WorldWideScience
1

Cyclic water injection: improved oil recovery at zero cost  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyclic injection is a process that improves waterflooding efficiency in heterogeneous reservoirs. The concept of cyclic injection is based on (1) pulsed injection and (2) alternating waterflood patterns. Cyclic injection has been successfully applied in a number of sandstone and carbonate oil fields in Russia. In the rest of the work, pulsed injection has had limited application, and only in naturally fractured reservoirs. Although changing the waterflood patterns is a common approach to deal with increasing water cuts, a more systematic approach with both pulsed injection and alternating flow directions is not. Cyclic injection has the greatest potential for improved recovery in heterogeneous, high-permeability-contrast sandstones and in naturally fractured carbonates and dolomite. The efficiency of the process is high in preferentially water-wet rocks saturated with compressible fluids. Capillary pressures and relative permeability effects are responsible for the improved cyclic oil displacement at the micro level. Improved sweep of the less permeable layers in communication with more permeable thief zones, better horizontal sweep achieved by changing waterflooded patterns, and alternating the dominance between gravity and viscous forces are the key effects of cyclic injection on the macro level. The potential of cyclic injection at the Lower Tilje/Are formation of the Heidrun Field in the Norwegian Sea has been evaluated. Some of the reservoir levels are highly heterogeneous, with large permeability contrasts vertically and horizontally. The current drainage strategy for these formations is water injection, with gas lift in producers when needed. Cyclic injection will improve waterfloodiing efficiency at virtually zero additional cost. Improved sweep accelerated oil production, and reduced water cut are the main positive effects expected from cyclic waterflooding. The reserves are predicted to increase by 5 to 6% from the targeted reservoirs at Heidrun after 10 years of cyclic waterflooding. (Author)

Surguchev, L.; Koundin, A. [PETEC Software and Services AS, Stavanger (Norway); Melberg, O.; Rolfsvaag, T.A.; Menard, W.P. [Norske Conoco AS, Stavanger (Norway)

2002-07-01

2

Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

3

Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine composition but also the formation water composition affected the oil recovery at high temperatures from the Stevns Klint chalk rock.

Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander

2012-01-01

4

Bacterial diversity in water injection systems of Brazilian offshore oil platforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. Water injection systems are continuously treated to control bacterial contamination, but some bacteria that cause souring and corrosion can persist even after different treatments have been applied. Our aim was to increase our knowledge of the bacterial communities that persist in the water injection systems of three offshore oil platforms in Brazil. To achieve this goal, we used a culture-independent molecular approach (16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries) to analyze seawater samples that had been subjected to different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial communities from the different platforms were taxonomically different. A predominance of bacterial clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, mostly belonging to the genus Marinobacter (60.7%), were observed in the platform A samples. Clones from platform B were mainly related to the genera Colwellia (37.9%) and Achromobacter (24.6%), whereas clones obtained from platform C were all related to unclassified bacteria. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that different treatments such as chlorination, deoxygenation, and biocide addition did not significantly influence the bacterial diversity in the platforms studied. Our results demonstrated that the injection water used in secondary oil recovery procedures contained potentially hazardous bacteria, which may ultimately cause souring and corrosion. PMID:19830416

Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

2010-01-01

5

Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one biocide-treated reservoir were reversed (backflowed) and sampled for microbial analysis. The two reservoirs have similar properties and share the same pre-nitrate treatment history. A 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis (PCR-DGGE) combined with enrichment culture studies showed that, after 6 months of nitrate injection (0.25 mM NO(3) (-)), heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) formed major populations in the nitrate-treated reservoir. The NRB community was able to utilize the same substrates as the SRB community. Compared to the biocide-treated reservoir, the microbial community in the nitrate-treated reservoir was more phylogenetically diverse and able to grow on a wider range of substrates. Enrichment culture studies showed that SRB were present in both reservoirs, but the nitrate-treated reservoir had the least diverse SRB community. Isolation and characterisation of one of the dominant populations observed during nitrate treatment (strain STF-07) showed that heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria affiliated to Terasakiella probably contributed significantly to the inhibition of SRB. PMID:19137339

Bødtker, Gunhild; Lysnes, Kristine; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva Ø; Sunde, Egil

2009-03-01

6

Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water  

OpenAIRE

This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits o...

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

2007-01-01

7

Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Salinity Formation Water  

OpenAIRE

This study presents the results of Laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium and strontium sulfates in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of calcium and strontium ions at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caus...

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

2007-01-01

8

Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig. The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of barium ions.

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah

2007-01-01

9

Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Salinity Formation Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the results of Laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium and strontium sulfates in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of calcium and strontium ions at various temperatures (50 and 80°C and differential pressures (100 and 200 psig. The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by calcium and strontium sulfates deposit on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of calcium and strontium ions.

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah

2007-01-01

10

Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan

11

Gravity stable nitrogen injection in oil reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravity stabilized injection of miscible or immiscible gas into steeply dipping, highly permeable reservoirs can recover substantial quantities of oil which are not recoverable by water flooding. Results of a tertiary nitrogen injection experiment at low pressure and room temperature are presented. The residual oil saturation to water flooding was 0.47 pore volumes. During the tertiary gas flood, an oil bank was observed to develop and the oil saturation decreased to 0.08 after 86 days of gas flooding. The gas flooding experiments were conducted at gravity stable conditions with the presence of connate brine in cores of 84-88 cm in length. Oil distribution curves were measured by radioactive labelling of the oil phase. Oil relative permeability data have been derived from the in-situ saturation measurements and permeabilities down to 10{sup -5} observed. A low pressure study of the capillary forces in Clashach Sandstone was carried out. A series of 7 capillary pressure drainage curves has been obtained from measurement on short core plugs using the porous plate and centrifuge techniques. Critical Bond Number can be found from a plot of the numerically calculated oil saturaton in the inlet face versus the measured average oil saturation in the coil plug. Hydrostatic oil pressure versus oil saturation was determined. Compositional effects during secondary gravity stable gas displacement is reported and the influence of the hydrocarbon characterization on the simulation of gravity stable nitrogen injection is studied. (AB) (83 refs.).

Froerup, M.D.

1990-09-01

12

Simulation of water injection in an oil rim reservoir of the barrier bar type in Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3-dimensional model study was performed on a typical Niger Delta reservoir in a low-relief rollover structure associated with growth faulting. Detailed description of sedimentological characteristics and subsequent reservoir subdivision were essential for successful well-by-well history matching, accounting for cusping and coning of gas and water. Predictions led to an optimum injection policy by which ultimate recovery may be almost doubled relative to production by natural depletion.

Weber, K.J.; Klootwyk, P.H.; Konieczek, J.; vander Vlugt, W.R.

1977-01-01

13

Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

2012-12-01

14

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

15

Injection Design for Simultaneous Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Storage in a Heavy Oil Reservoir  

OpenAIRE

We have identified a CO2 and water injection strategy to recover moderately heavy oil and store carbon dioxide (CO2) simultaneously. We propose the use of counter-current injection of gas and water to improve reservoir sweep and trap CO2; water is injected in the upper portion of the reservoir and gas is injected in the lower portion. This process is referred to as water over gas injection or modified simultaneous water alternating gas injection (SWAG). This thesis is based on ...

Sobers, Lorraine Elizabeth

2012-01-01

16

Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas  

OpenAIRE

Between 2006 and 2011 a series of earthquakes occurred in the Cogdell oil field near Snyder, TX. A previous series of earthquakes occurring 1975–1982 was attributed to the injection of water into wells to enhance oil production. We evaluated injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006–2011 earthquakes. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gas including CO2 have been injected into Cogdell wells. If this triggered the 2...

Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

2013-01-01

17

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

18

Co-Injection of noncondensable gas improves ES-SAGD performance in shallow oil sands reservoirs with a small top water zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CCS) are the 2 commercial in-situ steam-based oil sands recovery methods presently used in Alberta to produce Athabasca bitumen from oil sands. However, CCS cannot be used in shallow or unconfined reservoirs because of its relatively high injection pressures. Thermal reservoir simulations have shown that there are low-pressure expanding solvent SAGD (ES-SAGD) operating strategies that can be used to efficiently recover bitumen from shallow reservoirs with top water. This study presented technical details to construct feasible low-pressure ES-SAGD, with non-condensable gas co-injection, in reservoirs with top water. The process has the potential to quench the chamber and stagnate oil drainage in this type of reservoir. The complex dynamics between the depletion chamber and overlying water zone were discussed along with the operating strategies that extend the life of the chamber and increase the recovery factor. It was concluded that the addition of non-condensable gas to ES-SAGD can significantly improve recovery, rate, and efficiency. 27 refs., 7 tabs., 22 figs.

Alturki, A.A.; Gates, I.D.; Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

19

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01

20

Injection technology increases oil recovery at Permian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provided a brief overview of the positive field results of the Powerwave injection technology at an oil field in the Permian Basin. The patented injection technology uses pulses of fluid pressure to create momentary elastic flexure of the pore structure to improve the flow of fluids in sedimentary soils and fractured rock, thereby optimizing the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery technologies, liquid carbon dioxide injection, water injection, and surfactant/polymer flooding to effectively increase oil recovery. In the example of the West Texas waterflood, the Powerwave technology generated an overall production increase of nearly 50 percent. The significant improvements in production and the increased profitability that resulted from the installation of the Powerwave equipment are expected generate interest in the technology from other operators seeking to maximize oil recovery in their fields. The Edmonton-based company is actively pursuing other contracts in the Permian Basin. 1 fig., 1 ref.

Anon.

2010-09-15

21

Commercial testing of equipment for separate injection of water into two strata at different injection pressures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When a single injection well penetrates more than one formation, and when each formation has different permeability and pressure, it becomes necessary to control the injection pressure and water rate into each formation. Each formation is isolated by means of packers. Schematic diagrams of packer arrangements used for multiple water injection are presented. Assemblies using 1, 2, and 3 packers in one well are illustrated and explained. Some of the arrangements are to: (1) inject water into an upper formation and produce oil from a lower one; (2) inject water into the upper and lower formations and produce oil from an intermediate formation; and (3) inject water into first and third formations and produce oil from second and fourth formations.

Maksutov, R.A.; Dobroskok, B.E.; Valiullin, A.V.; Goryunov, Yu.A.; Volov, Yu.V.

1969-01-01

22

Influence of Gamma Radiation on the Treatment of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in the Injection Water Used for the Enhanced Oil Recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counts of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water samples collected from the well head (formation water) and outlet of petroleum treatment plant (Produced water) in a petroleum field in middle delta- Egypt were determined. The data showed a low count of (SRB) in the collected formation water sample and there was an obvious increase in the bacterial counts which appeared in the produced water, that may reveal that the presence of appropriate conditions for the growth of (SRB) in the closed system in treatment plant. Two scale inhibitors were tested through jar test, the scale inhibitor I had maximum efficiency at 20 ppm, two SRB biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides A was slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to B in presence of 20 ppm scale inhibitor. These biocides were test for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides to eliminate the negative impacts of the chemicals used and the radiation applied. The results demonstrated that, the lethal doses of biocides were (300 ppm) of biocides A or (400 ppm) of biocides B at 1 kGy irradiation dose. The treated produced water was evaluated in respect of enhanced oil recovery, the data showed increase of the recovery capacity by the irradiation and chemical treatment. This technology could be used for the water that are injected into reservoirs, and suitable for oil field and pipeline operators, and presented a viable bacteria control method

23

Pressure maintenance by water injection at the Uzen Field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine the most suitable injection water for waterflooding this field. Two types of injection water were considered: seawater and interstitial water. Determinations were made of each water's oil-displacing efficiency, corrosivity, injectivity, and supply. The data indicated that either water can be used, but that temperature of the water greatly affected oil recovery. Crude oil in this field is paraffinic and deposits paraffin on slight cooling. Since this would decrease oil recovery, it is recommended that injection water be heated. A novel scheme for heating injection water is described. A so-called ''hydrophobic'' heating method is suggested. In this method, heat is transferred from soft water, to melted paraffin, to injection water. Hot soft water is circulated in a closed loop. The soft water heats the paraffin, which also circulates in a closed loop. Hot paraffin heats injection water directly. A schematic drawing of this arrangement is shown.

Kovalev, A.G.; Lyushin, L.V.; Perevalov, V.G.

1967-08-01

24

Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate, also gives a better cooling effectiveness. In parallel with the experiments, a thermodynamic model is developed by which the compression process can be calculated for every degree of revolution of the male-rotor. This way the influence of cooling oil temperature, cooling oil mass flow rate and injection point can be analysed. Having a better heat transfer effectiveness does not give a considerable gain in specific work. Lowering oil temperature gives better results, while changing the oil flow rate only gives small gains. Furthermore it is shown that cooling oil coming from the bearings has a negative influence on the performance. This paper shows that trying to reach isothermal compression through oil atomisation is not possible. The importance of the cooling effectiveness in the thermodynamic process is too small to have a significant influence

25

Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

26

Enhanced oil recovery: air injection in a Potiguar basin light oil reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of air injection, at reservoir temperature and pressure, is studied with a view towards enhanced oil recovery from the Potiguar Basin (Brazil). The aim is to inject air in such a way that almost all oxygen is consumed and the residual gas, basically nitrogen, displaces the oil. In this work, the reactivity of crude oil samples is studied at conditions of Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO). As a first step, the kinetic and equilibrium properties are measured using a variable volume PVT glass equilibrium cell, which enabled to simultaneously observe the sample and measure the reaction rates and phase compositions, needed for estimating oxygen consumption. Different strategies are then studied for enhanced recovery by water and air injection, using a commercial reservoir simulator for thermal processes. The results show that it was possible to delineate an optimum strategy for LTO recovery of light crude oils. (author)

27

Pressure drop through pipe during transfer of viscous oils and oil-water mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented a solution to the problem of recovering spilled oil from a sunken ship, particularly when the oil viscosity is high. In such cases, the pipe friction resistance becomes large and oil transfer becomes difficult. In this study, the pipe pressure drop from the pipe entrance to the exit was measured, and the friction factor was obtained. The flow rate in the pipe was then calculated. The oil flow rate of the oil injected into the water was compared with cases where only the oil flowed and with an annular water injection method (AWI). The method of transporting viscous oil by injecting it in a water current proved to be a simple and effective method for reducing the friction coefficient of the pipe. In oil laminar flow, the friction drag was reduced by inserting the oil into water with a simple T joint, thereby increasing the amount of oil transfer. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

28

Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production  

OpenAIRE

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

Knutsen, Trine

2011-01-01

29

Optimizing annular water flow with viscous oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SAIC Canada and Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Technologies Office have partnered to test the viscous capabilities of currently stocked skimmers at the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) bases in eastern Canada. Heavy,viscous oils spilled at sea are difficult to pump since most oils tend to cool, weather and form emulsions in rough seas. Several advances have been made in the past decade in the ability to pump viscous oils, particularly with the improvements in the GT weir skimmers used by the CCG. This study examined the requirements to initiate annular flow under specific conditions, while introducing an annular injection rate below previously published values. The use of annular water injection enables pumps to transfer at close to ideal throughput. This study focused on the impact of water content on the total volumetric flow rate of oil and the pressure drop in a pumping system. The purpose was to identify, analyze and develop preparedness and response activities required for an effective response to an oil spill. Testing has shown that water injection percentages in the 4-8 per cent range are effective at producing and maintaining annular flow. Although hot water injection is usually the preferred method for initiating annular flow, the effect of water temperature on oil flow has not been fully investigated. It was noted that minimizing the volume of water injection and the use of water at ambient temperatures can have a significant impact on the equipment needed to support annular flow. The pump used in the series of testing was a Viking model M-332 configured with a Rockwell Automation MD65 AC Drive. The system behaved as expected with a significant reduction of pumping pressure requirements associated with the activation of the annular water injection system. Only slight improvements in oil throughput were noted during annular water injection runs due to the limitation of the pump controller used in the tests. Water injection rates as low as 3 per cent of total flow lowered the pumping pressure requirements. Hot water injection was not needed to develop or maintain annular flow. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division

2007-07-01

30

Impact of edible oil injection on the permeability of aquifer sands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that food-grade edible oils can be injected into the subsurface for installation of in-situ permeable reactive barriers. However to be effective, the oil must be distributed out away from the oil injection points without excessive permeability loss. In this work, we examine the distribution of soybean oil in representative aquifer sediments as non-aqueous phase liquid oil (NAPL oil) or as an oil-in-water emulsion. Laboratory columns packed with sands or clayey sands were flushed with either NAPL oil or a soybean emulsion followed by plain water, while monitoring permeability loss and the final oil residual saturation. NAPL oil can be injected into coarse-grained sands. However NAPL injection into finer grained sediments requires high injection pressures which may not be feasible at some sites. In addition, NAPL injection results in high oil residual saturations and moderate permeability losses. In contrast, properly prepared emulsions can be distributed through sands with varying clay content without excessive pressure buildup, low oil retention and very low to moderate permeability loss. For effective transport, the emulsion must be stable, the oil droplets must be significantly smaller than the mean pore size of the sediment and the oil droplets should have a low to moderate tendency to stick to each other and the aquifer sediments. In our work, oil retention and associated permeability loss increased with sediment clay content and with the ratio of droplet size to pore size. For sandy sediments, the permeability loss is modest (0-40% loss) and is proportional to the oil residual saturation. PMID:15145568

Coulibaly, Kapo M; Borden, Robert C

2004-07-01

31

Oil water laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

32

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

OpenAIRE

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The...

Nath, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anish; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

33

The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources  

OpenAIRE

With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity ch...

Xuezhong Wang

2012-01-01

34

INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2001-09-01

35

Oil and rising water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Middle Eastern oil producers have an obligation to future generations to tackle the causes of global warming. In the Middle East, we have a special need to pay attention to these warnings. As many of the countries of the region are low-lying and short of water, we are under threat from rising sea levels and desertification. Earlier this year the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that by the end of this century sea levels could rise by as much as 88 centimetres. This could flood not only coastal areas of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), but also much of the heavily populated Nile Delta in Egypt and the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates river system in Iraq

36

Sulfide remediation by pulsed injection of nitrate into a low temperature Canadian heavy oil reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide formation by oil field sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be diminished by the injection of nitrate, stimulating the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB). We monitored the field-wide injection of nitrate into a low temperature (approximately 30 degrees C) oil reservoir in western Canada by determining aqueous concentrations of sulfide, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite, as well as the activities of NRB in water samples from 3 water plants, 2 injection wells, and 15 production wells over 2 years. The injection water had a low sulfate concentration (approximately 1 mM). Nitrate (2.4 mM, 150 ppm) was added at the water plants. Its subsequent distribution to the injection wells gave losses of 5-15% in the pipeline system, indicating that most was injected. Continuous nitrate injection lowered the total aqueous sulfide output of the production wells by 70% in the first five weeks, followed by recovery. Batchwise treatment of a limited section of the reservoir with high nitrate eliminated sulfide from one production well with nitrate breakthrough. Subsequent, field-wide treatment with week-long pulses of 14 mM nitrate gave breakthrough at an additional production well. However, this trend was reversed when injection with a constant dose of 2.4 mM (150 ppm) was resumed. The results are explained by assuming growth of SRB near the injection wellbore due to sulfate limitation. Injection of a constant nitrate dose inhibits these SRB initially. However, because of the constant, low temperature of the reservoir, SRB eventually grow back in a zone further removed from the injection wellbore. The resulting zonation (NRB closest to and SRB further away from the injection wellbore) can be broken by batch-wise increases in the concentration of injected nitrate, allowing it to re-enter the SRB-dominated zone. PMID:20000549

Voordouw, Gerrit; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A; Lambo, Adewale; Lin, Shiping; Park, Hyung Soo; Jack, Thomas R; Coombe, Dennis; Clay, Bill; Zhang, Frank; Ertmoed, Ryan; Miner, Kirk; Arensdorf, Joseph J

2009-12-15

37

PRIORITY. Improved oil recovery and productivity from Lower Cretaceous Carbonates. Sub-project 2.2.c Scenario based modelling of water and gas injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the work described in the present report, hydrocarbon production from the extremely tight Barremian carbonates is modelled by use of numerical reservoir simulation models. A scenario based modelling approach is taken, in which parameters of numerical reservoir simulation models are altered systematically. In the work natural depletion as well as secondary production by water and natural gas injection has been investigated. The study is a conceptual study, in which it has been attempted to perform the numerical simulations with models representative of Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs of such, and not a specific reservoir, even though a section of the Valdemar reservoir is used as case study. Two main objectives were defined, namely the identification of key-parameters in relation to simulation of recovery processes in Lower Cretaceous carbonates, and the evaluation of the performance of possible secondary recovery processes applied to Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs. (au)

NONE

2002-03-01

38

Oil, Water and Chocolate Mousse  

Science.gov (United States)

Chocolate mousse is a name given to a particular combination of oil and water that sometimes forms when oil is spilled. This publication provides information on oil spills, how to prevent them, and how to clean them up. Topics include the properties of crude and refined petroleum, issues with tankers and transporting oil by ship, preparedness, and response. There is also an experiment in which students try cleaning up a simulated oil spill, using different sorbent materials, and discover why it is such a difficult task. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text. A French translation is available.

39

Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O' Hern, Timothy John

2004-05-01

40

The application of isotope tracers to the injected water adjusting in oilfield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to know about injected water's movement velocity and movement direction, two well groups of Tarim Donghe Oilfield are tested by isotopic tracer of K3(Co(CN)6) and HTO. Through applying analysis, the injected water's movement velocity and movement direction are obtained. Thus it offers important reliance for the oil field's reasonable development and adjustment

41

Heavy-oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs with varying wettability by steam solvent co-injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam injection may not be an efficient oil recovery process in certain circumstances, such as in deep reservoirs, where steam injection may be ineffective because of hot-water flooding due to excessive heat loss. Steam injection may also be ineffective in oil-wet fractured carbonates, where steam channels through fracture zones without effectively sweeping the matrix oil. Steam flooding is one of the many solutions for heavy oil recovery in unconsolidated sandstones that is in commercial production. However, heavy-oil fractured carbonates are more challenging, where the recovery is generally limited only to matrix oil drainage gravity due to unfavorable wettability or thermal expansion if heat is introduced during the process. This paper proposed a new approach to improve steam/hot-water injection and efficiency for heavy-oil fractured carbonate reservoirs. The paper provided background information on oil recovery from fractured carbonates and provided a statement of the problem. Three phases were described, including steam/hot-waterflooding phase (spontaneous imbibition); miscible flooding phase (diffusion); and steam/hot-waterflooding phase (spontaneous imbibition or solvent retention). The paper also discussed core preparation and saturation procedures. It was concluded that efficient oil recovery is possible using alternate injection of steam/hot water and solvent. 43 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

Al Bahlani, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2008-10-15

42

Steam injection and enhanced bioremediation of heavy fuel oil contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam injection has been shown to be successful in remediating sites impacted by heavy fuel oils. Field demonstrations at both pilot and full scale have removed No. 2 diesel fuel and Navy Special Fuel Oil (No. 5 fuel oil) from impacted soils. Removal mechanisms include enhanced volatilization of vapor- and adsorbed-phase contaminants and enhanced mobility due to decreased viscosity and associated residual saturation of separate- and adsorbed-phase contaminants. Laboratory studies have shown that indigenous biologic populations are significantly reduced, but are not eliminated by steam injection operations. Populations were readily reestablished by augmentation with nutrients. This suggests that biodegradation enhanced by warm, moist, oxygenated environments can be expected to further reduce concentrations of contaminants following cessation of steam injection operations

43

Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

2006-03-15

44

Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

45

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

46

Downhole cuttings injection allows use of oil-base muds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that of the potential methods for handling oily drill cuttings, the most attractive is their injection downhole. This approach, which has been used by BP on its Gyda platform in the North Sea where stringent new environmental regulations are expected, will enable operators to enjoy the economic advantages of using oil-based muds. The discharge of oil-based-mud-contaminated cuttings form offshore drilling operations has a significant, though localized, environmental impact. This is despite the change from diesel-based fluids to less toxic, low aromatic, base oils which occurred in the late 1970s

47

Water conservation and allocation guideline for oilfield injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper was prepared as a guide for regulatory agencies and developers using non-saline water sources in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. A systems approach was used to achieve specific environmental outcomes that adhered to the Water Conservation and Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection. The guide was applicable to licence renewal applications for projects operating and licensed to use non-saline water resources, as well as new licence applications for oilfield injection use. The guide provided recommended water conservation practices and application requirements, and outlined regulatory procedures and steps for obtaining a Water Act licence. The guideline was prepared to eliminate the use of non-saline water in EOR projects where feasible alternatives existed, as well as to identify areas with water shortages and reduce the use of non-saline water. The guide included monitoring and reporting requirements to improve the evaluation of water use practices and outlined current initiatives to address water conservation and research. It was concluded that outcomes from the program will include reliable quality water supplies for a sustainable economy, healthy aquatic ecosystems, and safe, secure drinking water supplies for Albertans. 3 tabs., 5 figs

48

Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of ?-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells. PMID:25149457

da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

2014-11-01

49

Analysis of oil-water replacement in limestone by MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of experiment were performed: a) oil was injected into a water-saturated limestone sample, b) water was injected into an oil-saturated sample, and c) D2O was injected into a water-saturated sample. The measuring protocol comprised the acquisition of a 1D spectrum, a CPMG experiment to estimate the T2 relaxation time, and the acquisition of spin-echo images. (orig.)

50

Evaluation of land disposal and underground injection of shale oil wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results indicate that the salinity of retort water, the principal wastewater generated by shale oil recovery operations, will be too high in most cases for irrigation of cover crops needed for effective stabilization by land disposal. Furthermore, large storage lagoons would be required to hold the retort water during the long winters encountered in the oil shale regions of Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Land disposal cannot be carried out during prolonged periods of freezing weather. Additional problems which may arise with land disposal include air pollution from volatile constituents and groundwater pollution from refractory organics and dissolved salts in the retort water. Pretreatment requirements include the removal of ammonia which is present at toxic concentrations in retort water. Underground injection of retort water may be permitted in regions possessing favorable geological characteristics. It is anticipated that this method would be used as a last resort where effective or resonably priced treatment technology is not available. Regulatory restraints are expected to limit the use of underground injection for disposal of highly polluted shale oil wastewaters. Proving the confinement of injected wastes, a frequently difficult and expensive task, will be required to assure protection of drinking water resources.

Mercer, B.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Wakamiya, W.

1979-05-01

51

Water injection device of cooling water and nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A jet pump is disposed to a water injection flow channel below a pressure accumulation vessel incorporating cooling water and pressurized gases. A driving water nozzle in the jet pump is connected to a driving water flow channel having an opening below the liquid surface of cooling water in the pressure accumulation vessel. A sucking channel in communication with the diffuser guide portion of the jet pump is disposed to the bottom of the pressure accumulation vessel. Upon reactor accident, cooling water in the driving water channel is jetted from the driving water nozzle to a throat of the diffuser of the jet pump. With such a procedure, cooling water in the sucking flow channel is sucked into the throat of the diffuser and mixed with the cooling water from the driving water nozzle. As a result, a great amount of cooling water flows to the water injection channel and is injected into a reactor pressure vessel. If the water level in the pressure accumulation vessel is reduced lower than the opening of the driving water flow channel, the operation of the jet pump is stopped. The flow rate of the water injection is changed to small amount only from the sucking flow channel by the stoppage of the jet pump. (I.N.)

