. To control polymerization of acrylamide, pH is maintained at 9. Results obtained in many treatments are shown. The data show that an improved water-injection profile was obtained in almost all cases. After treatment, zones which previously took no water began to take water; whereas, high permeability zones took less water after treatment.

Bikbulatov, A.U.; Yumadilov, A.Yu.; Ismagilov, I.Yu.; Gazizov, A.Sh.

1971-01-01

276

Breaking of Oil -Water Emulsion for the Improvement of Oil Recovery Operations in the Niger Delta Oilfields  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Emulsified water is generally present in crude oil as a result of mixing occurring during production operations. The formation of emulsion leads to problems in production and also transportation. Therefore the need to break oil/water emulsions system through demulsification process using chemical surfactants for improved oil recovery operations. Selected cationic surfactants were effective in separating oil-water emulsions expected during a surfactant/polymer (SP) process for improved oil rec...

Ijogbemeye Oseghale, C.; Akpabio E. J; Udottong, G.

2012-01-01

277

Stability Investigation of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water in-crude oil emulsion has great importance in the oil industry. Experimental data are presented to investigate the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions in both creaming and coalescence states were measured as a function of sodium chloride concentration. Also the stability of w/o emulsion is investigated over a wide range of parameters. These parameters are salt concentration (0-5.5%), mixing speed (800-1600 rpm), water concentration (10-80%) and temperature. For economic and op...

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Rosli Mohd Yunus

2006-01-01

278

Successful water management for the oil sands industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is a key requirement to produce oil from thermal oil sands projects. Historically, water was considered as a renewable resource that could be used when necessary. Water use is currently examined in a wider context. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has used fresh water for thermal projects in the past, including its thermal operations at Primrose and Wolf Lake. However, technical advancements have made it possible to use recycled water. This allows companies to survive within their licenses while increasing production. Other advances include the use of brackish water, and innovations such as using depleted reservoir sections to store water to increase the use of recycled water. It was noted that brackish water resources need to be mapped and understood in greater detail. The objective is to use brackish water at a cost equal to, or less, than fresh water

279

From oil-based mud to water-based mud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

280

Water-in-oil emulsions : studies on water resolution and rheology over time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-in-oil emulsions, which often form following oil spills, make cleanup very difficult because the physical properties and characteristics of the oil change significantly after the spill. In this study, water-in-oil mixtures from crude oil and petroleum products were studied in a laboratory for up to one year. The types of mixtures were characterized by resolution of water and rheology measurements at one and seven days, and some after one year. Oil and petroleum products formed 4 clearly-defined water-in-oil types when mixed with water. These were categorized as stable, unstable, mesostable and entrained. The distinct physical properties of each category were described in this paper. The water-in-oil types were characterized using a newly developed numerical stability index which is the product of the ratio of viscosity increase and a ratio of the elasticity increase. The index was also used to correlate stability with oil compositions and properties. The asphaltene and resin content in the starting oil, along with its viscosity and density were the most important factors for water uptake and emulsion formation, as determined by a comparative evaluation of the properties of the starting oils before mixing. The saturate content and asphaltene-to-resin ratio are other important factors. 42 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

 
 
 
 
281

A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce the low salinity effect while keeping costs and operational requirements at a minimum. Traditional core plug testing for optimising conditions has some limitations. Each test requires a fresh sample, core testing requires sophisticated and expensive equipment, and reliable core test data requires several months because cores must be cleaned, restored and aged before the tests can begin. It is also difficult to comparedata from one core with results from another because no two cores are identical, making it difficult to distinguish between effects resulting from different conditions and effects resulting from different cores. Gathering statistics is limited by the time required for each test and the fact that core material is in short supply. Thus, our aim was to explore the possibility of a cheaper, faster alternative. We developed a method that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the relationship between the wettability of pore surfaces and water salinity. We functionalise AFM tips with organic molecules and use them to represent tiny oil droplets of nonpolar or polar molecules and we use sand grains removed from core plugs to represent the pore walls in sandstone. We bring our "oil" close to the sand grain surface and measure the work of adhesion between the tip and the surface. Repeated "feeling" the surface with the tip produces data that can be converted to maps of adhesion and contact angle. Adhesion work is proportional to wettability and is directly correlated with the salinity of the fluid in contact with the tip and the particle surface. From our measurements, the threshold values for the onset of the low salinity response is 5,000 to 8,000 ppm, which benchmarks remarkably well with observations from core plug tests. Changing either the type of "oil" on our probe or the character of the grain surface both affect the adhesion response. From a mechanistic perspective, the correlation between salinity and adhesion provides evidence for the role of electrical double layer expansion in the low salinity response; expansion of the double layer decreases oil wettability. Because AFM experiments can be done relatively quickly on very little material, it gives the possibility of testing salinity response on samples from throughout a reservoir and for gathering statistics. Our approach provides a range of data that can be used to screen core plug testing conditions and to provide extra data that would be too time consuming or too expensive using traditional methods alone. © 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Hassenkam, T.; Andersson, M.

2014-01-01

282

Effect of diode laser trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation in the management of glaucoma after intravitreal silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—To evaluate the effect of trans scleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in the eyes retaining intravitreal silicone oil with medically uncontrolled secondary glaucoma following intravitreal silicone oil injection.?METHODS—Medical records of 11 eyes of 11 patients who underwent TSCPC for medically uncontrolled glaucoma without pupillary block following intravitreal silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachment were reviewed retrospectively. ...

Han, S. K.; Park, K. H.; Kim, D. M.; Chang, B. L.

1999-01-01

283

Crude oil desulfurization  

Science.gov (United States)

High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (inventors)

1982-01-01

284

Influence of fuel additives on performance of direct-injection Diesel engine and exhaust emissions when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on shale oil that has been treated with multi-functional fuel additives. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the fuel additives Marisol FT (Sweden) and SO-2E (Estonia) as well as to verify their ability to increase energy conversion and reduce brake specific fuel consumption, contamination and smoke opacity of the exhausts when fuelling the Diesel engine with shale oil. Test results show that application of these additives could be a very efficient means to improve Diesel engine performance on shale oil, especially when operating at the light load range. The brake specific fuel consumption at light loads and speeds of 1400-2000 min-1 reduces by 18.3-11.0% due to the application of the Marisol FT. The additive SO-2E proves to produce nearly the same effect. The total NO x emission from the fully loaded Diesel engine fuelled with the treated shale oil reduces by 29.1% (SO-2E) and 23.0% (Marisol FT). It is important that the lower NO x is obtained due to reducing both harmful pollutants, NO and NO2. The CO emission at rated power increases by 16.3% (SO-2E) and 48.0% (Marisol FT), whereas the smoke opacity of the exhausts increases by 35% and over 2 times, respectively. The effect of the fuel additives on the HC emission seems to be cadditives on the HC emission seems to be complicated and ambiguous

285

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field.

Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

2013-01-01

286

Test of an improved oil injected helium screw compressor at Fermilab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fermilab has tested a modified helium oil injected two-stage Mycom screwcompressor for possible use in the Tevatron. The tests are part of a joint venture with Mycom. Modifications to the compressor include a new modified rotor profile and new generation lubricant which resulted in increased performance and efficiency. The effects of the modifications on shaft-power and isothermal efficiency are included. The results of these tests will determine the practicality of incorporating these modifications to the thirty-four existing screw compressors of the Tevatron

287

Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises studies of water-in-oil emulsions, their stability, and modelling of their formation. Studies show that water-in-oil emulsions might be characterised into three categories (stable, mesostable and unstable). These categories were established by visual appearance, elasticity and viscosity difference. It was also shown that water content was not an important factor. A fourth category of water-in-oil exists, that of water entrainment, which is not an emulsion. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stabilities as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents. The differences in the emulsion types are readily distinguished both by their rheological properties, and simply by appearance. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second, is at least three orders-of-magnitude greater than the starting oil. An unstable emulsion usually has a viscosity no more than one order-of-magnitude greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion has a significant elasticity, whereas an unstable emulsion does not. Stable emulsions have sufficient asphaltenes (>?7%) to establish films of these compounds around water droplets. Mesostable emulsions have insufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Stability is achieved by visco-elastic retention of water and secondarily by the presence of asphaltene or resin films. Mesostable emulsions display apparent viscosities of about 80-600 ty apparent viscosities of about 80-600 times that of the starting oil and true viscosities of 20-200 times that of the starting oil. Mesostable emulsions have an asphaltene and resin content greater than 3%. Entrained water occurs when a viscous oil retains larger water droplets, but conditions are not suitable for the formation of an emulsion. Entrained water may have a viscosity that is similar or slightly greater (? 2-10 times) than the starting oil. It was found that emulsion formation occurs at a threshold energy, however this energy has not been accurately defined. Emulsions from many oils have been characterised. This information is used to describe how this process can be accurately modelled and what information gaps exist for complete description of the physical process. The modelling of emulsions is reviewed. A new modelling scheme based on the new physical findings, is suggested. (Author)

288

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.

Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.