52

Pressure storing boric acid water injection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A boric acid water storage tank is connected to a BWR type reactor by an injection pipeline to which a solenoid valve, a flow rate meter and a flow rate control valve are intervened. Pressure of not lower than the pressure in the reactor is always exerted on the boric acid water in the boric acid water storage tank by pressurized gaseous nitrogen by way of a partition plate. Further, a boric acid water injection control device is disposed for receiving flow rate signals outputted from the flow rate meter and outputting a solenoid valve operation signal and a flow rate control signal to each of the solenoid valve and the flow rate control valve. When the boric acid water injection device is in a stand-by state, during normal operation of the reactor, the flow rate control valve is fully opened. Even in an abnormal state, for example, upon loss of dynamic power source, the nuclear reaction of the reactor can be surely terminated by the injection of the pressurized boric acid water only if the control power source is intact. (I.N.)

53

Souring remediation by field-wide nitrate injection in an Alberta oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial production of sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in oil reservoirs often occurs when water is injected during secondary oil recovery processes in order to maintain reservoir pressure. Souring has negative effects because dissolved sulphide and precipitated metal sulfides are corrosive in metal pipes and equipment. Souring appeared in the previously sweet fields of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) following several years of produced water re-injection. The souring reached levels that prompted remedial action. This paper presented preliminary observations on the field-wide application of nitrate addition to injection waters in a shallow oil and gas reservoir in the WCSB. The paper discussed the monitoring of concentrations of sulphide, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia and the populations of microbial activities of hNRB and NR-SOB in samples from 12 production and 3 injection wells. It was concluded that nitrate may be effective for the control of souring in the reservoir. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig., 1 appendix.

Grigoryan, A.; Lambo, A.; Lin, S.; Cornish, S.L.; Jack, T.R.; Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

54

Water injection profiling by nuclear logging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the injection of water into a cased well borehole, the injection water is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV energy or greater and the subsequent gamma radiation from the exposed water is detected by a pair of detectors spaced along the borehole. Counting rates of the two detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. The geometry of the borehole and that of the casing are used in conjunction with the count rate data to determine the volume flow rates of water moving upwardly behind the casing, downwardly behind the casing, along the inside of the casing below the perforation, and horizontally behind the casing into the formation

55

STUDYING OF THE EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON ENHANCED HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY STEAM INJECTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High viscosity of some crude oil makes difficult to recover with primary or secondary production methods. Therefore, thermal oil recovery techniques are recommended for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR of heavy oil. In this experimental study, steam injection was used to investigate the effectiveness parameters on heavy oil production rate. The result is shown that, by increasing pressure, steam reaches the breakthrough point sooner, but recovery decreases. If the oils are a little different in viscosity, recovery in the light oil is more than that in heavy oil. Also in the highly viscous oils and light oils, recovery in the heavy oil is much higher than in light oil.

Kh.Mohamadbeigy

2006-06-01

56

Kinetic analysis of distribution of weak acid in an oil-gelatin microcapsule/water system studied by microcapillary injection and microabsorption methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of anthracene-9-carboxylic acid across dibutyl phthalate/gelatin-membrane/water interface of a single microcapsule was analyzed using microcapillary manipulation and microabsorption methods. The partitioning ratio and the distribution rate in the microcapsule/water system were measured for various pH values in the water phase. Results were compared with those in the dibutyl phthalate/water system in the absence of the gelatin membrane. The distribution rate could be analyzed on the basis of a first-order type reaction. The observed rate constant was linearly proportional to the inverse of the microcapsule radius, indicating that the distribution rate is limited by interfacial mass transfer. Analysis of the pH dependence of the interfacial mass transfer rate suggests that the mass transfer of the neutral species of anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (AnH) competes with the ion transfer of the dissociated species (An-) at the liquid/liquid interface in the gelatin membrane of the microcapsule. PMID:15566144

Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Kakizaki, Hiroshi

2004-11-01

57

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

CERN Document Server

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

58

Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

Daggett, David L.

2005-01-01

59

The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

2014-12-01

60

The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

P. K. Gao

2014-12-01

61

Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement. PMID:19131711

Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

2009-01-01

62

Hot-fluid injection into heavy oil reservoirs intercepted by a stationary vertical fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical and a numerical model for the injection of hot fluid into stationary vertical fractures are developed. For both models, the fracture is assumed to have infinite conductivity and fully penetrate the reservoir thickness. The conductive heat flux in the overburden and underburden is considered one dimensional and symmetric with respect to the reservoir. The analytical model solves the energy equation in an infinite system with constant properties of the system and zero thermal conductivity in the reservoir. Fluid flow in the reservoir is considered elliptical which is physically more sound than the linear models described in the literature. The obtained solution for the temperature distribution is used to develop expressions for the thermal efficiency and oil rate and recovery. The numerical model involves the simultaneous solution of mass and energy balances for an oil-water system in two dimensions. The model utilizes the IMPES method of solution and suggests a new procedure for eliminating the saturations from the mass and energy balance equations. The relative permeabilities and enthalpies at the grid boundaries are shifted upstream in order to avoid possible oscillations in the solutions. The primary objective of this study is to (i) present a detailed description in the numerical and analytical models, (ii) analyze pressure response in the fracture and temperature distribution in the reservoir, (iii) study effects of injection conditions and fluid and reservoir characteristics on the performance of hot water injection, including oil recovery and thermal efficiency, and (iv) examine the analytical solution for a practical range of injection temperature, oil viscosity and reservoir permeability.

Agena, B.M.

1986-01-01

63

Fast water oil spill response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the many manuals currently available for oil spill response, few have any information on fast-water conditions even though just more than half of all oil spilled by volume in the United States between 1992 and 1997 happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot. The Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. Two major parts of the project were to provide information on deployment strategies and techniques to identify equipment that could improve recovery capabilities where existing systems do not work well. This paper described field demonstrations where boom deflectors and boom vanes were used. Efforts to increase the capability of booms and skimmers were also described. A field guide was developed for training and response purposes for spills in fast-water which makes it possible for on-scene commanders and area supervisors to define techniques and terminology for responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. 20 refs., 4 figs

64

Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

2010-07-01

65

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NOx emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

66

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China  

OpenAIRE

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the e...

Fan Zhang,; Yue-Hui She; Lu-Jun Chai; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Xiao-Tao Zhang; Fu-Chang Shu; Zheng-Liang Wang; Long-Jiang Yu; Du-Jie Hou

2012-01-01

67

Field and laboratory experiments on water injection with variable injection pressures at the wellhead  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both laboratory and field experiments show that water injection rates can be increased by varying the injection pressure in a periodic manner. In several field experiments, the injection pressure was varied by 6 to 20 kg/sq cm, in the range of 140 to 160 kg/sq cm. Greater water injection rates were observed when pressure was varied than when it was held constant. Even in laboratory cores, water permeability was increased by 3 to 13%, when injection pressure was varied in a cyclic manner.

Maksutov, R.A.; Valiullin, A.V.; Glumov, I.F.; Dobroskok, B.E.; Olenev, V.I.

1973-01-01

68

Separation of oil and water in oil spill recovery operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The separation of water from oil that is collected in any oil spill recovery operation is a continuing and necessary requirement during every stage of the effort. Its importance is reflected in the cost of transport and storage of large volumes of oily water, the salvage value of separated oil and the added labor costs associated with long-term recovery operations. This paper addresses the effects of weathering and emulsion generation which increase the problems normally associated with water extraction. Separation theory, practical separation technology and recommendations for the future direction of research and development are presented. (author)

69

Study on Technical Measures of Romashkino Oil Field after Entering Ultra-High Water Cut Stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romashkino oil field has large oilfield area, small formation dip, many reservoir layers, wide oil-water transition zone and complicated sedimentary environment. Since development, 3 overall development plannings and adjustments of individual block have been established. This achieves a high oil production. However, the recoverable reserves of major oil layer with high production become smaller and smaller and the water cut increases over time, the production ability of oil layer decreases. The development status of oil layer of mining siltstone, oil-water transition zone and oil layer with upswept injected water cannot be changed under present dilute well network condition, because there is no reinforced measurement to water well. This results the low oil production of Romashkino oil field. In order to improve oil production rate and reach the designed oil recovery, Romashkino oil field has been implemented many added cuttings since development. Resent researches about Romashkino oil field show: in later oilfield development stage, sidetrack and lateral drilling horizontal wells technology is very reasonable; formation hydraulic fracturing technology has been widely used in recent years; in tertiary oil recovery, sweep efficiency and flooding efficiency related technologies have been taken. This offers reference and guidance for the effective and reasonable oil field development in later period.

Liuli Lu

2013-07-01

70

Interpreting Reservoir Microseismicity Detected During CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field  

Science.gov (United States)

Microseismic monitoring is expected to be a useful tool in CO2 sequestration projects for mapping pressure fronts and detecting fault activation and potential leakage paths. Downhole microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration is conducting the monitoring activities in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources Company, under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. The CO2 injection at Aneth is associated with a field-wide enhanced oil recovery operation following decades of pressure maintenance and oil recovery by water-flood injection. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Over the first year of monitoring, approximately 3800 microearthquakes have been detected within about 3 km of the geophone string. The Aneth reservoir events are relatively large with magnitudes ranging from approximately -1 to 1. For comparison, reservoir seismicity induced during hydraulic fracturing treatments typically result in events with magnitudes <-1, unless pre-existing faults are pressurized by the treatments. The Aneth events delineate two NW-SE oriented fracture zones located on opposite flanks of the reservoir. Injection activity is fairly uniform over the entire field area, and the microseismicity does not correlate either temporally or spatially with any anomalous changes in injection or production activities near the source locations. Because the activity is fairly isolated and relatively energetic, I speculate that the seismicity may be due to critically stressed structures driven by longer-term production- and/or injection-induced stress changes. Ongoing analysis includes extracting precise arrival time to improve relative source locations and looking for correlations of event occurrence and moment release with field-wide rates of injection and production.

Rutledge, J. T.

2009-12-01

71

High efficiency, high reliability, improved oil injected helium screw compressor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adaptation of recent developments for enhancement of the two stage oil injected helium screw compressors efficiency and reliability relate to reducing power demand by modifying discharge ports and sizing each stage for total lowest energy input. Also increasing volumetric efficiency by minimizing internal gas leakages accomplished by the use of proper lube and by increase of low stage speed. Magnitude of expected improvements in performance attributed to each key factor is estimated at 11% lower BHP for reduction of hydraulic effects; 6% lower BHP for best lo-hi displacement ratio; 3% higher VE for optimization of lube supply; and 3% higher VE for increasing low stage tip speed. Based on present technology isothermal efficiency of 60% is readily attainable. The continued investigations of these matters in the lab and field should provide new innovations, some proprietary, for new helium screw systems design and applications with isothermal efficiency approaching 65%

72

Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

73

Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a s approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

74

PCA: uma ferramenta para identificação de traçadores químicos para água de formação e água de injeção associadas à produção de petróleo / PCA: a tool for identification of chemical tracers for formation and injection waters associated with oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This study describes the use of Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the chemical composition of water produced from eight oil wells in three different production areas. A total of 609 samples of produced water, and a reference sample of seawater, were characterized according to their levels of [...] salinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium and sulphate (mg L-1) contents, and analyzed by using PCA with autoscaled data. The method allowed the identification of variables salinity, calcium and strontium as tracers for formation water, and variables magnesium and sulphate as tracers for seawater.

Fabiana Alves de Lima, Ribeiro; Guilherme Alvarenga, Mantovani; Ronei Jesus, Poppi; Francisca Ferreira do, Rosário; Maria Carmen Moreira, Bezerra; Andre Luis Mathias, Bastos; Vera Lúcia Alves de, Melo.

1281-12-01

75

Well injection tests and geomechanical history-matching for in situ oil sands development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to characterize the coupled flow-deformation processes in oil sands reservoirs, this paper described an integrated effort to conduct well injection tests and to utilize the data for history-matching. The paper presented field case histories and the associated history-matching efforts. The field tests involved injecting a limited amount of water into the reservoir at controlled rates and pressures. In order to confirm consistency of the test results, multiple cycles of injection and shut-in were employed. The purpose of the tests was to obtain in-situ stress estimates and to provide quality pressure-rate data for history-matching in order to generate a site-specific geomechanical model describing both the in-situ stresses and coupled flow deformation parameters. It was concluded that such a field-validated model was an important asset for investigating proactive utilization of geomechanics and maintaining overburden/casing integrity during the in-situ oil sands development.

Yuan, Y. [BitCan Geosciences and Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

76

Diffusion as an Oil Recovery Mechanism During CO2 Injection in Fractured Reservoirs  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is part of an ongoing study of enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in the Reservoir Physics research group at the Department of Physics and Technology (IFT) at the University of Bergen. This work investigates the feasibility of oil recovery from diffusion during miscible CO2 injection in fractured core plugs by conducting appropriate laboratory tests and numerical simulations. A total of 10 miscible CO2 injection tests were conducted in the laboratory using artificially fractur...

Lie, Stig Holme

2013-01-01

77

Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum. - This study was conducted to advance our understanding of dispersion chemistry in fresh waters.

78

Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

79

Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery  

OpenAIRE

Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR) operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require a...

Mehrnoosh Moradi; Xiuyu Wang; Vladimir Alvarado

2011-01-01

80

Kinetic analysis of electron transfer across single water-microdroplet/oil and oil-microdroplet/water interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using techniques comprising laser trapping, microcapillary injection/manipulation, fluorescence microspectroscopy and electrochemistry of single microdroplets, we kinetically investigated the electron transfer (ET) reaction between decamethylferrocene in tributyl phosphate and hexacyanoferrate(III) in water. In the oil-microdroplet/water system, the overall ET reaction rate significantly depended on the droplet radius (r(d), 0.5 microm reaction rate constant determined in the water-microdroplet (r(d) = 21 microm)/oil system agreed very well with that in the oil-microdroplet (r(d) > 2 microm)/water system. The rate constant values were extremely small in the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) range of -10 to -25 kJ mol(-1), with DeltaG consisting of the Galvani potential difference between the water and oil phases and the redox potential difference of the solutes. The characteristic ET reaction was discussed in terms of the ion transfer and the ET across the interfacial mixed layer with nanometer-sized thickness. PMID:19212051

Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Uchino, Mitsuharu; Suzuki, Shingo; Negishi, Takayuki; Osakai, Toshiyuki

2009-02-01

81

Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

2013-01-01

82

In situ upgrading of heavy oil under steam injection with tetralin and catalyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam injection has become the most successful thermal recovery method for heavy oil production. Heavy oil refineries use upgrading processes to improve oil quality. They generally involve the use of catalysts that are used to remove heavy metals, sulfur and nitrogen, or used in hydro-treating and hydro-cracking. In-situ upgrading is thought to have advantages over conventional surface upgrading technology. Experiments were performed to verify the feasibility of in-situ upgrading of heavy crude oil. A hydrogen donor called tetralin was used along with an organometallic catalyst, at steam injection temperatures and pressures normally encountered in the field. Crude oil from the Jobo Oil Field, located in Venezuela was used. The paper described the experimental methodology with reference to the injection cell; fluid injection system; fluid production system; data measurement and recording system; and experimental procedure. It also discussed the extent of upgrading by comparing the properties of the original and produced oil. Oil properties that were measured and compared included hydrogen-to-carbon ratio; heavy metal content; viscosity; and API gravity. The paper also presented a comparison of oil recovery and fluid production between all cases. It was concluded that in the field, the reaction time was significantly longer than encountered in the experiments and may lead to further upgrading, assuming the catalyst could be dispersed in the formation. 10 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

Mohammad, A.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

2008-10-15

83

Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

Wennberg, Kjell Erik

1998-12-31

84

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturate [...] d porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

J., Bruining; D., Marchesin; C.J., Van Duijn.

85

Enhanced Oil Recovery by CO2 and CO2-foam Injection in Fractured Limestone Rocks  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is part of an ongoing study of integrated enhanced oil recovery methods in Reservoir Physics group at the Department of Physics and Technology at the University of Bergen. This experimental thesis investigates through laboratory tests the miscible, liquid CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in an outcrop limestone rock, analogue to carbonate reservoirs. A total of 18 CO2 injection experiments have been performed to study the influence on CO2 EOR from parameters such as presenc...

Langlo, Stig Andre Winter

2013-01-01

86

Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely transferred to operators, particularly to small or medium-sized independent U.S. companies. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is to assess the feasibility of promising oil and gas technologies that offer improved operating performance, reduced operating costs, or greater environmental protection. To further this mission, the NPTO provided funding to a partnership of three organizations a DOE national laboratory (Argonne National Laboratory), a private-sector consulting firm (CH2M-Hill), and a state government agency (Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission) to assess the feasibility of DOWS. The purpose of this report is to provide general information to the industry on DOWS by describing the existing uses of simultaneous injection, summarizing the regulatory implications of simultaneous injection, and assessing the potential future uses of the technology. Chapter 2 provides a more detailed description of the two major types of DOWS. Chapter 3 summarizes the existing U.S. and Canadian installations of DOWS equipment, to the extent that operators have been willing to share their data. Data are provided on the location and geology of existing installations, production information before and after installation of the DOWS, and costs. Chapter 4 provides an overview of DOWS-specific regulatory requirements imposed by some state agencies and discusses the regulatory implications of handling produced water downhole, rather than pumping it to the surface and reinjecting it. Findings and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5 and a list of the references cited in the report is provided in Chapter 6. Appendix A presents detailed data on DOWS installations. This report presents the findings of Phase 1 of the simultaneous injection project, the feasibility assessment. Another activity of the Phase 1 investigation is to design a study plan for Phase 2 of the project, field pilot studies. The Phase 2 study plan is being developed separately and is not included in this report.

Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

1999-01-31

87

Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

2006-03-15

88

DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

89

Water Local Volume Fraction on Oil in Water Dispersion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phase distribution of water-oil flows was studied experimentally from a separated flow without mixer to a oil in water or water in oil dispersed in horizontal tubes. Under most conditions the pattern was oil continuous in water dispersed or water continuous in oil dispersed flow continuously and there is entrainment in the form of drops of phase into the other. The investigations were carried out through the cross-sectional phase distribution in the flow of mixtures of water and kerosene such as EXXSOL-D80 in a horizontal 25.4 mm bore stainless steel section. The phase fraction distribution was determined using a traversing beam gamma densitometer, with the beam being traversed in three directions (00, 450 and 900 of the vertical line passing through the axis of the tube. Measurements were made at three positions spaced along the 9.7 m test section length (1.0 m, 5.85 m and 7.72 m along the horizontal tube. The measurements were done in the Two-phase Oil Water Experimental Rig (TOWER facility. This facility allows the two fluids to be fed to the test section before they are separated and returned once more to the test line. The flow developed naturally from an initial stratified flow in which the oil and water were introduced separately at the top and the bottom of the test section respectively. It was found that the liquids were fully inter-dispersed by the end of the test section. The results were also used to define the flow patterns in water-oil liquid-liquid flow system. The phase fraction distribution was shown to be homogeneously mixed near to the outlet of the test section.

siti aslina hussain

2008-01-01

90

Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

1999-07-01

91

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

OpenAIRE

A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that...

Tamilvendhan, D.; Ilangovan, V.

2011-01-01

92

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

93

Prokaryotic Community Structure and Sulfate Reducer Activity in Water from High-Temperature Oil Reservoirs with and without Nitrate Treatment? †  

OpenAIRE

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. One strategy to control SRP activity is the addition of nitrate to the injection water. Production waters from two adjacent, hot (80°C) oil reservoirs, one with and one without nitrate treatment, were compared for prokaryotic community structure and activity of SRP. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed higher prokaryotic abunda...

Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

2009-01-01

94

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Inter-well tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Campina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results. (authors)

95

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test, SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test, TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test, information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru M.

2013-05-01

96

Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

97

Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2008-07-15

98

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

99

Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, thved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

100

Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir  

OpenAIRE

Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working bl...

Ren, Hong-yan; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-ping

2011-01-01

101

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

OpenAIRE

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point ma...

Soto, Enrique; Zenit, Roberto; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01

102

In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

Robertson, Eric P

2011-05-24

103

Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by transarterial injection of anticancer agents in iodized oil suspension or of radioactive iodized oil solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transarterial injection of modified iodized oil was performed in 48 patients with hepatoma. In 41 cases an adriamycin and/or mitomycin C-iodized oil suspension was administered into the proper hepatic artery or peripheral hepatic branches. A reduction in tumor size of over 50% was obtained in 14 of the 33 patients in whom CT examination was performed before and after treatment. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels decreased in 20 of 21 cases within the first month after injection. The one-year survival rate was estimated at 55% in advanced hepatoma. In 7 patients, transarterial internal irradiation using radioactive iodized oil was carried out. A decrease in tumor size was observed in all cases and in alpha-fetoprotein levels in 6 cases. One patient with severe liver cirrhosis died in hepatorenal failure. No severe complications or other adverse reactions were encountered with either of the methods.

Kobayashi, H.; Hidaka, H.; Kajiya, Y.; Tanoue, P.; Inoue, H.; Ikeda, K.; Nakajo, M.; Shinohara, S.

104

Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by transarterial injection of anticancer agents in iodized oil suspension or of radioactive iodized oil solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transarterial injection of modified iodized oil was performed in 48 patients with hepatoma. In 41 cases an adriamycin and/or mitomycin C-iodized oil suspension was administered into the proper hepatic artery or peripheral hepatic branches. A reduction in tumor size of over 50% was obtained in 14 of the 33 patients in whom CT examination was performed before and after treatment. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels decreased in 20 of 21 cases within the first month after injection. The one-year survival rate was estimated at 55% in advanced hepatoma. In 7 patients, transarterial internal irradiation using radioactive iodized oil was carried out. A decrease in tumor size was observed in all cases and in alpha-fetoprotein levels in 6 cases. One patient with severe liver cirrhosis died in hepatorenal failure. No severe complications or other adverse reactions were encountered with either of the methods. (orig.)

105

Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

2014-01-01

106

The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation of continuous CO2 flooding with uniform initial water saturation. As a follow-up of the previous study, this study extends theinvestigation to two more realistic scenarios (1) CO2 injection into water flooded reservoir and (2) water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection with CO2 as the injection gas. A series of 1-D simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different factors, including temperature, pressure, salinity, water injection pore volume, WAG ratio and CO2 slug size, on the simulation results was also discussed. In addition, the results for CO2 injection into water flooded reservoirs were also compared with those from the previous study.

Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

2010-01-01

107

Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

108

Ultra high-temperature solids-free insulating packer fluid for oil and gas production, steam injection and geothermal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uncontrolled heat transfer from production/injection tubing during thermal oil recovery via steam injection can be detrimental to the integrity of the casing and to the quality of the steam that is injected into the reservoir. An aqueous-based insulating packer fluid (IPF) was introduced to improve the steam injection process by controlling the total heat loss from the produced fluids to the surrounding wellbore, internal annuli and formation. The IPF was developed for elevated temperature environments through extensive investigation across multidisciplinary technology. The innovative system delivers performance beyond conventional systems of comparable thermal conductivity. Its density range and conductivity measurements were presented in this paper. High-temperature static aging tests showed superior gel integrity without any phase separation after exposure to temperatures higher than 260 degrees C. The new fluids are hydrate inhibitive, non-corrosive and pass oil and grease testing. They are considered to be environmentally sound by Gulf of Mexico standards. It was concluded that the new ultra high-performance insulating packer fluid (HTIPF) reduced the heat loss significantly by both conduction and convection. Heat transfer within the aqueous-based HTIPF was 97 per cent less than that of pure water. It was concluded that the HTIPF can be substituted for conventional packer fluids without compromising any well control issues. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

Ezell, R.G.; Harrison, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-10-15

109

Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. In order to meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling and foaming the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years. In order to inhibit gas hydrate formation in subsea pipelines monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and to evaluate their impact on marine life. Furthermore distribution of chemicals is important information for downstream processing of oil and gas. The purpose of this project is the experimental measurement and the thermodynamic modeling of distribution of these complex chemicals in oil-water systems. Traditionally distribution of chemicals in oil-water system is calculated using octanol-water partition coefficients. But experiments carried out by StatoilR & D have shown that octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) do not always mimic oil-water partition coefficients (Koil-water) and therefore calculations may not be always correct. In the first phase of this project experimental data on Kow, Koil-water and Khw (hexane-water partition coefficients) are collected and investigations were carried out to develop correlations so that Koil-water can be predicted using Kow and Khw. However, due to scarcity of experimental data and limited information about the molecular structure of production chemicals the correlation could only be obtained for few families like alcohols, glycols and alkanolamines with varying degree of reliability. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. When methanol and MEG are used as gas hydrate inhibitors, the most significant disadvantage, especially for methanol, is their loss in hydrocarbon phase(s). The successful estimation of inhibitor loss would enable the inhibitors injection optimization as a function of the system parameters such as temperature and water cut. In this project the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol, MEG) in various phases is modeled using the CPA EoS. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems containing mixture-1 over a range of temperature and pressure. Similarly the methanol content in gas phase of mixture-1 + water + methanol systems is predicted satisfactorily with accuracy in the range of experimental uncertainty. For VLLE of mixture-2 + water, mixture-2 + MEG + water and mixture-2 + methano

Riaz, Muhammad

2011-01-01

110

Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

Mehrnoosh Moradi

2011-07-01

111

Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

2006-01-01

112

Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water  

OpenAIRE

This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by ...

Pinto Jair Sebastião S.; Lanças Fernando M.

2006-01-01

113

Study of an Oil Field (Hassi Messaoud) by Injection of Tritiated Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas is injected into a deposit to increase the yield of oil contained in the rock and to maintain the pressure of the fluids at a value sufficient for the wells to remain naturally eruptive. The efficiency of this technique depends mainly on establishing a uniform displacement front in spite of heterogeneities. When the gas is injected simultaneously into several wells, the gas-oil displacement can be checked only if the origin of the gas reaching the producer wells is known with certainty. This is achieved by mixing with the gas from each of the injection wells a radioactive tracer whose path in the oil-bearing rock faithfully reproduces the movement of the gas-oil front. The tracers used are tritiated methane, ethane, propane and butane, which are injected respectively into four wells in amounts of up to 200 Ci. The distance separating each injection well from a producer well is considerable (1-6 km) and the oil volume is great, so that the radioactive tracer undergoes very marked dilution during its displacement. For industrial-scale detection of the arrival of the different tracers at the producers, it is therefore necessary to use very sensitive methods. Samples of oil are taken at the head of the producers at a pressure of approx. 50 kg/cm2. The gas in solution in the oil is separated into four fractions, which are respectively rich in C1, C2, C3 and C4 with a degree of purity better than 90%. The beta radia of purity better than 90%. The beta radiation of each of the fractions is then measured using a double-envelope proportional counter placed in a lead container and connected to an anti-coincidence counting system. The long-term possibility of isotopic exchange between the different tracers and the hydrocarbons present in the rock were studied experimentally under the conditions of pressure and temperature at the deposit. (author)

114

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs.

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muniz, M.

2009-07-01

115

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

2001-12-17

116

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

117

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

118

Influence of fat crystals in the oil phase on stability of oil-in-water emulsions  

OpenAIRE

Coalescence at rest and during flow was studied in emulsions of paraffin oil in water with several surfactants and with crystals of solid paraffin or tristearate in the oil phase. Solid fat in the oil phase was estimated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. Without crystals, oil-in-water emulsions were mostly stable and flow hardly influenced coalescence, even of unstable emulsions. Emulsions with crystals in the dispersed oil phase were less stable if crystals appeared at the interface. The...

Boekel, M. A. J. S.

1980-01-01

119

OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright with development ongoing and a commercialization plan in place. We expect that this DOE sponsored technology will be a major technical and commercial success story in the coming years.

Michael Wilt

2004-02-01

120

Comparison of water use for hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas versus conventional oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) for oil versus gas production within the Eagle Ford shale. We then compared HF water use for Eagle Ford oil with Bakken oil, both plays accounting for two-thirds of U.S. unconventional oil production in 2013. In the Eagle Ford, we found similar average water use in oil and gas zones per well (4.7-4.9 × 10(6) gallons [gal]/well). However, about twice as much water is used per unit of energy (water-to-oil ratio, WOR, vol water/vol oil) in the oil zone (WOR: 1.4) as in the gas zone (water-to-oil-equivalent-ratio, WOER: 0.6). We also found large differences in water use for oil between the two plays, with mean Bakken water use/well (2.0 × 10(6) gal/well) about half that in the Eagle Ford, and a third per energy unit. We attribute these variations mostly to geological differences. Water-to-oil ratios for these plays (0.6-1.4) will further decrease (0.2-0.4) based on estimated ultimate oil recovery of wells. These unconventional water-to-oil ratios (0.2-1.4) are within the lower range of those for U.S. conventional oil production (WOR: 0.1-5). Therefore, the U.S. is using more water because HF has expanded oil production, not because HF is using more water per unit of oil production. PMID:25233450

Scanlon, B R; Reedy, R C; Nicot, J-P

2014-10-21

121

Correlation Study Between Streaming Potential Signal and Waterfront Progression During Water Alternate Gas (WAG Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous Potential (SP is commonly measured during reservoir characterization. The SP signals are also generated during hydrocarbon production due to the streaming potential occurrence. Measurement of streaming potential has been previously proposed to detect the water encroachment towards a production well. The objectives of this study are to quantify the magnitude of the SP signal during production by WAG injection and to investigate the possibility of using SP measurements to monitor the sweep efficiency. The peak of the signal corresponds to the waterfront, where there is a change of saturation from ionic water to non-polar hydrocarbon. Similar trend is predicted in the case of WAG, where we have several interfaces between the injected water and the injected gas. This project involves numerical modeling and experimental work. Results from the experimental work will be used in the simulation work to correlate the measured SP signals with the distance of the waterfront in the WAG process. These observations suggest that WAG displacement process can be monitored indirectly from the signal acquired. Water or gas override can be detected and controlled if wells were equipped with inflow-control valves. This study is significant because monitoring the progress of water and gas in a WAG process is key in the effectiveness of this enhanced oil recovery method. Measurement of the streaming potential provides another method besides using tracers to monitor the WAG profile. Better monitoring will lead to more efficient displacement and great benefits in term of economy and environment.

S.M.M. Anuar

2014-01-01

122

Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

2002-01-01

123

Monitoring oil–water mixture separation by time domain reflectometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effective separation of water and oil is an essential part of petroleum production. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) can be used to profile the separation of hydrocarbon oil–water mixtures. In such two-component systems, metal electrodes will become oil-coated due to their affinity to oil. This coating layer will impact water content measurements. By combining the TDR signals from two probes in a novel configuration, the thickness of the oil layer on the electrodes can be estimated and its effect on the TDR measurements corrected for. The probes consist of two rods of different diameter and spacing to a common ground/guard electrode. The measurement principle is demonstrated using a light fuel oil and a thicker organic oil. The results indicate that oil and water levels can be monitored during separation if the metal electrode oil-coating effect is accounted for. (paper)

124

Microgels at oil/water interfaces  

OpenAIRE

Particle-stabilized emulsions, so called Pickering Emulsions, are known for more than a century. In such emulsions particles, mostly inorganic particles in the nm to µm range, adsorb to oil/water interfaces and stabilize emulsions by coulomb and sterical repulsion. Pickering emulsions are usually of very high stability, and a lot of energy is needed when such emulsions should be broken. Emulsions which stability depends on external stimuli have drawn much attention in recent years, as they a...

Brugger, Bastian Matthias

2009-01-01

125

Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

Mac Dowall, J.

1969-01-01

126

Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the oil-droplet residence time in the brine. Reductions of these quantities would inhibit emulsion formation by limiting the contact between the oil and the brine. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth of the oil jet, the width of the jet, and the deflection of the interface. The measured penetration depths are shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model provided a good estimate of the measured values for the 1-inch injection tube but overpredicted the penetration depth for the 1/2-inch injection tube. Adding a virtual origin term would improve the prediction for the 1/2-inch tube for low to nominal injection flow rates but could not capture the rollover seen at high injection flow rates. As expected, the J-tube yielded a much narrower plume because the flow was directed upward, unlike the downward-oriented straight-tube cases where the plume had to reverse direction, leading to a much wider effective plume area. Larger surface deflections were caused by the narrower plume emitted from the J-tube. Although velocity was not measured in these experiments, the video data showed that the J-tube plume was clearly faster than those emitted from the downward-oriented tubes. These results indicate that oil injection tube modifications could inhibit emulsion formation by reducing the amount of contact (both time and area) between the oil and the brine. Future studies will employ crude oil, saturated brine, and interfacial solids (sludge) from actual SPR caverns.

Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA); Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O' Hern, Timothy John

2003-10-01

127

Gas injection in water for artificial aeration and circulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis included a large-scale study on river aeration to investigate the effects of gas injection in water. The first of 4 laboratory scale studies on bubble plumes and gas-liquid jets evaluated the effectiveness of a new artificial aeration technique. Pure oxygen was injected into an effluent pipeline and discharged into a river as a gas-liquid jet. The existing effluent outfall used for artificial aeration was shown to be an effective way to improve the dissolved oxygen levels in the river. The laboratory investigations also examined the effect of tank size and geometry, nozzle type, and different gas injection methods on the artificial aeration/circulation potential of bubble plumes and gas-liquid jets. In addition to river aeration techniques, the technique of gas injection in water can be used for lake/reservoir restoration and wastewater treatment. The experimental results can be used to evaluate and validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models for simulation of gas-liquid flows. Important fundamental results obtained in this thesis will contribute to a better understanding of complex interactions involved in two-phase flows, such as increased bubble relative velocity on bubble swarms compared to that of isolated bubbles, or increased liquid volume flux in bubbly jets compared to that of simple water jets.

Lima Neto, I.E.

2008-07-01

128

A simplified approach for the simulation of water-in-oil emulsions in gravity separators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new method of simulating 3-phase flow separation processes in a crude oil product was presented. The aim of the study was to increase the liquid capacity of the vessels and develop methods of testing variable flow entry procedures. The simulated system was based on gravity separation. Oil well streams were injected into large tanks where gas, oil and water were separated under the action of inertia and gravity. An interface tracking technique was combined with a Euler-Euler model developed as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Emulsion physics were modelled by interface tracking between the gas and oil-in-water liquid mixture. Additional scalar transport equations were solved in order to account for the diffusive process between the oil and water. Various settling velocity models were used to consider the settling of the dispersed water phase in oil. Changes in viscosity and non-Newtonian emulsion behaviour were also considered. The study showed that the interface tracking technique accurately predicted flow when combined with an emulsion model designed to account for the settling of water in the oil phase. Further research is now being conducted to validate computational results against in situ measurements. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

Lakehal, D.; Narayanan, C. [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland); Vilagines, R.; Akhras, A.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research and Development Center

2009-07-01

129

Stimulation of horizontal well in heavy oil with bottomwater using water sink technique : a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water coning in heavy oil vertical wells with bottom aquifers is caused by differences in fluid mobility and can result in shorter breakthrough times followed by rapid increases in water cut. This experimental study tested a variable water-cut technique on a set of horizontal wells with frictional pressure loss, slotted liner roughness, and cross-flow. The aim of the study was to assess the performance limits of heavy oil horizontal wells with bottom water cresting. Thermal and gas-assisted gravity drainage techniques were also studied. Results of the study showed that asymmetrical water cresting at the well's heel was influenced by oil viscosity levels. Injection gas applied at the top of the well increased oil production without having a significant impact on water cresting. A bilateral tail-pipe water sink was then used to control water cresting at the well's heel. It was concluded that the technology was able to control water cut in the heavy oil well.

Qin, W.; Wojtanowicz, A.K. [Lousiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2008-07-01

130

Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

OpenAIRE

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of wateržoil emulsified fuel (W/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to study indirectly the physical effects of wat...

Samec, Niko; Kegl, Breda; Dibble, Robert W.

2012-01-01

131

COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

HARIRAM V.

2013-02-01

132

Modelling the effect of gas injections on the stability of asphaltene-containing crude oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In oil fields where asphaltene deposits occur, they present major remediation problems and can halt production due to flow blockage. Crude oils which precipitate asphaltenes generally contain both asphaltene molecules and lighter resin molecules. Resins are thought to solvate the asphaltene molecules, thus stabilizing the solution, while light gases have the opposite effect. In order to model asphaltene phase behaviour, it is important to understand the impact of adding gas to asphaltene-containing crudes. This study presented several experimental investigations of gas injection into asphaltene-containing crudes. The trends of asphaltene destabilization were discussed. The injection gases ranged from pure gases to a gas condensate. The data were modelled using a conventional equation of state together with an extra term that considered the association between asphaltene molecules and their solvation by resins. Since the model could simultaneously described the gas, oil and asphaltene phases, it was possible to calculate phase stability and phase equilibria. However, a different model had to be used to obtain the gas-oil equilibrium because the use of solubility parameters only allows the stability of the asphaltene phase to be calculated. The model correctly predicted that the gases will promote asphaltene precipitation. In its original form, the model tended to over-predict the trend. The optimal parameter values needed to represent all the available experimental data were determined. The extent to which the effect of gas injection on asphaltenes can be predicted was then discussed.

Zhang, X.; Moorwood, T. [Infochem, Munich (Germany); Merino Garcia, D.; Pena Diez, J.L. [Repsol YPF, Madrid (Spain)

2008-07-01

133

Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

Seibert, D. L.

1985-08-13

134

Method of insulating water influx into an oil well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is proposed for insulating water influx into an oil well. It consists of injecting into the near-phase zone a plugging agent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of the process of insulation, the plugging agent used is a reagent based on copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonia salt. The reagent used is a copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonia salt with content in the polymer of 3040 molecular percent salt 60-70 molecular percent of acid for the initial polymerized mixture. The reagent based on the copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonia salt is used in the form of an aqueous solution with its content in a quantity 5-8% by weight. The aqueous solution of the copolymer of the methacrylic acid with its diethylammonia salt is preliminarily acidified to pH 3-4.

Kuznetsov, Ye.V.; Baranov, Yu.V.; Budarina, L.A.; Bulgakov, R.T.; Gazizov, A.Sh.; Maksutov, R.A.

1982-01-01

135

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

CERN Document Server

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01

136

Optimal design of a novel oil-water separator for raw oil produced from ASP flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil recovery can be greatly enhanced with the ASP (Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer) flooding technology by increasing sweeping efficiency and displacing efficiency. But the emulsification of the residual chemical in the recovered oil from ASP flooding makes it very difficult to separate water from oil. To make the oil-water separation of ASP products more efficient to meet the discharge standards, some improvements need to be made on regular oil-water separators. Based on the physical properties of ASP products in Daqing Oilfield, novel packing and newly designed Crude oil-water separator are studied in this paper. Orthogonal test is used to optimize the design of the novel separator, including the structure and material of coalescent packing, as well as the operating conditions. Experiment results suggest that the separation efficiency of the new type separator is higher than 98%. Both the outlet oil phase and the water phase have met the corresponding standards. Oil concentration in the discharge water is reduced to 600 mg L{sup -} {sup 1} and average drop size is about 6 {mu}m. It can be easily concluded that the new type separator has a better performance on the oil-water separation of ASP products. At the end of this paper, the drop size distribution (DSD) in the outlet water is analyzed to provide data for the wastewater treatment process following the crude oil-water separation. (author)

Zhang, Lu-hong; Zhang, Dan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Hai-tao; Xu, Li-juan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Distillation Technology, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

2007-11-15

137

Experimental study of low flow steam injection into subcooled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an experimental study of low-flow vapor injection, three different modes of steam chugging were observed. For one of these modes, the encapsulating bubble chug, photos are presented from detailed motion pictures of the steam/water interface; and the pressure oscillations at the pool solid boundaries are plotted. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic motion is not severely affected by the heat transfer except when turbulence is generated at the interface. 9 refs

138

Intérêt de l'injection d'eau alcaline en récupération assistée Significance of Allkaline Water Injection for Enhanced Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'étude présentée ici s'insère dans un programme de recherche destiné à déterminer les conditions d'emploi de l'injection de soude, à partir d'une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes physico-chimiques mis en jeu dans le processus de récupération de l'huile. L'activité interfaciale de la soude est liée essentiellement à la composition chimique des huiles brutes à déplacer, en particulier à leur teneur en acides. Suivant cette teneur, l'abaissement de tension interfaciale en présence de soude peut être permanent ou juste transitoire, il dépend aussi de la concentration en soude utilisée et de la salinité de l'eau d'injection. Les tests de récupération réalisés en milieux gréseux et calcaires avec différentes huiles brutes, montrent que l'amélioration de récupération obtenue par la soude, résulte de l'action combinée de deux mécanismes - importante réduction de la tension interfaciale eau-huile ; - augmentation de la mouillabilité à l'eau de la roche. Ce dernier effet a été mis en évidence par des tests complémentaires d'imbibition ou par la comparaison des perméabilités relatives déterminées avec et sans additif dans la phase aqueuse. This article reports on a research project aimed at determining the conditions for using sodium-hydroxide injection on the basis of a better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the cil recovery process. The interfacial activity of sodium hydroxide is mainly linked to the chemical composition of the crude cils to be displaced, in particular to their acid content. Depending on this content, the lowering of interfacial tension in the presence of sodium hydroxide may be permanent or merely transitory. It also depends on the sodium-hydroxide concentration utilized and on the salinity of the injection water. Recovery tests mode in sandstone and limestone media with different crude oils show that the improvement in recovery obtained with sodium hydroxide is the result of the combined action of two mechanisms, i. e. a considerable reduction in the water/cil interfacial tension and an increase in the wafer wettability of the rock. The latter effect has been revealed by supplementary imbibition tests or by comparing relative permeabilities determined with and without thé additive in the aqueous phase.

Minssieux L.

2006-11-01

139

Analysis of effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of late water injection on RCS repressurization during high pressure severe accident sequence in a typical PWR was analyzed. As the results shown, late water injection could increase RCS pressure when RPV failed without RCS passive depressurization. Especially in the condition of opening one PORV, RCS pressure could reach high pressure limit when RPV failed and the risk of HPME and DCH was dramatically increased. Integrity of containment could be threatened. However, in the condition of RCS passive depressurization induced by pressurizer surge line creep failure, RCS pressure could be decreased to very low level even only one PORV was opened and two trains of emergency core cooling were implemented. The risk of HPME and DCH was eliminated. The more PORVs were opened, the faster accident progression was and the earlier RPV failed. RCS pressure was a little higher when PRV failed if two trains of emergency core cooling was implemented comparing with the condition with only one train of emergency core cooling. However the time of RPV failure was obviously delayed. From the point of delaying RPV failure and preventing containment early failure of view, the optimized late water injection was opening three PORVs and implementing two trains of emergency core cooling. (authors)

140

Sensitivities to Component Characterizations of Heavy Oil Viscosity in Numerical Reservoir Simulation of Steam-Injection Processes  

OpenAIRE

This work examines heavy oil viscosity modelling during simulation of steam injection processes, such as steam-line-drive and SAGD, and the sensitivity of oil recovery predictions to the uncertainty in the oil viscosity. Analytical models to predict the sensitivity have been developed, confirmed by numerical simulation. Heavy oil compositional component viscosities are modelled with the Free Volume model. The model is extended in this thesis to estimate the viscosities of long-chain n-alka...

La Porte, Jacoba

2013-01-01

141

Conceptual design of safety injection tanks using saturated water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) which is the one of Safety Injection System (SIS) play an important role in mitigating the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). APR1400 has the advanced 4 SITs directly connected to a reactor vessel. We expect the capacity of the SITs is getting more important since the coolant from SITs equipped with a FD during LBLOCA can replace the injection from low pressure safety injection pumps (LPSIPs). In designing a larger capacity SIT, we may have three problems; the excessively large volume for pressurized N{sub 2} gas, which is about 1/3 of the total volume, the difficulties controlling injection flowrate and the solubility of the non-condensable N{sub 2} gas in the coolant. In here, there is the contradiction which is 'there must be nitrogen gas for pressurization but there must not be nitrogen gas for more coolant.' For this problem, the axiomatic design (AD) theory enabled us to define or regularize the intrinsic problem which is termed the coupling and the contradiction. TRIZ facilitates creating solutions on the contradiction. This study proposes a conceptual design of SITs which are pressurized by steam from the saturated water as a demonstration of the conceptual design framework, AD theory and TRIZ. The purpose of this conceptual design is to increase coolant volume and to reduce N{sub 2} gas volume in SITs. In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design, we derived an analytical model to find the heat loss of saturated water and thermo-hydraulic safety analysis using MARS3.1. To confirm the safety and integrity of core, we conducted LBLOCA simulation to find peak cladding temperature (PCT) of design using the proposed SITs comparing with the conventional SITs. From the analysis results, the benefits of the new SIT design were observed in terms of the PCT, the quenching time and the size. And the new SIT design may enable emergency core cooling water to be injected efficiently and can be applicable to SIT which has smaller size than the existing and simplified design of SIS.

Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Won Joon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

142

Conceptual design of safety injection tanks using saturated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) which is the one of Safety Injection System (SIS) play an important role in mitigating the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). APR1400 has the advanced 4 SITs directly connected to a reactor vessel. We expect the capacity of the SITs is getting more important since the coolant from SITs equipped with a FD during LBLOCA can replace the injection from low pressure safety injection pumps (LPSIPs). In designing a larger capacity SIT, we may have three problems; the excessively large volume for pressurized N2 gas, which is about 1/3 of the total volume, the difficulties controlling injection flowrate and the solubility of the non-condensable N2 gas in the coolant. In here, there is the contradiction which is 'there must be nitrogen gas for pressurization but there must not be nitrogen gas for more coolant.' For this problem, the axiomatic design (AD) theory enabled us to define or regularize the intrinsic problem which is termed the coupling and the contradiction. TRIZ facilitates creating solutions on the contradiction. This study proposes a conceptual design of SITs which are pressurized by steam from the saturated water as a demonstration of the conceptual design framework, AD theory and TRIZ. The purpose of this conceptual design is to increase coolant volume and to reduce N2 gas volume in SITs. In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design, we derived an aty of the proposed design, we derived an analytical model to find the heat loss of saturated water and thermo-hydraulic safety analysis using MARS3.1. To confirm the safety and integrity of core, we conducted LBLOCA simulation to find peak cladding temperature (PCT) of design using the proposed SITs comparing with the conventional SITs. From the analysis results, the benefits of the new SIT design were observed in terms of the PCT, the quenching time and the size. And the new SIT design may enable emergency core cooling water to be injected efficiently and can be applicable to SIT which has smaller size than the existing and simplified design of SIS

143

Skjold Field, Danish North Sea: Early evaluations of oil recovery through water imbibition in a fractured reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the performance of a fractured chalk oil reservoir in its first three years of production and evaluates future development options. The relatively low degree of undersaturation of the oil has required that evaluations of pressure maintenance potential be made early in the life of the field. To this end, a large amount of performance data has been collected, primarily through the use of observation wells. The performance data (pressures and free water level in fractures) are presented and their evaluation is described. In particular, the evaluation of the oil production performance through water imbibition is discussed. This evaluation has led to the initiation of pressure maintenance through water injection.

Oen, P.M.; Engell-Jensen, M.; Barendregt, A.A.

1986-01-01

144

Skjold Field, Danish North Sea: Early evaluations of oil recovery through water imbibition in a fractured reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the performance of a fractured chalk oil reservoir in its first 3 years of production and evaluates future development options. The relatively low degree of undersaturation of the oil required that evaluations of pressure-maintenance potential be made early in the field's life. To this end, many performance data have been collected, primarily through the use of observation wells. The performance data (pressures and free-water level (FWL) in fractures) are presented and their evaluation is described. In particular, the evaluation of the oil production performance through water imbibition is discussed. This evaluation has led to the initiation of pressure maintenance through water injection.

Den, P.M.; Engell-Jensen, M.; Barendnegt, A.A.

1988-02-01

145

A study of water chemistry extends the benefits of using silica-based nanoparticles on enhanced oil recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry of the injected water has been investigated as an important parameter to improve/enhance oil recovery (IOR/EOR). Numerous extensive experiments have observed that water chemistry, such as ionic composition and salinity, can be modified for IOR/EOR purposes. However, the possible oil displacement mechanism remains debatable. Nanoparticle recently becomes more popular that have shown a great potential for IOR/EOR purposes in lab-scale, where in most experiments, water-based fluid were used as dispersed fluid. As yet, there has been no discussion in the literature on the study of water chemistry on enhanced oil recovery using silica-based nanoparticles. A broad range of laboratory studies involving rock, nanoparticles and fluid characterization; fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions; surface conductivity measurement; coreflood experiment; injection strategy formulation; filtration mechanism and contact angle measurement are conducted to investigate the impact of water chemistry, such as water salinity and ionic composition including hardness cations, on the performance of silica-based nanoparticles in IOR/EOR process and reveal possible displacement mechanism. The experimental results demonstrated that water salinity and ionic composition significantly impacted oil recovery using hydrophilic silica-based nanoparticles and that the oil recovery increased with the salinity. The primary findings from this study are that the water salinity, the ionic composition and the injection strategy are important parameters to be considered in Nano-EOR.

Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

2015-02-01

146

Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented

147

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters thanvalues of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

148

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada).

2007-07-01

149

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada).

2007-07-01

150

The density behaviour of heavy oils in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weatherliterature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. The study showed by over-washed oils generally have a density of 0.99 to 1.02 g/ml. The mechanisms for oil submergence in water include evaporation, temperature change, uptake of solid matter, photooxidation and extreme weathering. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs

151

Three-phase flow in water-wet porous media. Gas/oil relative permeabilities for various spreading conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the impact of oil-on-water spreading energy (which governs the ability of the oil phase to spread on water in the presence of gas) on three-phase gas/oil relative permeabilities and residual oil saturation. Experimental tests, including simultaneous injections of oil and gas in porous media (steady state) as well as displacements of oil by gas (unsteady state) in the presence of connate water, were performed in two different rocks, Fontainebleau and Clashach sandstones. Gas and oil relative permeabilities were calculated directly from the steady-state data or evaluated by history matching of the experimental displacement production curves. The values obtained by the two methods often differ significantly; the relative permeabilities obtained by the steady-state method cannot represent a displacement. Oil recovery and relative permeabilities are higher for spreading than for non-spreading conditions for gas drainage displacements. Gas relative permeabilities at low oil saturations seem to be lower for non-spreading than for spreading conditions due to an important gas blocking effect caused by the oil/gas menisci. In this case, the measured relative permeabilities include a capillary effect. Oil relative permeabilities are compared to theoretical curves derived from an analytical model that takes into account, through the fractal dimension, the surface irregularities of a real porous medium; the model presented in this paper can be used to calculate the relative permeability of the intermediate phase (oil) during gas injection in a porous medium in the presence of water, for low oil saturations where film flow predominates; very good agreement is obtained for spreading conditions. Gas and oil relative permeabilities obtained by fitting the displacement curves for experiments performed with the reservoir rock and fluids under representative conditions may thus be used for prediction or modeling purposes on a reservoir scale

Kalaydjian, F.J.M.; Moulu, J.C.; Vizika, O. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Munkerud, P.K. [IKU Petroleum Research, Bergen (Norway)

1997-05-01

152

Synthesis of radiolabelled organic compounds for use as water tracers in oil reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection of water into oil containing strata to maintain field pressure and to replace oil is usually the primary choice to enhance oil-recovery. Use of tracer methods is becoming an important part of the oil companies’ basis for making economical decisions. Such water tracing requires passive tracers, i.e. compounds that behave exactly like the substance studied under the conditions of interest. This implies that a water-tracer in a water-flooded oil-field must fulfil requirements like no absorption to reservoir rock, no partitioning (or distribution) with respect to the other fluids present, long time thermal stability, microbial resistance and high detectability. In addition, the tracer compound has to be environmentally acceptable and available at a reasonable cost. Among the extensive number of compounds tested according to these criteria in the laboratory we have qualified four compounds as tracers for water in oil reservoirs. For three of them we propose radiolabelling syntheses with 14C as radioactive label to lower detection limits. The compounds are benzene 1,2- and 1,3-dicarboxylic acids and benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid.

Eriksen, D. Ö.; Björnstad, V.

1999-01-01

153

The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain  

OpenAIRE

This paper evaluates the water footprint of Spanish olives and olive oil over the period 1997-2008. In particular, it analyses the three colour components of the water footprint: green (rainwater stored in the soil), blue (surface and groundwater) and grey (freshwater required to assimilate load of pollutants). Apparent water productivity and virtual water embedded in olive oil exports have also been studied. Results show more than 99.5% of the water footprint of one liter of bottled olive oi...

Salmoral Portillo, Gloria; Aldaya, Maite M.; Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto; Llamas Madurga, Manuel Ramo?n

2011-01-01

154

21 CFR 522.2005 - Propofol injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propofol injection. 522.2005 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2005 Propofol injection. (a) Specifications...oil-in-water emulsion containing 10 milligrams of propofol per milliliter. (b)...

2010-04-01

155

Determination of acid values of fats and oils by flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method using a flow injection system with electrochemical detection was developed to determine acid values of fats and oils. VK3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) solution, i.e., ethanol containing 3 mM VK3 and 38 mM LiClO4, was used as the carrier solution. Flow signals were monitored at -0.33 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For preparation of a sample solution, an oil sample was completely dissolved in VK3 solution, or fatty acids were extracted from the sample into this solution. Aliquots (5 microliters) of the sample solution were injected into the flow injection system. Acid values were determined based on flow signals for 14 samples and the results were found to be consistent with those by potentiometric titration. Relative standard deviation was less than 2%. Samples were processed at the rate of 60 h-1. The stability of fish and cod liver oils was followed by measuring acid values for 8 weeks. This method proved to be a simple and rapid means for acid value determination. PMID:9226584

Fuse, T; Kusu, F; Takamura, K

1997-06-01

156

The density behaviour of heavy oils in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. The study showed by over-washed oils generally have a density of 0.99 to 1.02 g/ml. The mechanisms for oil submergence in water include evaporation, temperature change, uptake of solid matter, photooxidation and extreme weathering. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

2006-07-01

157

A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

158

Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

None

1982-02-01

159

A study of the effect of pumps and desanding cyclones on oil droplets in produced water  

OpenAIRE

The production of petroleum resources includes co-producing water. This water contains oilproducts and needs to be treated before discharge to sea or re-injection into the reservoir. Theamount of produced water increases with the age of a field, as does often the amount of solids.The pressure of the reservoirs will decrease with time.The primary equipment for treating produced water is the hydro cyclone. It’s operated with alower limit with regards to oil droplet size of ~10 ?m although sm...