2009-04-01

289

Technique for locating injected gas in oil bearing formations behind casing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for determining the location of injected gas in an oil well comprising the steps of: obtaining data representing a near count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; obtaining data representing a far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; scaling the near count rate and the far count rate; plotting the scaled near count rate and the scaled far rate; comparing the scaled near count rate plot and the scaled far count rate plot and; determining the location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled near count rate and the plot of the scaled far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; obtaining data representing a second near count rate for a compensated neutron logging tool at a second time; obtaining data representing a second far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool at the second time; scaling the second near count rate and the second far count rate; plotting the scaled second near count rate and the scaled second far count rate; comparing the scaled second near count rate plot and the scaled second far count rate plot; determining a second location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled second near count rate and the plot of the scaled second far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; and determining the migration of the injected gas by comparing the location with the second location

290

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PURIFICATION PROCESS OF OIL CONTAMINATED WATERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption properties of carbonic sorbents on natural raw materials for purification of waste waters frompetroleum products are investigated. Temperature influence on sumption properties of sorbents on naturalraw materials to increase the purification degree of water ecosystem is studied. Mathematical model ofpurification process of oil contaminated waters is developed

?. ????????

2012-04-01

291

Spreading pattern of injected water in a permeability stratified aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an explanation of the existence of a transition zone between the injected and the aquifer's waters, developed on the assumption of a flow through a permeability horizontally stratified aquifer, in which it is assumed that the frequency of permeabilities follows approximately the normal distribution function. The width of the transition zone caused by the horizontally stratified flow, is directly proportional to the distance travelled, while the width of the transition zone caused by dispersion is proportional to the square root of the distance travelled. It is believed that in nature the dispersion and the horizontally stratified flow occur simultaneously and thus the shape and width of the transition zone is a resultant of the 2 processes. A field experiment of the ''injection-pumping pair'' type carried out at the Haifa Bay Experimental Field is described and interpreted. The results of the investigations in the experimental field are applicable to large-scale underground recharge and mixing operations. (13 refs.)

Mercado, A.

1967-01-01

292

Cellulose as a novel amphiphilic coating for oil-in-water and water-in-oil dispersions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amphiphilic character of cellulose molecules provides the opportunity to use it as a novel eco-friendly emulsifying agent for formation of stable oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions. This may be done by mixing water, oil and cellulose solution in an ionic liquid. A more practical alternative is to form first a hydrogel from the cellulose/ionic liquid solution by coagulation with water and applying it into the sonicated water/oil or oil/water mixtures. The dissolution/regeneration process affords higher mobility to the cellulose molecules so an encapsulating coating can be formed at the water-oil interface. A solid-state dispersion was obtained by drying liquid dispersions, which can be repeatedly dissolved in excess water reforming a sustainable dispersion. The damp dispersion can be blown under reduced pressure, yielding a nanoporous foam ("aerocellulose"). The n-eicosane based solid dispersion as well as the aqueous dispersion possess a very high effective heat-absorption capacity. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the encapsulating cellulose shell is indeed in the amorphous state. Small-angle diffraction patterns of n-eicosane dispersions exhibit two sharp reflections. One is due to the n-eicosane triclinic crystal bulk phase and the other at somewhat smaller angles is interpreted as due to less ordered phase, possibly due to interactions with the encapsulating cellulose. PMID:22901681

Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Cohen, Yachin

2012-11-15

293

Turbulent flow of oil-water emulsions with polymer additives  

Science.gov (United States)

The article outlines direct and reverse oil-water emulsions. Microphotography study of these emulsions was carried out. The effect of water-soluble and oil soluble polymers on the emulsion structure and their turbulent flow velocity in cylindrical channel was investigated. It has been experimentally proven that if the fluid being transported is not homogeneous, but a two-phase oil-water emulsion, only the polymer that is compatible with dispersion medium and capable of dissolving in this medium can reduce the hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid flow. Thus, the resistance in direct emulsions can be reduced by water- soluble polyacrylamide, while oil-soluble polyhexene can be applied for reverse emulsions.

Manzhai, V. N.; Monkam Clovis Le Grand, Monkam; Abdousaliamov, A. V.

2014-08-01

294

Hygro-responsive membranes for effective oil-water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a critical need for new energy-efficient solutions to separate oil-water mixtures, especially those stabilized by surfactants. Traditional membrane-based separation technologies are energy-intensive and limited, either by fouling or by the inability of a single membrane to separate all types of oil-water mixtures. Here we report membranes with hygro-responsive surfaces, which are both superhydrophilic and superoleophobic, in air and under water. Our membranes can separate, for the first time, a range of different oil-water mixtures in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% separation efficiency, by using the difference in capillary forces acting on the two phases. Our separation methodology is solely gravity-driven and consequently is expected to be highly energy-efficient. We anticipate that our separation methodology will have numerous applications, including the clean-up of oil spills, wastewater treatment, fuel purification and the separation of commercially relevant emulsions. PMID:22929782

Kota, Arun K; Kwon, Gibum; Choi, Wonjae; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish

2012-01-01

295

The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field is an intelligent measuring instrument, integrating light, machine and electricity. It bases on 8031 SCP and makes full use of CASIO printing calculate's functions of calculation, keyboard and printing

296

Use of polymers to control water production in oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymers can effectively reduce the water-oil ratio in producing oil wells and, in many cases, can significantly increase oil production. This use of polymers is relatively new to the Rocky Mt. region but has been used successfully in more than 200 wells in the Mid-Continent area. Although a complete shut-off of water production cannot be expected, most of the treatments have resulted in a decrease in water-oil ratio of 50 to 90%. Not all high water-cut producers are candidates for polymer treatment. The purpose of this study is to discuss the probable working mechanism of polymers and present the guidelines useful in selecting candidates for treatment. Field results are used to substantiate these guidelines and show the economics of this type of treatment. A summary of treatments shows the application and results of polymer use in the Rocky Mt. area. (11 refs.)

Goddard, J.E.; White, J.L.; Vanlandingham, J.; Carney, M.J.

1973-01-01

297

40 CFR 60.693-2 - Alternative standards for oil-water separators.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Alternative standards for oil-water separators. ...operate a floating roof on an oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary...except during inspection and maintenance. (3) The roof...

2010-07-01

298

Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced b...

Graaf, J.; Zwanikken, J. W.; Bier, Markus; Baarsma, Arjen; Roij, R. H. H. G.

2008-01-01

299

Spontaneous formation of water droplets at oil-solid interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report observations of spontaneous formation of micrometer-sized water droplets within micrometer-thick films of a range of different oils (isotropic and nematic 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) and silicone, olive and corn oil) that are supported on glass substrates treated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and immersed under water. Confocal imaging was used to determine that the water droplets nucleate and grow at the interface between the oils and OTS-treated glass with a contact angle of approximately 130 degrees. A simple thermodynamic model based on macroscopic interfacial energetic arguments consistent with the contact angle of 130 degrees, however, fails to account for the spontaneous formation of the water droplets. zeta-potential measurements performed with OTS-treated glass (-59.0 +/- 16.4 mV) and hydrophobic monolayers formed on gold films (2.0 +/- 0.7 mV), when combined with the observed absence of droplet formation under films of oil supported on the latter surfaces, suggest that the charge of the oil-solid interface promotes partitioning of water to the interfacial region. The hydrophobic nature of the OTS-treated glass promotes dewetting of water accumulated in the interfacial region into droplets (a thin film of water is seen to form on bare glass). The inhibitory effect on droplet formation of both salt (NaCl) and sucrose (0.1-500 mM) added to the aqueous phase was similar, indicating that both solutes lower the chemical potential of the bulk water (osmotic effect) sufficiently to prevent partitioning of the water to the interface between the oil and supporting substrates. These results suggest that charged, hydrophobic surfaces can provide routes to spontaneous formation of surface-supported, water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:20712383

Yang, Zhongqiang; Abbott, Nicholas L

2010-09-01

300

The radioactive elements of oil and of derrick water in several oil mines of Apsheron peninsula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that oil extracted from deep strata of the ground directly contacts with minerals and ores and it is a carrier of several radioactive elements. Radio-ecological investigations conducted in several oil mines of Apsheron peninsula, show that there are radioactive elements, such as uranium, radium, thorium and radon in the structures of oil and derrick water. Amount of these radioactive elements is changeable depending on the chemical structures of oil and derrick water. So, amount of uranium in the structure of naften (aromatic oil) is more, than in the structure of oil with paraffin. Besides, migration of uranium from strata water to oil leads to increasing the amount of uranium. Radio spectro metrical analysis of oil and derrick water extracted from the territories of Surahany, Sabunchi, Balahany, Qaradah, Bayil and Romana located in the Apsheron peninsula was conducted by us. Amount of the radioactive elements in specimens of oil are distributed in the following way: Uranium - 2.3 - 13.6 ·10-7 g/kg; Radium - 1.2 - 3.5 ·10-12 g/kg; Thorium - 8.2 - 17.0 ·10-7 g/kg. Amount of the radioactive elements in derrick water are: Uranium - 1.2 - 4.5 ·10-6 g/l; Radium - 2.5 - 3.2· 10-11 g/l; Thorium - 1.1 - 3.1 ·10-7 g/l.. There are ponds around the derricks, which are source of radioactive pollution in most of the oil mines. It was found that level of radiation is about 150-500 micro R/h in these ponds and near of the derricksks