Vikan, Anne Marie Haugnes

2011-01-01

160

Water-in-oil emulsification and development of model EMU  

OpenAIRE

Oil-spill at sea represents one of the greatest threats for the environment. Immediately after occurence of an oil-spill several physical, chemical and biological processes occur, among which the process of emulsification is one of the most important. Emulsified oil is very difficult to clean; therefore, understnding of the emulsification processes is of great importance for successful clean-up. Preconditions for formation of water-in-oil emulsion are adequate chemical conditions ...

Kvoc?ka, Davor

2013-01-01

161

Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly ...

Nikolovski Branislava G.; Ili? Jelena D.; Sovilj Milan N.; Nikoli? Milan P.; Milanovi? Jadranka L.

2011-01-01

162

Oxidative Stability and Rheological Properties of Oil-In-Water Emulsions with Walnut Oil  

OpenAIRE

The oxidative stability of walnut oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with walnut oil stabilized bysoy protein isolate (SI) and Whey Protein Isolate (W PI) was evaluated. The food emulsions w ere more stablethan walnut oil, as indicated by measuring the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. It wasshown that the emulsions with WPI had a better oxidative stability than the emulsions with SI, probably dueto the ability of whey proteins to inactivate peroxil radicals. In additio...

Kremena Nikovska

2010-01-01

163

Water rock interaction during the process of steam stimulation exploitation of viscous crude oil in Liaohe Shuguang Oil Field, Liaoning, China  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of steam stimulation exploitation of viscous crude oil, the injected water, at high temperature and under high pressure, reacts intensively with the host rock. This kind of water rock interaction in Liaohe Shuguang Oil Field was studied on the basis of analysis of water composition changes, laboratory experiments, mineral saturation indices analysis, and mass balance calculation. Compared with the injected water, the changes of the composition of discharged water are mainly the distinct decrease of pH, Na+, SiO2 and Cl-, as well as the increase of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO{4/2-} and HCO{3/-}. Laboratory experiments under field conditions showed: the dissolution sequence of minerals quantitatively is quartz>potassium feldspar>albite, and the main change of clay minerals is the conversion of kaolinite to analcime. Mass balance calculation indicated during the process of steam stimulation, large quantities of analcime are precipitated with the dissolution of large amounts of quartz, kaolinite, potassium feldspar, and CO2. These results correlated very well with the experimental results. The calculated results of Liaohe Shuguang Oil Field showed that during the steam stimulation for viscous crude oil, the amounts of minerals dissolved (precipitated) are huge. To control the clogging of pore spaces of oil reservoirs, increased study of water rock interaction is needed.

Hui, Qian; Zhenghua, Yang; Yunfeng, Li; Wancai, Xu; Yaqiao, Sun

2006-05-01

164

Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

165

Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

166

Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabda Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

167

Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation

168

Geochemical monitoring of fluid-rock interaction and CO2 storage at the Weyburn CO2-injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Weyburn Oil Field, Saskatchewan is the site of a large (5000 tonnes/day of CO2) CO2-EOR injection project By EnCana Corporation. Pre- and post-injection samples (Baseline and Monitor-1, respectively) of produced fluids from approximately 45 vertical wells were taken and chemically analyzed to determine changes in the fluid chemistry and isotope composition between August 2000 and March 2001. After 6 months of CO2 injection, geochemical parameters including pH, [HCO3], [Ca], [Mg], and ?13CO2(g) point to areas in which injected CO2 dissolution and reservoir carbonate mineral dissolution have occurred. Pre-injection fluid compositions suggest that the reservoir brine in the injection area may be capable of storing as much as 100 million tonnes of dissolved CO2. Modeling of water-rock reactions show that clay minerals and feldspar, although volumetrically insignificant, may be capable of acting as pH buffers, allowing injected CO2 to be stored as bicarbonate in the formation water or as newly precipitated carbonate minerals, given favorable reaction kinetics

169

Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um estudo sobre o uso da água subcrítica, como reagente e solvente, para a reação de hidrólise de óleo de milho sem o emprego de ácidos e base entre as temperaturas de 150-280 °C. A hidrólise de óleo de milho leva à formação dos seus respectivos ácidos graxos [...] , com a mesma eficiência dos métodos convencionais. Os ácidos graxos formam um grupo importante de produtos, os quais são usados em diversas aplicações. A identificação e confirmação dos produtos da hidrólise foram feitos por HT-HRGC-FID e HRGC/MS. Abstract in english This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 °C. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency o [...] f conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

Jair Sebastião S., Pinto; Fernando M., Lanças.

2006-02-01

170

40 CFR 61.347 - Standards: Oil-water separators.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ensure that the pressure in the oil-water separator remains below...subpart. (b) Each cover seal, access hatch, and all other...gaps occur between the cover and oil-water separator wall and that...this subpart, when a broken seal or gasket or other...

2010-07-01

171

The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeability when sandstones are heated from 20°C to 70–200°C. The pore surface area per unit pore volume was used to normalise permeability data, so that the temperature effect on samples with different pore size could be compared. In sandstones containing the clay mineral kaolinite, heating reduced permeability, suggesting that the observed permeability reduction was due to kaolinite mobilisation. The effect was partly reversible.

Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian

2014-01-01

172

Simultaneous injection of polymer and surfactant for improving oil recovery; Injecao simultanea de polimero e surfactante para aumento da recuperacao de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injection of polymeric solutions in petroleum reservoirs is a supplemental method of petroleum recovery, that seeks to increase the volumetric efficiency of swept of the oil with the decrease of the mobility of the injection water. In the contact between two non miscible fluids, superficial tensions are established, that can influence the relations between the rock and the fluids, depending on the nature of both. Therefore, the combined injection of a surfactant and a polymer can promote improvements in the injectivity and in the global recovery efficiency. In this work it was used samples of commercial polyacrylamide, which were characterized through hydrolysis degree, molecular weight and rheological behavior. From these results it was chosen one sample to be used associated to a polymeric surfactant. Through a core flood system, the following tests were done: injection of polymer solution; injection of surfactant solution followed by polymer solution and injection of surfactant / polymer mixture. The results showed that the injection of surfactant / polymer mixture promoted a significant increase in the residual resistance factor, in relation to the other situations. (author)

Medeiros, Ana C.R.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Fagundes, Fabio P.; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

2004-07-01

173

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

OpenAIRE

A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0�...

Gustavo Pignalosa; Knochen, Mois S.; Noel Cabrera

2005-01-01

174

Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

175

EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cylinder constant speed direct injection (DI diesel engine has been used to analyze the emission characteristics of biodiesel.The diesel engine for various fuel injection pressures (210,220 and 240 bar at no load to full load wasinvestigated. The injection pressure was changed in the engine head by adjusting the fuel injector spring tension. The two proportions of biodiesel were used in diesel engine such as 20% of biodiesel (Jatropha oil and Rubber seed oil with 80% of pure diesel fuel named as B20 and 40% of biodiesel with 60% of pure diesel fuel named as B40.From the test result,the nitric oxide (NOx was analyzed for different injection pressures. In emission characteristicsanalysis, it was found that the increase in injector opening pressure increases the NOxemission. The injection pressure of 240 bar and B20 proportion gives better emission reduction compared to other blended fuels.

S. Mahalingam

2014-04-01

176

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

177

Isotopic composition of uranium, water and oils of some oil-gas bearing provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study into the pattern of distribution of uranium isotopes and 234U/238U ratio in the stratal waters, oils and water-bearing rocks of active water-exchange zones and oil fields in Central Asia, the Terek-Sunzha region, and the Volga region has been made. The radioactive ratios for stratal waters in the water-oil contact area are suggestive of an active isotopic exchange which leads to an isotopic equilibrium at the water-oil interface. The less intensive interphase isotopic exchange of uranium in the ''oil-rock'' system, as compared to the ''water-rock'' system, is indicative of a stronger link between uranium and oil, than between uranium and water. The deficit of the 234U isotope in the hypergenesis zone attests to the fact that, in the active water-exchange zone, depletion of rocks in 234U is currently taking place, while the values of 234U/238U ratios close to equilibrium, in water-bearing rocks indicate the absence of processes of intensive uranium migration in the rocks of the oil-gas provinces studied

178

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressurefor the Omani Oils for CO2 Injection EOR Method  

OpenAIRE

In Oman there are still large remaining oil reserves that require implementation of Enhanced Oil Recovery processes such as CO2 injection, for light oil. CO2-Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) is the key parameter for the design and operations of successful CO2 flood. This study is based on developing a method of calculating the MMP for Omani oil reservoirs. Part-1 of the studyis the experimental work based on the Rising Bubble Apparatus (RBA) measurement of MMP and part-2 is the examinat...

Khalid Al-Hinai; Ali Al-Bemani; Gholamreza Vakili-Nezhaad

2014-01-01

179

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

David B. Burnett

2005-09-29

180

Behavior of water spray injected into air/steam environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behavior of a water spray injected into both an air and a steam environment was studied. The water spray was divided into two parts - sheet portion and droplet portion. An analytical model is proposed for explaining the spray behavior. Experiments were performed to substantiate the analytical results. Holographic pictures were used to obtain the droplet size distribution. These size distributions were used for computing the motion of spray droplets in the analytical model. For the sprays used in this study, the sheet portion plays a very important role in the heat transfer phenomenon. The spray angle is primarily governed by the sheet portion. In addition, the axial extent (length) of sheet is a very important parameter in determining the spray angle. A correlation is obtained experimentally for breakup length in terms of the Weber number and the Jakob number

181

Determination of zinc in edible oils by flow injection FAAS after extraction induced by emulsion breaking procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new procedure using extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) procedure has been developed for extraction/preconcentration of zinc in various edible oils (canola oil, corn oil, hazelnut oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil) prior to its determination by the single line flow injection (FI) flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the procedure were investigated including the type and concentrations of surfactant, the concentration of HNO3, and the other operational conditions (emulsion breaking time and temperature). The limits of detection of 1.1 and 1.0 ?g L(-1) were observed for zinc when aqueous standard and oil-based standards were added to the emulsions for calibration, respectively. The proposed procedure of combining EIEB and single line FI-FAAS can be regarded as a new procedure for the determination of zinc in edible oil samples. PMID:24423524

Bakircioglu, Dilek; Topraksever, Nukte; Kurtulus, Yasemin Bakircioglu

2014-05-15

182

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

Carlson, Mike R. [RPS Energy Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2012-05-15

183

Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

184

Research on Dispersed Oil Droplets Breakage and Emulsification in the Dynamic Oil and Water Hydrocyclone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil and water dynamic hydrocyclone is one type of facilities that separate two phases or multiple phases applied widely in the fields such as food processing, environmental protection, biological pharmacy, petroleum and chemistry. The dispersed oil droplets in the dynamic oil and water hydrocyclone were often broken into small drops by shear force, which decreased the separation efficiency of dynamic oil-water hydrocyclone greatly. To avoid the breakage of the oil droplets, the turbulence field and the velocity field of the dynamic hydrocyclone were studied by the software of Fluent to analyze the main reason that led to breakage of oil droplets. Results indicated that the deformation of oil droplets was caused by the viscous shear force; the breakage of oil droplets was caused by the Reynolds shear stress and the local pressure fluctuations. The main area that the drops were prone to breakup of the dynamic hydrocyclone is that the rotating grating nearby, the wall boundary layer of the drum and center axis of the drum. Finally, the breakage of oil droplets and emulsification of oil and water in the dynamic hydrocyclone were verified by the experiments.

Guangdong Guo

2013-08-01

185

Nano-and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable thickness oil films, using polyisobutylen based (PIB) surfactants co-spread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to - 100A thick above the water surface as determined using x-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a non-ionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil, nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10?m at the interface. At low surface pressure (? mNm-1) large, -10?m inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at ? 24mNm-1 a structure with a spongy appearance and a micron-scale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions.

186

Modeling surface deformation due to CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geodesy Laboratory at the University of South Florida has operated 3 C-GPS stations at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas since October 2011. Our GPS sites recorded vertical uplift during the injection phase when the reservoir was initially pressurized, and localized subsidence in phase with reservoir pressure after oil extraction started. In this study, we use analytical and numerical models to better understand the small-scale surface deformation observed by GPS due to CO2 injection. First, we use an analytical model of a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space to fit the surface deformation data. Then, constrained by the analytical modeling results, we develop a poroelastic Finite Element Model (FEM) to investigate the influence of reservoir geometry and overlying stratigraphy on surface displacement. A sensitivity study is carried out to understand the effects of realistic geometry and material properties on surface deformation. Our preliminary results show that a poroelastic FEM can explain the location-dependant time delay between the injection and surface response.

Yang, Q.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Malservisi, R.; Hosseini, S.

2013-12-01

187

Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

188

Application of tritiated water as a tracer for quantitative determination of water flow distribution in an oil-field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the flow of water in an underground oil reservoir, tritiated water was injected in a well and, subsequently, tritium was determined in the water produced by the surrounding wells. Since the specific radioactivity of the water produced by the more remote wells appeared to be rather low, partly owing to dilution of the tritium water by the water present in the formation, enrichment methods were used, in order to increase counting sensitivity. Three methods of enrichment were examined: exchange with ethanol, conversion to toluene, and electrolysis. The latter method proved to be the most useful. The tritium was determined with a liquid scintillation counter; the scintillator consisted of a toluene-ethanol (2:1) mixture with DPO and POPOP, the water sample being dissolved in this liquid. Some statistical problems in connexion with the minimum detectable specific activity and the reduction of background are discussed briefly. (author)

189

An oil removal system for an oil-injected screw compressor on helium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent emergence of small capacity closed cycle helium refrigeration used in conjunction with industrial superconducting devices has placed great emphasis on the long term reliability of the refrigerator. Formerly the limitations of the refrigeration plant were in the reciprocating expansion machines. With the advent of the gas-lubricated expansion turbine, which, when operated with a reasonably clean gas supply, has a virtually infinite life, the limitations of the compressor have become dominant. Developments are discussed in the improvement of oil removal equipment used in conjunction with a rotary screw compressor having an overall potential reliability of that presently being achieved by the refrigerator turboexpanders. (author)

190

Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2004-07-01

191

Summary of Data from DOE-Subsidized Field Trial No.1 of Downhole Oil/Water Separator Technology, Texas Well Bilbrey 30-Federal No. 5 Lea County, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This reports, DOWS technology reduced the quality of produced water that is handled at the surface by separating it from the oil downhole and simultaneously injecting it underground. The two primary components of a DOWS system are an oil/water separation system and at least one pump to lift oil to the surface and inject the water. Two basic types of DOWS have been developed -- one type using hydrocyclones to mechanically separate oil and water and one relying on gravity separation that takes place in the well bore.

Veil, John A.

2001-04-19

192

A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce the low salinity effect while keeping costs and operational requirements at a minimum. Traditional core plug testing for optimising conditions has some limitations. Each test requires a fresh sample, core testing requires sophisticated and expensive equipment, and reliable core test data requires several months because cores must be cleaned, restored and aged before the tests can begin. It is also difficult to comparedata from one core with results from another because no two cores are identical, making it difficult to distinguish between effects resulting from different conditions and effects resulting from different cores. Gathering statistics is limited by the time required for each test and the fact that core material is in short supply. Thus, our aim was to explore the possibility of a cheaper, faster alternative. We developed a method that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the relationship between the wettability of pore surfaces and water salinity. We functionalise AFM tips with organic molecules and use them to represent tiny oil droplets of nonpolar or polar molecules and we use sand grains removed from core plugs to represent the pore walls in sandstone. We bring our "oil" close to the sand grain surface and measure the work of adhesion between the tip and the surface. Repeated "feeling" the surface with the tip produces data that can be converted to maps of adhesion and contact angle. Adhesion work is proportional to wettability and is directly correlated with the salinity of the fluid in contact with the tip and the particle surface. From our measurements, the threshold values for the onset of the low salinity response is 5,000 to 8,000 ppm, which benchmarks remarkably well with observations from core plug tests. Changing either the type of "oil" on our probe or the character of the grain surface both affect the adhesion response. From a mechanistic perspective, the correlation between salinity and adhesion provides evidence for the role of electrical double layer expansion in the low salinity response; expansion of the double layer decreases oil wettability. Because AFM experiments can be done relatively quickly on very little material, it gives the possibility of testing salinity response on samples from throughout a reservoir and for gathering statistics. Our approach provides a range of data that can be used to screen core plug testing conditions and to provide extra data that would be too time consuming or too expensive using traditional methods alone. © 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter

2014-01-01

193

Technique for locating injected gas in oil bearing formations behind casing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for determining the location of injected gas in an oil well comprising the steps of: obtaining data representing a near count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; obtaining data representing a far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; scaling the near count rate and the far count rate; plotting the scaled near count rate and the scaled far rate; comparing the scaled near count rate plot and the scaled far count rate plot and; determining the location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled near count rate and the plot of the scaled far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; obtaining data representing a second near count rate for a compensated neutron logging tool at a second time; obtaining data representing a second far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool at the second time; scaling the second near count rate and the second far count rate; plotting the scaled second near count rate and the scaled second far count rate; comparing the scaled second near count rate plot and the scaled second far count rate plot; determining a second location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled second near count rate and the plot of the scaled second far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; and determining the migration of the injected gas by comparing the location with the second location

194

Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

195

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.

Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.

2009-04-01

196

Crude oil desulfurization  

Science.gov (United States)

High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (inventors)

1982-01-01

197

Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

198

Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

2001-12-01

199

From oil-based mud to water-based mud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

200

Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters  

OpenAIRE

The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heav...

LisaGieg

2014-01-01

201

Unsteady water injection models for analysis of sodium/water reactions in steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two models analytically predict the single-phase and two-phase unsteady water injection rates in the event of a sodium/water reaction. The method of characteristics is employed to solve the governing equations. Both isentropic and nonisentropic analyses are developed assuming homogeneous phases. The problem is treated one-dimensionally and thermal nonequilibrium between the phases is neglected. Computer results are compared to analytical and experimental predictions. The development of a typical simplified water transient following a guillotine tube rupture is examined. Parametric curves of unsteady water discharge rates are also presented. 19 refs

202

Experimental and Analytical Determination of the Motion of Hydraulically Operated Valve Stems in Oil Engine Injection Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

1930-01-01

203

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field.

Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

2013-01-01

204

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

205

Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increasing use of aromatherapy oils, there have not been many studies exploring the biological activities of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) essential oil (BEO). Recently, we have investigated the effects of BEO injected into the plantar surface of the hindpaw in the capsaicin test in mice. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an intense and short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected hindpaw. The capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was reduced significantly by intraplantar injection of BEO. The essential oils of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Thyme ct. linalool (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), Lavender Reydovan (Lavandula hybrida reydovan), and True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), had similar antinociceptive effects on the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response, while Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis) essential oil was without effect. In contrast to a small number of pharmacological studies of BEO, there is ample evidence regarding isolated components of BEO which are also found in other essential oils. The most abundant compounds found in the volatile fraction are the monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, and oxygenated derivatives, linalool and linalyl acetate. Of these monoterpenes, the pharmacological activities of linalool have been examined. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice, linalool produces antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in different animal models in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. Linalool also possesses anticonvulsant activity in experimental models of epilepsy. We address the importance of linalool or linalyl acetate in BEO-or the other essential oil-induced antinociception. PMID:19607974

Sakurada, Tsukasa; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

2009-01-01

206

Injection of multi-azimuth permeable planes in weakly cemented formations for enhanced heavy-oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weakly cemented formations have minimal strength without fracture toughness. As such, the well stimulation process must be different from the fracturing process that occurs in hard rocks. This paper presented field injection experiments of multi-azimuth, injected, vertical planar geometries in several weakly cemented formations. The application of the method to shallow petroleum soft rock reservoirs was described, with particular reference to the thermal and solvent recovery of heavy oil. This study showed that in weakly cemented formations, a well-initiation device can control the azimuth of injected vertical planes, thereby controlling the rate of injection and the viscosity of the injected fluid. The concept of using the multi-azimuth, vertical permeable planes has strong potential in soft-rock formations for enhanced production in both shallow gas and shallow heavy-oil reservoirs. The method can be applied in a single well injector-producer for the continuous injection of steam and the continuous extraction of oil, similar to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and may be more efficient than a confined horizontal well pair typically used in SAGD. However, the authors noted that the effectiveness of the multi-azimuth process has yet to be proven for oil sand formations. 13 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

Hocking, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[GeoSierra LLC, Norcross, GA (United States); Cavender, T.; Schultz, R.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-10-15

207

Characterization of the oil fractions of shale oil obtained by pyrolysis and supercritical water extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Goynuk oil shale was subjected to slow pyrolysis and flash pyrolysis. It was also subjected to super and subcritical fluid extraction with water. Considerable differences were observed in the yields and compositions of the oils obtained under the four different conditions. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Yanik, J.; Yuksel, M.; Saglam, M.; Olukcu, N.; Bartle, K.; Frere, B. (Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

1995-01-01

208

Intracutaneous or subcutaneous sterile water injection compared with blinded controls for pain management in labour.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection of sterile water is rapidly gaining popularity as a method of pain relief in labour and it is therefore essential that it is properly evaluated. Adequate analgesia in labour is important to women worldwide. Sterile water injection is inexpensive, requires basic equipment, and appears to have few side effects. It is purported to work for labour pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of sterile water injections for relief of pain (both t...

Derry, S.; Straube, S.; Moore, Ra; Hancock, H.; Collins, Sl

2012-01-01

209

The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field is an intelligent measuring instrument, integrating light, machine and electricity. It bases on 8031 SCP and makes full use of CASIO printing calculate's functions of calculation, keyboard and printing

210

Oil sands water quality issues : properties, treatment and discharge options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current level of land disturbance caused by oil sand development at Syncrude Canada Ltd. (SCL) was illustrated in a map depicting Albian, Syncrude, Suncor and Aurora North leases. Water quality is altered by the processing of oil sands, with the biggest changes being in the levels of dissolved inorganic and organic constituents. The reclamation goals at SCL is to produce a self-sustaining landscape that has comparable productive capability to the pre-disturbed habitat. This presentation compared process-affected waters with surface waters of the lease areas, and demonstrated which properties are different. Environmental issues and risks associated with process-affected waters were highlighted along with potential reclamation options. Studies have shown that although oil sand processing changes water quality, there is little evidence of anthropogenic chemicals of concern. Trace metals do not pose an environmental concern. The greatest water quality concern lies with salts, some dissolved organics and the presence of hydrocarbons. Huge volumes of potential recharge waters are also an important factor to reclamation. This presentation focused on the reclamation options that integrate wet and dry landscapes, with reference to lakes, wetlands, low lands and uplands. The presentation included flow charts, graphs and maps illustrating oil sands operations and the factors affecting process water composition. Water from oil sands operations are affected by leaching, dissolution and recycling. Biologically detrimental effects are moderated by natural bioremediation, attenuation processes and microbial impacts. tabs., figs.

MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort, McMurray, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

211

Gupco's experience in treating Gulf of Suez sea water for waterflooding the El-Morgan oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co, (GUPCO), is currently water flooding two fields using Gulf of Suez water. The paper demonstrates the treatment phases adopted for the sea water to improve its quality prior to injection, and to control the corrosion, scaling and other problems which are usually associated with untreated sea waters. Also discussed are GUPCO'S experience in sea water flood at the El-Morgan Oil field, problems encountered and corrective action taken to overcome these problems. The chemical treatment programs adopted are presented along with final conclusions and recommendations that can be applicable to similar floods in Egypt using Gulf of Suez Water. 58 refs.

El-Hattab, M.I.

1981-01-01

212

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

213

Performance and exhaust emission of turpentine oil powered direct injection diesel engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of experimental work carried out to evaluate the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of turpentine oil fuel (TPOF) blended with conventional diesel fuel (DF) fueled in a diesel engine. Turpentine oil derived from pyrolysis mechanism or resin obtained from pine tree dissolved in a volatile liquid can be used as a bio-fuel due to its properties. The test engine was fully instrumented to provide all the required measurements for determination of the needed combustion, performance and exhaust emission variables. The physical and chemical properties of the test fuels were earlier determined in accordance to the ASTM standards. Indicated that the engine operating on turpentine oil fuel at manufacture's injection pressure - time setting (20.5 MPa and 23 BTDC) had lower carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), smoke level and particulate matter. Further the results showed that the addition of 30% TPOF with DF produced higher brake power and net heat release rate with a net reduction in exhaust emissions such as CO, HC, NO{sub x}, smoke and particulate matter. Above 30% TPOF blends, such as 40% and 50% TPOF blends, developed lower brake power and net heat release rate were noted due to the fuels lower calorific value; nevertheless, reduced emissions were still noted. (author)

Anand, B. Prem; Saravanan, C.G.; Srinivasan, C. Ananda [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)

2010-06-15

214

On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow.

Gudbjerg, J.; Trötschler, O.; Färber, A.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jensen, K. H.

2004-12-01

215

Usefulness of hepatic artery injection of iodized oil and 131I-labelled iodized oil before the therapeutic decision in hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assesses the usefulness of intra-arterial injection of iodized oil (Lipiodol) as a tool for evaluating the therapeutic choice in a series of 72 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 52 of these patients a scintigraphic study of the biodistribution of iodized oil was done, using 131I-iodized oil injection. A single tumor was detected in only 17 cases; 18 patients had a tumor involving only 1 lobe; in 7 cases CT scan disclosed a minute nodule in the opposite lobe of the main tumor. 18 patients had a portal thromobosis; in 12 of these cases CT scan showed iodized oil in the tumor emboli. The degree of intratumoral retention of iodized oil depended on the size of tumors and on the presence of arterioportal shunts. The authors study demonstrates that only a few patients (4%) with HCC might benefit from curative surgery. The therapeutic benefit of methods using iodized oil injection might be estimated by means of its biodistribution variables (CT and/or scintigraphic data). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

216

Stable highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes for oil water separation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a simple method for fabricating both highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes by coating thin fluoro-containing films. The static contact angle of such meshes is greater than 150° for water, and close to 0° for kerosene, xylene and toluene. These meshes can separate water from oil effectively without resorting to any extra power or chemical agent. Moreover, they exhibited stable water resisting, anti-chemical erosion and anti-hot aging properties. It promises as a candidate for the separation of oil and water.

Wang, Qingjun; Cui, Zhe; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Qingmin

2007-09-01

217

Study of enhanced oil field recovery through polymer injection in field scales; Estudo da recuperacao avancada de petroleo via injecao de polimeros em escala de campo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymer flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method consists in increasing the aqueous phase viscosity by addition of polymer, reducing in this way its mobility compared with the oleic phase, leading to an increase in reservoir's sweep efficiency. However, polymer flooding still requires more research to develop polymers that are more resistant to the injection and reservoir conditions, e.g. high temperature, high salinity, biological and mechanical degradation. Computational simulations are executed to validate the results. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of polymer flooding in enhancing the reservoir's recovery factor. Computational simulations were done for polymer flooding in filed scale using the STARS simulator (CMG). Simulations for water flooding also were done for the same reservoir. In this way, it was possible to compare, for the same reservoir, the performance of water injection and polymer flooding. The economical analysis of these recovery methods was done to evaluate their viability. (author)

Manichand, Renuka N.; Garcia, Rosangela B.; Mata, Ana L.M.L.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

2004-07-01

218

Separation of oil from a water/oil mixed drop using two nonparallel plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we have developed a simple approach to separate oil from a microliter-scaled water/oil mixture by squeezing the mixture using two nonparallel plates. Three pairs of plates with Teflon, SU-8, and SiO2 coatings, respectively, are used in the tests, and all of these plates are capable of separating the water/oil mixed drops. 95.5% silicone oil and 97.0% light mineral oil have been collected from their corresponding mixtures with water through the pair of Teflon plates. Furthermore, on the basis of pressure difference inside a liquid drop, theoretical models have been developed to interpret the corresponding mechanisms of the separation process, as well as the observed phenomena. To judge whether two immiscible liquids could be separated using the developed approach, a sufficient condition has also been derived, which includes three theoretical relations. The sufficient condition is subsequently validated by experiments. This condition also provides criteria for choosing a good plate coating. Such a coating should ensure (i) the oil wets the plate surface with a relatively large contact angle, and has small contact angle hysteresis, and (ii) the advancing contact angle that the water/oil interface forms on the plate surface is larger than 90°. PMID:25073653

Luo, Cheng; Heng, Xin

2014-08-26

219

An Analytical Model for Simulating Heavy-Oil Recovery by Cyclic Steam Injection Using Horizontal Wells, SUPRI TR-118  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this investigation, existing analytical models for cyclic steam injection and oil recovery are reviewed and a new model is proposed that is applicable to horizontal wells. A new flow equation is developed for oil production during cyclic steaming of horizontal wells. The model accounts for the gravity-drainage of oil along the steam-oil interface and through the steam zone. Oil viscosity, effective permeability, geometry of the heated zone, porosity, mobile oil saturation, and thermal diffusivity of the reservoir influence the flow rate of oil in the model. The change in reservoir temperature with time is also modeled, and it results in the expected decline in oil production rate during the production cycle as the reservoir cools. Wherever appropriate, correlations and incorporated to minimize data requirements. A limited comparison to numerical simulation results agrees well, indicating that essential physics are successfully captured. Cyclic steaming appears to be a systematic met hod for heating a cold reservoir provided that a relatively uniform distribution of steam is obtained along the horizontal well during injection. A sensitivity analysis shows that the process is robust over the range of expected physical parameters.

Diwan, Utpal; Kovscek, Anthony R.

1999-08-09

220

A review of knowledge on water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlined the basics of water-in-oil emulsification which is often considered to be the second most important behavioural characteristic of oil after evaporation. In the event of oil spills on water, water in-oil emulsions are formed by the emulsification process which changes the physical properties and characteristics of the oil. Stable emulsions contain from 60 to 80 per cent water, thereby expanding the spilled material from 2 to 5 times the original volume. The density of the resulting emulsion is also greater than the starting density and the viscosity of the oil generally increases. The liquid product is thus transformed into a heavy, semi-solid material. As a result of emulsification, evaporation of oil spills slows by orders-of-magnitude, spreading slows and the oil rides lower in the water column. Emulsification also affects cleanup response because emulsions are hard to treat, burn or recover mechanically. This paper also reviewed dielectric and rheological methods that study the formation mechanisms and stability of emulsions made from different types of oils. Other standard chemical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical analysis techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, interfacial pressure and interfacial tension have also been applied to emulsions. After 15 years of studies, data on water-in-oil emulsions have shown good correlation between laboratory, test tank and field scale studies. Reported test results oeld scale studies. Reported test results on about 400 oils and petroleum products have shown that emulsions can be grouped into 3 categories, each with distinct physical properties. These include stable, unstable and meso-stable emulsions. An examination of the asphaltene and resin content has shown that the stability of emulsions can be predicted by the asphaltene content and its viscosity. Emulsion formation was found to occur at a threshold energy, defined in terms of relative sea state. A recently proposed numerical modeling scheme based on empirical data and corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation has been proposed. A class index of unstable or entrained water-in-oil state and a meso-stable or stable emulsion was determined based on density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin content. 133 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

221

Effect of mixed gas solvent injection on performance of the Vapex process in an Iranian heavy oil sample  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vapor extraction (VAPEX) process involves the injection of vaporized hydrocarbon solvents into oil reservoirs in order to decrease in-situ oil viscosity. The solvents are often used with non-condensable gases in high pressure reservoirs to lower the dew point of the gas mixture and prevent condensation. This study investigated the effects of mixed gas solvent injection on the VAPEX process with an Iranian heavy oil sample. A set of experiments were conducted at low, medium, and high pressure rates on a 2-D visual model. A transparent face was used in the model in order to monitor the size of the vapor chamber and the position of the gas-oil interface. Production and injection wells were placed above each other and at the center of the model. The effects of solvent concentration, and carrier gas type on production parameters and produced oil properties were also investigated. Propane was used as a solvent, and methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were used as carrier gases. Results of the study showed that high injection pressures caused fluctuations in system behaviour. The solvent chamber grew in a lateral direction, and less asphaltene precipitation was observed. It was concluded that the VAPEX process can be used in high pressure reservoirs when combined with non-condensable carrier gases. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

Derakhshanfar, M.; Kharrat, R.; Rostami, B. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etminan, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

222

Performance and exhaust emissions of an indirect-injection (IDI) diesel enginewhen using waste cooking oil as fuel  

OpenAIRE

A study was carried out on the influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) and its blends with D2 fuel on the performance, exhaust emissions, combustion and fuel injection processes of an indirect injected diesel engine. Tests were carried out using different fuels, under the same conditions. Exhaust emissions and engine performance were measured and compared. Combustion chamber pressure was also acquired, and the rate of heat-release curves were computed by means of a zero-dimensional one-zone comb...

Hribernik, Ales?; Kegl, Breda

2012-01-01

223

Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

Thomas, B.L.

1984-07-01

224

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

225

Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability : An Analysis Of Experimental Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The seasonal imbalance between supply and demand of renewable energy requires temporary storage, which can be achieved by hot water injection in warm aquifers. This requires that the permeability and porosity of the aquifer are not reduced significantly by heating. We present an overview of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation. Heating causes thermal expansion, which results in porosity reduction if the sandstone is confined. The maximum effect of porosity reduction as a result of thermal expansion on permeability is modelled and compared the change in specific surface that is computed from the reported data. This does not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx of colloidal particles due to corrosion of the apparatus at elevated temperature causes permeability reduction in a number of investigations. Mobilisation of internal particles, particularly kaolinite particles, is considered a probable mechanism of permeability reduction for the other experiments reviewed here. The parameters that strongly affect the success of heat storage therefore include the quality of the equipment and particularly the prevention of corrosion, as well as the sandstone lithology and its interaction with the reservoir fluid.

Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2012-01-01

226

Study of transient air injection into a pool of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been conducted to study the hydrodynamic phenomena associated with the transient injection of air into a pool of water through single and double vent tubes placed in an axisymmetric vessel. The effect of such geometric parameters as submergence depth, distance of vent exit from the bottom of the test chamber, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the tube to that of the test chamber has been studied for single tubes. The data show that the bottom maximum pressure increases with submergence depth and that two-dimensional effects start to play a role at submergence depths of about 20 cm (test chamber diameter = 45 cm). The minimum downward force is observed to occur when the momentum of the expanding bubble is at its maximum. The double vent data show that a superposition principle will tend to overestimate the maximum downward force, while a reduction in cell size will reduce the magnitude of the local maximum and tend to make the pressure uniform over the bottom of the test chamber. Prediction of the maximum average downward force for double vents is found to be possible from single vent observations if the single vent is assumed to be placed in between the double vents and if it has a cross-sectional area equal to the sum of the areas of the two vents. A comparison of predictions based on the present work with the experimentally observed forces in a 1/5th scale Mark I BWR torus has been made

227

Technology of simultaneous purification of iron containing and hydrogen sulfide waters of oil-producing installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When iron-containing and H/sub 2/S-containing produced waters are mixed, and concentrations of the 2 reactants are equal, not all of the sulfide is precipitated. Complete removal of sulfides can be obtained by raising the pH to 8.0, and by having an excess of ferrous iron in solution. During normal mixing of sulfide and iron waters, some H/sub 2/S is adsorbed by iron sulfide. Water conditioning systems are described for handling sulfide and iron waters in the oil fields. One treating method utilizes NH/sub 4/OH and FeCl/sub 2/ to condition the water for underground injection.

Elanskii, V.L.; Sokolov, A.G.; Perevalov, V.G.

1974-01-01

228

Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

2011-12-01

229

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

230

Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes  

OpenAIRE

There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a prec...

Francis, Jasmine H.; Xu, Xiaoliang L.; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P.; Brodie, Scott E.; Abramson, David H.

2014-01-01

231

An environmentally safe water-based alternative to oil muds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a mechanism describing the onset of bit balling is given. On the basis of this mechanism, a new copolymer/polypropylene glycol (COP/PPG) water-based drilling fluid was developed. The properties of this fluid are described, and field test comparisons are made with water- and oil-based fluids

232

CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SHALE MINE WATERS, CENTRAL PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to characterize the oil shale mine waters in the Piceance Basin. The study sites were Federal Prototype Lease Tracts C-a and C-b, located in the central portion of the basin. The objective was to collect water quality data in order to characterize the mine w...

233

SURFACE WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR MONITORING OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report develops and recommends prioritized listings of chemical, physical, and biological parameters which can be used to assess the environmental impact of oil shale development on surface water resources. Each of the potential water-related problems is addressed in the con...

234

Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish

235

Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

236

Application of flexible slurries: an alternative for oil wells subject to cyclic steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil wells that receive cyclic steam injection are subject to high temperature variations during their life cycle. This causes volumetric expansion of the metallic casing which leads to cracks and channels in the formation of the cement. Studies show that volumetric expansion caused by temperature variation may cause wells to rise up to 20-in. at the surface. This paper presents alternative materials that improve the elastic properties of set cement slurries, focusing on maintaining sufficient resilience to maximize the life of the cement. We compare a set of fourteen formulations, some currently in use, selecting those with high flexibility. Analysis was based on the mechanical properties of the set slurries as well as tests according to standards from ABNT and from API Spec 10B. This work contributes new formulations for wells that under-go cyclic steam injection. These new formulations are presented as alternatives to current flexible slurry technology. We can obtain high-quality, more resilient slurries using materials that are more economical, have better cost-benefit, and are easily available in the market. (author)

Suzart, J. Walter P.; Paiva, Maria D.M.; Cunha, Marcelo C.S. [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States); Farias, Antonio Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

237

Using chemical and isotopic data to quantify ionic trapping of injected carbon dioxide in oil field brines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection of carbon dioxide into depleted oil fields or deep saline aquifers represents one of the most promising means of long-term storage of this greenhouse gas. While the ultimate goal of CO2 injection in the subsurface is mineral storage of CO2 as carbonates, short-term (<50 year) storage of injected CO2 is most likely to be accomplished by ionic trapping of CO2 as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and hydrogeological trapping of molecular CO2. Here, we demonstrate a technique for quantifying ionic trapping of injected CO2 as HCO3- using geochemical data collected prior to and during 40 months of CO2 injection into a hydrocarbon reservoir at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada. As a result of injection of CO2 with a low carbon isotope ratio (delta13C value), fluid and gas samples from four selected production wells showed an increase in HCO3- concentration and a decrease in delta13C values of HCO3- and CO2 over the observation period. Isotope and mass balance calculations indicate that, after 40 months of injection, approximately 80% of the HCO3- in the reservoir brines sampled from the four wells formed via dissolution and dissociation of injected CO2. This chemical and isotopic technique should be applicable to CO2 injection and storage in oil fields and in deep saline aquifers, provided there is sufficient carbon isotopic distinction between injected CO2 and baseline aquifer HCO3- and CO2. PMID:17144305

Raistrick, Mark; Mayer, Bernhard; Shevalier, Maurice; Perez, Renee J; Hutcheon, Ian; Perkins, Ernie; Gunter, Bill

2006-11-01

238

Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 2000C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 600C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 600C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

239

Influence of injection timing on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine running on waste plastic oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental concern and availability of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the search for alternate fuels for internal combustion engines. Waste plastics are indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. In this context, waste plastics are currently receiving renewed interest. As an alternative, non-biodegradable, and renewable fuel, waste plastic oil is receiving increasing attention. The waste plastic oil was compared with the petroleum products and found that it can also be used as fuel in compression ignition engines. In the present work, the influence of injection timing on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using waste plastic oil as a fuel. Tests were performed at four injection timings (23 ,20 ,17 and 14 bTDC). When compared to the standard injection timing of 23 BTDC the retarded injection timing of 14 bTDC resulted in decreased oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon while the brake thermal efficiency, carbon dioxide and smoke increased under all the test conditions. (author)

Mani, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai 602105, Tamil Nadu (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-10-15

240

Experimental investigation of an oil droplet colliding with an oil-water interface  

OpenAIRE

The impact of a buoyancy driven oil droplet with an oil-water interface is investigated using time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) along with a phase discrimination by means of high-speed Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). In this paper we focus on the investigation of strategies to optimize the performance of high-speed PIV algorithms. Furthermore this data will be used for validation of numerical simulations of two phase flows. To simultaneously measure the flow v...

Miessner, U.; Coyajee, E.; Delfos, R.; Lindken, R.; Westerweel, J.

2011-01-01

241

Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding) Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta  

OpenAIRE

Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s) of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CD...

Joseph, Amieibibama; Ajienka, Joseph Atubokiki

2010-01-01

242

Texture optimization of water-in-oil emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research is to demonstrate the effect of variations in certain parameters of the oily phase (OP) in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions on rheological and texture properties of finished products. The formulated emulsions were selected according to an optimal experimental procedure. The applied variations were nature of the OP, its volume fraction, the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value, and the surfactant proportion. Results are presented for the followed tests carried out on the emulsions: texture analysis, rheology, and particle size analysis. The oils used in the study were sweet almond oil, liquid paraffin, maize oil, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, and wheat germ oil. The resulting data demonstrate a notable influence of the volume fraction oil on hardness, viscosity, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of W/O emulsions. Emulsion hardness and viscosity increased as the OP percentage increased; this effect being even more pronounced for the vegetable oils. In contrast, emulsion adhesiveness and cohesiveness decreased as the volume fraction oil increased. The HLB value of the surfactant mixture of the emulsion also influenced hardness, adhesiveness, and elasticity, increasing or decreasing as HLB value did. PMID:15202571

Lemaitre-Aghazarian, V; Piccerelle, P; Reynier, J P; Joachim, J; Phan-Tan-Luu, R; Sergent, M

2004-01-01

243

Modelling the behaviour of oil spills in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A state of the art review is presented of the different formulations of the physicochemical processes affecting the fate of spilled oil. These processes account for the transfer and loss of the surface oil, such as initial spreading, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, dispersion, photo-oxidation, and sedimentation. Suitable equations are selected for implementation of a mathematical model of oil spill behavior into a computer program. Blokker's equation (1964) is used to model the spread of oil, a solubility enhancement factor is adopted from Mackay and Leinonen (1977), dispersion is modelled according to the model of Delvigne and Sweeney (1988), and values relating to measurements of different wind and wave parameters as found in Bouwmeester and Wallace (1986) and Delvigne and Sweeney (1988) were adopted to represent the different sea conditions. The program calculates the amount of oil lost from the surface slick as a function of time. Its inputs include the type and composition of the oil, physical properties of each of the oil components, environmental and weather conditions, and spill size. To reflect field observations, the surface oil composition in the model is allowed to vary with time as a result of weathering. Model simulations were obtained for different sea states, wind speeds, and water temperatures. Comparisons of the model's individual components and field data have been favorable. 32 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabsabs

244

Stability of thin oil films in water : molecular dynamics simulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mechanisms of ultrathin film breakup were examined using molecular modeling techniques. Most often, continuum models cannot assess the behaviour of thin liquid films below several nanometers in thickness. For example, when a liquid film drains to the level of approximately 2 layers of molecules in the film, there is no formal approach for evaluating the mechanisms of rupture of such films, known as Newton black films. In order to address the issue of ruptured water-in-oil emulsions, it is important to understand the behaviour of thin liquid films. This study simulated the molecular dynamics of ultra-thin films of hydrocarbons held between 2 reservoirs of water rivaling a water-oil-water system. Heptane was used as the simplest hydrocarbon model, while a flexible SPC model was used for water. Simulations spanning a few nanoseconds were carried out starting from different initial oil film structures that included holes or sinusoidal deformations. In addition to investigating the dynamics of the thin heptane films, this study evaluated the critical conditions leading to the film rupture. This paper also presented the interfacial behaviour and stability of the oil films found in surfactants, such as CH3(CH2)10COONa and CH3(CH2)4COONa, and different electrolyte concentrations (NaCl). This study contributed to a better understanding of the role of surfactants on the stability of oil films. Results confirmed that increasing the concentration of surfactants resulted in a less diffusive interface between the aqueous and oil phases. It was concluded that thin film breakup can occur when miscibility is locally enhanced at the molecular level. Surfactants enhance film stability by shielding the oil molecules from the solvent. tabs., figs.

Segin, T.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2006-07-01

245

Procedure for oil recovery by injecting a stable aqeous solution of a polysaccharide polymer. Fremgangsmaate ved oljeutvinning ved injeksjon av en stabilisert vandig opploesning av polysaccharidpolymer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an oil recovery process, an aqueous solution thickened with a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide polymer (xanthan gum polymer) is injected into a subterranean reservoir. The stability of the solution viscosity is improved by deoxygenating the aqueous liquid and then adding a sulfur containing antioxidant, a readily oxidizable water-soluble alcohol or glycol and the xanthan gum polymer. Claim: 1. In an oil recovery process in which an aqueous solution which is thickened with a water-soluble xanthan gum polymer is prepared in a surface location and injected into a subsurface reservoir, an improved process for preparing the thickened aqueous solution comprises: First treating an aqueous liquid to remove substantially all dissolved oxygen; and, subsequently adding to the deoxygenated aqueous liquid at least one water-soluble sulfur-containing antioxidant which is capable of protecting a xanthan gum polymer solution from drastic loss of viscosity due to boiling; adding to the deoxygenated aqueous liquid at least one water-soluble readily oxidizable alcohol or glycol which is capable of protecting a xanthan gum polymer solution from drastic loss of viscosity due to boiling at atmospheric pressure for about five minutes; each of said capabilities of protecting the xanthan gum polymer solutions being demonstrable by the protecting of the viscosity of a water solution, which contains 800 ppm of each of the additives being tested, xanthan gum polymer, sodium chloride and a sulfite group- containing oxygen scavenger, with said solution being protected to the extent that at least about 75% of the viscosity exhibited before the boiling is exhibited after the boiling; and adding to the deoxygenated aqueous liquid at least one water-soluble xanthan gum polymer produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates by a bacteria of the genus xantghomonas. 1 drawing.

Wellington, S.L.

1984-07-30

246

Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

247

Estimation of gas/liquid and oil/water interface levels in an oil/water/gas separator based on pressure measurements and regression modelling  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Gravity separators are widely used for separation of gas/oil/water/sand from both offshore and onshore oil production facilities. Estimation of the gas/liquid and oil/water interface levels in gravity separators have been a concern since these parameters are important for reliable operation. Most of the instruments on the market today do not provide reliable measurements of both gas/liquid and oil/water interface levels. The few instruments that do provide reliable measurements ar...

Arvoh, Benjamin Kaku; Skeie, Nils Olav; Halstensen, Maths

2013-01-01

248

Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.  

Science.gov (United States)

One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

2014-08-19

249

Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CDR downstream the turbine pumps that supply water to the injector wells. Velocity and the injection rate of water to the injector wells (with no CDR added were measured. From the field results, 20ppm of CDR injection gave optimum injection increase of 13% and adding a third side outlet 3? pipeline into the wellheads gives independent 16% increase in injectivity. The test had no negative impact on the environment. The result could be applied as an aid and quick means of predicting water-flooding operation in similar operating condition as Ukpokiti field.

Amieibibama JOSEPH

2010-12-01

250

Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 ?mol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

LisaGieg

2014-05-01

251

Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 ?mol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M

2014-01-01

252

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w. The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r2 = 0.996. Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD% was better than 5% (2% typical for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

Gustavo Pignalosa

2005-01-01

253

Persistence of crude oil spills on open water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of reports on oil spill incidents around the world was conducted. A Microsoft access database was then compiled in which spill information parameters were identified. These include general information about when and where the spill occurred, weather, sea conditions, oil properties and cleanup methods. The available information was assessed to determine statistically significant relationships between spill persistence, spill size and spill persistence factors. The objective was to identify links between dissipation times for spills and spill size. Another objective was to determine quantitative relationships between on-water spill persistence and associated environmental factors; physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil; and, response effort parameters. A mathematical description of the persistence of crude oil spills at sea was developed using historical spill data. The results are used by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) to estimate probable durations for spill trajectories in the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. This study also refined the spill-size/spill-persistence correlation in terms of other variables such as oil type, weather and sea conditions and spill type. Correlation analyses were conducted on 3 data sets, indicating the importance of different variables and their dependencies. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs.

Buist, I.; Belore, R. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Bercha, F.; Cerovsek, M. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lewis, A. [Alun Lewis Oil Spill Consultancy (United Kingdom); Wilson, J.; Rinelli, B. [PCCI, Alexandria, VA (United States)

2005-07-01

254

Persistence of crude oil spills on open water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of reports on oil spill incidents around the world was conducted. A Microsoft access database was then compiled in which spill information parameters were identified. These include general information about when and where the spill occurred, weather, sea conditions, oil properties and cleanup methods. The available information was assessed to determine statistically significant relationships between spill persistence, spill size and spill persistence factors. The objective was to identify links between dissipation times for spills and spill size. Another objective was to determine quantitative relationships between on-water spill persistence and associated environmental factors; physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil; and, response effort parameters. A mathematical description of the persistence of crude oil spills at sea was developed using historical spill data. The results are used by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) to estimate probable durations for spill trajectories in the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. This study also refined the spill-size/spill-persistence correlation in terms of other variables such as oil type, weather and sea conditions and spill type. Correlation analyses were conducted on 3 data sets, indicating the importance of different variables and their dependencies. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs

255

Effect of water column type of DVI injection on the direct ECC bypass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct ECC bypass fraction is strongly dependent on the ECC injection angle and the regional flow characteristics in the reactor downcomer annulus. The ECC film spreading width is dependant on the linear momentum of ECC water and the wall resistance in the downcomer. If the ECC water is injected into the downcomer annulus as a water column rather than forming a film shape by impinging jet, the wall resistance becomes to be minimized compared to that of the impinging injection mode. In this experiment, the ECC water column is injected into the downcomer from the cap of the downcomer annulus. Also, the relative angle between the cold leg and the vertical DVI nozzle is varied from -15 degrees to +52 degrees to investigate the regional dependency on the direct bypass of ECC water in a downcomer annulus

256

Stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions with regenerated chitin nanofibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural chitin is a highly crystalline biopolymer with poor aqueous solubility. Thus direct application of chitin is rather limited unless chemical modifications are made to improve its solubility in aqueous media. Through a simple dissolution and regeneration process, we have successfully prepared chitin nanofibers with diameters around 50nm, which form a stable suspension at concentrations higher than 0.50% and a self-supporting gel at concentrations higher than 1.00%. Additionally, these nanofibers can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with oil fraction more than 0.50 at chitin usage level of 0.01g/g oil. The droplet sizes of the resulting emulsions decrease with increasing chitin concentrations and decreasing oil fraction. Confocal laser scanning micrographs demonstrate the adsorption of chitin nanofibers on the emulsion droplet surface, which indicates the emulsion stabilization is through a Pickering mechanism. Our findings allow the direct application of chitin in the food industry without chemical modifications. PMID:25863618

Zhang, Ying; Chen, Zhigang; Bian, Wenyang; Feng, Li; Wu, Zongwei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Tao

2015-09-15

257

Separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions coming from palm oil mill process through microwave techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palm oil mills extraction process requires the separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions. For this purpose, the use of sedimentation and/or centrifugation techniques have been required until now. However, significant losses persist in different process flows and new methods are needed to further decrease them, such as methods based on electromagnetic waves application. In the study, emulsions obtained from two flow processes, namely press liquor stream (PL) and recovered stream of the centrifugal step (RC), were exposed to microwave radiation with different exposure times. In the case of the press liquor stream, different oil/water dilution ratios were also studied. The sedimentation speed and efficiency were studied for the irradiated samples and compared to those obtained for the same fluids with no radiation. Also, chromatographic tests were performed on the recovered oil to determine the effect on the oil quality after microwave radiation. The obtained results allow us to conclude that microwave exposure during periods below 1 minute lead to better sedimentation speed and efficiency. It was observed that microwaves facilitate the break of the charges and polarities balances in the emulsions at considerably lower temperatures than the corresponding in the conventional process, without affecting the recovered oil quality. PMID:19227069

Pérez-Páez, Rocío; Catalá-Civera, José Manuel; García-Baños, Beatriz; Castillo, Edgar F; Bastos, Johanna M; Zambrano, Luz S

2008-01-01

258

Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

2012-07-01

259

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06

260

TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: OIL TANKER BALLAST WATER FACILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

A study dealing with the effectiveness of large-scale treatment of ballast water was conducted at the terminal facility of the TransAlaska Pipeline in Valdez, Alaska. The plant was found to be generally effective in reducing the petroleum content of the ballast water. On the aver...

261

Breaking oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several biotechnological processes can show an undesirable formation of emulsions making difficult phase separation and product recovery. The breakup of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast was studied using different physical and chemical methods. These emulsions were composed by deionized water, hexadecane and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The stability of the emulsions was evaluated varying the yeast concentration from 7.47 to 22.11% (w/w) and the phases obtained after gravity separation were evaluated on chemical composition, droplet size distribution, rheological behavior and optical microscopy. The cream phase showed kinetic stability attributed to mechanisms as electrostatic repulsion between the droplets, a possible Pickering-type stabilization and the viscoelastic properties of the concentrated emulsion. Oil recovery from cream phase was performed using gravity separation, centrifugation, heating and addition of demulsifier agents (alcohols and magnetic nanoparticles). Long centrifugation time and high centrifugal forces (2h/150,000×g) were necessary to obtain a complete oil recovery. The heat treatment (60°C) was not enough to promote a satisfactory oil separation. Addition of alcohols followed by centrifugation enhanced oil recovery: butanol addition allowed almost complete phase separation of the emulsion while ethanol addition resulted in 84% of oil recovery. Implementation of this method, however, would require additional steps for solvent separation. Addition of charged magnetic nanoparticles was effective by interacting electrostatically with the interface, resulting in emulsion destabilization under a magnetic field. This method reached almost 96% of oil recovery and it was potentially advantageous since no additional steps might be necessary for further purifying the recovered oil. PMID:25791419

Furtado, Guilherme F; Picone, Carolina S F; Cuellar, Maria C; Cunha, Rosiane L

2015-04-01

262

Generation of water-in-oil and oil-in-water microdroplets in polyester-toner microfluidic devices  

OpenAIRE

This paper demonstrates that disposable polyester-toner microfluidic devices are suitable to produce either water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) droplets without using any surface treatment of the microchannels walls. Highly monodisperse W/O and O/W emulsions were generated in T-junction microdevices by simply adding appropriate surfactants to the continuous phase. The dispersion in size of droplets generated at frequencies up to 500 Hz was always less than about 2% over...