 
 
 
 
301

Novel concepts for the containment of oil in flowing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both a laboratory study of the hydrodynamic properties of variously shaped objects and a meso-scale flume study of several containment concepts have been undertaken to determine whether these can be used to contain oil in fast flowing water. The laboratory study showed that stable vortices are difficult to generate and that spilled oil is not easily trapped by them. Only two of the structures studied showed some promise of trapping oil in fast moving water: a partially submerged barrier with fins placed at an angle across the flume and a horizontal hydrofoil placed across the channel near the surface. Several filter materials were tested in an outdoor flowing channel with both floating and neutrally buoyant oil. Although some of these materials trapped and held heavy oil, they were not a significant improvement over nylon fishing nets which had been tested previously. The filter materials would not hold a medium gravity oil. A hydrofoil device which generated a horizontal eddy successfully trapped and held surface oil at water speeds up to 0.35 m/s. Neutrally buoyant oil was often caught by the eddy but was never held for more than 1-2 minutes. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

302

The containment of heavy oil in flowing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Viscous bitumen from Alberta oil sand deposits is diluted with a gas condensate before pipeline transport. Because of its unique properties, the diluent/bitumen mix (dilbit) may require novel containment and recovery techniques in the case of an accidental spill. Preliminary experiments were conducted in a large flowing water channel to determine whether several conventional containment devices could be utilized to trap weathered and emulsified dilbit and bitumen. These devices included a conventional river boom, a nylon fine-weave net, and a low-pressure bubble barrier. The behavior of the oil samples during boom failure was noted in order to understand more completely the mechanisms of failure. The river boom failed to hold viscous floating oil by vortex shedding at flows of under 0.25 m/s. A fine mesh net successfully trapped both floating and mid-channel neutrally buoyant oil but the retention time depends on the oil viscosity. The bubble barrier was not successful in trapping either floating viscous oil or neutrally buoyant oil. At low water velocities, the barrier was able to divert some oils but in an inconsistent manner. The results indicate that conventional barriers need improvement to be effective at higher water velocities and suggest that new concepts in containment should be considered. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

303

Formation of water-in-oil emulsions and application to oil spill modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-in-oil mixtures were grouped into four states or classes: stable, mesostable, unstable, and entrained water. Of these, only stable and mesostable states can be characterized as emulsions. These states were established according to lifetime, visual appearance, complex modulus, and differences in viscosity. Water content at formation was not an important factor. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stability as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents, as well as differences in the viscosity of the starting oil. The different types of water-in-oil classes are readily distinguished simply by appearance, as well as by rheological properties. A review of past modelling efforts to predict emulsion formation showed that these older schemes were based on first-order rate equations that were developed before extensive work on emulsion physics took place. These results do not correspond to either laboratory or field results. The present authors suggest that both the formation and characteristics of emulsions could be predicted using empirical data. If the same oil type as already studied is to be modelled, the laboratory data on the state and properties can be used directly. In this paper, a new numerical modelling scheme is proposed and is based on empirical data and the corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation. The density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin contents are used to compute a class index which yields either an unstable or entrained water-in-oil state or a mesostable or stable emulsion. A prediction scheme is given to estimate the water content and viscosity of the resulting water-in-oil state and the time to formation with input of wave height. PMID:15036641

Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

2004-02-27

304

Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1) and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C) and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 ...

Gamel, T. H.; Kiritsakis, A.

1999-01-01

305

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

1951-01-01

306

Separation of oil from a water/oil mixed drop using two nonparallel plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we have developed a simple approach to separate oil from a microliter-scaled water/oil mixture by squeezing the mixture using two nonparallel plates. Three pairs of plates with Teflon, SU-8, and SiO2 coatings, respectively, are used in the tests, and all of these plates are capable of separating the water/oil mixed drops. 95.5% silicone oil and 97.0% light mineral oil have been collected from their corresponding mixtures with water through the pair of Teflon plates. Furthermore, on the basis of pressure difference inside a liquid drop, theoretical models have been developed to interpret the corresponding mechanisms of the separation process, as well as the observed phenomena. To judge whether two immiscible liquids could be separated using the developed approach, a sufficient condition has also been derived, which includes three theoretical relations. The sufficient condition is subsequently validated by experiments. This condition also provides criteria for choosing a good plate coating. Such a coating should ensure (i) the oil wets the plate surface with a relatively large contact angle, and has small contact angle hysteresis, and (ii) the advancing contact angle that the water/oil interface forms on the plate surface is larger than 90°. PMID:25073653

Luo, Cheng; Heng, Xin

2014-08-26

307

A review of knowledge on water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlined the basics of water-in-oil emulsification which is often considered to be the second most important behavioural characteristic of oil after evaporation. In the event of oil spills on water, water in-oil emulsions are formed by the emulsification process which changes the physical properties and characteristics of the oil. Stable emulsions contain from 60 to 80 per cent water, thereby expanding the spilled material from 2 to 5 times the original volume. The density of the resulting emulsion is also greater than the starting density and the viscosity of the oil generally increases. The liquid product is thus transformed into a heavy, semi-solid material. As a result of emulsification, evaporation of oil spills slows by orders-of-magnitude, spreading slows and the oil rides lower in the water column. Emulsification also affects cleanup response because emulsions are hard to treat, burn or recover mechanically. This paper also reviewed dielectric and rheological methods that study the formation mechanisms and stability of emulsions made from different types of oils. Other standard chemical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical analysis techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, interfacial pressure and interfacial tension have also been applied to emulsions. After 15 years of studies, data on water-in-oil emulsions have shown good correlation between laboratory, test tank and field scale studies. Reported test results oeld scale studies. Reported test results on about 400 oils and petroleum products have shown that emulsions can be grouped into 3 categories, each with distinct physical properties. These include stable, unstable and meso-stable emulsions. An examination of the asphaltene and resin content has shown that the stability of emulsions can be predicted by the asphaltene content and its viscosity. Emulsion formation was found to occur at a threshold energy, defined in terms of relative sea state. A recently proposed numerical modeling scheme based on empirical data and corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation has been proposed. A class index of unstable or entrained water-in-oil state and a meso-stable or stable emulsion was determined based on density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin content. 133 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

308

The Oil-Water Interface: Mapping the Solvation Potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ions moving across the oil water interface are strongly impacted by the continuous changes in solvation. The solvation potential for Cs+ is directly measured as they approach the oil-water interface (“oil” = 3-methylpentane), from 0.4 to 4 nm away. The oil-water interfaces are created at 40K using molecular beam epitaxy and a softlanding ion beam, with pre-placed ions. The solvation potential slope was determined at each distance by balancing it against an increasing electrostatic potential made by increasing the number of imbedded ions at that distance, and monitoring the resulting ion motion. The potential approaches the Born model for greater than z>0.4nm, and shows the predicted reduction of the polarizability at z<0.4nm.

Bell, Richard C.; Wu, Kai; Iedema, Martin J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Cowin, James P.

2009-01-06

309

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

310

What Happens to Oil in the Water?  

Science.gov (United States)

When different kinds of oil enter the sea, many physical, chemical and biological degradation processes start acting on them. This resource describes the factors that decide the physical, chemical and biological degradation of the oil, as well as potential environmental damage, effects on wildlife, and effects on habitats, of the spill. The text is color-coded to reflect the sources of the information, and links to additional material on topic are also provided.

2004-05-10

311

On the nature of radium anomalies in waters of the zones of water-oil contacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of formation of radium anomalies within an oil-water surface (OWS) was studied. The U contents have been determined by the method of f-radiography in more than 300 samples of oil from various fields in the Soviet Union. The irradiation was carried out with a neutron flux of 1.15x1013 n/cm2xs for 15 min. Results of the studies are given from which it follows that the radioactivity of oils is many times lower than that of rocks and stratal waters of producing horizons. An anomalously high radioactivity in the zone of oil-water surface is due the Ra transportation by diffusion from the bound water of an oil pool to the water-bearing rocks. Water with higher radioactivity may also come from the underlying horizons of the section through structural disturbances

312

Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

Thomas, B.L.

1984-07-01

313

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

314

Removal of oil products from fitters in water treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gasoline and oil spills cause aromatic hydrocarbon pollution of ground water. Benzene, toluene and naphtalene can be found in water wells. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the filtering of water and biological degradation of aromatics on water treatment filters. These filters were proved to reduce benzene, toluene and naphtalene concentration from 5-12 ?g/l to 0,3-0,6 ?g/l (86-98 % removal). (EG)

315

Usefulness of hepatic artery injection of iodized oil and 131I-labelled iodized oil before the therapeutic decision in hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assesses the usefulness of intra-arterial injection of iodized oil (Lipiodol) as a tool for evaluating the therapeutic choice in a series of 72 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 52 of these patients a scintigraphic study of the biodistribution of iodized oil was done, using 131I-iodized oil injection. A single tumor was detected in only 17 cases; 18 patients had a tumor involving only 1 lobe; in 7 cases CT scan disclosed a minute nodule in the opposite lobe of the main tumor. 18 patients had a portal thromobosis; in 12 of these cases CT scan showed iodized oil in the tumor emboli. The degree of intratumoral retention of iodized oil depended on the size of tumors and on the presence of arterioportal shunts. The authors study demonstrates that only a few patients (4%) with HCC might benefit from curative surgery. The therapeutic benefit of methods using iodized oil injection might be estimated by means of its biodistribution variables (CT and/or scintigraphic data). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

316

Usefulness of hepatic artery injection of iodized oil and [sup 131]I-labelled iodized oil before the therapeutic decision in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the usefulness of intra-arterial injection of iodized oil (Lipiodol) as a tool for evaluating the therapeutic choice in a series of 72 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 52 of these patients a scintigraphic study of the biodistribution of iodized oil was done, using [sup 131]I-iodized oil injection. A single tumor was detected in only 17 cases; 18 patients had a tumor involving only 1 lobe; in 7 cases CT scan disclosed a minute nodule in the opposite lobe of the main tumor. 18 patients had a portal thromobosis; in 12 of these cases CT scan showed iodized oil in the tumor emboli. The degree of intratumoral retention of iodized oil depended on the size of tumors and on the presence of arterioportal shunts. The authors study demonstrates that only a few patients (4%) with HCC might benefit from curative surgery. The therapeutic benefit of methods using iodized oil injection might be estimated by means of its biodistribution variables (CT and/or scintigraphic data). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Raoul, J.L.; Duvauferrier, R.; Bretagne, J.F.; Bourguet, P.; Heresbach, D.; Siproudhis, L.; Gosselin, M. (Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France))

1993-03-01

317

Low-Sulfate Seawater Injection into Oil Reservoir to Avoid Scaling Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates from mixing Angsi seawater or low sulfate seawater with the following sulfate contents (75, 50, 25, 5 and 1%) and formation water contain high concentration of calcium, strontium and barium ions at various temperatures (40-90°C) and atmospheric pressure. The knowledge of solubility of common oil field scale formation and how their solubilities are affec...

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

2008-01-01

318

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Water-in-Oil Microemulsion System for Enhanced Peptide Intestinal Delivery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peptide and protein drugs have become the new generation of therapeutics, yet most of them are only available as injections, and reports on oral local intestinal delivery of peptides and proteins are quite limited. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion system in vitro and in vivo for local intestinal delivery of water-soluble peptides after oral administration. A fluorescent labeled peptide, 5-(and-6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine labeled HIV transa...

Liu, Dongyun; Kobayashi, Taku; Russo, Steven; Li, Fengling; Plevy, Scott E.; Gambling, Todd M.; Carson, Johnny L.; Mumper, Russell J.

2012-01-01

319

APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE OF ELECTROFLOCCULATION USING ALTERNATE CURRENT IN TREATMENT OF WATER PRODUCTION FROM OIL INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is related to the electroflocculation process applied to the treatment of the production water, which is the main waste generated during the process of exploration and production of oil. This wastewater is contains toxic chemicals, inorganic salts and heavy metals, which hinders its treatment and final disposal. Lately, this water is being re-injected into the production wells to increase the pressure, but its quality is not adequate. For the treatment of this effluent various techn...

Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; Marques, Mo?nica Regina Da Costa; Russo, Carlos

2010-01-01

320

Study of enhanced oil field recovery through polymer injection in field scales; Estudo da recuperacao avancada de petroleo via injecao de polimeros em escala de campo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymer flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method consists in increasing the aqueous phase viscosity by addition of polymer, reducing in this way its mobility compared with the oleic phase, leading to an increase in reservoir's sweep efficiency. However, polymer flooding still requires more research to develop polymers that are more resistant to the injection and reservoir conditions, e.g. high temperature, high salinity, biological and mechanical degradation. Computational simulations are executed to validate the results. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of polymer flooding in enhancing the reservoir's recovery factor. Computational simulations were done for polymer flooding in filed scale using the STARS simulator (CMG). Simulations for water flooding also were done for the same reservoir. In this way, it was possible to compare, for the same reservoir, the performance of water injection and polymer flooding. The economical analysis of these recovery methods was done to evaluate their viability. (author)

Manichand, Renuka N.; Garcia, Rosangela B.; Mata, Ana L.M.L.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-? Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which co...

Yin Khor Yin; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.; Pao William

2014-01-01

322

Anxiogenic Effects of Acute Injection of Sesame oil May be Mediated by ?-1 Adrenoceptors in the Basolateral Amygdala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: A few studies have indicates that the sesame oil influences anxiety, but many reports show that ?-1 adrenoceptors (ARs of the basolateral amygdala (BLA plays a pivotal role in this regard. Therefore, in this study the effect of acute injection of sesame oil on anxiety-like behavior in the presence and absence of the BLA ?-1 ARs in the male Wistar rats were investigated. Methods: Guide cannulas, for seven groups of rats, were implanted bilaterally into the BLA. Two weeks after the stereotaxic surgery, anxiety-like behaviors (the OAT%, OAE % and locomotor activity were evaluated by Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM for all groups. 3 groups received different volumes of sesame oil (i.p. and they were compared with control group (received saline via i.p., and the anxiogenic volume of sesame oil (1.5ml/kg was determined. Then, 3 other groups received constant effective volume of sesame oil (1.5ml/kg along with 3 different doses of betaxolol, selective ?-1 ARs antagonist, intra BLA microinjection in order to be compared with sesame oil group (1.5 ml/kg. Results: The acute injection of sesame oil with the volume dependent manner showed an anxiogenic effect with reduction of the OAT% and OAE% which the maximum effect of sesame oil was observed in the dose of 1.5mg/kg. Also, betaxolol with dose dependent manner attenuated the anxiogenic effects of sesame oil (1.5mg/kg, but this reduction could not remove the anxiety effects completely. Conclusion: It seems that the sesame oil acute (i.p. injection induces anxiety, and this effect is attenuated by inhibition of ?-1ARs in the BLA.

Mahnaz Kesmati

2013-12-01

323

Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

2011-12-01

324

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

325

Direct numerical simulation of water droplet coalescence in the oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? VOF computational technique has been used to simulate coalescence of two water droplets in oil. ? The model was validated with the experimental data for binary droplet coalescence. ? Based on the CFD simulation results a correlation has been proposed to predict the coalescence time. - Abstract: Coalescence of two water droplets in the oil was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The finite volume numerical method was applied to solve the Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach for interface tracking. The effects of some parameters consisting of the collision velocity, off-center collision parameter, oil viscosity and water–oil interfacial tension on the coalescence time were investigated. The simulation results were validated against the experimental data available in the literature. The results revealed that quicker coalescence could be achieved if the head-on collisions occur or the droplets approach each other with a high velocity. In addition, low oil viscosities or large water–oil interfacial tensions cause less coalescence time. Moreover, a correlation was developed to predict coalescence efficiency as a function of the mentioned parameters.

326

An Analytical Model for Simulating Heavy-Oil Recovery by Cyclic Steam Injection Using Horizontal Wells, SUPRI TR-118  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this investigation, existing analytical models for cyclic steam injection and oil recovery are reviewed and a new model is proposed that is applicable to horizontal wells. A new flow equation is developed for oil production during cyclic steaming of horizontal wells. The model accounts for the gravity-drainage of oil along the steam-oil interface and through the steam zone. Oil viscosity, effective permeability, geometry of the heated zone, porosity, mobile oil saturation, and thermal diffusivity of the reservoir influence the flow rate of oil in the model. The change in reservoir temperature with time is also modeled, and it results in the expected decline in oil production rate during the production cycle as the reservoir cools. Wherever appropriate, correlations and incorporated to minimize data requirements. A limited comparison to numerical simulation results agrees well, indicating that essential physics are successfully captured. Cyclic steaming appears to be a systematic met hod for heating a cold reservoir provided that a relatively uniform distribution of steam is obtained along the horizontal well during injection. A sensitivity analysis shows that the process is robust over the range of expected physical parameters.

Diwan, Utpal; Kovscek, Anthony R.

1999-08-09

327

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Science.gov (United States)

...Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60... if I use water or steam injection? (a...the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

2010-07-01

328

SURFACE WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR MONITORING OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report develops and recommends prioritized listings of chemical, physical, and biological parameters which can be used to assess the environmental impact of oil shale development on surface water resources. Each of the potential water-related problems is addressed in the con...

329

An environmentally safe water-based alternative to oil muds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a mechanism describing the onset of bit balling is given. On the basis of this mechanism, a new copolymer/polypropylene glycol (COP/PPG) water-based drilling fluid was developed. The properties of this fluid are described, and field test comparisons are made with water- and oil-based fluids

330

CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SHALE MINE WATERS, CENTRAL PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to characterize the oil shale mine waters in the Piceance Basin. The study sites were Federal Prototype Lease Tracts C-a and C-b, located in the central portion of the basin. The objective was to collect water quality data in order to characterize the mine w...

331

Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

Abdurahman H. Nour

2007-01-01

332

Performance and exhaust emissions of an indirect-injection (IDI) diesel enginewhen using waste cooking oil as fuel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was carried out on the influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) and its blends with D2 fuel on the performance, exhaust emissions, combustion and fuel injection processes of an indirect injected diesel engine. Tests were carried out using different fuels, under the same conditions. Exhaust emissions and engine performance were measured and compared. Combustion chamber pressure was also acquired, and the rate of heat-release curves were computed by means of a zero-dimensional one-zone comb...

Hribernik, Ales?; Kegl, Breda

2012-01-01

333

Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish

334

Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

335

The Description of Oil Displacement Mechanism in Steam Injection of Multi-Field Synergy with Exergy Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steam injection is a most effective way for improving heavy oil recovery efficiency, and it has academic and practical significance for the mechanism of multi-field synergy oil displacement. Mechanism of “diversified” oil displacement which is obtained by traditional study methods in the exploitation territory of oil and gas fields has both respective roles and mutual cross shortages. To describe and analyze the displacement process of multi-field coupling with exergy transfer can simplify this kind of problem by introducing a unified goal-driving exergy. It needs to use the method of theoretical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental validation to study the basic law of exergy transfer in the oil displacement process of multi-field synergy, make a thorough research for the flooding process of steam injection with exergy transfer theory and reveal the oil displacement mechanism in steam injection of multi-field synergy. Thus the theory instruction and technical support can be provided to improve reservoirs producing degree and extraction ratio.

Qinglin Cheng

2013-06-01

336

Study of transient air injection into a pool of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been conducted to study the hydrodynamic phenomena associated with the transient injection of air into a pool of water through single and double vent tubes placed in an axisymmetric vessel. The effect of such geometric parameters as submergence depth, distance of vent exit from the bottom of the test chamber, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the tube to that of the test chamber has been studied for single tubes. The data show that the bottom maximum pressure increases with submergence depth and that two-dimensional effects start to play a role at submergence depths of about 20 cm (test chamber diameter = 45 cm). The minimum downward force is observed to occur when the momentum of the expanding bubble is at its maximum. The double vent data show that a superposition principle will tend to overestimate the maximum downward force, while a reduction in cell size will reduce the magnitude of the local maximum and tend to make the pressure uniform over the bottom of the test chamber. Prediction of the maximum average downward force for double vents is found to be possible from single vent observations if the single vent is assumed to be placed in between the double vents and if it has a cross-sectional area equal to the sum of the areas of the two vents. A comparison of predictions based on the present work with the experimentally observed forces in a 1/5th scale Mark I BWR torus has been made

337

Stability of additive-free water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We calculate ion distributions near a planar oil-water interface within nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, taking into account the Born self-energy of the ions in the two media. For unequal self-energies of cations and anions a spontaneous charge separation is found, such that the water and oil phases become oppositely charged in slabs with a typical thickness of the Debye screening length in the two media. From the analytical solutions, the corresponding interfacial charge density and the contribution to the interfacial tension is derived, together with an estimate for the Yukawa potential between two spherical water droplets in oil. The parameter regime is explored where the plasma coupling parameter exceeds the crystallization threshold, i.e. where the droplets are expected to form crystalline structures due to a strong Yukawa repulsion, as recently observed experimentally. Extensions of the theory that we discuss briefly, include numerical calculations on spherical water droplets in oil, and analytical calculations of the linear PB-equation for a finite oil-water interfacial width.

338

Alteration of permeability by fine particle movement -- A water injectivity problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Siri field is located off shore of Iran in the Persian Gulf and is producing from the Mishrif Formation, which is common between Iran and United Arab Emirates. Existence of an active aquifer and other appropriate conditions led to the decision of a water injection program. Sea water from the Persian Gulf was found to be compatible with the formation water and was directly injected into the formation after passing through 10 micron filters. Water injectivity was drastically decreased from an initial injection rate of 9,100 bbl/day to 2,200 bbl/day within six years. Because of the severe injectivity loss, the water injection was stopped. An experimental investigation was undertaken to look into the possible causes of the injectivity loss. Two sets of experimental investigations were undertaken with different objectives in mind. In the first part glass bead packs were used to test the experimental set up and to observe the general behavior of fine particle movement in porous media. In the second part a core plug from the field and sea water were used to determine the possible cause of injectivity loss in the field. The experiments were conducted with injection rates of 0.9 cm{sup 3}/s to 3.1 cm{sup 3}/s. Particles of bentonite were suspended in the injected water to simulate fine particles migration in porous media. The particles were injected at concentrations ranged from 20 g/l to 40 g/l. It was observed that the build up in flow resistance was mostly due to the frontal face plugging. Particles of bentonite and alumina were added to the glass beads to study the effect of particles initially present in the glass beads pack medium. Field and laboratory data clearly indicate the importance of the water quality in a waterflood project. Experimental data suggest that a smaller size filter should have been implemented to avoid the injectivity loss.

Asghari, K.; Kharrat, R.; Vossoughi, S.

1995-11-01

339

Effect of Ultrasonication on Stability of Oil in Water Emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of ultrasonic waves on stability of oil in water system of light liquid paraffin oil (HLB = 12) as internal phase and tween20 (HLB = 16.7), span20 (HLB = 8.6) as emulsifying agents was studied. A comparison was made to determine the stability of emulsions prepared by mechanical agitation method and ultrasonication technique. Droplet size measurement method was used to determine the stability of emulsions. Physico-chemical parameters like concentration of emulsifying agent, volume fr...

Shyamsunder, R.; Ramisetty, Kiran A.

2011-01-01

340

Application of a bayesian framework to decision making regarding maintenance and intervention of subsea water injection pumps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As more and more oil fields in the North Sea are developed as subsea fields, the monitoring and maintenance availability is becoming difficult to perform on the equipment used for subsea boosting. Often maintenance is looked upon as a necessary evil (Arthur, 2005, Bevilacqua et al., 2003) rather than a way to optimize the production of the field. This paper is looking at the problem of when to pull a damaged Subsea Water Injection Pump and replace it. Usually the practice is to keep the pump ...

Ringdal, Ingvar

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Texture optimization of water-in-oil emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research is to demonstrate the effect of variations in certain parameters of the oily phase (OP) in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions on rheological and texture properties of finished products. The formulated emulsions were selected according to an optimal experimental procedure. The applied variations were nature of the OP, its volume fraction, the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, and the surfactant proportion. Results are presented for the followed tests carried out on the emulsions: texture analysis, rheology, and particle size analysis. The oils used in the study were sweet almond oil, liquid paraffin, maize oil, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, and wheat germ oil. The resulting data demonstrate a notable influence of the volume fraction oil on hardness, viscosity, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of W/O emulsions. Emulsion hardness and viscosity increased as the OP percentage increased; this effect being even more pronounced for the vegetable oils. In contrast, emulsion adhesiveness and cohesiveness decreased as the volume fraction oil increased. The HLB value of the surfactant mixture of the emulsion also influenced hardness, adhesiveness, and elasticity, increasing or decreasing as HLB value did. PMID:15202571

Lemaitre-Aghazarian, V; Piccerelle, P; Reynier, J P; Joachim, J; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Sergent, M

2004-01-01

342

Retention of polar oil components in low salinity water flooding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of brine chemistry, salinity and composition on the retention of polar oil components onto reservoir rock mineral surface in relation to low salinity water flooding (LSWF) was studied and evaluated in this piece of work using ultra-violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Five different brine compositions; sea water (SW), formation water (FW), LSW1 (FW diluted 100 times), LSW2 (FW diluted 1000 times) and KCl low salinity brine were studied and their effect on the retention of polar...

Sokama-neuyam, Yen Adams

2013-01-01

343

Formation and Stability of an Oil in Water Emulsion Containing Lecithin, Xanthan Gum and Sunflower Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The optimisation of the formation and stability of an oil in water emulsion containing lecithin, xanthan gum and sunflower oil was evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and nonlinear regression. The main and combined effects of three independent variables; concentration of sunflower oil (10-20% v/v), soy lecithin (1-5% w/v) and xanthan gum (0.01-3% w/v) on the responses were examined. The main objectives of the study were to model and optimise maximum emulsion storage stability a...

Traynor, Mark; Burke, Roisin; Frias, Jesus Maria; Gaston, Edurne; Barry-ryan, Catherine

2013-01-01

344

Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer at a topographically high recharge area. Water levels in the surficial aquifers and the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer were nearly the same along the Cuyahoga River. Ground water in the upper sandstone aquifer flows radially from topographically high recharge areas into the glacial deposits in the buried valleys. Much of the ground water in these surficial aquifers discharges into the Cuyahoga River. Most ground water in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer flows toward discharge areas near the Cuyahoga River and Eagle Creek. In June 1988, the Cuyahoga River gained 15.8 cubic feet per second of water from the aquifers between the northern edge of Portage County and State Route 303. Ground water may have discharged into the upstream end of Lake Rockwell but did not discharge into the downstream end of the Lake during most of the period from October 1987 through September 1988. Measurements of the specific conductance of ground water sampled from areas near the 13 brine-injection wells and along the Cuyahoga River indicate no widespread ground-water contamination related to brine injection. Chemical analysis of water from 25 wells indicates that most ground waters are a calcium bicarbonate type. Water analyses show that four wells sampled contain water with chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter. Sodium concentrations in water from these four wells ranged from 67 to 190 milligrams per liter. A mixing diagram constructed from bromide and chloride data was used to distinguish between the sources of elevated chloride concentrations in these four wells. Waters from two of the wells have been mixed with oilfield and gasfield brine, and waters from the other two wells have been mixed with a salt-solution brine such as that derived from diluted highway-deicing salts.

Eberts, S.M.

1991-01-01

345

Countercurrent steam/water flow above a perforated plate-vertical injection of water. Topical report, August 1980-July 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Countercurrent flow limiting phenomenon above a perforated plate has been studied in a steam/water environment. Water was injected as a vertical jet and the injection height above the perforated plate was changed from 0 cm to 35.6 cm. The 15 hole perforated plate has a rectangular cross section with a perforation ratio of 0.423. The weep-points and total dumping points have been determined for low and high water injection heights above the perforated plate and the results have been compared to those of the horizontal water spray experiments. The data corresponding to high water injection heights were similar to those of the horizontal water spray experiments. However, a different behavior was observed for the weep-point data with low water inlet heights. The dumping point was little affected by the water inlet position above the perforated plate. The dimensionless effective steam flow rate defined for the experiments with horizontal water spray was used to correlate the data corresponding to both the onset of weeping and the total dumping points. The correlation was successful for the weep-point data with high water injection heights. However the dimensionless parameter was redefined for the weeping-point data with low water injection heights

346

Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines  

Science.gov (United States)

This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

Becker, Arthur

2006-01-01

347

?????????????????? Research on Numerical Simulations of Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery by Steam Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????B-L????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????–???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The works on the developments of the numerical scheme for multi-phase flows in porous media and the adaptive mesh refinement in numerical simulations of heavy oil thermal recovery by steam injection are introduced. First, a finite analytic method was developed to deal with a challenging problem in numerical simulations in the case of strong geological heterogeneity, which cause the upscaling permeability to have a rapid change cross the grid interfaces and therefore the nodal flow effects will lead the flow fingering to the high permeability region. With the traditional numerical scheme, refining the coarse grid enough is the only manner to describe the flow pattern accurately. Second, for the incompressible two-phase flows, a numerical scheme, which could avoid the grid orientation effects efficiently, was proposed. Next, the adaptive mesh refinement technique was applied to the numerical simulations for the processes of thermal recovery by steam injection, where the different heterogeneous cases of the reservoir were considered, like the reservoir with the permeability variations, the different rock-types, the fractured porous media, the complex faulted reservoir or complex boundary reservoirs. The proposed AMR technique is fast and can give good accuracy. At last, on the basis of above theoretical research, a software package for the reservoir simulations, where the AMR technique was included, was developed.

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2013-03-01

348

Characterization of hydroxyaromatic compounds in vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis with direct injection in an oil-miscible KOH/propanol/methanol medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The separation of hydroxyaromatic compounds in vegetable oils, including synthetic antioxidants (3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene), E-vitamers and other natural oil components, by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis in an oil-miscible background electrolyte (BGE) was investigated. The BGE contained 40 mM KOH in a methanol/1-propanol (PrOH) mixture (15:85 v/v). The oil samples were 1:1 diluted with PrOH and directly injected in the capillary. Under negative polarity (cathode at the injection end), the anionic solutes moved faster than the electroosmotic flow, being well-resolved among them and from the triacylglycerols. Using virgin palm, extra virgin olive, wheat germ, virgin soybean and other oils, the capability of the procedure to quickly yield a characteristic profile of the biophenols present in the sample was demonstrated. The alpha-, (beta + gamma)- (as unresolved pair) and delta-tocopherols of a soybean oil sample were quantified. PMID:16097022

Mendonça, Carla R B; Bica, Clara I D; Piatnicki, Clarisse M S; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

2005-09-01

349

Determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in formation water during oil exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is conducted, in order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in Iran petroleum industry. Samples were collected from offshore oil company for analysis of 238U, 235U, and 232Th series in produced waters. The activities of samples were determined by high-purity germanium detector, well for low level activity ?-spectrometry. The results have shown that, 226Ra concentration ranges from 5.26 Bq/L to 27.93 Bq/L. Also the total activity in produced water is in the range of 16-840 Bq/L were mainly due to enhanced levels of dissolved 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi ions. Also, enhanced dissolution of elements such as radium by increasing of salinity, result in higher concentration of NORM in old oil region. Measured values are above EPA regulation (40 CFR 141055) and aqueous Derived Release Limit (DRL) of Canadian guideline for the management of (NORM). Therefore produced water has to dispose in pits which have to design for decrease the environmental effects. Also according to this study, re-injection of produced water in to abandon well of Iran Offshore Oil Company in Persian Gulf, have preference over discharging to the pits. (author)

350

40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Science.gov (United States)

...oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary...cover the separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary...except during inspection and maintenance. (4) Roof seals,...

2010-07-01

351

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demulsification (emulsion breaking is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation between good performance (fast coalescence and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

Abdurahman, H. Nour

2007-01-01

352

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Science.gov (United States)

Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation) between good performance (fast coalescence) and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

Abdurahman; Nour, H.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli; Jemaat, Zulkifly

353

Effect of microcontent of oil in water under confined condition  

Science.gov (United States)

The lubricant film thickness between two contacting surfaces is important for the evaluation of lubrication effectiveness. According to the elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory, the film thickness of pure water is usually on the order of a few nanometers. It was found, however, that microcontent of oil contamination can cause a lubricant film more than 100 nm, much thicker than the predicted. The effect of micro-oil content in water between a smooth plate and a highly polished steel ball was investigated. The film forming characteristic of such films was presented. The film formation mechanism and influencing factors were discussed.

Ma, Liran; Luo, Jianbin; Zhang, Chenhui; Liu, Shuhai; Zhu, Tao

2009-08-01

354

Oil-Water Interface: Mapping Nanoscale Solvation and Fluidity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buried liquid-liquid interfaces, like the oil-water interface, can be probed in great detail, by recreating them synthetically via cryogenic molecular beam epitaxy. The structures placed within them persist long enough, once one warms the system to restore true fluidity, to probe many properties. Further, by gently (>1 eV) imbedding tracer ions (like hydronium or cesium) with angstrom precision at, below, and/or above the interface, it becomes possible to study kinetic processes with high precision. We use it to measure the solvation chemical potential of an ion in the oil versus position near the water interface. We also measure the interface-induced fluidity changes

Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.

2004-08-22

355

Study on Flow of Flushing Water in Oil Pipeline of Diameter 8 Inches Using Radioisotope Tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Br-82 isotope in the form of paradibromo benzene solution has been injected into oil pipeline of 8 inches in diameter to investigate flow pattern of flushing water inside the pipeline. Two scintillation detectors are put on the pipeline at the distance of 10.52 meter and 39.7 meters respectively from injection point to obtain residence time distribution curves of injected isotope. The flow-rate of flushing water that is calculated by utilizing the mean residence time is 49.7 meter/minute. The model parameter, n, has been analyzed by implementation of tanks-in series model in order to determine the flow pattern of the flushing water inside the pipeline. From this calculation, it is obtained that n = 10 for the first rtd curve and n = 9.17 for the second rtd curve. This result indicates that the characteristic of the flow pattern of flushing water is well mixed flow with quite high degree of turbulence due to the scaling and pit corrosion in the inner wall of the pipe. (author)

356

Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 ?mol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

LisaGieg

2014-05-01

357

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : stability and oil properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions were studied by examining the asphaltene and resin content of oils. The visco-elastic properties of 82 oils from Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division were also examined to determine which factors are responsible for the stability regimes. The stability of emulsions were grouped into three categories: (1) stable, (2) unstable, and (3) meso-stable. It was shown that there is a range of compositions and viscosities in which each type of water-in-oil state exists. It was also shown that the viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second is about three times greater than that of the starting oil. An unstable emulsion typically had a viscosity of 20 times greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion had pronounced elasticity, but an unstable emulsion did not. A meso-stable emulsion had properties between stable and unstable, but broke down after a few days of standing. It was concluded that the formation of both stable and meso-stable emulsions is due to the combination of surface-active forces from resins and asphaltenes from viscous forces. Only a small difference was detected between stable and meso-stable emulsions. Stable emulsions were found to have more asphaltenes and less resins and a narrow viscosity window. Instability results when the oil has either a high viscosity or a very low viscosity and when the resins and asphaltenes are less than about 3 per cent. In highly viscouss than about 3 per cent. In highly viscous oils, the migration of asphaltenes and resins is too low to permit droplet stabilization, therefore the formation of stable or meso-stable emulsions does not occur in highly viscous oils. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

358

Testing research for oil-gas-water flow pattern in Daqing oilfield  

Science.gov (United States)

During the period of the high water cut later stage, it is significant for decreasing energy consumption of gathering system to research oil-gas-water flow pattern. At the moment, the studies on oil-gas-water flow pattern are mainly focused on the temperature range of crude oil freezing point. A experimental system is designed, constructed and operated in oilfields in horizontal pipeline., which is used for experimental investigation and analysis of oil-gas-water flow pattern under freezing point in horizontal pipeline. According to the crude oil condition, the results show that oil-gas-water flow pattern includes four types that are oil contact wave flow, oil-oil particle dispersion flow, oil lamellar flow, oil puddle slugging flow.

Liu, Xiaoyan; Mao, Qianjun; Liu, Lijun; Xu, Ying; Chen, Wei

2013-07-01

359

Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding) Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s) of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CD...

Joseph, Amieibibama; Ajienka, Joseph Atubokiki

2010-01-01

360

Flow of oil and water through elastic polymer gels; Ecoulement de petrole et d'eau a travers des gels de polymere elastiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High water production is one of the major problems faced by the petroleum industry. One method of controlling water production is to inject polymer gels into the near-wellbore formation. Unfortunately, polymer gel injections are not always successful, in part because the exact mechanisms by which they reduce water permeability more than oil permeability (i.e., Disproportionate Permeability Reduction. DPR) are not understood. We have conducted a series of experiments on flow of water and oil through bulk polymer gels and through polymer- filled micro-models to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms involved in DPR. Flow experiments of oil and water through weak polyacrylamide-based gels have been per,formed to obtain the gel permeabilities under different test conditions. Oil and water permeabilities through the gel were each found to vary with flow rate according to a power-law, but with different pre-factors and exponents. The micro-scale flow experiments were conducted in transparent glass models to visualize clearly the flow events. Our observations enabled us to discount many previously-proposed explanations, and identify the fact that the oil and water can travel through the same pore channels, but in ways that differ, particularly at the pore scale. Water flows through the gel matrix as if flowing by diffusive flow through a porous medium, whereas the oil pushes its way In the form of immiscible drops or filaments. This difference in flow regime gives rise to the measured disproportionate permeability reduction. (authors)

Al-Sharji, H.H.; Grattoni, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.W. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medecine, London (United Kingdom); Dawe, R.A. [West Indies Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Mona (Jamaica)

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Persistence of crude oil spills on open water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of reports on oil spill incidents around the world was conducted. A Microsoft access database was then compiled in which spill information parameters were identified. These include general information about when and where the spill occurred, weather, sea conditions, oil properties and cleanup methods. The available information was assessed to determine statistically significant relationships between spill persistence, spill size and spill persistence factors. The objective was to identify links between dissipation times for spills and spill size. Another objective was to determine quantitative relationships between on-water spill persistence and associated environmental factors; physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil; and, response effort parameters. A mathematical description of the persistence of crude oil spills at sea was developed using historical spill data. The results are used by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) to estimate probable durations for spill trajectories in the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. This study also refined the spill-size/spill-persistence correlation in terms of other variables such as oil type, weather and sea conditions and spill type. Correlation analyses were conducted on 3 data sets, indicating the importance of different variables and their dependencies. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs

362

Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions: Its Stabilization and Demulsification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional ways of breaking emulsions using heat and chemicals are disadvantageous from both economic and environmental perspectives. In this research, the potentials of microwave technology in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions are investigated. The study began with some characterization studies to provide understandings of fundamental issues such as formation, formulation and breaking of emulsions by both chemical and microwave approaches. The aim was to obtain optimized operating conditions as well as fundamental understanding of water-in-oil emulsion stability upon which further developments on demulsification processes could be developed. It was found that emulsion stability was related to some parameters such as, the surfactant concentration, water content, temperature and agitation speed. Experimental results found that microwave radiation method can enhance the demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions in a very short time compared to the conventional heating methods. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of microwave technology in demulsification of water-in-oil emulsion. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

Abdurahman H. Nour

2007-01-01

363

In-situ burning of water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes an experimental program on the in-situ burning of emulsions. This study is the third in a series of experimental studies on the in-situ burning of water-in-oil emulsions. The main objective of this study was to improve the capabilities and reduce the limitations of existing systems for igniting water-in-oil emulsions. A secondary objective was to study the feasibility of ferrocene as a soot reducing agent for oils and emulsions, and was incorporated into the experimental program. The experimental work for this research project was accomplished by conducting small-scale laboratory burns and heat transfer experiments, and by conducting meso-scale field experiments under Arctic springtime conditions. Experiments conducted to study emulsion burning processes revealed that: in order to ignite and burn the emulsion, water is first removed from the emulsion and released mainly through evaporation and that the temperature of the water-in-oil emulsions does not exceed approximately 100oC. Improvements were made to an existing igniter technology. It was found that the addition of emulsion breakers to gelled crude oil can increase the effectiveness of this igniter when dealing with emulsions with water contents greater than 50%. Experiments with ferrocene show this compound to be an effective soot inhibitor when mixed with oil or emulsions at concentrations as low as 0.13 wt%. Ferrocene may have some effect on the burning process but further testit on the burning process but further testing is required to conform this. 38 refs., 86 figs., 27 tabs

364

Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

2014-08-19

365

Effect of connate-water saturation, oil viscosity, and matrix permeability on rate of gravity drainage during immiscible and miscible displacement tests in matrix-fracture experimental model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been a substantial increase in interest regarding miscible injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for the purpose of enhanced oil recovery in conventional oil reservoirs. However, due to presumed low performance efficiency, naturally fractured reservoirs, which are among the largest oil reserves in the world, are considered bad candidates for this process. This paper presented the results of an experimental study on the effect of connate water saturation, matrix permeability, and oil viscosity on the performance of gravity drainage from the matrix into fracture when it was surrounded by a CO{sub 2}-filled fracture. An experimental model was used under different operating pressures to study both immiscible and miscible conditions. Experiments were conducted using synthetic oil and light crude oil in two Berea cores having large differences in permeability. The effect of connate water saturation was also examined by performing experiments in an initially brine saturated Berea core and comparing the results with those obtained when the core was 100 per cent saturated with oil. The paper described the laboratory study including the materials, experimental setup, and experimental procedure. Results were presented for the effect of connate water saturation; effect of oil viscosity; effect of matrix permeability; and oil in place. It was concluded that matrix permeability has a significant effect on the rate of gravity drainage when CO{sub 2} is injected under immiscible conditions. 11 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

Torabi, F.; Asghari, K. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

2009-07-01

366

The oil-water interface: mapping the solvation potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ion moving across an oil-water interface experiences strong solvation changes. We have directly measured the solvation potential from 0.4 to 4 nm for Cs(+) ions approaching the oil-water interface from the oil side ("oil" = 3-methylpentane). The interfaces were built at 30 K using molecular beam epitaxy. Ions were precisely placed within the film during its growth using a soft-landing ion beam. The ion's collective electric field was progressively increased (by adding more ions) until it balanced the individual ion's solvation potential slope. As the samples were slowly warmed, near 90 K the ions began moving, as measured by a Kelvin probe. Their motion precisely determines the local slope of the solvation potential, which was integrated to get the potential. The potential is Born-like for z > 0.4 nm away from the oil-water interface. Our method could provide important tests of theoretical estimates of ion motion at biological interfaces and in atmospheric aerosols. PMID:19154174

Bell, Richard C; Wu, Kai; Iedema, Martin J; Schenter, Gregory K; Cowin, James P

2009-01-28

367

Theoretical analysis of the effect of water and ethanol injection on axial compressor instabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of instabilities that occur in compression systems rotating stall and surge have an adverse effect on the compressor performance. Several techniques have been explored to minimize the effect of these instabilities. It has been observed that injection of a liquid into the compressor not only improves thermodynamic efficiencies but also results in stabilizing the system. Therefore, water and ethanol injection has been investigated as an effective tool for controlling these compressor instabilities. In the present paper a modified Moore-Greitzer model has been proposed for wet compression-based system using water and ethanol. Under this work the effect of injection of water (1) at various stages of compressor, (2) at different altitudes and (3) by varying amounts has also been presented. The effect of various parameters on wet compression such as (a) Optimum stage for liquid injection (b) Optimum amount of liquid injection and (c) Effect of altitude on liquid injection is also examined in the present work which shows that the liquid injection helps in improving the performance of compression systems in terms of increase in the stall margin and pressure rise coefficient. - Highlights: ? We model the effect of liquid injection on the performance of axial flow compressors. ? The basic Moore-Grietzer's model has been appropriately modified. ? Injection of liquid in the later stages of the compressor resulted in improved stall margin and pressure rise. ? Usell margin and pressure rise. ? Use of ethanol was found to give better performance than water.

368

Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CDR downstream the turbine pumps that supply water to the injector wells. Velocity and the injection rate of water to the injector wells (with no CDR added were measured. From the field results, 20ppm of CDR injection gave optimum injection increase of 13% and adding a third side outlet 3? pipeline into the wellheads gives independent 16% increase in injectivity. The test had no negative impact on the environment. The result could be applied as an aid and quick means of predicting water-flooding operation in similar operating condition as Ukpokiti field.

Amieibibama JOSEPH

2010-12-01

369

Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

2015-01-14

370

Design and operation of laboratory combustion cell for air injection into light oil reservoirs: potential application in Sindh field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical experimental work on the combustion oil recovery processes consists of both laboratory and field studies. Although field experiments are the ultimate test of any oil recovery process, they are costly, time consuming and difficult to analyze quantitatively. Laboratory CC (Combustion Cell) experiments are cost effective and less time consuming, but are subject to scaling and interpretation challenges. Experimental set up has been developed to understand air injection process for improving oil recovery from light oil reservoirs taking into account the sand pack petro physical and fluid properties. Some important design problems; operational criteria and considerations important to interpretation of results are pointed out. To replicate subsurface reservoir conditions or pressure and temperature, experiments up to 6895 KPa, at non-isothermal conditions with 5 deg. C/min ramp-up are performed on unconsolidated cores with reservoir oil samples. Correlations were obtained for low temperature oxidation rate of oil, the fuel deposition rate and the rate of burning fuel as a fuel concentration. Various parameters such as (sand pack, pressure, oil saturation and flow rate/air flux) were changed to investigate their impact on reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned. To determine the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, he hydrogen-carbon ratio and m-ratio was calculated. For further confirmation Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.0 order of reaction with carbon concentration which is also confirmed.This research will contribute to the overall understanding of air injection process; help to determine the most appropriate lOR (Improved Oil Recovery) technique in the development of the tertiary phase of production in light oil reservoirs in Lower Indus Basin (Sindh) fields. (author)

371

Oil field subsidence phenomena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subsidence of an chalky oil field is described. The mechanical behaviour of the chalk partly saturated by oil and water is described and allows to model the compaction occurring within a simple reservoir model during the depletion as well as during the water injection.

Charlier, Robert; Schroeder, Christian; Radu, Jean-pol; Collin, Fre?de?ric

2001-01-01

372

The role of pore geometry and connate water on miscible displacement of heavy oil with hydrocarbon solvents in strongly water-wet and oil-wet media using five-spot micromodels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reported on a study in which five-spot glass micromodels were used to investigate the hydrocarbon solvent flooding behaviour on heavy oil recovery in different wettability and pore geometries. This included the effects of wettability, connate water, different pore throat size ratio, throat-to-pore coordination number, and type of nonrandom heterogeneity of the porous media. The study demonstrated the successful use of micromodel experiments for studying enhanced oil recovery techniques in well defined five-spot models. It revealed that the displacement efficiency of the solvents depends on the surface wettability and is generally higher in strongly water-wet medium. A thin film of water coated the surface during hydrocarbon solvent injection in the water-wet condition in presence of connate water, thereby causing the oil to be displaced more easily. Also, some droplets in narrow throats caused the solvent to be more dispersed providing conditions for higher sweep efficiency. The study showed that there are more access routes connecting pores in pore systems with higher coordination numbers, which favors high displacement efficiency. Lowering the pore to throat ratio was shown to facilitate solvent propagation, causing higher recovery efficiency for miscible displacement. Heterogeneities provided higher residual oil saturation by making it easier for the solvent to bypass and causing the oil to be trapped. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

Dehghan, A.A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Tehran Petroleum Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Petroleum Univ. of Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, S.A.; Kharrat, R.; Ghazanfari, M.H. [Tehran Petroleum Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Petroleum Univ. of Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-07-01

373

Optimizing injection-production well pattern in hot water dominated geothermal reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimization of an injection-production well pattern was examined based on the quantitative study about the effects of reinjection water on production water. Reservoir characteristics distributions and reinjection water flow behavior between the injection and production wells were monitored by a tracer test, and the effects of reinjection water on the pressure and temperature of production water were examined by a numerical reservoir simulation model. The pressure response induced by water production or injection was transmitted into the reservoir rather rapidly and widely, however, the temperature change induced by water injection was not transmitted so rapidly as the pressure response. The reservoir was cooled gradually with the advance of injected water front. In designing the optimal reinjection system, it was thus most important to control the water replacement front and its velocity, and to minimize the temperature effect of reinjection water on production water. Combined use of the tracer test and simulation was proved to be remarkably helpful in evaluating a reservoir heterogeneity and in optimizing the well pattern. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Omuta, H.; Obara, K. (Japan Oil Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo; Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Iwate)

1988-11-10

374

Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2005-09-15

375

Ordered polyelectrolyte assembly at the oil–water interface  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyelectrolytes (PEs) are widely used in applications such as water purification, wastewater treatment, and mineral recovery. Although much has been learned in past decades about the behavior of PEs in bulk aqueous solutions, their molecular behavior at a surface, and particularly an oil–water interface where many of their applications are most relevant, is largely unknown. From these surface spectroscopic and thermodynamics studies we report the unique molecular characteristics that sever...

Beaman, Daniel K.; Robertson, Ellen J.; Richmond, Geraldine L.

2012-01-01

376

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, Jose? L.

2009-01-01

377

Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol. PMID:19471196

Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L

2009-01-01

378

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños

2009-05-01

379

Kinetic Stability and Rheology of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stabilized by Cocamide at Different Water Volume Fractions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The formation of water-in-crude oil encountered in many stages such drilling, transporting, and processing of crude oil. To enhance and control these processes, it is necessary to understand the emulsion mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate the stability and the rheology of the crude oil emulsion stabilized by Cocamide DEA. Two types of Malaysian crude oil namely; heavy crude oil, and light-heavy blended crude oil (40-60) vol. % were Physio-chemically characterized, and fractiona...

Rasha Mohammed Abd; Abdurhman Hamid Nour; Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman

2014-01-01

380

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 ?g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 ?g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

 
 
 
 
381

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w. The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r2 = 0.996. Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD% was better than 5% (2% typical for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

Gustavo Pignalosa

2005-01-01

382

Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

1982-06-22

383

Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

2012-07-01

384

75 FR 76742 - Detecting Oil Leaks From Vessels Into the Water  

Science.gov (United States)

...be able to detect leaks from oil tanks into the water? (E) What is the threshold for detection, accuracy, sensitivity...have uses other than leak detection from oil cargo tanks into the water? (H) Are...

2010-12-09

385

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotopes in produced water during oil production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spatial and monthly variations of radium isotope concentrations in produced water have been evaluated during oil production. Samples of produced water were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis over a period of 5 months, the samples being derived from 11 main oil production wells at three Syrian oil fields. The highest average 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations in these samples of water were found to be 41, 37.5 and 1.1 Bq l-1, respectively. The data obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio were evaluated statistically and displayed using the Box Plot method. Clear variations can be observed from one field to another, indicating differences in the geological formation of the reservoir. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio variations reflect the variability of the Th/U mass ratio of the geological formation, suggesting two different source rock types. The calculated mean Th/U mass ratio for these two possible types of source rock were 2.4 and 5.78. In addition, the 228Ra/226Ra mean activity ratio was also used to estimate the age of some deposited scales in tubulars. The results were compared with the 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio dating method. Monthly variations of 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations and the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio in produced water were alsoactivity ratio in produced water were also observed, the major causes for these variations being related to the type of injection water and interwell reactions. Possible relationships between 226Ra and 228Ra activity concentrations, the 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio and physical and chemical properties of produced water were statistically evaluated. No linear correlations were found. (author)

386

Storm water permitting for oil and gas facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After several false starts, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published new federal storm water regulations in the November 16, 1990 Federal Register. These regulations identify facilities which must apply for a storm water permit and detail permit application requirements. The regulations appear at 40 CFR 122 Subpart B and became effective December 17, 1990. An outline of these regulations and their applicability to oil and gas facilities is presented. They are: facilities which require a storm water permit; types of storm water permits; permit application deadlines; permit application forms; facilities with existing storm water permits; storm water permit application data requirements; storm water sampling and analysis requirements; and EPA contacts for additional information

387

Membrane-based microchannel device for continuous quantitative extraction of dissolved free sulfide from water and from oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Underground fluids are important natural sources of drinking water, geothermal energy, and oil-based fuels. To facilitate the surveying of such underground fluids, a novel microchannel extraction device was investigated for in-line continuous analysis and flow injection analysis of sulfide levels in water and in oil. Of the four designs investigated, the honeycomb-patterned microchannel extraction (HMCE) device was found to offer the most effective liquid-liquid extraction. In the HMCE device, a thin silicone membrane was sandwiched between two polydimethylsiloxane plates in which honeycomb-patterned microchannels had been fabricated. The identical patterns on the two plates were accurately aligned. The extracted sulfide was detected by quenching monitoring of fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA). The sulfide extraction efficiencies from water and oil samples of the HMCE device and of three other designs (two annular and one rectangular channel) were examined theoretically and experimentally. The best performance was obtained with the HMCE device because of its thin sample layer (small diffusion distance) and large interface area. Quantitative extraction from both water and oil could be obtained using the HMCE device. The estimated limit of detection for continuous monitoring was 0.05 ?M, and sulfide concentrations in the range of 0.15-10 ?M could be determined when the acceptor was 5 ?M FMA alkaline solution. The method was applied to natural water analysis using flow injection mode, and the data agreed with those obtained using headspace gas chromatog