Piccin, Evandro; Ferraro, Davide; Sartori, Paolo; Chiarello, Enrico; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo

2014-01-01

263

Magnetically Recoverable Efficient Demulsifier for Water-in-Oil Emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetically recoverable and efficient demulsifier is shown to demulsify surfactant-stable water-in-oil emulsions rapidly. Ferroferric oxide (Fe3 O4 ) particles are firstly coated by amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), and further functionalized with a commercial dodecyltrimethoxysilane solution (KH-1231). Owing to their paramagnetic properties, the demulsifier particles can be easily recovered with a magnet. Upon addition of demulsifier to emulsions and subsequent sonification, the supernatant becomes completely transparent and no droplets are observed in the micrographs. It was also demonstrated that this demulsifier is effective for emulsions prepared with a variety of oils. Moreover, magnetically recovered demulsifier can be recycled after simple treatment without any decline of efficiency. This work presents a feasible approach for demulsifying water-in-oil emulsions, and has potential value in industry. PMID:25504588

Chen, Yuning; Lin, Xin; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lu, Fei; Xu, Liangxin; Feng, Lin

2015-02-23

264

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

Science.gov (United States)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

2008-07-01

265

Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2005-09-15

266

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressurefor the Omani Oils for CO2 Injection EOR Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Oman there are still large remaining oil reserves that require implementation of Enhanced Oil Recovery processes such as CO2 injection, for light oil. CO2-Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP is the key parameter for the design and operations of successful CO2 flood. This study is based on developing a method of calculating the MMP for Omani oil reservoirs. Part-1 of the studyis the experimental work based on the Rising Bubble Apparatus (RBA measurement of MMP and part-2 is the examination of the existing models for MMP predictions and the adjustment of parameters for obtaining the most accurate predictions by the equation of state fluid PVT modeling simulator PVTPro5.2.1software. The RBA system set-up was successfully developed for the first time at Sultan Qaboos University. CO2 MMP measurements were carried out for three different oil samples using the RBA. For the RBA experiments, the PVTPro5.2.1 simulator was used to adjust the best setting parameters for CO2 MMP predictions. Very good agreement between the experimental MMP and the software predictions were achieved within the range of 2.27% error maximum. Moreover, some existing well-known models have been examined for CO2–Oil MMP predictions with the observed errors of up to 43.55%.

Khalid Al-Hinai

2014-04-01

267

Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of water/oil emulsified fuel (W/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to study indirectly the physical effects of water present in diesel fuel during the combustion process. The experimental results of W/OEF combustion in the DI diesel engine are also presented and discussed. The results of engine testing in a broad field of engine loads and speeds have shown a significant pollutant emission reduction with no worsening of specific fuel consumption. 26 refs., 20 figs., 2 tab.

Samec, N.; Kegl, B.; Dibble, R.W. [University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

2002-11-01

268

Jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines  

OpenAIRE

The jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines by single nozzle and multi-nozzle mixers was studied by dividing the mixing domain into to three regions. the penetration. near field and farfield regions. At the penetration region the quantitative experimental data were aided by a flow visualisation study in an attempt to to form fundamental semi-empirical correlations to estimate the entrainment rate of stratified water from the bottom and the Sauter mean diameter of the e...

Fernando, L. M.

1990-01-01

269

Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells  

Science.gov (United States)

A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

Vail, W.B. III.

1993-02-16

270

Models, data available, and data requirements for estimating the effects of injecting saltwater into disposal wells in the greater Altamont- Bluebell oil and gas field, northern Uinta Basin, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

Permits for disposing of salty oil-production water have been issued for 19 wells in the Greater Altamont-Bluebell field, Utah. During 1986 more than 500 million gal of production water were injected into the Duchesne River, the Uinta, and the Green River Formations through 18 of these wells. The physical and chemical effects of injecting this water on aquifers containing potable water are poorly understood. Interfingering and the structural configuration of these formations add complexity to the description of the geometry and hydrogeology of the groundwater system. A preliminary assessment of the problem indicates that numerical modeling may offer a method of estimating the hydrologic and hydrochemical effects of injection. Modeling possibilities include variable-density, three-dimensional flow, sectional transport, and areal transport modeling. Data needed to develop these models can be derived from a synthesis of geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical data already available in the files of State and Federal agencies, oil companies, and private data-base companies. Results from each modeling phase would contribute information for implementing the following phase. The result would be a better understanding of how water moves naturally through the groundwater system, the extent of alterations of both vertical and horizontal flow near the disposal wells, and an overall concept of the effects of deep injection on near-surface aquifers. (USGS)

Freethey, Geoffrey W.

1988-01-01

271

Kinetic Stability and Rheology of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stabilized by Cocamide at Different Water Volume Fractions  

OpenAIRE

The formation of water-in-crude oil encountered in many stages such drilling, transporting, and processing of crude oil. To enhance and control these processes, it is necessary to understand the emulsion mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate the stability and the rheology of the crude oil emulsion stabilized by Cocamide DEA. Two types of Malaysian crude oil namely; heavy crude oil, and light-heavy blended crude oil (40-60) vol. % were Physio-chemically characterized, and fractiona...

Rasha Mohammed Abd; Abdurhman Hamid Nour; Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman

2014-01-01

272

Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

273

40 CFR 61.352 - Alternative standards for oil-water separators.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Alternative standards for oil-water separators. 61.352 Section 61.352 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...National Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations § 61.352 Alternative standards for oil-water...

2010-07-01

274

A study of water-in-oil emulsification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic mechanisms by which asphaltenes, resins, and waxes stabilize water-in-oil emulsions are examined. Experiments were conducted on the emulsification behavior of model oils which consisted of an alkane component, an aromatic component, and the emulsifying agents. Results from this study clearly demonstrate the importance that the physical state of an emulsifying agent has upon its ability to stabilize emulsions. It was found that to be effective emulsifiers, asphaltenes, resins, and waxes must be in the form of sub-micron particles. In addition, it was shown that the solvency strength of an oil, which is determined by its alkane and aromatic components, controls the solubility/precipitation behavior of these emulsifiers. The chemical composition of the oil determines not only the amount and size of precipitated particles, but also the composition and wetting properties of the particles. All these factors were found to have an influence upon emulsification. The potential application of a solubility model, using the Hildebrand-Scatchard equation, to predict the physicochemical conditions which favor water-in-oil emulsification, is discussed. Theories on various emulsification processes are also discussed in terms of mousse formation at sea. 52 refs., 46 figs., 1 tab

275

Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly decrease the amount of some emulsifier that is normally involved in every emulsification process. A central composite rotatable experimental design was implemented to analyze the impact of the contents of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and pumpkin seed oil in the continuous phase, as well as water phase content in the emulsion on droplet size distribution and the response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal conditions for water-in-oil emulsion preparation. Mean size diameter of water droplets was in a range from 400 to 850 nm, with mean peak width of 100 to 220 nm, respectively. The influence of all three investigated factors on the emulsification was determined. Additionally, the emulsions prepared with pumpkin seed oil showed a higher stability during the storage time compared to the emulsions with sunflower oil.

Nikolovski Branislava G.

2011-01-01

276

Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

277

Hebei Spirit oil spill monitored on site by fluorometric detection of residual oil in coastal waters off Taean, Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatiotemporal distributions of dissolved and/or dispersed oil in seawater and pore water were monitored on site by fluorometric detection method after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The oil concentrations in intertidal seawater, 15 days after the spill, were as high as 16,600 microg/L and appeared to decrease below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 microg/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. Fluorometric detection of oil in pore water was introduced to eliminate the effects of grain size for the quantification of oil in sediments and to better explain spatial and temporal distribution of oil pollution at sandy beaches. The fluorescence detection method was compared with the conventional laboratory technique of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis using gas chromatography. The method of fluorescence detection of oil was capable of generating results much faster and more cost-effectively than the traditional GC technique. PMID:19942234

Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Hyun-Woo; An, Joongeon; Won, Jongho; Shim, Won Joon

2010-03-01

278

Prediction of the extent of formation damage caused by water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a general practice water is injected along the O/W contact to maintain reservoir pressure during production. Down hole analysis of the injected water shows that, even after surface treatment, it still can contain a considerable amount of solid particles. These particles can bridge formation pores and cause a considerable reduction in the injectivity. To ensure good injectivity over a longer term, the concentration and size of these solids should not exceed certain limits. In this article core flood tests were carried out to simulate high rate injectors. The injected brine contained solid particles in different concentrations and sizes. Particle concentration was between 5 and 20 ppm and the particle mean size was between 2 and 9 {mu}m. The results were presented as damaging ratio versus pore volume injected. Contrarily to previous studies instead of using experimental results in calibrating or evaluating certain theoretical models, the results in this study were directly fitted to produce equations which can predict the extent of damage caused by injected water by knowing the mean size and concentration of the solid particles contained in that water. (orig.)

Al-Homadhi, Emad S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

2013-06-15

279

Permeability of fissured rock - an experimental study with special regard to the water injection test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The permeability to water of fissured rock is one of the most important design parameters for many underground projects, such as, e.g. the final deposition of radioactive waste. Because the conventional water injection test according to LUGEON for the calculation of permeability to water is associated with a high degree of uncertainty, new test equipment was developed. This equipment works on the principle of the water injection tracer test and multi-level measurements, enabling detailed measurement of the flow process at injection site and in the rock. The tests were carried out in Bunter sandstone and granite. The LUGEON test concept was varied in short-term and long-term tests at identical geological boundary conditions, and with test control at constant pressure on the one hand and at constant injection volume on the other. The test results show that non-steady-state flow occurs with short injection times, whereby the range is limited to the local rock at injection site. An increasing in injection time can lead to an increase in range by a number of factors as well as to steady-state flow conditions. The permeability of the rock types investigated is inhomgeneous and anistropic as a result of the fissured structure. (orig./HP) With 114 figs., 4 tabs

280

Oil-water de-emulsification using ultrasonic technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper an oil-water de-emulsification process within large tanks using ultrasonic technology is presented. As the device would operate in hazardous areas, it should not consume an excessive amount of electrical power. Hence, the paper investigates the suitable oil-water concentrations (10-90% concentrations in step of 10%) which would lead to the fastest separation while consuming the minimum amount of power. Extensive experiments which were conducted using a powerful 20kHz ultrasonic sensor were indicative with good repeatability that the emulsion layer with less water content (i.e. 10 to 40% water-cut) gets significantly faster separation. The experimental study was then validated through a set of finite element-based simulations for different ratios of oil water emulsions. This led to suggest a new feasible de-emulsifying device which consists of a one dimensional array of ultrasonic sensors which are vertically distributed to emit ultrasonic waves in horizontal direction and in a time multiplexed manner. PMID:24935027

Mohsin, Muhammad; Meribout, Mahmoud

2015-01-01

281

Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

Sealock, Jr., L. John (W. Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

282

Using CS-AFDM water mapping for improved oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-mapping procedure that uses controlled source-audio frequency domain magnetics (CS-AFDM) was presented. Flooded reservoirs were charged with low voltage audio-frequency electrical currents and the resulting magnetic fields were filtered and interpreted in order to chart the flow paths of floods and identify surface expressions. The procedure was designed to minimize the risks associated with waterflooding. The technique was applied at an oilfield in California where a mixture of water and crude oil was having a significant impact on productivity. CS-AFDM was used to obtain data on subsurface water flow. Results of the field test showed that the mapping method can be used to increase oil recovery rates.

Montgomery, J.; Rollins, P. [Willowstick Technologies, Draper, UT (United States)

2008-07-01

283

Condensation of steam bubbles injected into sub-cooled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bubble condensation plays an important role e.g. in sub-cooled boiling or steam injection into pools. Since the condensation rate is proportional to the interfacial area density, bubble size distributions have to be considered in an adequate modeling of the condensation process. The effect of bubble sizes was clearly shown in experimental investigations done previously at the TOPFLOW facility of FZD. Steam bubbles were injected into a sub-cooled upward pipe flow via orifices in the pipe wall located at different distances from measuring plane. 1 mm and 4 mm injection orifices were used to vary the initial bubble size distribution. Measurements were done using a wire-mesh sensor. Condensation is clearly faster in case of the injection via the smaller orifices, i.e. in case of smaller bubble sizes. In a previous work a simplified test solver, developed especially to test models for vertical pipe flow was used to simulate these effects. Now the results will be transferred to the CFD code CFX from ANSYS. Recently the Inhomogeneous MUSIG model was implemented into the code enabling the simulation of poly-dispersed flows including the effects of separation of small and large bubbles due to bubble size dependent lift force inversion. It allows to divide the dispersed phase into size classes regarding the mass as well as regarding the momentum balance. Up to now transfers between the classes in the mass balance can be considered only by bubble coalescence and breakup (populatby bubble coalescence and breakup (population balance). Now an extension of the model is proposed to include the effects due to phase transfer. The paper focuses on the derivation of equations for the extension of the Inhomogeneous MUSIG model and presents a new experimental setup for the investigation on steam bubble condensation. (author)

284

A numerical investigation of gas injection into cylinder filled with castor oil using the two-fluid model  

OpenAIRE

An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid mathematical model is used to numerical simulation of two-phase flow caused by the gas injection into a vertical cylinder. The cylinder is filled with castor oil of which the kinematics viscosity is sufficiently large to ensure liquid flow to be in the laminar regime. The mathematical model used in this study, solves transport equations for the variables of each phase with an allowance for interphase mass and momentum exchange. The governing...

Abbasi, Farshad; Rahimzadeh, Hasan; Hoseini, Seyed Emad

2008-01-01

285

Membrane technology to improve water management in oil sands operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a bench-scale experiment designed to improve water management in oil sands processing using a membrane technology. The study addressed the following two aspects of water management: (1) reducing the hardness of water used in technological processes, and (2) reducing the toxicity in effluent streams caused by the presence of naphthenic acids. Both issues were also addressed through the evaluation of a membrane separation process called nanofiltration. The primary focus of this study was to choose an appropriate membrane and to determine its subsequent ability to reduce the hardness from groundwater and remove naphthenic acids from discharge water. The study revealed that nanofiltration technology is a good water management tool in oil sands operations. Membrane filtration managed to reduce water hardness significantly. A high napthenic acid removal efficiency (up to 94 per cent) was noted for both synthetic solutions and actual water samples. Permeate flux was also maintained at a high level of 15 litres per square metre per hour or more. A 90 per cent water recovery was obtained by reducing the feed volume by 10 fold. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

286

Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

Zhukov, B. S.

1979-01-01

287

The estimation of oil water displacement functions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of t [...] he equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefore, the estimation problem is carried out over a set of parameters which are functions. The parameter is inferred from measurements of saturation at different spatial points as a function of time. The estimation procedure is carried out linearizing the solution of the direct model with respect to the parameter and then computing the least-squares solution in functional spaces. The sensitivity equations are derived. We test the algorithm with several numerical experiments.

G. B., Savioli; E. M., Fernández-Berdaguer.

2007-09-01

288

In-line flow injection extraction-preconcentration through a passive hydrophilic membrane. Determination of total phenols in oil by flow-injection analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-line flow injection extraction-preconcentration procedure for the determination of total phenols in oil is described. The reaction between phenolic compounds and 4-aminoantipyrine in the presence of K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} as oxidizing reagent was used. The phenols were extracted and preconcentrated from a xylene solution by using a more selective passive hydrophilic Spectrapor membrane which also removed interferences. The phenols deprotonated after diffusion to the basic acceptor stream and the preconcentrated phenolate was injected into a carrier stream containing 4-aminoantipyrine as colour reagent. The carrier stream then merged with the oxidant stream, followed by detection at 500 nm. The system was suitable for the determination of total phenols in oil at a sampling rate of 12 samples per hour with an RSD of better than 1.3%. The detection limit was 0.09 mg/l for phenol, 0.18 mg/l for o-cresol and 0.02 mg/l for m-cresol. The results of the proposed system compared favourably with a standard manual 4-AAP method and a standard GC procedure. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Staden, J.F. van [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Britz, H.E. [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Pretoria (South Africa)

1997-04-01

289

Blowdown and cold water injection experiments: comparisons with the FIREBIRD-III and RELAP-5 codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermohydraulics computer codes FIREBIRD-III and RELAP-5 have been used to simulate a cold water injection experiment done at Washington Canada Incorporated and a blowdown plus injection experiment done in the RD-12 loop at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The cold water injection experimental facility contains two parallel horizontal channels, each containing a 6-m long, 37-element electrically heated bundle. RD-12 is an integrated facility containing pumps, boilers and two electrically heated test sections. Parametric trands have been studied by simulaing several additional cold water injection experiments using FIREBIRD-III. The predictions of the two codes are compared to measurements. Overall, the predictions are reasonable, although some discrepancies occur

290

Thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam-water mixture in pressure vessel during injection of cold water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam water mixture in a pressure vessel during injection of cold water was experimentally investigated with the Facility for Mixing Effect of Emergency Core Cooling Water. The dimensions of the pressure vessel used in the experiments were 284mm ID and 1,971mm height. 11 experiments were conducted without blowdown in order to comprehend the basic process excluding the effect of blowdown at injection of cold water. The initial pressure and water level, the injection flow rate and the size of injection nozzle were chosen as experimental parameters. Temperatures and void fractions at 6 elevations as well as pressure in the pressure vessel were measured, and new data especially on the pressure undershoot just after the initation of water injection and the vertical distribution of temperature and void fraction were gotten. The transients of pressure, average temperature and void fraction were caluculated using single-volume analysis code BLODAC-1V which is based on thermal equilibrium and so-called bubble gradient model. Some input parameters included in the analysis code were evaluated through the comparison of analysis with experimental data. Moreover, the observed pressure undershoot which is evaluated to be induced by a time lag of vapourization in water due to thermal nonequilibrium, was also discussed with the aid of another simple analysis model. (author)

291

A high efficiency oxyfuel internal combustion engine cycle with water direct injection for waste heat recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a novel concept of combining water injection process with an oxyfuel internal combustion engine cycle to enhance thermal efficiency. Since the emission of NOx is eliminated by using oxygen instead of air as oxidant, the exhaust gas is CO2–water vapor mixture, and CO2 is recovered through condensation of the exhaust gas at low cost. In this way, an ultra-low emission working cycle is achieved. The evaporation of injected water not only moderates the peak in-cylinder temperature, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the thermal efficiency of the cycle. An ideal thermodynamic model combining an oxyfuel Otto cycle with water injection process was established to investigate the potential of the cycle thermal efficiency. Calculation results show that thermal efficiency reaches 53% when water injection temperature is 120 °C and 67% when water injection temperature reaches 200 °C. Moreover, bench tests were carried out on prototype engine based on this working cycle. Experimental results show that the thermal efficiency improves with the increase of both engine load and water injection mass, and indicated thermal efficiency increases from 32.1% to 41.5% under appropriate test condition. - Highlights: • We present an oxy-fuel combustion cycle coupled with water injection for IC engines. • High thermo efficiency can be realized with the potential of CO2 capture. • Steam is employed as working gas of an reciprocating engine cycle. • An efficiency increase of 33% is achievable based on thermodynamic analysis. • Thermo efficiency increases from 32.1% to 41.5% through engine tests

292

Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

2012-05-01

293

Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain)  

OpenAIRE

The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to...

Ortun?o Gobern, Felip; Molinero Huguet, Jorge Jose; Garrido, Teresa; Custodio Gimena, Emilio

2012-01-01

294

Purification of trona ores by conditioning with an oil-in-water emulsion  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is a trona concentrate and a process for floating gangue material from trona ore that comprises forming an emulsion, conditioning the trona ore at a high solids content in a saturated trona suspension, and then floating and removing the gangue material. The process for separating trona from gangue materials in trona ore can include emulsifying an oil in an aqueous solution to form an oil-in-water emulsion. A saturated trona suspension having a high solids content can also be formed having trona of a desired particle size. The undissolved trona in the saturated suspension can be conditioned by mixing the saturated suspension and the oil-in-water emulsion to form a conditioning solid suspension of trona and gangue material. A gas can be injected through the conditioning solid suspension to float the gangue material. Thus, the floated gangue material can be readily separated from the trona to form a purified trona concentrate without requirements of additional heat or other expensive processing steps.

Miller, J. D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

2009-04-14

295

Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of...

Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani; Mozhgan Emtyazjoo; Parinaz Poursafa; Sedigheh Mehrabian; Samira Bijani; Daryoush Farkhani; Parisa Mirmoghtadaee

2012-01-01

296

COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE  

OpenAIRE

Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp). The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide ...

Hariram, V.; Mohan Kumar, G.

2013-01-01

297

The formation of stable dispersions of crude oil and produced water: The influence of oil type, wax & asphaltene content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constituents in oil can have a major influence on the separation of mixtures with produced water. In most cases this results in a reduction in the separation rate and the capacity of separation trains. In this paper the effects of wax, asphaltene content and water cut on the separation of different oils are examined.

Davies, G.A.; Nilsen, F.P.; Gramme, P.E.

1996-12-31

298

Tracers in China oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has rich oil resources and integrated petroleum industry. The oil industry offers a large market for tracer applications. Nowadays the main stream-most frequently used tracer technologies are introduced. These technologies include tracer 'plating' method for water intake profile measurement on the injection well, inter well tracer test and inter well tracer test for residual oil evaluation. (author)

299

Effects of caffeic acid and bovine serum albumin in reducing the rate of development of rancidity in oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions  

OpenAIRE

The antioxidant properties of caffeic acid and bovine serum albumin in oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions were studied. Caffeic acid (5 mmol/kg emulsion) showed good antioxidant properties in both 30% sunflower oil-in-water (OW) and 20% water-in-sunflower oil emulsions (WO), pH 5.4, during storage at 50 ºC. Although bovine serum albumin (BSA) (0.2%) had a slight antioxidant effect, the combination of caffeic acid and BSA showed a synergistic reduction in the rate of development of ranci...

Conde, Enma; Gordon, Micheal H.; Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia

2011-01-01

300

Supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum to a high-fat, low-calcium diet lowers cytolytic activity of fecal water in rats injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of supplementing Bifidobacterium longum SBT 2928 and Lactobacillus acidophilus SBT 2062 to a high-fat, low-calcium diet on bile acid concentration, fatty acid concentration, cytolytic activity and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of fecal water in rats injected with and without 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were examined. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were fed a diet containing 18% coconut oil, 2% corn oil and 0.1% calcium for 15 d. Lyophilized cultures were supplemented to test diets at a concentration of 1%. The feeding of a high-fat, low-calcium diet elevated the bile acid concentration, cytolytic activity and ALP activity of fecal water as compared to the AIN-76A diet, whereas the fatty acid concentration was not changed. None of the cultures had any effect on these parameters. Furthermore, 8 week-old rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of DMH at 40 mg/kg body weight, and fed the same diets for 15 d. The DMH injection had no effect on the bile acid concentration but increased the fatty acid concentration and cytolytic activity of fecal water. In contrast, ALP activity was lower in the DMH-treated rats than in the non-treated rats. The ingestion of B. longum lowered cytolytic activity but had no effect on the bile acids, fatty acids and ALP activity of fecal water. L. acidophilus had no effect on these parameters. PMID:9591245

Oda, T; Seto, Y; Hashiba, H

1998-02-01

301

Measurement of fluid velocities during water injection into natural porous rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to measure flow velocities in Casper sandstone and San Andres dolomite. The cores are initially saturated with water, and the flow velocities are monitored during water injection. Such results are useful in determining how much of a core is contracted during a coreflood experiment

302

Determination of colloid silver in drinking water by flow injection analysis with TLS spectrometric UV detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work flow injection analysis coupled to collinear dual beam thermal lens spectrometric UV detection was used for determination of silver in water. The detection is based on the increase in absorbance resulting from the formation of colloidal elemental silver due to reduction of Ag+ after reaction with BH4-. The optimal performance of the experimental setup was achieved with 500 ?L sample injection loops or larger and the flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) for silver in water was 0.01 mg/L what compares favorably with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for silver in drinking water.

303

Three Dimensional Visualization for the Steam Injection into Water Pool using Electrical Resistance Tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct injection of steam into a water pool is a method of heat transfer used in many process industries. The amount of research in this area however is limited to the nuclear industry, with applications relating to reactor cooling systems. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT), a low cost, non-invasive and which has high temporal resolution characteristics, can be used as a visualization tool for the resistivity distribution for the steam injection into water pool such as IRWST. In this paper, three dimensional resistivity distribution of the process is obtained through ERT using iterative Gauss-Newton method. Numerical experiments are performed by assuming different resistive objects in the water pool. Numerical results show that ERT is successful in estimating the resistivity distribution for the injection of steam in the water pool

304

Protection subsoil waters from their pollution of oil materials at the airport Ko?ice  

OpenAIRE

Subsoil waters together with surface waters constitute an important part of environment. Among materials which can cause an accident worsement the quality of waters with a negative impact for other components of environment belong oil materials.Towards potential sources of soiling subsoil waters by oil materials relates the airport Ko?ice. Results of monitoring an escape oil materials by measurement of a multitude diffusing soil gases confirmed that protection of subsoil waters at this subje...

Kozáková ¼ubica; Mesarèová Jana

2002-01-01

305

Stability of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Using Cocamide Surfactant  

OpenAIRE

The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsion can be encountered in many stages such as drilling, transporting and processing of crude oil. To enhance and control these processes, it is necessary to understand the emulsion mechanisms. In this study, two types of Malaysian crude oil namely; heavy crude oil and light-heavy blended crude oil (40-60 vol%) were characterized physically to use as the oil phase. Cocaamide DEA was used as a natural surfactant. The stability of water-in-crude oil emuls...

Rasha Mohammed Abd; Nour, Abdurhman H.; Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman

2014-01-01

306

Thermal-neutron fluxes in glycerin, base oil and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal-neutron fluxes produced in water, glycerin or base oil by two isotopic sources, 1 Ci (Am-Be) and 1.07 mCi (252Cf), used in turn, were measured by Au-foil activation. Activities produced in bare and cadmium-covered foils were determined with a 3 in.X3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. (orig.)

307

Self-aligning amelogenin nanoribbons in oil-water system  

OpenAIRE

The highly organized microstructure of dental enamel is a result of protein-guided anisotropic growth of apatite nanofibers. It is established that amelogenin proteins, the main constituent of the developing enamel matrix, form nanospheres in vitro, but the amphiphilic nature of the full-length protein conveys the possibility of generating more complex structures as observed with other surfactant-like molecules. This study tested if the use of metastable oil-water emulsions can induce supramo...

He, Xiaodong; Wu, Shenping; Martinez-avila, Olga; Cheng, Yifan; Habelitz, Stefan

2010-01-01

308

Monitoring, characterization and comparison. Operation-project of oil and oil water systems in platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the process of petroleum production, water are also commonly produced. Usually, a standard oil-water separation process will not lead to water phase ready to be discharged - the present legislation requires oily contents (oil and/or greases) bellow 20 mg/L concentration level value. Thus, secondary treatment is required to bring such oily concentration to the allowed level or lower, prior to the water discard in the environment. This paper describes the adopted systematic work in the Campos Basin Petroleum Production Platforms, which has allowed to evaluate and optimize the water treatment performed in there. Such description includes the typical water treatment systems installed, the typical physical-chemistry of the effluents and also presents comparisons between the basic designs that guided such systems construction and their present operational conditions and set-ups. The analysis of such results has allowed the introduction of minor modifications leading to the process optimization. The common use of Pilot Plants in such optimization process is also described and their contribution reported. (author)

309

Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

R. Bhaskar Reddy

2014-08-01

310

Cold Water Injection Into Single- and Two-Phase Geothermal Reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximate analytical solutions are derived for cold water injection into single- and two-phase "porous medium" geothermal reservoirs. A numerical geothermal reservoir simulator is used to verify the applicability of the analytical solutions for pressure transient analysis. In accordance with these numerical results the analytical solutions indicate that the pressure buildup behavior during injection into either a single-phase liquid or two-phase reservoir is governed by the kinematic viscosity of the cold injected fluid. The falloff pressures after cold water injection into a single-phase liquid reservoir (except for very early shut-in times) are primarily controlled by the kinematic viscosity of the in situ (hot) reservoir fluid. For two-phase reservoirs, however, the falloff behavior is considerably more complex and cannot be fully described by the analytical solution developed in this paper.

Garg, S. K.; Pritchett, J. W.

1990-02-01

311

Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil) or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow). Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoun...

KaiZiervogel; UtaPassow; NigelD'souza

2014-01-01

312

Radiation-thermal purification of waste water from oil pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: During the extraction, preparation, transportation and refining of oil the sewages containing oil contaminations are produced. The concentration of oil content in the water depends on used technology and may vary from a thousandths parts up to tens percents. There is a necessity of cleaning this pollution up to a permissible level. There are numerous methods (adsorption, mechanical, chemical and etc) of treating of waster water from oil contaminations. Radiation-chemical method is one of the effective among the above mentioned methods. The results of radiation-thermal decomposition of n-heptane micro-admixtures in water medium are adduced. The main parameters of radiolysis change within the intervals: temperature 20-400oC, absorbed dose - 0†10.8 kGy at dose rate 3.6 kGy/h. The correlation of n-heptane concentration and water steam changed within [C5H12]/[H2O] (1-100) 10-5. Total concentration of steam was about 1020 molec/ml. As a product of decomposition are observed H2, CO, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C4H8, hydrocarbons C5, and C6. The changes of n-heptane concentration in the reactor also were established. The chain regime of n-heptane decomposition at high temperatures in the irradiated mixture is observed. The critical value of temperature and mixture ratio of components, under which the break of chain process of normal n-heptane occurs are defined. The mechanisms of proceeding radiation thermal processes in hydrocarbons-water system are discussed. At the temperatures higher than 300oC the radiation-thermal decompositions of hydrocarbon micro-impurities in water into gas products occurs according a chain mechanism and the radiation-chemical yield of the decomposition exceeds 100 molec/100eV. This method can be used for purification of sewages from oil contaminations

313

A study of gas turbine power augmentation by water and steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much of Sudan's electricity demands are met by gas turbines in open-cycle power plants or combined-cycle plants. Gas turbines operating under hot climatic conditions produce less power than their design capacity, and also consume more fuel. Sudan's National Electricity Corporation (NEC) could gain additional megawatts from existing gas turbines if it were to use gas-turbine power-augmentation method such as inlet-air cooling or water/steam injection. This additional capacity would be made available at a fraction of the cost of installing new generation plants. This paper presented a thermodynamic analysis which compared the effects of water and steam injection on the power and thermal efficiency of a gas-turbine. Although water injection increased the turbine's power at the expense of decreasing its efficiency, steam injection increased both the gas turbine's generation capacity and its thermal efficiency. In order to gain the maximum benefit from steam injection, steam must be injected at the highest temperature possible in order to maximize the efficiency of the gas turbine. The computed results also showed that it is more advantageous to keep the fuel-consumption constant during the initial stage of steam injection, thereby allowing the combustion temperature to slightly decrease. The turbine load increases during that initial stage. However, in order to increase the load beyond that point, more fuel should be injected at the maximum rate of steam injection until the maximum allowable load is reached. 12 refs., 5 figs.

El-Awad, M.M.; Abdalla, K.N.; Abdalla, S.A. [Khartoum Univ., Khartoum (Sudan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-07-01

314

Bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Nematotoxics from essential oils, essential oils fractions and decoction waters  

OpenAIRE

The Portuguese pine forest has become dangerously threatened by pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Synthetic chemicals are the most common pesticides used against phytoparasitic nematodes but its use has negative ecological impacts. Phytochemicals may prove to be environmentally friendly alternatives. Essential oils (EOs) and decoction waters, isolated from 84 plant samples, were tested against B. xylophilus, in direct conta...

Faria, Jorge; Barbosa, Pedro; Bennett, Richard; Mota, Manuel; Figueiredo, Cristina

2013-01-01

315

Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

Somsel, James P.

1998-01-01

316

Reproductive performance of mice after injection of tritiated water at different embryonic developmental stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mice dams injected with 5 MBq tritiated water (HTO)/g body-weight on gestation day 9 delivered offspring with reduced reproductive performance. The present study examines the fertility of offspring related to the prenatal injection day and the preantal dose of HTO. Other than the prenatal dose, the manner in which dose rates interfere sensitive developmental stages is also decisive in the reproductive performance. This main conclusion of the present study is supported by comparative data. (orig./MG)

317

Effect of calcium and water injection on structure-function relationships of cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objectives were to determine the effect of calcium and water injection on cheese structure and to relate changes in structure to changes in functional properties of cheese. Cheese with fat and moisture content similar to that of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella was made according to a direct-acid, stirred/pressed-curd procedure. The cheese was then cut into blocks that were high-pressure-injected from one to five times, with either water or a 40% calcium chloride solution. Successive injections were performed 24 h apart. After 42 d of refrigerated storage, cheese microstructure and functionality were analyzed. When injected three or more times, water tended to increase cheese weight. The control, uninjected cheese, had the typical structure of a stirred/pressed-curd cheese: protein matrix interspersed with areas that originally contained fat and/or serum. Injecting water increased the area of cheese matrix occupied by protein, but it did not affect textural properties or melting of cheese. In contrast, when calcium was injected, a decrease in cheese weight was observed that was manifested through syneresis. The moisture content and pH of the cheese decreased as well. Calcium injection also decreased the area of cheese matrix occupied by protein. Cheese hardness increased, and cohesiveness and melting of cheese decreased upon calcium injection. We concluded that adding calcium to cheese alters how the proteins interact, which is manifested as changes in cheese microstructure. Such changes in cheese structure provide an understanding of changes in functional attributes of the cheese. PMID:12613854

Pastorino, A J; Ricks, N P; Hansen, C L; McMahon, D J

2003-01-01

318

Origin of late pleistocene formation water in Mexican oil reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brine water invasion into petroleum reservoirs, especially in sedimentary basins, are known from a variety of global oil field, such as the Western Canada sedimentary basin and, the central Mississippi Salt Dome basin (Kharaka et al., 1987). The majority of oil wells, especially in the more mature North American fields, produce more water than they do oil (Peachey et al., 1998). In the case of Mexican oil fields, increasing volumes of invading water into the petroleum wells were detected during the past few years. Major oil reserves in the SE-part of the Gulf of Mexico are economically affected due to decreases in production rate, pipeline corrosion and well closure. The origin of deep formation water in many sedimentary basins is still controversial: Former hypothesis mainly in the 60's, explained the formation of formation water by entrapment of seawater during sediment deposition. Subsequent water-rock interaction processes explain the chemical evolution of hydrostatic connate water. More recent hydrodynamic models, mainly based on isotopic data, suggest the partial migration of connate fluids, whereas the subsequent invasion of surface water causes mixing processes (Carpenter 1978). As part of the presented study, a total of 90 oil production wells were sampled from 1998 to 2004 to obtain chemical (Major and trace elements) and isotopic composition ({sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 18}O {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 129}I, tritium) of deep formation water at the Mexican Gulf coast. Samples were extracted from carbonate-type reservoirs of the oil fields Luna, Samaria-Sitio Grande, Jujo-Tecominoac (on-shore), and Pol-Chuc (off-shore, including Abkatun, Batab, Caan, and Taratunich) at a depth between 2,900 m b.s.l. and 6,100 m b.s.l. During the field work, the influence of atmospheric contamination e.g. by CO{sub 2}-atmospheric input was avoided by using an interval sampler to get in-situ samples from the extraction zone of selected bore holes. For wellhead samples, a 20 liter-sampling-reagent was previously filled with N{sub 2}-gas for the collection and phase separation of the pressurized gas-water-crude oil mixture. No differences in {sup 14}C-concentrations were detected applying, both, conventional and AMS-techniques. In contradiction to the expected 'fossil age' of reservoir water as part of a stagnant hydraulic system, measured {sup 14}C-concentrations between 0.89 pmC and 31.86 pmC indicate a late Pleistocene-early Holocene, regional event for the infiltration of surface water into the reservoir. The variety in water mineralization from meteoric (TDS{sub max} = 0.5 g/l) to hyper-saline composition (TDS{sub max} = 338 g/l) is not caused by halite dissolution from adjacent salt domes, as shown by elevated Br/Cl ratios. In contrary, the linear correlation between {sup 18}O and Cl values reflect varying mixing proportions of two components - meteoric water and evaporated seawater. Instead of water/rock-interaction, evaporation of seawater at the surface prior to infiltration represents the principal process for fluid enrichment in {sup 18}O and chlorine, with maximum values of 17.2 %o and 228 g/l, respectively. The young residence time of formation water in Mexican oil reservoirs implies following: - The common assumption of 'hydraulically-frozen' reservoirs is not correct, as main descending fluid migration occurred during glacial period. Probably, major infiltration processes are related to periods with climatic changes and increased humidity - as observed for the adjacent Yucatan region in SE-Mexico during early-mid Holocene (6,000 yr BP) (Metcalfe et al. 2000) - with the probable transgression of Mexican Gulf seawater into the recent Mexican coastal plain. - The common hypothesis of hydrocarbon maturation within Jurassic organic-rich layers, and its subsequent expulsion and migration into Cretaceous/Tertiary sedimentary units must be expanded by a last-step-process: As glacial ground water level is actually located below the hydrocarbon column (due to differences in densit

Birkle, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

2004-07-01

319

Water quality changes at three reclaimed mine sites related to the injection of coal combustion residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface and groundwater pollution is a common problem associated with post-surface mining operations. The US Bureau of Mines (BOM) participated in the testing of subsurface injections of coal combustion residues (CCR) at three reclaimed surface mine sites. The addition of alkaline CCR to the subsurface environment can raise the pH, limit propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reduce the rate of acid generation. Many CCR's can also form cement-like grout, which when injected into buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. The objective of this work was to develop an effective, economical and permanent method to abate or reduce post-mining water pollution. The effectiveness of CCR injection as an acid mine drainage abatement technique was evaluated by the BOM by monitoring water quality at three sites in: Upshur County, WV, Clinton County, PA and Greene County, PA. Geophysical techniques were used at all sites to locate monitoring and injection wells that were subsequently drilled into the spoil. Grout injection work was completed between 1990 and 1994 at the three sites. Baseline water quality data were collected at all three sites for a minimum of one year. Post-grouting water quality at the discharge of the three sites showed a slight, long-term improvement and no apparent degradation in water quality resulting from the injection of the coal combustion residues. Notable and long-term improvements in es. Notable and long-term improvements in water quality at various monitoring wells (on all sites) were also observed

320

In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraLow effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two

321

Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery : Experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface causes a high risk for chemical reaction and consequently for mechanical weakening. In order to address this issue we studied two types of chalk from South Arne field, North Sea: (1) Ekofisk Formation having >12% non-carbonate and (2) Tor Formation, which has less than 5% non-carbonate. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties due to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. We analyzed these changes with respect to the differences in porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical strength. We observed a 2–3% increase in porosity, a minor decrease of specific surface and consequently a small increase in permeability. A decrease in elastic stiffness is indicated by an increase of Biot?s effective stress coefficient (?) by 1–2%. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data indicated no change in wettability and the samples remained water wet. We found that the effect of CO2 injection on both petrophysical and mechanical properties of chalk depends on carbonate content. Pure chalk with high carbonate content was found to be vulnerable to mechanical weakening due to CO2 injection, whereas, no significant mechanical effect was observed in the impure chalk of Ekofisk Formation. It should in this context be noted that the experiments spanned only 8 days, therefore long term effects cannot be ruled out. In spite of weakening of the chalk, we expect only minor mechanical effects, because the weakening also causes a lowering of effective stress due to an increase in effective stress coefficient. Extensive time-lapse monitoring strategies are required during a CO2-EOR process for the measurement of changes in reservoir properties that may cause deformation of and leakage from a reservoir. Results of this study will provide data for designing future monitoring strategies based on 4D seismic.

Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth

2014-01-01

322

40 CFR 60.693-2 - Alternative standards for oil-water separators.  

Science.gov (United States)

...693-2 Alternative standards for oil-water separators. (a...operate a floating roof on an oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other...device is to consist of a primary seal and a secondary seal....

2010-07-01

323

Aryl acrylate porous functional polymer supports from water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions  

OpenAIRE

Porous functional polymer supports are a class of material of wide interest due to the possibility of immobilising reactive species. A simplified procedure was applied for the preparation of porous polymer supports using a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion. The primary emulsion was a high internal phase emulsion, having a volume fraction of water phase up to 95%. Two reactive acrylates, namely 4-nitrophenyl acrylate and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl acrylate, were (separately) incorporated in t...

S?tefanec, Dejan; Krajnc, Peter

2012-01-01

324

Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

Schilling, Frank R.

2014-05-01

325

Efecto de la inyección de vapor sobre la composición de crudos / Effects of steam injection on chemical composition of oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer los cambios en la composición SARA (saturados, aromáticos, resinas y asfaltenos), elementos mayoritarios (C, S), traza (V, Ni), grupos funcionales en la fracción de asfaltenos y biomarcadores (terpanos y esteranos) en crudos de pozos sometidos a inyección de vapor, se est [...] udiaron 20 muestras provenientes de Campo Lagunillas (Cuenca de Maracaibo) tomadas de un pozo sin inyección de vapor (LS-SE), dos pozos en un primer ciclo (LS-A, LS-B) y un pozo en segundo ciclo (LS-C) de inyección de vapor. Los crudos analizados son extra-pesados ( Abstract in english In order to know the changes in SARA composition (saturated, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes), major (C, S), trace (V, Ni) elements, functional groups in the asphaltenes fraction and biomarkers (terpanes and steranes) in oils from wells under steam injection, 20 samples were studied from Lagunilla [...] s field (Maracaibo Basin) taken from a well without stem injection (LS-SE), two wells in a first cycle (LS-A, LS- B), and a well in the second cycle (LS-C) of steam injection. Oils analyzed are extra heavy ones (

Liliana, López; Karla, Quintero; Patricia, Lugo; Salvador, Lo Mónaco.

2011-09-01

326

Viscous-Gravity Spreading of Oil on Water: Modeling and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil spreading is one of the major factors affecting the fate of oil spills on water. Modeling spreading is required to study the impact of oil slicks on the environment and plants using sea water including desalination units. Spreading of oil on water undergoes three stages. In the second stage, gravity acts as the main driving force against the viscous force, which is the main resisting force in stages 2 and 3. The paper presents the state of the art in modeling the second stage of spreading. Challenges in analyzing viscous-gravity spreading of continuously discharged oil on water are also presented

R. Chebbi

2014-04-01

327

SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

328

Chemical analysis of water from water for injection system for the manufacturing of Tc-99m generator at Nuclear Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is widely used in the preparation and production of Tc-99m generator. Water for Injection (WFI) is water purified by distillation or by reverse osmosis, for use in the preparation of medicines for parenteral administration. To fulfill the requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), the water must undergo of Performance Qualification (PQ), which consist of three stages. Water shall be monitored for a period of one month for stage 1 of PQ. Only upon approval of stage 1, water is approved for use. Water should be continuously monitored for another month for stage 2 and 12 month for stage 3 of PQ. This paper aims at presenting results of chemical analysis of water (PQ stage 1) for the manufacturing of Tc-99m generator at Nuclear Malaysia. Water from a total of 17 sampling points were sampled and analyzed chemically on a daily basis for a period of one month. These sampling points include, four from pre-treatment water, two from reverse osmosis water and 11 points from water for injection. The chemical parameters of water analyzed are as per British Pharmacopoeia 2005, namely pH, physical appearance, total organic carbon and conductivity. The chemical specifications stipulated by the British Pharmacopoeia for pH is between 5 to 7, physical appearance are clear and colorless, total organic carbon are less than 500 ppb and conductivity are less than 1.3 ?S/cm at 25 degree C. We found that, results of all chemical analysis performed for all sampling ical analysis performed for all sampling points were within the British Pharmacopoeia specification. In conclusion, water from water for injection system passed the chemical analysis of stage 1 PQ and is approved for use. (Author)

329

Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

Perkins, H. C.

1974-01-01

330

The Use of Demulsifiers for Separating Water from Anthracene Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main feedstocks for the production of oil-furnace carbon black are different kinds of liquid hydrocarbons. The quality and utilization of oil-furnace carbon black mainly depends on the type of liquid hydrocarbons contained in the oil feedstocks.In practice, both carbochemical and petrochemical oils are used as feedstock sources. Carbochemical oils are fractions obtained during coal tar distillation. Anthracene oil is one of these oils. Depending on the conditions of distillation, coal tars contain up to w = 18·10 –2 highly aromatic fractions, which can be used as carbon black feedstock. The sulphur fraction of these oils can vary between w = 0.5 and 0.7·10 –2, depending on the origin of the coal. The availability of carbochemical oils obtained from coal tar is largely dependent on the production of coke used in the manufacture of steel. The quantities available today are insufficient to satisfy the demand for carbon black feedstock. In addition, in highly industrialized countries, production of carbochemicaloils is declining.Although, carbochemical oils are preferred in terms of efficiency, petrochemical oils are more important in terms of quantities available, particularly in the production of furnace blacks. These are residual oils resulting either from catalytic cracking processes or from the production of olefins in steam crackers using naphtha or gas oil as raw material. Nevertheless, the choice of carbon black feedstock is not determined merely by price and efficiency, but also by specific quality criteria. However, due to their origin, the feedstocks are mixtures of a large number of individual substances and are, therefore, not easy to characterize. More than 200 different components have been recorded in the range detectable by gas chromatography.Some important components of carbon black feedstock are listed in table 1.1 An important parameter for the evaluation of carbon black feedstock is density, since it increases with increasing aromaticity. It is also used for determination of the Bureau of Mines Correlation Index (BMCI,2 which is obtained either from density and midboiling point, or from density andviscosity for those feedstocks which cannot be distilled completely. This index is used by the carbon black industry as an important criteria for feedstock evaluation.The sulphur fraction in feedstocks should not exceed w = 2.5 ·10–2, because a higher content greatly affects the quality of carbon black, pollutes the atmosphere, and accelerates corrosion of the facility. The maximum sulphur content in the typical hydrocarbon feedstock is w = 1.2 · 10–2.3. A very important factor of hydrocarbon feedstock is the fraction of alkaline earth metals, especially sodium and potassium. The maximum sodium fraction may be w = 20·10–6, while the maximum potassium fraction is w = 2·10 –6.The maximum fraction of asphalthenes is w = 15 ·10–2. Asphalthenes, determined as pentane-insoluble matter, provide indications concerning the possibility of grit formation. Another very important factor is the temperature range of distillation, which should be low enough, because the hydrocarbon feedstock must evaporize before entering the hot region of the reactor. The viscosity, the pour point, and for safety reasons, the flash point determines the handling properties and storage conditions of the feedstock.In addition, the water fraction in the hydrocarbon feedstock is one of the most important factors. The water fraction in hydrocarbon feedstock influences the handling properties of the same. The maximum water fraction in hydrocarbon feedstock may be w = 2.0·10–2, and desirably below w = 1.0·10–2. A higher water fraction represent a considerable impact on the financial construction. Also, it is very difficult to manipulate such feedstock, especially unloading, and in the production of oil-furnace carbon black. Namely, every water fraction higher than w = 2.0·10–2 in the hydrocarbon feedstock, causes the phenomenon of cavitations.In the oil-furnace carbon black plant of Petrokemija d.

Ze?evi?, N.

2008-03-01

331

AN OVERVIEW OF THE POLYMER GEL TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF WATER FLOODING INTO OIL RESERVOIRS (WITH INTRODUCTION OF A NEW POLYMER)  

OpenAIRE

An important property of polymer gels is that the injected fluid in the fracture area with high permeability moves and can form a solid mass, in result of water and gas permeability because of the formation of this layer will be decreased. In gel polymer techniques first amount of the polymer solution is injected into the reservoir with a low rate, then the cross link solution such as aluminum or magnesium citrate is injected into the reservoir and gel to be figured. Therefore, improves oil r...

Arjmand, O.; Ahmadi, M.; Hosseini, L.

2013-01-01

332

Flow oscillations induced by injection of subcooled water into steam flow in horizontal pipe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow oscillation phenomena have been studied as the problem when emergency core cooling water is injected at the time of LOCA in PWRs. As the result, it was clarified that water plugs are formed in pipes under a certain condition, and those oscillate in the vicinity of water injection nozzles. In this study, experiment was carried out with a small scale setup simulating the injection of emergency core cooling water in PWRs, and the effects of the throttles installed upstream and downstream of a water injection nozzle, the volume of steam part, the length of a water plug and the diameter of a pipe exerted on the change of pressure and temperature during oscillation were examined. Moreover, by applying the linear stability theory to the analysis model made on the basis of the observation of the phenomena, the threshold of oscillation occurrence was determined, and compared with the experimental data. At the same time, the mechanism of the hysteresis phenomena of the oscillation threshold observed in this experimental setup was examined. The experiment and the analysis of an oscillation threshold are reported. (Kako, I.)

333

Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

2004-01-01

334

Production behaviour of gas hydrate under hot sea water injection : laboratory case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gas hydrate potential in Indonesia was discussed, with particular reference to offshore production of gas from deep-water gas-hydrates by injection of hot seawater. In 2004, the Indonesian National Agency for Assessment and Application Technology estimated the gas hydrate resource potential to be 850 trillion cubic feet (tcf). To date, the 3 most reliable scenarios for gas hydrate production are thermal stimulation which involves increasing the temperature until the hydrates break into water and gas; depressurization which involves lowering the pressure by pumping out gas at the base of the hydrate to cause dissociation of hydrates into gas; and injection of a chemical inhibitor such as methanol into the hydrated sediments to cause destabilization, thus releasing gas from hydrates. This study investigated the effect of hot seawater injection on the gas hydrate production under laboratory conditions. The temperature profile distribution was examined along with operational parameters and flow characteristics of the dissociated gas and water from hydrates in porous systems under a synthetic hydrate setup. The study showed that gas production increases with time until a maximum is reached, at which time it begins to decrease. The energy ratio of thermal stimulation production was found to be influenced by the injection water temperature and rate as well as the hydrate content in the synthetic sediment. Scale problems were found to be associated with high temperature seawater injection. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

Nengkoda, A. [Schlumberger, Calgary, AB (Canada); Budhijanto, B.; Supranto, S.; Prasetyo, I.; Purwono, S.; Sutijan, S. [Gadjah Mada Univ., Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

2010-07-01

335

Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-12-31

336

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2009-06-15

337

Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers [...] for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP) and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

Izabel Cristina da Silva, Grem; Bianca Natividade Barreto, Lima; Wiliam Ferreira, Carneiro; Yure Gomes de Carvalho, Queirós; Claudia Regina Elias, Mansur.

338

Metallorganic, organic, and mutagenic properties of oil shale retort waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, organic, and metallorganic properties of oil shale retort waters. Four retort water samples were analyzed in the mutagenesis/organics study: a storage water and a condensate water from the Paraho aboveground retort; a retort water from the Occidental vertical, modified in situ retort; and a retort water from a horizontal, true in situ retort near Vernal, Utah. A second goal of this study was to develop and evaluate improved methods of chemically fractionating the complex organic content of retort waters to facilitate their chemical and mutagenic characterization. To begin the mutagenesis study, we tested several methods for extracting hydrophobic organics from the retort waters: (1) solvent extraction with pH adjustment; (2) XAD-4 partition chromatography; and (3) C/sub 18/-partition chromatography. We then tested the usefulness of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for fractionating the hydrophobic organic fraction. Each method was evaluated both chemically and biologically. For the metallorganics/organics study we decided to test steric-exclusion chromatography as a means of fractionating metal-organic chelates.

Toste, A.P.; Myers, R.B.

1981-10-01

339

Techniques for Determining Small Fractions of Oil Components in the Sea Water Flow by Rotation of Vibration Plane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the results of the effect of water-flow rate and air fraction component on intensity, I, are presented and discussed. The study which was carried out at Bergen University in Norway, presents the impact of monochromatic defects on polarization and measurements of small oil fractions of various crude oils are presented. When there was refraction, it was observed that in static sea-water &mustatic = 0.38 and in running water &muflow = 0.42 When refraction was eliminated by grafting windows in the pipe, &mustatic = 0, &muflow = 0.11 and in both cases &muflow was independent of the flow rate. Air fraction component, &alpha> = 0.12 reduced light intensity. With rate flow Q = 13.6m3/h and Q = 27.2 m3/h critical air fraction was found at &alphac = 0.18 and &alphac = 0.12 respectively. For &alphac = 0.18 up to &alpha 0.87 at Q = 13.6m3/h and &alphac = 0.12 up to &alpha = 0.78 at Q = 27.2 m3/h light intensity was found independent of &alpha. The highest rotation was found in Gullfaks crude oil, followed by Heidrun, the rotation is Statfjord crude oil was less than one in Heidrun and the least rotation was observed in 0A sg 0a rd crude oil. At 40ppm, the rotation was as follows: Gullfaks &empty = 27.0±0.20, Heidrun &empty = 23.9±0.20, Statfjord &empty = 20.0±0.20 and 0Asg 0ard &empty = 10.0±0.10. This method studys very well when small oil fractions from 5.0-70 ppm are in sea-water flow. This technique can be deployed to monitor the environment and to control the re-injected process water.

Eric Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2013-09-01

340

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Science.gov (United States)

... (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control...consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being...burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...maintain, and operate a fuel flow meter (or flow meters)...

2010-07-01

341

Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented.

Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Bier, I.; Conrod, D. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tennyson, E. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)

1995-06-01

342

Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented

343

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. PMID:19505758

Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Pendashteh, Alireza; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

2009-10-30

344

Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-? Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

Yin Khor Yin

2014-07-01

345

Water-oil drainage dynamics in oil-wet random microfluidic porous media analogs  

CERN Document Server

Displacement experiments carried out in microfluidic porous media analogs show that reduced surface tension leads to a more stable displacement, opposite to the process in Hele-Shaw cells where surface tension stabilizes the displacement of a more viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid. In addition, geometry of porous media is observed to play an important role. Three random microfluidic porous media analogs were made to study water-oil drainage dynamics, featuring a pattern of randomly connected channels with a uniform width, a pattern with Gaussian channel width distribution, and a pattern with large isolated pores. The microfluidic chips fabricated using Polydimenthylsiloxane with glass covers have the internal surface treated by Trichlorosilane to achieve a uniform oil-wet condition. The aqueous phase displaces the oil phase, with a viscosity ratio of about 1:40 and a density ratio of 1:0.85. Videos 1-3 show water flooding processes. It is observed that both channel size distribution (Video 2) and heteroge...

Xu, Wei; Neeves, Keith; Yin, Xiaolong

2012-01-01

346

A new demulsifier device for oil-water separation in oil tanks  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new innovative closed-loop and autonomous electronic device for oil-water separation in the emulsion layer is presented. The device is designed for crude oil separation tanks and is sought to replace other traditional methods such as the ones using chemicals. It is modular and comprises three subsystems: sensing subsystem, actuating subsystem, and data communication/interfacing subsystem. The sensing subsystem is intrinsically safe and consists of a one dimensional level array of non intrusive ultrasonic transducers that monitor in real-time the low and high levels of the emulsion layer in a tank with a vertical resolution of 15 cm. The actuating system includes a microwave generator which stimulates the emulsion at a predefined position to breaks it out. A built-in feedback PID-based controller determines the optimal position of this generator based on the oil-water content which is provided by the sensor array and moves the generator accordingly. The data communication/interfacing system is responsible to transfer to the control room real-time data (e.g. the actual position of the emulsion layer and the actual temperature inside the tank) using field bus network protocol (RS485 protocol). This would help a continuous and effective monitoring by the operator using a dedicated GUI. In addition of being safe and environmentally friendly, the device provides faster and more efficient separation than the traditional techniques.

Meribout, Mahmoud

2011-06-01

347

An Experimental Study of Oil / Water Flow in Horizontal Pipes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this thesis is to study the behaviour of the simultaneous flow of oil and water in horizontal pipes. In this connection, two test facilities are used. Both facilities have horizontal test sections with inner pipe diameters equal to 2 inches. The largest facility, called the model oil facility, has reservoirs of 1 m{sub 3} of each medium enabling flow rates as high as 30 m{sub 3}/h, which corresponds to mixture velocities as high as 3.35 m/s. The flow rates of oil and water can be varied individually producing different flow patterns according to variations in mixture velocity and input water cut. Two main classes of flows are seen, stratified and dispersed. In this facility, the main focus has been on stratified flows. Pressure drops and local phase fractions are measured for a large number of flow conditions. Among the instruments used are differential pressure transmitters and a traversing gamma densitometer, respectively. The flow patterns that appear are classified in flow pattern maps as functions of either mixture velocity and water cut or superficial velocities. From these experiments a smaller number of stratified flows are selected for studies of velocity and turbulence. A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) is applied for these measurements in a transparent part of the test section. To be able to produce accurate measurements a partial refractive index matching procedure is used. The other facility, called the matched refractive index facility, has a 0.2 m{sub 3} reservoir enabling mainly dispersed flows. Mixture velocities range from 0.75 m/s to 3 m/s. The fluids in this facility are carefully selected to match the refractive index of the transparent part of the test section. A full refractive index matching procedure is carried out producing excellent optical conditions for velocity and turbulence studies by LDA. In addition, pressure drops and local phase fractions are measured. (author)

Elseth, Geir

2001-07-01

348

Monitoring of fluid-rock interaction and CO2 storage through produced fluid sampling at the Weyburn CO2-injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Weyburn Oil Field is a carbonate reservoir in south central Saskatchewan, Canada and is the site of a large CO2 injection project for purposes of enhanced oil recovery. The Weyburn Field, in the Mississippian Midale Formation, was discovered in 1954 and was under primary production until secondary recovery by water flood began in 1964. The reservoir comprises two units, the Vuggy and the Marly, and primary and secondary recovery are thought to only have significantly depleted the Vuggy zone, leaving the Marly with higher oil saturations. In 2000, PanCanadian Resources (now EnCana), the operator of the field, began tertiary recovery by injection of CO2 and water, primarily into the Marly. The advent of this project was an opportunity to study the potential for geological storage of CO2. Using 43 Baseline samples collected in August 2000, before CO2 injection at Weyburn, and 44 monitoring samples collected in March 2001, changes in the fluid chemistry and isotope composition have been tracked. The initial fluid distribution showed water from discovery through water flood in the Midale Formation with Cl ranging from 25,000 to 60,000 mg/L, from the NW to the SE across the Phase 1A area. By the time of Baseline sampling the produced water had been diluted to Cl of 25,000-50,000 mg/L as a result of the addition of make up water from the low TDS Blairmore Formation, but the pattern of distribution was still present. The Cl dististribution was still present. The Cl distribution is mimicked by the distribution of other dissolved ions and variables, with Ca (1250-1500 mg/L) and NH3(aq) increasing from NW to SE, and alkalinity (700-300 mg/L), resistivity, and H2S (300-100 mg/L) decreasing. Based on chemical and isotopic data, the H2S is interpreted to result from bacterial SO4 reduction. After 6 months of injection of CO2, the general patterns are changed very little, except that the pH has decreased by 0.5 units and alkalinity has increased, with values over 1400 mg/L in the NW, decreasing to 500 mg/L in the SE. Calcium has increased to range from 1250 to 1750 mg/L, but the pattern of NW-SE distribution is altered. Chemical and isotopic data suggest this change in distribution is caused by the dissolution of calcite due to water-rock reactions driven by CO2. The Baseline samples varied from -22 to -12%o ? 13C (V-PDB) for CO2 gas. The injected CO2 has an isotope ratio of -20%o. The Monitor-1 samples of produced CO2 ranged from -18 to -13%o, requiring a heavy source of C, most easily attributed to dissolution of carbonate minerals. Field measured pH had increased and alkalinity had decreased by the second monitoring trip (July 2001) to near Baseline values, suggesting continued reaction with reservoir minerals. Addition of CO2 to water-rock mixtures comprising carbonate minerals causes dissolution of carbonates and production of alkalinity. Geochemical modeling suggests dissolution is taking place, however more detail on water-oil-gas ratios needs to be gathered to obtain more accurate estimates of pH at the formation level. Geological storage of CO2 relies on the potential that, over the longer term, silicate minerals will buffer the pH, causing any added CO2 to be precipitated as calcite. Some initial modeling of water-rock reactions suggests that silica sources are available to the water resident in the Midale Formation, and that clay minerals may well be capable of acting as pH buffers, allowing injected CO2 to be stored as carbonate minerals. Further work is underway to document the mineralogy of the Midale Formation and associated units so as to define more accurately the potential for geological storage

349

Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding : review on epidemiology, complications, clinical evaluation and treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Results: One review and seven case reports were identified. Eight case reports describe oleomas caused by repeated intramuscular injections of anabolic steroids. Conclusions: SEOs cause sclerosing lipogranulomatosis and its progression may lead to lifelong complications. Thorough radiologic evaluation is important to plan surgical revisions in active phases. Also antibiotics, steroids, and compression therapy have been successful and should be employed at different stages.

Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, JØrgen Jesper

2012-01-01

350

Experimental study of ECC water injection rate effects on reflood phase of PWR-LOCA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the ECC water injection rate on reflooding behavior during a PWR-LOCA have been investigated using the experimental data from a large scale reflood test facility. As a general result, the higher ECC water injection rate was found to result in the higher core flooding rate, and hence, the better core cooling. However, when the LPCI injection rate was higher than a certain value, which was enough to keep the downcomer almost filled, the core flooding rate was found to become an almost identical value being regardless of the LPCI injection rate. Also found was the effect of the Acc injection rate and duration influenced the core cooling behavior through the whole transient including the LPCI period. These phenomena have been analyzed and clarified quantitatively in this paper. It was also found that the Acc injection rate and duration effects on reflooding behavior observed in the large scale facility were almost the same as those already observed in the small scale facility. (author)

351

The possible influences of dietary oil supplementation in ameliorating metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress in Alloxan injected rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactor disease that is associated with a number of different metabolic abnormalities. Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plant extracts in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with DM. The present work was conducted to examine the protective or treating effects of two different dietary oils rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) as coconut oil (CO) or omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3-PUFAs)as flaxseed oil (FO) on the severity of DM induced experimentally by alloxan injection. Wistar strain albino rats (17 Og) were fed commercial rat chow diet supplemented with either CO or FO for four weeks. A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, decreases in serum insulin, thyroxine (T4), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, elevated triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Concurrent with those changes, an increased liver malonaldehyde (MDA) level was observed. This oxidative stress was related to decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of alloxan diabetic rats. Oils supplementation after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, increased insulin and thyroxine hormone levels, improved lipid profiles, blunted the increase in MDA, modulated the levels of hepatic SOD activity and GSH content of alloxan treated rats. It could be suggested that each of CO or FO could be suggested that each of CO or FO could be used as antidiabetic complement in case of DM. This may be related to their anti oxidative properties

352

Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

2015-03-17

353

Lube-oil dilution of gasoline direct-injection engines with ethanol fuels; Schmieroelverduennung von direkteinspritzenden Ottomotoren unter Kaltstartrandbedingungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol fuel mixtures account for the majority of biofuels used worldwide. However, their properties make these fuels more difficult to use in cold conditions and especially when starting a cold engine. As part of the FVV research project 'Lubricant Dilution with Ethanol Fuels under Cold Start Conditions', the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University and the Combustion Engines and Emission Control Laboratory at Regensburg University of Applied Sciences have investigated the influence of the ethanol content in fuels on the dilution of the lubricating oil in modern direct-injection gasoline engines. (orig.)

Kuepper, Carsten; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Artmann, Chrsitina; Rabl, Hans-Peter [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Labor fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlung

2013-09-15

354

Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends  

OpenAIRE

In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of ...

Venkata Subbaiah, G.; Raja Gopal, K.; Durga Prasad, B.

2010-01-01

355

Heavy oil reservoir evaluation : performing an injection test using DST tools in the marine region of Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described an injection test conducted to evaluate heavy oil reserves in an offshore area of Mexico. The drill-stem testing (DST) evaluation used a fluid injection technique in order to eliminate the need for artificial lift and coiled tubing. A pressure transient analysis method was used to determine the static pressure of the reservoir, effective hydrocarbon permeability, and formation damage. Boundary effects were also characterized. The total volume of the fluid injection was determined by analyzing various reservoir parameters. The timing of the shut-in procedure was determined by characterizing rock characteristics and fluids within the reservoir. The mobility and diffusivity relationships between the zones with the injection fluids and reservoir fluids were used to defined sweep fluids. A productivity analysis was used to predict various production scenarios. DST tools were then used to conduct a pressure-production assessment. Case histories were used to demonstrate the method. The studies showed that the method provides a cost-effective means of providing high quality data for productivity analyses. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

Loaiza, J.; Ruiz, P. [Halliburton, Mexico City (Mexico); Barrera, D.; Gutierrez, F. [Pemex, Mexico City (Mexico)

2010-07-01

356

Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

2011-01-01

357

Effects of preheating of crude palm oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emission of a diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude palm oil (CPO) is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuels for diesel engines. CPO is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. However, at room temperature (30-32 deg C) CPO has a viscosity about 10 times higher than that of diesel. To lower CPO's viscosity to the level of diesel's viscosity, a heating temperature of at least 92 deg C is needed. At this temperature, there is a concern that the close-fitting parts of the injection system might be affected. This study focused on finding out the effects of preheating of fuel on the injection system utilising a modified method of friction test, which involves injecting fuel outside the combustion chamber during motoring. Results show that preheating of CPO lowered CPO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow, but did not affect the injection system, even heating up to 100 deg C. Nevertheless, heating up to such a high temperature offered no benefits in terms of engine performance. However, heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. Both can be achieved by heating CPO to 60 deg C. Combustion analyses comparisons between CPO and diesel found that CPO produced a higher peak pressure of 6%, a shorter ignition delay of 2.6 deg, a lower maximum heat release rate and a longer combustion period. Over the entire load range, CPO combustion produced average CO and NO emissions that were 9.2 and 29.3% higher, respectively, compared with those from diesel combustion. (Author)ith those from diesel combustion. (Author)

358

Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

2011-09-30

359

Composition and fate of gas and oil released to the water column during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative information regarding the endmember composition of the gas and oil that flowed from the Macondo well during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is essential for determining the oil flow rate, total oil volume released, and trajectories and fates of hydrocarbon components in the marine environment. Using isobaric gas-tight samplers, we collected discrete samples directly above the Macondo well on June 21, 2010, and analyzed the gas and oil. We found that the fluids flowing from the Macondo well had a gas-to-oil ratio of 1,600 standard cubic feet per petroleum barrel. Based on the measured endmember gas-to-oil ratio and the Federally estimated net liquid oil release of 4.1 million barrels, the total amount of C1-C5 hydrocarbons released to the water column was 1.7 × 1011 g. The endmember gas and oil compositions then enabled us to study the fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons in discrete water samples collected in June 2010 within a southwest trending hydrocarbon-enriched plume of neutrally buoyant water at a water depth of 1,100 m. The most abundant petroleum hydrocarbons larger than C1-C5 were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes at concentrations up to 78 ?g L-1. Comparison of the endmember gas and oil composition with the composition of water column samples showed that the plume was preferentially enriched with water-soluble components, indicating that aqueous dissolution played a major role in plume formation, whereas the fates of relatively insoluble petroleum components were initially controlled by other processes. PMID:21768331

Reddy, Christopher M.; Arey, J. Samuel; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Sylva, Sean P.; Lemkau, Karin L.; Nelson, Robert K.; Carmichael, Catherine A.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Fenwick, Judith; Ventura, G. Todd; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Camilli, Richard

2012-01-01

360

Oil and Water Don't Mix: The Gulf Coast Oil Disaster as a Preschool Social Studies Lesson  

Science.gov (United States)

On April 20, 2010, an offshore oil-drilling platform exploded, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the gulf. From Louisiana to the Gulf Coast of Florida the effects are being felt by fisherman, shrimpers, dive charters, and other hardworking folks who depend on the water for their livelihood. But there is another population in these coastal…

Kruse, Tricia

2010-01-01

361

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of s...

Mucunguzi-rugwebe, E. R. R.; Hammer, E. A.; Kaahwa, Y.

2011-01-01

362

A facile method to fabricate functionally integrated devices for oil/water separation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a facile method for the fabrication of a functionally integrated device, which has the multi-functions of the oil-containment boom, oil-sorption material, and water/oil-separating film, through a single immersion step in an ethanol solution of stearic acid. During the simple immersion process, the two dominant factors of superhydrophobicity, surface roughness and low-surface-energy coatings, could be accomplished simultaneously. The as-prepared functionally integrated device with superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity displayed a lower density than that of water, such that it could float on water and act as an oil-containment boom; an efficient oil-absorbing property, which was attributed to the capillary effect caused by micrometer-sized pore structures and could be used as oil-sorption materials; a high oil/water separating efficiency which was suitable for water/oil-separating film. In this way, the functions of oil collection, absorption, and water/oil separation are integrated into a single device, and these functions could work independently, reducing the cost in terms of energy consumption and being versatile for a wide range of applications.In this paper, we present a facile method for the fabrication of a functionally integrated device, which has the multi-functions of the oil-containment boom, oil-sorption material, and water/oil-separating film, through a single immersion step in an ethanol solution of stearic acid. During the simple immersion process, the two dominant factors of superhydrophobicity, surface roughness and low-surface-energy coatings, could be accomplished simultaneously. The as-prepared functionally integrated device with superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity displayed a lower density than that of water, such that it could float on water and act as an oil-containment boom; an efficient oil-absorbing property, which was attributed to the capillary effect caused by micrometer-sized pore structures and could be used as oil-sorption materials; a high oil/water separating efficiency which was suitable for water/oil-separating film. In this way, the functions of oil collection, absorption, and water/oil separation are integrated into a single device, and these functions could work independently, reducing the cost in terms of energy consumption and being versatile for a wide range of applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00026b

An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe; Lv, Kaikai; Luan, Xinglong; Zhang, Qian; Shi, Feng

2015-02-01

363

Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

2012-01-01

364

Injection and Combustion of RME with Water Emulsions in a Diesel Engine  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents ways of using the fully-digitised triggerable AVL VideoScope 513D video system for analysing the injection and combustion inside a diesel engine cylinder fuelled by RME with water emulsions.The research objects were: standard diesel fuel, rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and RME – water emulsions. With the aid of a helical flow reactor, stable emulsions with the water fraction up to 30 % weight were obtained, using an additive to prevent the water from separating out of the e...

Cisek, J.

2010-01-01

365

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : long-term stability, oil properties, and emulsions formed at sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions of more than 100 oils, including a sample from the ERIKA spill, were determined. An emulsion must be characterized as stable, meso-stable or unstable before its unique properties can be characterized. The samples from this study were analysed after one year of storage to study the change in properties over time. The samples were made in a rotary agitator and then their rheometric, viscosity and water content characteristics were studied. Observations were made on the appearance of the emulsions and were used to classify them. A summary of the property changes for the different types of emulsions over three time periods was tabulated. It was confirmed that water can occur in oil as entrained water where large droplets are suspended temporarily by viscous forces. Results also showed that the viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second is about three times greater than that of the starting oil, and is highly elastic. An unstable emulsion generally has a viscosity of up to 20 time greater than that of the starting oil and is not elastic. A meso-stable emulsion has properties between stable and unstable and breaks down within a few days. It was concluded that asphaltene and resin content plus the viscosity of the starting oil are the most important property factors in determining what type of water-in-oil state is produced. 4 refs., 6 tabs

366

Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries  

CERN Document Server

Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

2013-01-01

367

Countermeasures for oil spills in cold water - In the case of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for Japan to develop an adequate system for dealing with large-scale oil spills on the open seas was made clear when a Russian tanker Nakhodka caused large-scale oil pollution along the coastline of Japan in early 1997. The event involved 6,000 m3 of spilled oil. It was emphasized that the much needed system to combat oil spills on the open sea should include countermeasures for dealing with oil spills in cold water. This sub-system should be part of Japan's overall system for dealing with oil spills at sea. Several recommendations were made, including the need to evaluate the effects of oil spills on the marine environment and to prepare a set of environmental sensitivity index (ESI) maps for shorelines bordering on cold water. Methods must also be developed to predict the spreading rate of spilled oil. The process of emulsification and sedimentation of spilled oil must also be studied. 5 refs

368

Optimization of water-borne crude oil transport  

OpenAIRE

A ship scheduling problem in optimization of water-borne crude oil transportation has been investigated. The classic optimization problem the most closely related to the problem at hand is the Multi-Vehicle-Pick-up-and-Delivery Problem with Time Windows (m-PDPTW). In addition to the basic characteristics of the m-PDPTW, the studied problem has an additional degree of freedom due to having pick-ups and deliveries that are not matched. This extra freedom gives new possibilities when creat...

Vatn, Karsten Da?nmark

2007-01-01

369

Janus particles at the planar water-oil interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphiphilic Janus particles (hydrophobic on one side, hydrophilic on the other) were placed at the planar water-oil interface at various surface coverage and found to self-assemble into two-dimensional crystals with long-range hexagonal order, which we studied by fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. Surprising dependence is observed not only on the surface chemical makeup of the hydrophilic side but also on the Janus balance (i.e. the relative sizes of hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions), which is analogous to the HLB balance that characterizes molecular surfactants.

Chen, Qian; Jiang, Shan; Granick, Steve

2008-03-01

370

Significance of oil droplets in chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation described the controversial use of chemical dispersions to treat oil spills on water. Dispersants break up the spill in order to reduce shoreline impacts, but the dispersant drives the oil into the water column in the form of droplets, thereby temporarily increasing hydrocarbon concentrations and causing negative impacts on aquatic organisms. Exposure experiments have been conducted on rainbow trout exposed to Mesa and Scotian Light Crude Oil, with and without oil droplets. The studies showed that the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was higher in the trout exposed to Corexit water-accommodated fractions, compared to water-accommodated fractions. The results suggest that dispersing crude oil sustains hydrocarbon concentrations in a larger volume of water than if it were not dispersed. The oil droplets increase the partitioning of PAH into the water solution. They adhere to the gills of the fish, thereby facilitating direct uptake.

Ramachandran, S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hodson, P.V.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

2003-07-01

371

Significance of oil droplets in chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation described the controversial use of chemical dispersions to treat oil spills on water. Dispersants break up the spill in order to reduce shoreline impacts, but the dispersant drives the oil into the water column in the form of droplets, thereby temporarily increasing hydrocarbon concentrations and causing negative impacts on aquatic organisms. Exposure experiments have been conducted on rainbow trout exposed to Mesa and Scotian Light Crude Oil, with and without oil droplets. The studies showed that the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was higher in the trout exposed to Corexit water-accommodated fractions, compared to water-accommodated fractions. The results suggest that dispersing crude oil sustains hydrocarbon concentrations in a larger volume of water than if it were not dispersed. The oil droplets increase the partitioning of PAH into the water solution. They adhere to the gills of the fish, thereby facilitating direct uptake

372

The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

373

Precipitation of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitride in a porous media as applied to the isolation of injected water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given for laboratory tests on the filtration and salting our properties of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile in a radial model of a seam. A gipan (hyrolyzed polyacrolynitrite) gel, produced by combining gipan with ferric chloride was shown to form a plug in the seam which is not washed out by fresh water during extraction from the model in a seam - borehole system so that it can be recommended for isolating injected water. 1 figure.

Yusupov, I.G.; Maksutov, R.A.; Kadyrov, R.R.; Kalashnikov, V.M.

1978-01-01

374

Injection and Combustion of RME with Water Emulsions in a Diesel Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents ways of using the fully-digitised triggerable AVL VideoScope 513D video system for analysing the injection and combustion inside a diesel engine cylinder fuelled by RME with water emulsions.The research objects were: standard diesel fuel, rapeseed methyl ester (RME and RME – water emulsions. With the aid of a helical flow reactor, stable emulsions with the water fraction up to 30 % weight were obtained, using an additive to prevent the water from separating out of the emulsion.An investigation was made of the effect of the emulsions on exhaust gas emissions (NOX, CO and HC, particulate matter emissions, smoke and the fuel consumption of a one-cylinder HD diesel engine with direct injection. Additionally, the maximum cylinder pressure rise was calculated from the indicator diagram. The test engine was operated at a constant speed of 1 600 rpm and 4 bar BMEP load conditions. The fuel injection and combustion processes were observed and analysed using endoscopes and a digital camera. The temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was analysed quantitatively using the two-colour method. The injection and combustion phenomena were described and compared.A way to reduce NOX formation in the combustion chamber of diesel engines by adding water in the combustion zone was presented. Evaporating water efficiently lowers the peak flame temperature and the temperature in the post-flame zone. For diesel engines, there is an exponential relationship between NOX emissions and peak combustion temperatures. The energy needed to vaporize the water results in lower peak temperatures of the combusted gases, with a consequent reduction in nitrogen oxide formation. The experimental results show up to 50 % NOX emission reduction with the use of 30% water in an RME emulsion, with unchanged engine performance.

J. Cisek

2010-01-01

375

Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

376

Asphaltene and solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-in-crude oil emulsions are a problem in crude oil production, transportation, and processing. Many of these emulsions are stabilized by asphaltenes and native oilfield solids adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Design of effective emulsion treatments is hampered because there is a lack of understanding of the role asphaltenes and solids play in stabilizing these emulsions. In this work, the structural, compositional and rheological properties of water/hydrocarbon interfaces were determined for model emulsions consisting of water, toluene, heptane, asphaltenes and native oilfield solids. The characteristics of the interface were related to the properties of asphaltenes and native solids. Emulsion stability was correlated to interfacial rheology. A combination of vapour pressure osmometry, interfacial tension and emulsion gravimetric studies indicated that asphaltenes initially adsorb at the interface as a monolayer of self-associated molecular aggregates. It was demonstrated why it is necessary to account for asphaltene self-association when interpreting interfacial measurements. The interfacial area of Athabasca asphaltenes was found to be approximately 1.5 nm2 and did not vary with concentration or asphaltene self-association. Hence, more self-associated asphaltenes simply formed a thicker monolayer. The interfacial monolayer observed in this work varied from 2 to 9 nm in thickness. The asphaltene monolayer was shown to adsorb reversibly only at short interface aging times. The film gradually reorganizes at the interface to form a rigid, irreversibly adsorbed network. The elastic and viscous moduli can be modeled using the Lucassen-van den Tempel (LVDT) model when the aging time is less than 10 minutes. An increase in film rigidity can be detected with an increase in the total elastic modulus. Increased film rigidity was shown to reduce the rate of coalescence in an emulsion and increase overall emulsion stability (reduce free water resolution). The rate of coalescence and the free water resolution of emulsions decreased when the interface aging time increased, the heptane fraction in heptol increased, and the asphaltene concentration decreased. For systems in which asphaltenes do not leave the interface during coalescence, the rate of coalescence correlated to the measured total modulus over a range of asphaltene concentrations, solvent qualities, and interface aging times. For systems in which asphaltenes leave the interface during coalescence, the correlation under-predicted the coalescence rate because the total modulus increases as material leaves the interface. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Sztukowski, Danuta M.

377

A new generation of models for water-in-oil emulsion formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-in-oil emulsions form after oil or petroleum products are spilled, and can make the cleanup of oil spills difficult. This paper discussed new modelling schemes designed for the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Density, viscosity, asphaltene and resin contents were used to compute a class index for unstable, entrained water-in-oil states, meso-stable, or stable emulsions. Prediction schemes were used to estimate the water content and viscosity of the water-in-oil states and the time to formation with wave height inputs. A numerical values was used for each type of water-in-oil type. The properties of the starting oil were correlated with the numerical scheme. New regressions were then performed using a Gaussian-style regression expansion technique. Data obtained from the models suggested that water-in-oil types are stabilized by both asphaltenes and resins. The optimized model was then compared with earlier models. The study showed that the new model has the capacity to accurately predict oil-in-water types approximately 90 per cent of the time using only resin, saturate, asphaltene, viscosity, and density data. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

378

A new generation of models for water-in-oil emulsion formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsions form after oil or petroleum products are spilled, and can make the cleanup of oil spills difficult. This paper discussed new modelling schemes designed for the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Density, viscosity, asphaltene and resin contents were used to compute a class index for unstable, entrained water-in-oil states, meso-stable, or stable emulsions. Prediction schemes were used to estimate the water content and viscosity of the water-in-oil states and the time to formation with wave height inputs. A numerical values was used for each type of water-in-oil type. The properties of the starting oil were correlated with the numerical scheme. New regressions were then performed using a Gaussian-style regression expansion technique. Data obtained from the models suggested that water-in-oil types are stabilized by both asphaltenes and resins. The optimized model was then compared with earlier models. The study showed that the new model has the capacity to accurately predict oil-in-water types approximately 90 per cent of the time using only resin, saturate, asphaltene, viscosity, and density data. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

Fingas, M. [Spill Science, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

379

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

2001-06-15

380

Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower thaase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

381

Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions simid under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions