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1

Water injection in viscous oil through horizontal well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic success of heavy-oil, deep water fields depends upon the placement of wells, particular in reservoirs where water injection is used as a recovery method. This study analyzed the behavior of heavy oil displacement by water injection into viscous oil. The porous media was also characterized using simulation studies of an experimental and numerical design. A rock plate, filled with porous media, an Eolian sandstone from Botucatu formation, was prepared for laboratory tests. Its porosity, permeability distribution, relative permeabilities and capillary pressure were measured. Two horizontal wells were used and the laboratory tests included an oil saturation phase and a displacement phase. To analyse distortions in the horizontal wells due to friction effects, saturation maps were developed. A numerical simulation model then reproduced the observed behavior from the experiment and pressure drop effects were compared. This was then used as the foundation of a hypothetical field scale reservoir prototype. The simulation results demonstrated that despite the high oil viscosity, friction pressure losses in the wellbore did not seem to affect the flow. 17 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

Martini, R.F.; Bonet, E.J.; Schiozer, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Unicamp (Brazil)

2005-11-01

2

Oil layer temperature field during cooling of injected water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is given of exploiting oil fields by injecting water that has a temperature lower than the oil layer; this leads to layer cooling in both N wells and in E wells. Since registration of temperature anomolies in producing wells is important for studying layers, this work examines the problem of the effect of cooled unperforated layers on the Joule-Thomson temperature field of the producing layer. The results of calcualtions on heat fields are presented. Computed and experimental thermograms are compared.

Sharafutdinov, R.F.; Filippov, A.I.; Ramazanov, A.Sh.

1981-01-01

3

UV disinfection of injection and drinking water - an accepted method on offshore oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultraviolet disinfection packages have been developed for the treatment of drinking water and injection water on offshore oil platforms. Large-scale tests with sulphate reducing bacteria out outlined. (Auth.)

1985-01-01

4

Process for treating by ion exchange the injection water oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This process is intended to prepare injection water free of sulfate ions by exchanging them for chloride ions by means of an ion exchange resin of strongly anionic nature in the chloride form. The resin then is reactivated or regenerated by contact with a brine of low total salinity. The water thus treated is injected into oil wells in order to increase their productivity.

1980-04-11

5

Treatment of oil field waste water when injected into a bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the oil and gas extracting administration ''Tuymazaneft'', a method was developed for treating waste water when it is injected into productive beds. It is based on the formation in the pipeline that injects the waste water of anticorrosion crust which subsequently becomes a protective shell for the pipeline and prevents the effect of the agressive fluid on the metal. This is attained by periodic two-stage alkalization of the waste water.

1983-01-01

6

Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

Heinz, G. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Klimstra, J. D.; Stebbins, K. R.; Kondrad, S. L.

2011-01-01

7

Logical approach yields correct injection water quality. [North sea oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Sea oil fields need water injection to maintain reservoir pressure. Sea water thus directly injected contains suspended solids of 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l, composed mostly of plankton. To prevent plugging of tubulars, filters of sand, dual media, diatomaceous earth, or cartridge construction may be used. In the end, the nature of the reservoir will determine the degree of filtration needed. Other treatments of the injection water may be called for to minimize corrosion and to inhibit bacterial growth. 6 refs.

King, P.J.; Robinson, K.

1981-10-01

8

Clarification of injection water for oil field by using nuclear microfilters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Suspended solids and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were removed from the injection water of oil fields by using nuclear track microfilters. The grain-size distributions of suspended solids, the effectiveness of SRB elimination and the flow-rate characteristics have been measured. A comparison of the theoretical removal rates with the experimental values is given

1991-01-01

9

Ekofisk water injection experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conference paper deals with a water injection system for enhancing the oil recovery on the Norwegian Ekofisk field. The system is designed for providing an additional 320.000 BPD water injection capacity. The paper gives an overview of the system, pro...

A. Leland

1993-01-01

10

Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42â??, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine composition but also the formation water composition affected the oil recovery at high temperatures from the Stevns Klint chalk rock.

Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander

2012-01-01

11

Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Salinity Formation Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the results of Laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium and strontium sulfates in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of calcium and strontium ions at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caus...

2007-01-01

12

Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one biocide-treated reservoir were reversed (backflowed) and sampled for microbial analysis. The two reservoirs have similar properties and share the same pre-nitrate treatment history. A 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis (PCR-DGGE) combined with enrichment culture studies showed that, after 6 months of nitrate injection (0.25 mM NO(3) (-)), heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) formed major populations in the nitrate-treated reservoir. The NRB community was able to utilize the same substrates as the SRB community. Compared to the biocide-treated reservoir, the microbial community in the nitrate-treated reservoir was more phylogenetically diverse and able to grow on a wider range of substrates. Enrichment culture studies showed that SRB were present in both reservoirs, but the nitrate-treated reservoir had the least diverse SRB community. Isolation and characterisation of one of the dominant populations observed during nitrate treatment (strain STF-07) showed that heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria affiliated to Terasakiella probably contributed significantly to the inhibition of SRB. PMID:19137339

Bødtker, Gunhild; Lysnes, Kristine; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva Ø; Sunde, Egil

2009-03-01

13

The representation of thermally fractured water injection wells in black-oil simulators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is widely recognized that the cooling of the reservoir rock by cold water injection changes the rock stresses around the wellbore and in the immediate surroundings of the injection well. The cooling of the rock causes the rock fracture pressure to decrease and the possibility of fracturing the formation might occur. The representation of thermally induced fractures in black-oil reservoir simulators is currently modeled using an appropriate change in skin factors which in turn represents the change in injectivity for the particular well. Assigning a change in skin factor based on thermally induced fractures is currently based on rough estimates of what the well injectivity should be after a fracture has occured. This method describes only flow between the well and the well grid block and is inadequate when attempting to describe fracture and fluid flow from the injection well towards neighbouring grid blocks in reservoir simulation models. This paper describes a predictive simulation study of the time dependent propagation of thermally induced fractures and the effect of these on waterflooding of the Gyda reservoir in the North Sea. The low permeability of the Gyda formation will make thermal fracturing essential in achieving adequate water injection rates. A method has been developed to accurately calculate the transmissibility between the simulator grid block and the well in the grid block assuming a thermally induced fracture is present in the well grid block. The method developed accounts for the time dependent increase in transmissibility as the fracture grows with time. It is also shown that the new method decribes flow more accurately from the well block towards neighbouring grid blocks. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Fjerstad, P.; Clifford, P.

1991-01-01

14

The Ekofisk water injection experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference paper deals with a water injection system for enhancing the oil recovery on the Norwegian Ekofisk field. The system is designed for providing an additional 320.000 BPD water injection capacity. The paper gives an overview of the system, project model, contract structure, and project schedule and status. 4 figs.

Leland, A. [Smedvig A/S (Norway)

1993-12-31

15

Ekofisk water injection project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new water injection platform, Eldfisk 2/7 E, has been installed on Eldfisk, one of the fields tied back to the new Ekofisk II development. Injection of large quantities of cleansed water and gas into the reservoir is expected to increase oil recovery on the Ekofisk field by a total of 177 million barrels over the next 17 years. For the first time ever, exhaust gas from turbines is used to generate electric power on a platform, which makes Eldfisk 2/7 E one of the most environmentally friendly offshore platforms in the world. It is expected that the emission of carbon dioxide will be reduced by 40 000 tons per year and that NOx emissions will also decrease dramatically, up to 80%. The article describes the project in some detail.

NONE

1999-07-01

16

Gravity stable nitrogen injection in oil reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravity stabilized injection of miscible or immiscible gas into steeply dipping, highly permeable reservoirs can recover substantial quantities of oil which are not recoverable by water flooding. Results of a tertiary nitrogen injection experiment at low pressure and room temperature are presented. The residual oil saturation to water flooding was 0.47 pore volumes. During the tertiary gas flood, an oil bank was observed to develop and the oil saturation decreased to 0.08 after 86 days of gas flooding. The gas flooding experiments were conducted at gravity stable conditions with the presence of connate brine in cores of 84-88 cm in length. Oil distribution curves were measured by radioactive labelling of the oil phase. Oil relative permeability data have been derived from the in-situ saturation measurements and permeabilities down to 10{sup -5} observed. A low pressure study of the capillary forces in Clashach Sandstone was carried out. A series of 7 capillary pressure drainage curves has been obtained from measurement on short core plugs using the porous plate and centrifuge techniques. Critical Bond Number can be found from a plot of the numerically calculated oil saturaton in the inlet face versus the measured average oil saturation in the coil plug. Hydrostatic oil pressure versus oil saturation was determined. Compositional effects during secondary gravity stable gas displacement is reported and the influence of the hydrocarbon characterization on the simulation of gravity stable nitrogen injection is studied. (AB) (83 refs.).

Froerup, M.D.

1990-09-01

17

Selective water injection completion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the development and applications of modern completion systems for Selective Water Injection. It is based on a field study performed in Argentina adding records of successful technology application and development over time as well as benefits for the oil industry. A Selective Completion System used and developed by Schlumberger Smith Completions is defined as a set of tools characterized by isolating a single or more zones of interest along the oil well in order to take absolute control of the zone of interest. The principle of the technological development is based on replacing traditional mechanical packers by hydraulic systems bringing a new generation of tools developed for challenging well architecture. A Selective Completion System also implies the interaction of logging tools, tubing conveyed perforations and proper reservoir management systems. This article also highlights reservoir management concepts and water injection benefits for recovery factor improvements based on development from simple completion systems up to selective completion systems as part of the successful operational development of Schlumberger Smith Completions in Argentina. (orig.)

Aldaz Cifuentes, Santiago [Schlumberger Smith Completions, Celle (Germany)

2010-12-15

18

Effect of nitrate injection on the bacterial community in a water-oil tank system analyzed by PCR-DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a major concern for the petroleum industry since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides (reservoir souring). In this study, PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using two sets of primers based on the 16S rRNA gene and on the aps gene (adenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase) was used to track changes in the total bacterial and SRB communities, respectively, present in the water-oil tank system on an offshore platform in Brazil in which nitrate treatment was applied for 2 months (15 nitrate injections). PCR-DGGE analysis of the total bacterial community showed the existence of a dominant population in the water-oil tank, and that the appearance and/or the increase of intensity of some bands in the gels were not permanently affected by the introduction of nitrate. On the other hand, the SRB community was stimulated following nitrate treatment. Moreover, sulfide production did not exceed the permissible exposure limit in the water-oil separation tank studied treated with nitrate. Therefore, controlling sulfide production by treating the produced water tank with nitrate could reduce the quantity of chemical biocides required to control microbial activities. PMID:18180965

Jurelevicius, Diogo; von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

2008-04-01

19

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31

20

Hepatic arterial injection chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with epirubicin aqueous solution as numerous vesicles in iodinated poppy-seed oil microdroplets: clinical application of water-in-oil-in-water emulsion prepared using a membrane emulsification technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodinated poppy-seed oil (IPSO) accumulates selectively in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when injected into the hepatic artery. This virtue has been applied to the hepatic arterial injection chemotherapy for the disease. We invented a new water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (W/O/W), in which IPSO microdroplets, 70 micrometer in diameter, were suspended in physiological saline enclosing numerous vesicles of an aqueous solution of epirubicin with remarkable stability. After hepatic arterial injection, the microdroplets accumulated only in HCC tissue and remained in the tissue for more than 3 weeks affecting tumor cells. Efficacy of the W/O/W has been fully proved clinically; the 6-year cumulative survival rate for 24 patients bearing HCC nodules recurrent after hepatectomy, including even 12 patients with four or more nodules, though prognosis of these patients is recognized very poor, was 24%. PMID:11104897

Higashi, S; Setoguchi, T

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

22

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

Baroni, M.R.

1994-04-30

23

Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

Steiger, Judy I.

2007-01-01

24

Reactor water injection facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

1995-10-17

25

Methodology for the quantification of the uncertainty associated in the prediction of the production behavior of a highly heterogeneous oil field, subject to water injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on an integrated methodology for the prediction of the production behavior of a highly heterogeneous oil field subject to water injection, quantifying the related uncertainty in both, the stratigraphical reference framework and the petrophysical model. The proposed methodology involves the evaluation of the related uncertainty through hierarchical classification and the selection of the geostatistically generated models corresponding to the P1O P50 and P90 quantiles, based on a variable indicating the behavior of the parameter to be evaluated. In the evaluation of the uncertainty related to the stratigraphical reference framework, the percentage of interconnected oil field was used as a hierarchy definition parameter. The sweeping volumetric efficiency at a certain time, as obtained from the flight time of the streamline simulation, was used as the hierarchical classification variable for petrophysical models. This paper shows the application of the proposed methodology to a real case. The example is carried out within a pilot project at the La Cira Field, which includes three productive wells and nine injecting wells, making up three injection-production patterns. Results show the potential of the proposed technique in the case of an oil field like this one, in which a complex distribution of flow channels has been conformed due to fluvial deposits, thus discouraging supervision and prediction of the oil field's behavior

2003-12-01

26

Water injection dredging:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and no need for a pipeline. Also from an energetic point of view the solution is attractive. The system requires however a different way of payment. Most efficient is a maintenance contract with a dred...

Verhagen, H. J.

2000-01-01

27

Water injection profiling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

1982-01-01

28

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery -- Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. First quarterly technical progress report, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For work during the first quarter of 1993, American Oil Recovery, Inc. targeted completion of the following specific objectives: Convene meetings of Mattoon Project subcontractors in order to plan and coordinate Project activities. Confirm organizational arrangements and plans for implementation of Mattoon Project. Complete most work on detailed analysis of reservoir geology of productive leases in the Mattoon Project. Identify first Facies Defined Subunit for initial injectivity testing to be commenced near the beginning of the second quarter. Identify additional Facies Defined Subunits for injectivity testing and characterization during the second and third quarters. Award subcontract to the Illinois State Geological Survey and commence work on preparation of a geostatistical model (STRATAMODEL) of more than 100 wells on 1,000 acres within the Mattoon Project Area. Obtain oil samples from wells in the identified Facies Subunit for reservoir rock, fluid, and CO{sub 2} compatibility testing by the Illinois State Geological Survey. Design CO{sub 2} injection pumps and injection monitoring equipment configuration. Obtain bids for required pumps and diesel motor. Accomplishments for this quarter are reported.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-05-24

29

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01

30

Ultraviolet disinfection of injection seawater for secondary oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today diminishing oil reserves force us to seek ways of increasing the yield of existing resources. Some years ago oil was mainly recovered by means of the natural pressure of the oil bearing formation. When natural pressure decreased, the source was regarded as exhausted, although considerably more than half of the total oil quantity remained in the fine pores of the oil bearing rock strata. Meanwhile techniques have been developed to exploit a greater part of these neglected reserves. The principle of all these techniques is that the pressure in the oil reservoir is maintained in order to force the remaining oil towards the well-bore. One of the methods to achieve this is the injection of water under high pressure into the oil-bearing stratum. Depending on the location of the recovery point fresh water or sea-water is used.

Brumner, H.; Klein, H.P.

1985-01-01

31

Ammonium concentrations in produced waters from a mesothermic oil field subjected to nitrate injection decrease through formation of denitrifying biomass and anammox activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Monitoring of ammonium concentrations in producing wells (PWs) indicated that denitrification was the main pathway for nitrate reduction in the field: breakthrough of nitrate and nitrite in two PWs was not associated with an increase in the ammonium concentration, and no increase in the ammonium concentration was seen in any of 11 producing wells during periods of increased nitrate injection. Instead, ammonium concentrations in produced waters decreased on average from 0.3 to 0.2 mM during 2 years of nitrate injection. Physiological studies with produced water-derived hNRB microcosms indicated increased biomass formation associated with denitrification as a possible cause for decreasing ammonium concentrations. Use of anammox-specific primers and cloning of the resulting PCR product gave clones affiliated with the known anammox genera "Candidatus Brocadia" and "Candidatus Kuenenia," indicating that the anammox reaction may also contribute to declining ammonium concentrations. Overall, the results indicate the following: (i) that nitrate injected into an oil field to oxidize sulfide is primarily reduced by denitrifying bacteria, of which many genera have been identified by DGGE, and (ii) that perhaps counterintuitively, nitrate injection leads to decreasing ammonium concentrations in produced waters. PMID:20562276

Shartau, Sabrina L Cornish; Yurkiw, Marcy; Lin, Shiping; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A; Lambo, Adewale; Park, Hyung-Soo; Lomans, Bart P; van der Biezen, Erwin; Jetten, Mike S M; Voordouw, Gerrit

2010-08-01

32

Ammonium Concentrations in Produced Waters from a Mesothermic Oil Field Subjected to Nitrate Injection Decrease through Formation of Denitrifying Biomass and Anammox Activity? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Monitoring of ammonium concentrations in producing wells (PWs) indicated that denitrification was the main pathway for nitrate reduction in the field: breakthrough of nitrate and nitrite in two PWs was not associated with an increase in the ammonium concentration, and no increase in the ammonium concentration was seen in any of 11 producing wells during periods of increased nitrate injection. Instead, ammonium concentrations in produced waters decreased on average from 0.3 to 0.2 mM during 2 years of nitrate injection. Physiological studies with produced water-derived hNRB microcosms indicated increased biomass formation associated with denitrification as a possible cause for decreasing ammonium concentrations. Use of anammox-specific primers and cloning of the resulting PCR product gave clones affiliated with the known anammox genera “Candidatus Brocadia” and “Candidatus Kuenenia,” indicating that the anammox reaction may also contribute to declining ammonium concentrations. Overall, the results indicate the following: (i) that nitrate injected into an oil field to oxidize sulfide is primarily reduced by denitrifying bacteria, of which many genera have been identified by DGGE, and (ii) that perhaps counterintuitively, nitrate injection leads to decreasing ammonium concentrations in produced waters.

Cornish Shartau, Sabrina L.; Yurkiw, Marcy; Lin, Shiping; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Lambo, Adewale; Park, Hyung-Soo; Lomans, Bart P.; van der Biezen, Erwin; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2010-01-01

33

Study on the Fine Optimization of Water Injection in SZ Oilfield of Bohai Bay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bohai SZ Oilfield has entered into high water cut stage, how to realize the goal of fine optimization of water injection to enhance oil recovery is an important problem for reservoir engineers. Fine optimization of water injection needs ‘inject enough’, ‘inject well’ and ‘inject effectively’. The paper gets relationship between annual oil production rate and annual water production rate of different water cut stages of SZ Oilfield with the life cycle theory and draws the annual water injection rate and annual oil production rate chart to ensure ‘inject enough’, optimizes injection allocation method according to new reservoir research and gets a very good precipitation effect of increasing oil production. The paper also puts forward the method to recognize low effective and ineffective injection circulation to guide the oilfield ‘inject effectively’.Key words: Fine optimization of water injection; Logistic theory; Prediction of water injection; Injection allocation; Low effective and ineffective injection circulation

SUN Guangyi

2014-04-01

34

Oil injection into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil atomization, increased blast temperature and oxygen and injection of reducing gases into the bosh zone. (orig.) 25 refs.

Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1997-12-31

35

Water issues associated with heavy oil production.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

2008-11-28

36

Chemical enhancement of oil production by cyclic steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Members of a special class of interfacially active chemicals were injected into wells in Kern County, CA, immediately before and during the huff'n'puff steaming cycle. Water and oil production rates were determined during the subsequent production cycles and compared with the rates observed during the preceding steam-only production cycles of the same wells. The chemical treatment was found to give significant increases in oil production. 11 refs.

Blair, C.M. Jr.; Scribner, R.E.; Stout, C.A.

1982-01-01

37

Chemical enhancement of oil production by cyclic steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Members of a special class of interfacially active chemicals were injected into wells in Kern County, CA, immediately before and during the huff'n'puff steaming cycle. Water and oil production rates were determined during the subsequent production cycles and compared with the rates observed during the preceding steam-only production cycles of the same wells. The chemical treatment was found to give significant increases in oil production.

Blair, C.M. Jr.; Scribner, R.E.; Stout, C.A.

1982-01-01

38

Process for producing or cleaning high pressure water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for cleaning a production well. It comprises: stopping the pumping of oil out of the wall; generating an aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide gas under pressure; and injecting under pressure the solution of chlorine dioxide gas into a pumped water injection stream and thereafter under pressure into the well. Also describes is a second process for cleaning a producing well. It comprises: stopping the pumping of oil out of the well; selecting an oxidant reactive with hydrogen sulfide under downhole conditions; and injecting the oxidant under pressure into a pumped water injection stream and thereafter under pressure into a well containing hydrogen sulfide.

Sacco, F.J.

1990-08-07

39

Bye-bye forms 17 and 17A : Pedigree salt water injection monitoring partners with ND Oil and Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Dakota-based Pedigree Technologies is a leading provider of web-based M2M applications for fleet, asset and supply chain management. This presentation described their simple web-based system which helps companies track, locate, monitor and control their fixed and mobile assets and equipment. It highlighted a typical class 2 injection well problem regarding compliance issues for saltwater injection well equipment. The solution was a cost-effective web-enabled remote monitoring system that activates alarms for equipment health conditions and reporting for compliance needs all in one system. In particular, the system replaces manual data entry of Forms 17 and 17A with automated remote monitoring and reporting. It allows real time access to alarms and trends of injection data. The solar powered monitoring system measures flow rate, pipe pressure and annulus pressure. It provides automated hourly readings and cellular communication. In addition to increasing process efficiency, the system decreases the costs of manual data collection at injection sites. tabs., figs.

Warner, A. [Pedigree Technologies, Fargo, ND (United States)

2010-07-01

40

Enhanced oil recovery: air injection in a Potiguar basin light oil reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of air injection, at reservoir temperature and pressure, is studied with a view towards enhanced oil recovery from the Potiguar Basin (Brazil). The aim is to inject air in such a way that almost all oxygen is consumed and the residual gas, basically nitrogen, displaces the oil. In this work, the reactivity of crude oil samples is studied at conditions of Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO). As a first step, the kinetic and equilibrium properties are measured using a variable volume PVT glass equilibrium cell, which enabled to simultaneously observe the sample and measure the reaction rates and phase compositions, needed for estimating oxygen consumption. Different strategies are then studied for enhanced recovery by water and air injection, using a commercial reservoir simulator for thermal processes. The results show that it was possible to delineate an optimum strategy for LTO recovery of light crude oils. (author)

2000-10-16

 
 
 
 
41

Produced water re-injection in relation to reservoir souring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation discusses various aspects of reservoir souring, seawater injection requirements, oil coated solids and the difference between seawater and produced water re-injection (PWRI). Some modeling aspects are mentioned. Microbiological reservoir souring is dealt with in particular. Some field cases are discussed (tk)

Kuijvenhoven, Cor; Davidson, Colin

2005-07-01

42

Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

Knutsen, Trine

2011-01-01

43

Steam-injection experiments for recovery of heavy crude oil of an Iranian field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluated the feasibility of recovering heavy oil by steam injection, a thermal recovery mechanism which involves diffusion of condensed water, evaporation of light components and diffusion of steam. Steam flooding is among the oldest commercial methods for enhanced oil recovery. Experiments of steam injection into a sand pack were conducted to compare the recovery of heavy oil with an API gravity of more than 20, and a lighter oil with an API gravity of less than 20. Two different sand pack porosities were used. The experiments were performed with 4 different types of heavy oil with different API to study their influence on recovery. Steam was injected into the sand pack using different pressures during each experimental run. It was determined that the optimum steam injection pressure must be determined experimentally by saturating the core with oil and then injecting the core with saturated steam. Recovery was found to increase with increased permeability. Although the production rate increases with an increase in injection flow rate, the breakthrough time decreased. It was concluded that the rate of steam injection has a significant influence on recovery and an optimum rate exists for optimum injection flow rate. As oil gets heavier, the recovery decreases and high pressure steam must be applied. Steam injection was found to be more effective for light oil reservoirs, but the risk of fingering exists. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

Tabatabaei-Nejad, S.A.R.; Shafiei, S.; Rajabzadeh, S.; Haghlesan, A. [Sahand Univ. of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2005-11-01

44

Investigation of the effect of formation water disposal on ground water in oil fields of Assam, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the major waste products of oil industry is formation water which comes with crude oil from underground and this is considered as pollutant because of the presence of several undesirable elements exceeding the permissible limits. The conventional oil field practice is to dispose the formation water by injecting underground. Such underground injection is practiced in many oil fields across the globe. The ground water pollution threat by injected formation water has been a subject matter...

2013-01-01

45

Oil and gas water use in British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in unconventional drilling techniques and geological knowledge have contributed to an increase in oil and gas water activity in British Columbia (BC) since early 2000. In addition, the amount of water used for conventional and unconventional development has also increased. The BC Oil and Gas Commission is the regulatory authority for the natural gas and oil industry in BC. This paper discussed oil and gas water use in BC with particular reference to oil and gas development; water used in oil and gas activities; water access for oil and gas activities; where the water goes; BC Oil and Gas Commission regulated water use; sections of the Water Act; and subsurface water authorities such as water source wells, water injection wells, and water disposal wells. The document also discussed the protection of domestic water; subsurface geology; hydraulic fracturing; fracturing fluids; and water use statistics. Other topics that were addressed included subsurface water use; subsurface water disposal and injection; and regulating water use. It was concluded that going forward, the oil and gas activities act will expand the BC Oil and Gas Commission's powers to manage water withdrawals. Water accessed through both surface and subsurface methods will be tracked through increased metering, measuring and reporting. 5 figs.

NONE

2010-08-15

46

Field tests of the water/liquid oxygen injection process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two field tests were done injecting a mixture of water and liquid oxygen near Graham, Texas. On the first test the results were on initial decrease in injection pressure and a 20% increase in production for 40 days. The oil field was an irregular six spot water flooded, Gun Sight Sand unconsolidated channel sand formation at a depth of 520 ft. (158 m). In the second field test oil production increased 20% for 300 days, water injection pressure done on a batch basis increased from 0 to 230 psi (0 to 1590 kPa) to a range of 300 to 550 psi (2068 to 3790 kPa), and oil production from a deeper formation doubled. The oil field was an irregular, five spot, water flooded, Strawn Sand (consolidated sand with limestone formation) at a depth of 1900 ft. (579 m.). These tests indicated the water/liquid oxygen process would be an economic success done on an going basis in similar oil formations.

Andersen, L.

1995-12-31

47

Viability of water injection in the gas-oil contact in reservoirs of a mature field at threshold of liberations of its gas caps; Viabilidade da injecao de agua no contato gas-oleo em reservatorios de um campo maduro em vias de liberacao de suas capas de gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Agua Grande field, located in the central part of the Reconcavo basin, was discovered in 1951. Fluvial and eolian reworked sandstones of the Agua Grande and Sergi formations are the main reservoirs. Presently the oil field production is 730 m{sup 3}/d through 139 wells. The main recovery mechanisms are Gas Cap and Segregation for the Agua Grande Formation and Gas Cap and Water Influx for the Sergi Formation. In addition to the natural mechanisms, gas is injected in both formations and water is injected in the Sergi. Due to the growing demand for natural gas, the gas caps will be produced. This production will reduce the oil reserves of the field. In order to avoid the reduction in the oil reserves, preliminary studies were done such as: substitution on the natural gas injection by Nitrogen and water injection in the present gas-oil contact. This later method has shown to be very attractive. (author)

Ferreira, Luiz Eraldo A.; Matos, Bruno Gomes de; Gozzini, Luiz Carlos; Rigueira, Reginaldo Cardoso [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2000-07-01

48

Downhole injection of OBM cuttings economical in North Sea. [Oil-Based Muds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annular injection offers an economical disposal mechanism for the oily cuttings and associated wastes generated from the use of oil-based muds in drilling operations. This disposal mechanism eliminates overboard cuttings discharges and, hence, removes much concern regarding the environmental impact of these wastes. Continued use of oil-based muds, which perform better than many water-based muds, is therefore feasible. Thus, BP Norway UA has been using the cuttings slurrying and injection process as the prime disposal mechanism for drilling wastes on the Gyda platform in the North Sea since July 1991. The paper describes compliance options, the injection process, injection history, fracture predictions, and results.

Minton, R.C. (BP Norge UA, Stavanger (Norway)); Last, N. (BP Group Research Engineering, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom))

1994-05-30

49

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process. (authors)

2006-01-01

50

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process.

Jakub Siemek

2006-10-01

51

Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

S. Siregar

2007-05-01

52

Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

1989-01-01

53

Apparatus for removing suspended oil droplets from water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Suspended droplets of oil are separated from a waste water stream by the method and apparatus of the present invention. The oil and water mixture is injected into a partially submerged, vertical pipe. Gas bubbles injected into the lower end of the pipe, rise through the pipe and countercurrently contact the suspended oil droplets, thereby promoting the separation of the droplets from the waste water. The oil droplets coalesce and form a separate oil layer on top of the waste water which is readily withdrawn while clarified waste water is discharged from the lower end of the pipe. If employed to separate oil from a waste water stream on an offshore rig, the vertical pipe is submerged adjacent to the rig.

Williams, R.E.

1980-04-15

54

Produced water re-injection - Experiences from the Ula field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As discussed in this presentation, there are three principles for disposal/re-injection of produced water: (1) Re-injection back into the reservoir as pressure support, (2) Disposal into ''dead wells'' or inactive parts of the reservoir, (3) Disposal of water into formation zones. The MUST Produced Water Reinjection (PWRI) Project is discussed. The objectives of MUST PWRI are (1) Contribute to the understanding of the potential for PWRI, (2) Reduce the environmental impact from oil production, (3) Contribute to the development of cost-effective solutions to the produced water handling, (4) Present knowledge to other oil companies, (5) Contribute to the development of the Norwegian service industry. Full scale field trial was one part of the work and the experience from it is discussed.

Sande, Arvid

1998-07-01

55

Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Berea Sandstone Cores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates in Berea sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton) and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions at various temperatures (60-90°C) and differential pressures (75-100 psig). The solubility of common oil field scales formed and how their solubilities were affected by changes in salin...

Merdhah, A. B. B.; Yassin, A. A. M.

2009-01-01

56

Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

NONE

2006-07-01

57

Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

2006-01-18

58

Laboratory tests on heavy oil recovery by steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents results of laboratory experiments conducted to determine the effect of various parameters on residual oil saturation from steamdrives of heavy-oil reservoirs. These experiments indicated that remaining oil saturation, both at steam breakthrough and after passage of several PV of steam, is a function of oil/water viscosity ratio at saturated steam conditions.

Closmann, P.J.; Seba, R.D.

1983-06-01

59

Downhole oil-water separation - the `HYDROSEP`  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper outlines in a display format: downhole separation, the Hydrosep, candidate well selection, field installation options, case histories, current situation/options, and a summary. In-situ separation allows the well to produce a concentrated oil stream to the surface while simultaneously injecting clean water into the same borehole. Separation is carried out downhole because of lower lifting costs, increased ultimate recovery, reduced capital spending, extended economic life of wells and fields, environmental compatibility, and marginal discoveries become profitable. The Hydrosep is a downhole oil-water separator that combines Baker Hughes Process Systems high performance Vortoil hydrocyclones with Centrilift`s proven downhole pump systems and Baker Oil Tool`s market-leading completion technologies. The mandatory well selection characteristics are: an injection zone available in the well, high water cut production, and a casing size of 140 mm or bigger. Favorable characteristics include: high water lifting costs, high water handling/disposal costs, and high pump intake pressure due to a production bottleneck. Field installation options include: single or dual pumps, injection to lower or higher zones, single or two stage hydrocyclone geometry, gas well dewatering, and cross-flooding. Some cases histories are covered including: Byron/Garland, Wyoming, Handsworth/Saskatchewan, and Bashaw, Alberta. The downhole separator lowers lifting costs, increases ultimate recovery, reduces capital expenditure, extends the economic life of the well and fields, is environmental friendly, and makes marginal discoveries profitable.

Checknita, L. [Centrilift, Div. of Baker Hughes Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-12-01

60

Accurate residual oil saturation measurement using a modified log-inject-log procedure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The log-inject-log (LIL) test is a technique for determining residual oil saturation (Sor) in a watered out reservoir. While this test is, in theory, quite straightforward, it is, in practice, very complex. Even under ideal conditions, accurate Sor measurements require extremely accurate porosity, brine analysis, and pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data. Additionally, a successful test requires a brine injection step which completely displaces the formation brine without displacing any of the oil in the near well-bore regions. A modification to the conventional LIL procedure is described which allows measurements of, and corrections for, both displaced oil and incomplete brine displacement. 11 references.

Reedy, G.K.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity ch...

Xuezhong Wang

2012-01-01

62

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition with Water Injection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of water injection in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was experimentally investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it is possible to control the ignition timing and slow down the rate of combustion with the use of water injection. The effects of different water flows, air/fuel ratios and inlet pressures were studied for three different fuels, iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas.

Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

1999-01-01

63

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

64

Water-oil displacements from porous media utilizing transient adhesion-tension alterations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increases in oil recovery from unconsolidated sands effected by hexylamine injection during water displacement are the result of formation and propagation of large continuous oil masses under favorable wettability gradients. Oil-mass formation, and increased oil recovery, are not observed if the oil saturation in the medium undergoing transient adhesion-tension alterations is at its irreducible minimum value. Hence, early injection of amine favors increased oil recovery. Oil-mass formation, and increased oil recovery, are favored with more viscous oils, and the increase in oil recovery seems to be proportional to the square root of the oil-water viscosity ratio. Oil- mass formation appears to take place primarily during amine desorption, as the medium is returned from oil-wet to water- wet conditions. The importance of capillary forces in oil-mass formation and propagation is reflected to the increase in oil recovery with decreasing hydraulic permeability.

Michaels, A.S.; Porter, M.C.

1965-07-01

65

Aerosol scrubbing at water pool injection sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analyses are performed to predict the scrubbing of polydisperse aerosol particles at the injection site of water suppression pools. Two injection modes are considered in this paper; orifice injection and side vent injection. Globule as well as vapor jet formation at the injection site are analyzed in detail. The governing conservation equations for mass, energy, steam mass fraction and aerosol mass fraction are solved numerically. The aerosol removal mechanisms considered are Brownian diffusion, sedimentation, inertial and convective deposition. Evaporation and condensation are allowed and include the effect of noncondensable gases. The hydrodynamic models used are guided by the experimental data. The results show that scrubbing during the formation of globules or vapor jets at the injection site can be significant and must be included in calculating water pool decontamination factors

1987-08-09

66

Oil production and water management in Oman  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the development of integrated (production) water management in Petroleum Development Oman. In its existing oil fields the water cut is rising rapidly and water production is expected to increase two to three times in the next 15 years. Re-injection of production water will continue to account for less than half of the volume of co-produced water. Current subsurface disposal of production water to shallow Tertiary formations is based on thorough knowledge of the local hydrogeology and does not affect potable water resources. However, in view of the expected increase in production water volume, utilization and disposal options have been re-evaluated. This review has been facilitated by recently acquired data on production water quality and by the results of research in dehydration and de-oiling technologies and of tests with production chemicals. The combined knowledge base is used to arrive at water management strategies for individual oil fields that are sound both in principle and in practice

1991-11-11

67

High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

2014-05-01

68

Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

2006-03-01

69

THAI : Toe to Heel Air Injection : a revolutionary heavy oil and oil sands in-situ recovery technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the evolution of an in-situ recovery method for heavy oil and oil sands called toe-to-heel air injection (THAI). THAI is an integrated horizontal well process for in situ recovery and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen. It uses both a vertical injection well and a horizontal producer well. The process was developed in 1993 at the University of Bath, in the United Kingdom and has been patented in the United States, Canada, Venezuela and the United Kingdom. Successful field scale runs have been conducted and an application has been submitted to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for an experimental pilot test to be performed in 2004 at the Whitesands pilot project site near Fort McMurray. The key pilot experimental parameters will include: oil, water and gas production rates; quality of the produced oil; effectiveness of produced gas lift; production temperatures; quality of the produced water; and, composition of the produced gas. The THAI process has many advantages over the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process, including: minimal quantities of fresh water are needed; minimal quantities of natural gas are consumed; 85 per cent less water is produced; recovered heat can be used for electricity generation; the use of upgraded oil eliminates the need for diluent; 50 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions; and, a higher resource recovery rate. 3 tabs., 13 figs.

Bloomer, C. [Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Orion Oil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

70

Investigation of the effect of formation water disposal on ground water in oil fields of Assam, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the major waste products of oil industry is formation water which comes with crude oil from underground and this is considered as pollutant because of the presence of several undesirable elements exceeding the permissible limits. The conventional oil field practice is to dispose the formation water by injecting underground. Such underground injection is practiced in many oil fields across the globe. The ground water pollution threat by injected formation water has been a subject matter of investigation in some oil producing regions. The oil fields in Assam (India, some of which have been operating for about 50 years, also resort to similar disposal practice through some designated wells. The present study concerning underground disposal of formation water in 15 disposal wells of 3 oil fields in Assam analysed water samples collected during three consecutive years and could not detect migration of pollutant formation water to nearby ground water.

B. N. Sahoo

2013-06-01

71

Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying controllable radial oil injection to main crankshaft journal bearings. In an actively lubricated bearing, conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with controllable hydrostatic lubrication, where the oil injection pressures can be modified depending on the operational conditions. In this study, the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance of the actively lubricated bearing is compared with the performance of the conventional lubricated bearing, giving some insights into the minimum fluid film thickness, maximum fluid film pressure, friction losses and maximum vibration levels.

Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

2012-01-01

72

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

73

Influence of injecting light hydrocarbon slugs prior to vapor injection on oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented in which a combination of vapor injection and miscible displacement of a light hydrocarbon slug is injected prior to vapor. A series of experiments have been performed using 3 kinds of crudes. The experiments were conducted in a model containing high initial and/or residual oil saturation. As a hydrocarbon slug, isopentane and light gasoline were injected. In the course of the experiments, the recovery showed an increase and it was observed that dimensions and type of the light hydrocarbon slug injected, the initial oil saturation, the velocity of the vapor injection as well as crude type contained in the reservoir has an influence on results reached when using such a method.

El-Saghir, A.S.M.

1981-03-01

74

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields.

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

75

Steam injection and enhanced bioremediation of heavy fuel oil contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam injection has been shown to be successful in remediating sites impacted by heavy fuel oils. Field demonstrations at both pilot and full scale have removed No. 2 diesel fuel and Navy Special Fuel Oil (No. 5 fuel oil) from impacted soils. Removal mechanisms include enhanced volatilization of vapor- and adsorbed-phase contaminants and enhanced mobility due to decreased viscosity and associated residual saturation of separate- and adsorbed-phase contaminants. Laboratory studies have shown that indigenous biologic populations are significantly reduced, but are not eliminated by steam injection operations. Populations were readily reestablished by augmentation with nutrients. This suggests that biodegradation enhanced by warm, moist, oxygenated environments can be expected to further reduce concentrations of contaminants following cessation of steam injection operations.

Dablow, J. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Hicks, R.; Cacciatore, D. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Concord, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

76

Steam injection and enhanced bioremediation of heavy fuel oil contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam injection has been shown to be successful in remediating sites impacted by heavy fuel oils. Field demonstrations at both pilot and full scale have removed No. 2 diesel fuel and Navy Special Fuel Oil (No. 5 fuel oil) from impacted soils. Removal mechanisms include enhanced volatilization of vapor- and adsorbed-phase contaminants and enhanced mobility due to decreased viscosity and associated residual saturation of separate- and adsorbed-phase contaminants. Laboratory studies have shown that indigenous biologic populations are significantly reduced, but are not eliminated by steam injection operations. Populations were readily reestablished by augmentation with nutrients. This suggests that biodegradation enhanced by warm, moist, oxygenated environments can be expected to further reduce concentrations of contaminants following cessation of steam injection operations

1995-04-24

77

Effect of oil viscosity, permeability and injection rate on performance of waterflooding, CO{sub 2} flooding and WAG process in recovery of heavy oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were undertaken to compare the performance of waterflooding, immiscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding, and CO{sub 2} water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes for potential use in the recovery of heavy oil from thin, unconsolidated heavy oil reservoirs where the application of thermal gravity drainage processes are inapplicable. In particular, the study looked at the effect of oil viscosity, permeability, and injection rate on these processes when used in the recovery of heavy oil. In waterflooding, the difference between the viscosities of the oil and the water result in an unfavourable mobility ratio, viscous finger formations, and early water breakthrough, which leads to low sweep efficiency. Immiscible CO{sub 2} flooding is more complicated when applied to heavy oil reservoirs because of an unfavourable mobility ratio, channeling, and early breakthrough. CO{sub 2}-WAG uses alternating CO{sub 2} and water injections to improve sweep efficiency and is more effective than continuous CO{sub 2} injection. The water flood experiments were conducted using laboratory sand packs with varying permeabilities containing heavy oil of differing viscosities. The results were analyzed to determine the effects of oil viscosity, rock permeability, and flow rate on water flood performance; oil viscosity and rock permeability on heavy oil recovery using immiscible CO{sub 2} displacement; and oil viscosity, rock permeability, and WAG slug ratio on heavy oil recovery by way of CO{sub 2} WAG process. For all three processes tested, oil viscosity was found to have a profound effect on the recovery factor. Waterflooding consistently yielded the highest recovery factor for both heavy oils and sand packs. The results suggested that displaced fluid viscosity plays a predominant role in the recovery of heavy oil. 28 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

Torabi, F.; Zarivnyy, O.; Paquin, B.A.; Rumpel, N.J.; Wilton, R.R. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada); Jamaloei, B.Y. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

78

Water control for enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gains in recovery efficiency in W. Texas oil and gas fields have been realized as a result of applying 4 different chemical processes, either singly or in combination. Each of the 4 chemical processes has been tailored to meet specific reservoir requirements. Complete plugging of high flow capacity channels can be accomplished, and the high water production portion of a producing zone can be sealed by injection of gel-forming chemicals into the matrix. Both floodwater diversion and water-oil mobility ratio improvement can be attained by in situ polymerization of a one-stage polymer bank in the reservoir. In producing wells, the water-oil production ratio can be favorably changed by treating certain formulations with a nonplugging polymer which tends to restrict water flow but not oil. One feature which each of the 4 processes has in common is the ability to invade deeply into matrix which may produce long lasting results. A description of each process is presented with various placement techniques used to obtain optimum results. Data from fields which have benefited from these treatments are presented. The work describes what may be expected with each of these proven processes based on field results.

Cole, R.C.; Mody, B.; Pace, J.

1981-11-01

79

Water reuse in oil refineries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil refineries and petrochemical complexes require a reliable supply of fresh water for steam generation, process cooling, and other purposes. Since fresh water is becoming a more scarce and valuable resource in many parts of the world, several locations have undertaken programs to reclaim and reuse waste waters for cooling and steam generation. Two case studies are presented which illustrate some of the technical challenges that were encountered when reusing water in refining and petrochemical complexes.

Bresnahan, W.T. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1996-08-01

80

Water injection device of cooling water and nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A jet pump is disposed to a water injection flow channel below a pressure accumulation vessel incorporating cooling water and pressurized gases. A driving water nozzle in the jet pump is connected to a driving water flow channel having an opening below the liquid surface of cooling water in the pressure accumulation vessel. A sucking channel in communication with the diffuser guide portion of the jet pump is disposed to the bottom of the pressure accumulation vessel. Upon reactor accident, cooling water in the driving water channel is jetted from the driving water nozzle to a throat of the diffuser of the jet pump. With such a procedure, cooling water in the sucking flow channel is sucked into the throat of the diffuser and mixed with the cooling water from the driving water nozzle. As a result, a great amount of cooling water flows to the water injection channel and is injected into a reactor pressure vessel. If the water level in the pressure accumulation vessel is reduced lower than the opening of the driving water flow channel, the operation of the jet pump is stopped. The flow rate of the water injection is changed to small amount only from the sucking flow channel by the stoppage of the jet pump. (I.N.)

1993-05-25

 
 
 
 
81

Downhole cuttings injection allows use of oil-base muds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that of the potential methods for handling oily drill cuttings, the most attractive is their injection downhole. This approach, which has been used by BP on its Gyda platform in the North Sea where stringent new environmental regulations are expected, will enable operators to enjoy the economic advantages of using oil-based muds. The discharge of oil-based-mud-contaminated cuttings form offshore drilling operations has a significant, though localized, environmental impact. This is despite the change from diesel-based fluids to less toxic, low aromatic, base oils which occurred in the late 1970s.

Minton, R.C.; Meader, A.; Wilson, S.M. (BP Exploration (United Kingdom))

1992-10-01

82

Downhole cuttings injection allows use of oil-base muds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that of the potential methods for handling oily drill cuttings, the most attractive is their injection downhole. This approach, which has been used by BP on its Gyda platform in the North Sea where stringent new environmental regulations are expected, will enable operators to enjoy the economic advantages of using oil-based muds. The discharge of oil-based-mud-contaminated cuttings form offshore drilling operations has a significant, though localized, environmental impact. This is despite the change from diesel-based fluids to less toxic, low aromatic, base oils which occurred in the late 1970s

1992-10-01

83

Chemical enhancement of oil production by cyclic steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Members of a special class of interfacially active chemicals were injected into wells in Kern County, CA, immediately before and during the huff 'n' puff steaming cycle. The chemical treatment was found to give significant increases in oil production.

Blair, C.M. Jr.; Scribner, R.E.

1982-12-01

84

Recovering oil by injecting ammoniated and nitrited seawater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A waterflood process is described for recovering oil from a subterranean reservoir in a location in which seawater is economically available, comprising: incorporating within the seawater, at least prior to its injection into the reservoir, ammonia or ammonia-yielding material to raise the pH to near 9.5, plus enough nitrite ion-containing or ion-yielding material to increase the oil displacing capability of the ammoniated seawater without causing an undesirable increase of the rate of growth of sessile bacteria; and injecting the ammoniated and nitrited seawater into the reservoir to displace the reservoir fluid at substantially the natural reservoir temperature toward a production location from which oil is recovered.

Schutt, H.U.

1986-11-04

85

Particle counting for injection quality water control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the injection of sea/produced water, permeability decline occurs, resulting in well impairment. Solid and liquid particles dispersed in the injected water are trapped by the porous medium and may increase significantly the hydraulic resistance to the flow. The pore size exclusion mechanism of particle capture is dominant where the particle sizes have the same order of magnitude as that of pores. A stochastic mathematical model describes the bed filtration particulate suspensions in porous rocks. We developed a laboratory set-up and experimental procedure to verify the mathematical model. The routine core flooding is performed using the model, and the water obtained by mixture of solid particles with the pure water. Particle counter measures particle size distribution at the core inlet and effluent. It allows determining the filtration coefficient for each particle size. It allows tuning the mathematical model with experimentally determined coefficients and predicting the porous space plugging in the reservoir conditions. (author)

Carageorgos, T. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP); Ribeiro, L.; Rosario, F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2004-07-01

86

Evaluation of land disposal and underground injection of shale oil wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results indicate that the salinity of retort water, the principal wastewater generated by shale oil recovery operations, will be too high in most cases for irrigation of cover crops needed for effective stabilization by land disposal. Furthermore, large storage lagoons would be required to hold the retort water during the long winters encountered in the oil shale regions of Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Land disposal cannot be carried out during prolonged periods of freezing weather. Additional problems which may arise with land disposal include air pollution from volatile constituents and groundwater pollution from refractory organics and dissolved salts in the retort water. Pretreatment requirements include the removal of ammonia which is present at toxic concentrations in retort water. Underground injection of retort water may be permitted in regions possessing favorable geological characteristics. It is anticipated that this method would be used as a last resort where effective or resonably priced treatment technology is not available. Regulatory restraints are expected to limit the use of underground injection for disposal of highly polluted shale oil wastewaters. Proving the confinement of injected wastes, a frequently difficult and expensive task, will be required to assure protection of drinking water resources.

Mercer, B.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Wakamiya, W.

1979-05-01

87

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was ...

R Raghu, G. Ramadoss

2011-01-01

88

Water Local Volume Fraction on Oil in Water Dispersion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phase distribution of water-oil flows was studied experimentally from a separated flow without mixer to a oil in water or water in oil dispersed in horizontal tubes. Under most conditions the pattern was oil continuous in water dispersed or water continuous in oil dispersed flow continuously and there is entrainment in the form of drops of phase into the other. The investigations were carried out through the cross-sectional phase distribution in the flow of mixtures of...

siti aslina hussain; Xu, Xiao Y.; Hewitt, Geoffrey F.

2008-01-01

89

Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO2 storage: CO2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO2, CO2-brine, and CO2-oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO2 and crude oil is ?100 kg/m3 and between CO2 and brine is ?350 kg/m3); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m3); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing properties and processes by performing numerical simulations. Results suggest that deep saline CO2 injection immediately below oil formations reduces buoyancy-driven CO2 migration and, at the same time, minimizes the amount of mobile CO2 compared to conventional deep saline CO2 injection (i.e., CO2 injection into brine formations not below oil-bearing strata). Finally, to investigate practical aspects and field applications of this injection paradigm, we characterized oil-bearing formations and their thickness (capacity) as a component of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) field deployments. The field-testing program includes specific sites in Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and western Texas of the United States. (author)

2009-10-01

90

Water injection profiling by nuclear logging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to "1"6N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

91

A configurable subsea water boosting and injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic exploitation of marginal fields, especially those in deepwater, requires the introduction of innovative and cost effective technologies.''Subsea processing'' is one of the challenging new technologies that can provide significant cost savings which help facilitate the economic exploitation of deepwater oil and gas reserves. Subsea processing improves field economics by boosting production from the reservoir and/or reducing topside processing facilities. In order to achieve maximum flexibility while complying with the operator's requirements, a ''building block'' approach has been adopted, based upon a number of technologies which have been developed based upon various aspects of subsea muitiphase boosting and subsea separation. One of the main building blocks is subsea water boosting and re-injection into a reservoir. The proposed system can be used as part of a subsea processing system to enable the separated water to be injected in the reservoir to avoid costly transportation and surface processing infrastructure. Alternatively, the system can be configured for raw water injection in order to maintain the required reservoir pressure and maximize production. The concept is characterised by the maximum use of field proven equipment which can be easily reconfigured during the field life to follow changing production profiles. The system engineering design has now been completed to a high level of definition such that detailed design and fabrication could be initiated without the requirement for further conceptual or front-end engineering. The necessary water injection pressure is provided by Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) contained within a dedicated caisson which provides the required Net Pressure Suction Head (NPSH) for the pumps and is deployed vertically into a conductor set into the seabed. The proposed caisson concept offers a great deal of operational flexibility as the pump sets can be quickly and economically exchanged to match changing flow and head requirements during the field life. The proposed pump motor sets are ''catalogue'' models which have been extensively field proven in similar water injection duties and downhole pumping. The paper describes several possible subsea layouts and configurations for various application cases, namely: subsea water separation and water re-injection into the reservoir, to avoid transportation, or reservoir pressure maintenance utilizing subsea raw water treatment and re-injection. Installation and maintenance procedures for the pump caisson assembly are also described, as well as the main characteristics of the proposed system. (author)

Radicioni, A.; D' Aloisio, G. [Sasp Offshore Engineering (Italy); Baker, A. [Baker Jardine and Associates (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

92

Souring remediation by field-wide nitrate injection in an Alberta oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial production of sulphide by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in oil reservoirs often occurs when water is injected during secondary oil recovery processes in order to maintain reservoir pressure. Souring has negative effects because dissolved sulphide and precipitated metal sulfides are corrosive in metal pipes and equipment. Souring appeared in the previously sweet fields of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) following several years of produced water re-injection. The souring reached levels that prompted remedial action. This paper presented preliminary observations on the field-wide application of nitrate addition to injection waters in a shallow oil and gas reservoir in the WCSB. The paper discussed the monitoring of concentrations of sulphide, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia and the populations of microbial activities of hNRB and NR-SOB in samples from 12 production and 3 injection wells. It was concluded that nitrate may be effective for the control of souring in the reservoir. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig., 1 appendix.

Grigoryan, A.; Lambo, A.; Lin, S.; Cornish, S.L.; Jack, T.R.; Voordouw, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

93

A numerical and analytical study of offshore oil rim depletion during tertiary gas injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the optimization of tertiary gas injection projects in the off-shore environment. It is shown that the best depletion strategy is to produce fluids from within the watered out zone with wells being recompleted downwards as the flood front advances. The production behavior is dominated by the coning of oil and gas. A model North Sea reservoir is investigated using a fully implicit reservoir simulator and a semi-analytic technique. It is shown that the semi-analytic method can be used to determine the viability of, and optimize, some projects without resorting to detailed numerical simulation calculations. Initially the oil bank is too thin to sustain an economically viable production rate. As the gas invades the reservoir the oil bank grows and the oil production rate increases. The oil production profile is optimized by careful positioning of the production completions below the oil-water contact. Wells are worked over as the oil bank advances. When all produced gas is being recycled the optimum oil production profile is obtained when the platform gas handling capacity is fully utilized. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Roberts, L.J.; Hulbert, G. (PEDSU, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorset (UK))

1991-01-01

94

Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water  

Science.gov (United States)

Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

Wörman, A.

2009-04-01

95

Method of breaking a water-in-oil emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for breaking a water-in-crude oil emulsion. A crude oil feedstock is tangentially injected into the upper portion of a vortex chamber operating on the vortex principle, with the emulsion rotating within the chamber and the velocity of the emulsion increasing toward the center of the vortex. In this manner, concentric layers of emulsion having different tangential velocities apply shear stresses to the dispersed water in the crude oil causing the interfacial film between the water and the oil to rupture. This enables chemical demulsifiers, added prior to the vortex operation, to act more quickly and efficiently. Thereafter, the dewatering of the crude oil is easily accomplished by usual methods.

Parker, R.J.; Ranganathan, R.; Lakshmanan, V.I.; Last A.J.

1987-07-07

96

The effects of PAV waste water injection upon the operation of the UENTs elevator column operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes the results of experimental-industrial testing of waste water (PAV) Kh-2647 injection, as well as the injection of Separol-25, Oksid-A and Dissolvan-4490 at one of the bore holes in the northern Al'met'evsk field. The tests indicate that the extraction of waterlogged oil from Devonian strata with PAV injection with the UENTs unit is significantly enhanced by the use of lift tubes in the UENTs unit. The most effective PAV appeared to be the Separol-25. In order to achieve the maximum effect during the injection of PAV, the water pollution present in production must be considered.

Vakhitov, M.F.

1980-01-01

97

Boric-acid water solution injecting device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable to rapidly lower the reactor power upon occurrence of scram-operation inability accidents in BWR type reactos. Constitution: The boric-acid water solution injecting device comprises pipeways connected at one end to the inside of a lower tube body of pressure vessel in a BWR type reactor and connected at the other end with a boric acid storage tank. A turbine driven pump driven by the steams from the pressure vessel is disposed at the midway of the pipeways. Since a great flow rate of boric-acid water solution can be supplied from the pump, the reactor power can be lowered rapidly. (Kawakami, Y.)

1982-12-22

98

In vitro release from oil injectables for intra-articular administration: Importance of interfacial area, diffusivity and partitioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most in vitro methods for evaluating parenteral oil based depots are focusing on intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For intra-articular injection other mechanisms may control the overall drug release rate due to a relatively smaller interfacial area and longer transport distance of the drug substance in the oil to the oil-synovial fluid interface. In the current work, an in vitro model for testing drug release from oil solutions intended for intra-articular injection was evaluated. The release of the model drugs naproxen, piroxicam and ropivaciane from a well-defined surface area of the lipophilic solutions were followed using an in vitro model based on a modified USP II paddle apparatus with modest agitation (50rpm) of the oil formulation. By alteration of the viscosity of the oil, the oil-water interfacial area, the oil volume and the stirring efficiency of the release medium, it was shown that the drug release rate was dependent on the drug diffusivity in the oil and the degree of agitation generated in the oil vehicle. In addition, the partitioning of the drug between the oil vehicle and the release media was found to influence the release rate. In combination with an improved understanding of in vivo drug release and distribution, the present work may form a promising foundation for future in vivoin vitro correlations. PMID:22178293

Thing, Mette; Larsen, Claus; Østergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan Weng

2012-02-14

99

A method to predict the injectivity decline rate in water injection wells : Chihuido de la Sierra Negra Oilfield : a case to study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described a waterflooding project in the most important oil producing field in Argentina, the Chihuido de la Sierra Negra, which produces 24,000 m{sup 3}/day of oil from 683 producing wells. Waterflooding began in 1994. Currently a mix of fresh and produced water is being injected daily into 545 injection wells. The goal is to eventually use only produced water. The potential damage mechanisms which can be associated with water injection in this oil field are clay deflocculation, fines migration and solids injection. The water quality is affected by different types of suspended solids. In addition, plugging will become even more severe when produced water is injected. The main objective of this research program was to obtain information on how to maintain injectivity in the Chihuido de la Sierra Negra injector wells when only produced water is injected and to determine the filtration degree needed to maintain minimum water treatment cost. Another objective was to identify the damage mechanism resulting from solids injection and to avoid oversizing practices in the design of surface facilities. This research project involved the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the depth and extent of the core invasion to characterize the kind of filter cakes formed. 17 refs., 15 figs.

Cavallaro, A.N.; Baigorria, R. [Repsol YPF, Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

2000-06-01

100

STUDYING OF THE EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON ENHANCED HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY STEAM INJECTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High viscosity of some crude oil makes difficult to recover with primary or secondary production methods. Therefore, thermal oil recovery techniques are recommended for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR of heavy oil. In this experimental study, steam injection was used to investigate the effectiveness parameters on heavy oil production rate. The result is shown that, by increasing pressure, steam reaches the breakthrough point sooner, but recovery decreases. If the oils are a little different in viscosity, recovery in the light oil is more than that in heavy oil. Also in the highly viscous oils and light oils, recovery in the heavy oil is much higher than in light oil.

Kh.Mohamadbeigy

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Subsurface brine injection: Proactive approach to close the produced water loop in the western desert of Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1988 a major onshore production facility was producing oil from eight formations in six oil fields located in the western desert of Egypt. Two of these formations include active water drive reservoirs, in addition; three reservoirs at that date were receiving water injection to enhance oil recovery. To handle the increasing volumes of the produced water (which is contaminated with oil, production chemicals and other pollutants), three alternatives were investigated: (1) Injection into disposal wells. (2) Dumping in surface disposal pits. (3) Re-injection to waterflood some oil reservoirs. The investigation revealed that the first two options are technically unfavorable, also they are conventional Waste Management Technologies (WMT) which provide short-term remedial solution. In contrast, Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) is an Environmental Control Technology (ECT) which minimize the environmental impact through process improvements. A state -of-the-art re-injection process was utilized using chemical treatment, gas liberation, settling, filtration and injection. This process represents a combination of two (ECT) methods: Reuse (for water flooding) and Recycling (when brine is redisposed underground). This process reduce the overall volumes of produced water to be disposed, increase the oil reserves, reservoir pressure and oil production and converse the underground water reserve.

Farid, E.E.; Nour, M.H.

1996-11-01

102

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

CERN Document Server

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

103

Displacing oil with a PAV (surface active substance) water solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article considers the results of researching oil displacement and absorption properties of nonionogienic PAV. The results indicate that concentrations of solvents in PAV leads to a significant increase in the rate of movement for the front of concentration. During an extensive period of water injection following PAV treatment, a full absorption of the PAV is achieved in the rock surface.

Nasrtdinov, M.N.; Adadurov, Yu.N.; Maksimova, T.N.; Obzhelyanskaya, L.M.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

1980-01-01

104

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester, raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21° CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

R. Raghu1, G. Ramadoss

2011-07-01

105

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21{sup o} CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

Raghu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayam College of Engineering and Technology, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramadoss, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Peter' s University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-07-01

106

Performance of direct-injection off-road diesel engine on rapeseed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine operating on Diesel fuel and cold pressed rapeseed oil. The purpose of this research is to study rapeseed oil flow through the fuelling system, the effect of oil as renewable fuel on a high speed Diesel engine performance efficiency and injector coking under various loading conditions. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with rapeseed oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.2 and 12.8% than that for Diesel fuel. However, the brake thermal efficiency of both fuels does not differ greatly and its maximum values remain equal to 0.37-0.38 for Diesel fuel and 0.38-0.39 for rapeseed oil. The smoke opacity at a fully opened throttle for rapeseed oil is lower by about 27-35%, however, at the easy loads its characteristics can be affected by white coloured vapours. Oil heating to the temperature of 60{sup o}C diminishes its viscosity to 19.5mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} ensuring a smooth oil flow through the fuel filter and reducing the brake specific energy consumption at light loads by 11.7-7.4%. Further heating to the temperature of 90{sup o}C offers no advantages in terms of performance. Special tests conducted with modified fuel injection pump revealed that coking of the injector nozzles depends on the engine performance mode. The first and second injector nozzles that operated on pure oil were more coated by carbonaceous deposits than control injector nozzles that operated simultaneously on Diesel fuel. (author)

Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Str. 15, P.O. Box LT-53067, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

2006-05-15

107

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effects of microorganisms in the injected waters on microbial community compositions in the produced waters is. In addition, microbes inhabiting in the produced waters of the four water-flooded oil reservoirs were varied but all dominated by Proteobacteria. Moreover, most of the detected microbes were not identified as indigenous. The objective of this study was to expand the pictures of the microbial ecosystem of water-flooded oil reservoirs.

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Chai, Lu-Jun; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

2012-01-01

108

Microseismic monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection at the Weyburn oil field, Saskatchewan, Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microseismic monitoring has been conducted as part of the International Energy Agency Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project where carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been injected into an oil depleted reservoir in southern Saskatchewan since 2000. CO{sub 2} flood has been supplied by pipeline from North Dakota. As a result of this CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operation, it is expected that 20 million tonnes of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere will be permanently sequestered within the Mississippian strata at a depth of 1.4 km. Passive seismic monitoring has been used around the world to map fracturing induced by fluid injection for EOR, by hydraulic stimulation, or by reservoir compaction phenomena linked to hydrocarbon production. There are few examples of microseismicity recorded during underground gas storage or CO{sub 2} EOR projects. The purpose of applying microseismic monitoring at Weyburn was to assess the seismic hazard due to injection, and to determine the feasibility of using passive monitoring as a mapping tool for the spread of injected CO{sub 2}, via fracturing or fracture reactivation induced by local overpressure within the reservoir. Results to date show that recording microseismicity in a CO{sub 2}-injection field is technically feasible. Since injection of CO{sub 2} has only recently started, no microseismicity linked directly to the spread of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir has been identified. However, different kinds of events have been recorded related to production or completion activities. Analysis of waveforms, event locations and production data will be required in order to identify the events induced by the CO{sub 2} injection. In terms of seismic hazard due to injection, microseismicity observed to date does not exceed magnitudes associated with water flood or gas injection in other monitored fields. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Fabriol, H.; Jousset, P. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France); White, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Maxwell, S. [Engineering Seismology Group Canada Inc., Kingston, ON (Canada); Deflandre, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

2005-07-01

109

Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum  

Science.gov (United States)

A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

1997-01-01

110

Suspended solids specifications for water injection from coreflood tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method based on the results of laboratory coreflood tests is proposed for predicting the injectivity decline rate of water injectors. The aim of this method is to provide design specifications for water treatment and injection facilities and procedures with which well injectivity behavior can be analyzed. To illustrate the results that can be obtained with the proposed method, data from coreflood tests are used to construct injectivity-decline-rate curves for an arbitrary injection well.

Eylander, J.G.R. (Petroleum Development Oman LLC. (OM))

1988-11-01

111

Formation of fluid heavy oil-in-water emulsions for pipeline transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diverse factors affecting the viscosity of a surfactant stabilized viscous crude oil-in-water emulsion for pipeline transportation were studied. The study discloses that the stability of the oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by a nonionic surfactant Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylate increases as the surfactant concentration increases with a subsequent decrease in the crude-oil-water interfacial tension (IFT). Increasing the oil content and the speed of mixing of the emulsion resulted in an increased emulsion stability. Fresh water and synthetic formation water were used to study the effect of aqueous phase salinity on the stability and viscosity of the emulsion. Surfactant dissolved in synthetic formation water was utilized to find out the possibility of injecting the surfactant into a well bore to effect emulsification in the pump or tubing for the production of heavy crude oils as oil-in-water emulsion. The effective viscosity of a viscous Egyptian crude oil (Geisum crude oil) decreased when it was emulsified with water in the presence of a nonionic surfactant in the form of an oil-in-water emulsion. It was possible to form stable emulsions with synthetic formation water characterized by a low dynamic shear viscosity. This will enhance the production of viscous crude oils by injecting surfactant dissolved in formation water to affect downhole emulsification. Further, the produced crude oil-in-water emulsion is characterized by its low effective viscosity which will facilitate its pipeline transportation to the refiner. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ahmed, N.S.; Nassar, A.M.; Zaki, N.N.; Gharieb, H.K. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Petroleum Applications

1999-04-01

112

Fast water oil spill response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the many manuals currently available for oil spill response, few have any information on fast-water conditions even though just more than half of all oil spilled by volume in the United States between 1992 and 1997 happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot. The Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. Two major parts of the project were to provide information on deployment strategies and techniques to identify equipment that could improve recovery capabilities where existing systems do not work well. This paper described field demonstrations where boom deflectors and boom vanes were used. Efforts to increase the capability of booms and skimmers were also described. A field guide was developed for training and response purposes for spills in fast-water which makes it possible for on-scene commanders and area supervisors to define techniques and terminology for responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. 20 refs., 4 figs

2002-06-11

113

Experimental investigation of the effect of steam injection rate on recovery of an Iranian heavy oil reservoir using sand packed and core samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy oils and tar sands reserves worldwide account for more than half of Earth's oil resources and, world-wide, these are primarily located in north and south America, Asia and the Middle East. Enhanced oil recovery techniques are a crucial aspect for these heavy oil reservoirs, the predominant one being the steam injection method. This presentation reports the results of an experimental investigation into the effect of the steam injection rate on oil efficiency recovery at an Iranian heavy oil reservoir. The steam injection method is briefly presented and an efficiency up to 50-60% in oil recovery is mentioned, depending on the operating temperature. Eleven tests were then conducted, with different steam injection rates, oil samples, and saturation pressures. Results show that an increased steam injection rate leads to a reduction of the steam-to-oil ratio and of the overall oil recovery time; it also requires a smaller volume of water for equivalent operation. In short, increase in the steam injection rate leads to better oil recovery efficiency in heavy oil reservoirs.

Tabatabaei-Nejad, S.A.R. [Sahand University of Technology and Sahand Petroleum Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-01

114

Combustion of Coal/Oil/Water Slurries  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed test setup would measure combustion performance of new fuels by rapidly heating a droplet of coal/oil/water mixture and recording resulting explosion. Such mixtures are being considered as petroleum substitutes in oil-fired furnaces.

Kushida, R. O.

1982-01-01

115

Study on the Determination of Separated Layer Water Injection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to determine the separated layer water injection is a problem which reservoir engineers concern in flood development oil field. These various influential factors of dividing coefficient method are analyzed in this study. Grey correlation analysis method is used to determine the dominant influential factors. And the weight of different dominant influential factors is determined, which realizes the quantitative comparison among them in dividing coefficient formula. This method considers the impact of these factors which are consist of the measure transformation coefficient, perforation thickness, injector producer distance, location coefficient and the number of injector and producer. The separated layer water injection formula is determined. The scientific and reasonable injection allocation is realized. The problem which the contradiction exists in the same layer or between the layer and the layer is obvious in the S block through combining with the current water injection development. The separated layer water injection method is proposed necessarily. The formula for water injection is determined by grey correlation analysis method in Block S. These factors considered are more with the actual situation. And the reasonable injection allocation is realized. It is directive and referenced for other oil field or block.

Junting Zhang

2013-04-01

116

Downhole oil-water separation - the 'HYDROSEP'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper outlines in a display format: downhole separation, the Hydrosep, candidate well selection, field installation options, case histories, current situation/options, and a summary. In-situ separation allows the well to produce a concentrated oil stream to the surface while simultaneously injecting clean water into the same borehole. Separation is carried out downhole because of lower lifting costs, increased ultimate recovery, reduced capital spending, extended economic life of wells and fields, environmental compatibility, and marginal discoveries become profitable. The Hydrosep is a downhole oil-water separator that combines Baker Hughes Process Systems high performance Vortoil hydrocyclones with Centrilift's proven downhole pump systems and Baker Oil Tool's market-leading completion technologies. The mandatory well selection characteristics are: an injection zone available in the well, high water cut production, and a casing size of 140 mm or bigger. Favorable characteristics include: high water lifting costs, high water handling/disposal costs, and high pump intake pressure due to a production bottleneck. Field installation options include: single or dual pumps, injection to lower or higher zones, single or two stage hydrocyclone geometry, gas well dewatering, and cross-flooding. Some cases histories are covered including: Byron/Garland, Wyoming, Handsworth/Saskatchewan, and Bashaw, Alberta. The downhole separator lowers lifting costs, increases ultimate recovery, reduces capital expenditure, extends the economic life of the well and fields, is environmental friendly, and makes marginal discoveries profitable.

Checknita, L. (Centrilift, Div. of Baker Hughes Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada))

1999-01-01

117

Distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in north sea oil field waters and oil reservoirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere. PMID:16535321

Nilsen, R K; Beeder, J; Thorstenson, T; Torsvik, T

1996-05-01

118

Oil-water separator for pretreating petroleum-contaminated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An oil-water separator with inclined corrugated-plate packing was developed. Because of the special passageway formed by the corrugated plates, more opportunities are provided for collisions and coagulation among the oil droplets and for adhesion and coalescence between the oil droplets and the corrugated plates. This separator has, therefore, greatly increased the efficiency of oil removal. Based on the results of the experiments, a mathematical model has been developed for predicting the oil removal efficiency

1995-04-24

119

Separation of oil and water in oil spill recovery operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The separation of water from oil that is collected in any oil spill recovery operation is a continuing and necessary requirement during every stage of the effort. Its importance is reflected in the cost of transport and storage of large volumes of oily water, the salvage value of separated oil and the added labor costs associated with long-term recovery operations. This paper addresses the effects of weathering and emulsion generation which increase the problems normally associated with water extraction. Separation theory, practical separation technology and recommendations for the future direction of research and development are presented. (author)

1999-01-01

120

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the e...

Fan Zhang; Yue-Hui She; Lu-Jun Chai; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Xiao-Tao Zhang; Fu-Chang Shu; Zheng-Liang Wang; Long-Jiang Yu; Du-Jie Hou

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

After fogging process in water injected gas turbine systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In gas turbine system with after fogging, water droplets are injected after compressor. After fogging could have more significant potential for enhancement of specific power production compared to inlet fogging alone, since a larger water injection rate is possible. Transient analysis of after fogging process is carried out by using a heat and mass transfer modeling on water droplet evaporation. Transient variables such as droplet diameter and air temperature are evaluated as the droplet evaporation proceeds for different values of initial droplet diameter, pressure ratio of compressor, and water injection ratio. The evaporation time for injected droplets are also estimated. Present results show that the evaporation time decreases sensitively with increasing pressure ratio or initial droplet diameter. However, the effect of water injection ratio on evaporation time is relatively insignificant unless water injection ratio is near the critical ratio.

Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Kyoungjin

2013-12-01

122

Appraisal of oil-water separation in field by injection of demulsifier through gas-lift line; Avaliacao da separacao agua-oleo em campo injetando desemulsificante atraves da linha de gas-lift  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the petroleum dehydrating process, the use of demulsifiers is fundamental in the coalescing of emulsions formed in field from the produced petroleum and water. Injection of demulsifiers should be performed the most upstream possible of the processing plant, not only to allow better product performance but to avoid the formation of smaller water drops, due to shearing during flowing of production. Herein presented are the test results of the d emulsifier's performances in field, injected through the gas-lift line of petroleum producing wells. The results showed water removal in the three-phase separator, even when operating in low processing temperature and low liquid residence time inside vessel. (author)

Ramalho, Joao Batista Vianey da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

2001-12-01

123

Microbial fouling and clean-up operations in water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During secondary oil recovery water injection may introduce bacteria into the formation. The microorganisms adhere to the rock surfaces, produce slimes and plug the formation halting oil recovery. The fouling generally is composed of a combination of bacteria (organic matter) and trapped inorganic particles. The authors have investigated effective clean-up operations of microbially fouled surfaces using sequences of acids and bleaches. The bleach must be injected first to dissolve the bacteria and release the inorganic component for acid treatment. The strategy was not successful if reversed. Bleach concentrations as low as 1% effectively removed bacterial fouling.

Cusack, F.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Costerton, J.W.; Brown, D.R.; Clementz, D.M.

1988-05-01

124

PCA: uma ferramenta para identificação de traçadores químicos para água de formação e água de injeção associadas à produção de petróleo / PCA: a tool for identification of chemical tracers for formation and injection waters associated with oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english This study describes the use of Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the chemical composition of water produced from eight oil wells in three different production areas. A total of 609 samples of produced water, and a reference sample of seawater, were characterized according to their levels of [...] salinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium and sulphate (mg L-1) contents, and analyzed by using PCA with autoscaled data. The method allowed the identification of variables salinity, calcium and strontium as tracers for formation water, and variables magnesium and sulphate as tracers for seawater.

Ribeiro, Fabiana Alves de Lima; Mantovani, Guilherme Alvarenga; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Rosário, Francisca Ferreira do; Bezerra, Maria Carmen Moreira; Bastos, Andre Luis Mathias; Melo, Vera Lúcia Alves de.

125

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturated porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

2003-01-01

126

Study on Technical Measures of Romashkino Oil Field after Entering Ultra-High Water Cut Stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romashkino oil field has large oilfield area, small formation dip, many reservoir layers, wide oil-water transition zone and complicated sedimentary environment. Since development, 3 overall development plannings and adjustments of individual block have been established. This achieves a high oil production. However, the recoverable reserves of major oil layer with high production become smaller and smaller and the water cut increases over time, the production ability of oil layer decreases. The development status of oil layer of mining siltstone, oil-water transition zone and oil layer with upswept injected water cannot be changed under present dilute well network condition, because there is no reinforced measurement to water well. This results the low oil production of Romashkino oil field. In order to improve oil production rate and reach the designed oil recovery, Romashkino oil field has been implemented many added cuttings since development. Resent researches about Romashkino oil field show: in later oilfield development stage, sidetrack and lateral drilling horizontal wells technology is very reasonable; formation hydraulic fracturing technology has been widely used in recent years; in tertiary oil recovery, sweep efficiency and flooding efficiency related technologies have been taken. This offers reference and guidance for the effective and reasonable oil field development in later period.

Liuli Lu

2013-07-01

127

Feasibility of steam injection process in a thin, low-permeability heavy oil reservoir of Arkansas -- a numerical simulation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the findings of an in-depth study undertaken to assess the viability of the steam injection process in the heavy oil bearing Nacatoch sands of Arkansas. Published screening criteria and DOE`s steamflood predictive models were utilized to screen and select reservoirs for further scrutiny. Although, several prospects satisfied the steam injection screening criteria, only a single candidate was selected for detailed simulation studies. The selection was based on the availability of needed data for simulation and the uniqueness of the reservoir. The reservoir investigated is a shallow, thin, low-permeability reservoir with low initial oil saturation and has an underlying water sand. The study showed that the reservoir will respond favorably to steamdrive, but not to cyclic steaming. Steam stimulation, however, is necessary to improve steam injectivity during subsequent steamdrive. Further, in such marginal heavy oil reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterized by thin pay zone and low initial oil saturation) conventional steamdrive (i.e., steam injection using vertical wells) is unlikely to be economical, and nonconventional methods must be utilized. It was found that the use of horizontal injectors and horizontal producers significantly improved the recovery and oil-steam ratio and improved the economics. It is recommended that the applicability of horizontal steam injection technology in this reservoir be further investigated.

Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

1993-12-01

128

Determining water content in high viscosity oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of research on the effect of adding demulsifier on the water analysis data based on the Dean-Stark method in high viscosity oil containing asphaltene. Oil in several areas in the Tatar ASSR was studied. Separol and OP-7 were used as the demulsifiers. The method of carrying out the tests is described. The results show that adding the demulsifier greatly increases the water content in the oil. Separol was more effective than OP-7. Raising the demulsifier concentration by more than 5 percent was ineffective. The relation varability in water content was determined with and without the demulsifier according to asphaltene concentration in the oil.

Aygistova, S.Kh.; Kharlamov, V.A.; Sadykov, A.N.

1980-01-01

129

Pollution of an aquifer by produced oil field water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brine is produced from reservoirs as a waste material from crude oil and gas after processing. Waste water may be discharged at the surface or reinjected underground. When it is reinjected, it may be mixed with an underground fresh water source for several reasons. From this point of view, forecasting the pollutant concentrations by knowing the historical data at several locations on a field has great importance when planning the necessary precautions for environmental safety. Aquifer-M in Turkey, having the properties of potable water, is contaminated by oil field water that is injected for disposal purposes. A numerical model is used to determine the extent of pollution due to the injection of saline produced water into aquifer-M. Eight observation wells are drilled to take water and core samples in order to identify both rock and fluid properties of aquifer-M. Water samples taken from different intervals of aquifer-M are analyzed to determine the flow paths for the pollutant movement. The results are interpreted with the help of core property data obtained by computerized tomography (CT) analysis and routine core analysis. By using drilling records, log data, and CT analysis results, two subunits in aquifer-M with different lithological properties are identified. All data are used in a ground water pollution model. Aquifer-M has fresh water with salinity of 5-10 ppm, and the chlorine concentration of injected waste water is approximately 3410 pp. Since there is a significant difference between these concentrations, the chlorine ion is selected as the indicative ion for locating the pollution front. The model study indicated that the contaminated water has propagated 18.7 km from the site of injection. (author)

2001-05-01

130

Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire  

Science.gov (United States)

The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

131

Evaluating mineralization of connate water and initial oil saturation from results of studying core samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility is examined of determining the mineral composition of residual water from a core sample taken in a well of the Uzen field using inverted-emulsion muds as the flushing fluids. Information is provided about the initial oil saturation in the zones not touched by the injected water and the process of working the Uzen field. A correlation is indicated between the initial oil saturation calculated from residual oil saturation, and open porosity.

Melnikova, Yu.S.; Kuznetsov, V.V.; Pronyakov, V.A.; Tolstaya, Ye.M.; Yefremova, L.N.; Yurchak, V.P.

1981-01-01

132

Characterization of crude oil-water and solid -water interfaces and adsorption / desorption properties of crude oil fractions: The effect of low salinity water and pH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reservoirs of conventional oil are rapidly depleting because of increased production and consumption of crude oil in the world. Mature and mostly depleted oil reservoirs require advanced recovery techniques to sustain the production rates. During the past years, a variety of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been developed and implemented to increase the oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an emerging EOR process of injecting water containing low concentrations (<4000 ppm) of total dissolved solids into the reservoir. This moderate cost process yields relatively higher incremental recoveries than other water based recovery methods. Investigation of mechanisms for increased recovery is quite challenging because this process depends upon complex crude oil/water/rock properties. This work was done to study the surface chemistry of typical reservoir surfaces where LSW can be used for EOR. The oil water and solid-water interfaces were characterised in low salinity aqueous solutions and investigated how the electrolytes and pH of solutions affect the interfacial and surface properties. The influence of low saline aqueous solution on the desorption behaviour of different fractions (acid-free oil and base-free oil) of crude oils was also explored. Reservoir minerals are sensitive to small changes in solution properties and therefore model, outcrop and reservoir particles were characterized in low salinity aqueous solutions. The extent of ionic adsorption on the mineral surfaces was found by various techniques. Particles were also characterized with respect to their elemental compositions. Asphaltene adsorption/desorption on reservoir rock surfaces play an important role in EOR processes. Various injection sequences of low saline aqueous solution of Na +, Ca2+ and sea water were considered to study the desorption of asphaltenes from silica surfaces. Composition of the aqueous phase influenced the interfacial properties of crude oil. Acids, bases and asphaltenes were selectively removed from crude oils and demonstrated the significance of each component on the interfacial behaviour in the aqueous phase under various electrolyte concentrations, type of electrolytes and pH ranges. It was determined that the crude oil acids and electrolyte type played an important role for interfacial properties at high pH conditions. Adsorption/desorption properties of various crude oil fractions on silica coated quartz surfaces were also studied. The influence of electrolyte types and pH conditions of low salinity aqueous solutions on desorption behaviour of different oil fractions was considered. Finally, the dynamic interfacial behaviour of two different crude oils and their fractions were evaluated in different aqueous solutions. The effects of mono and divalent ionic concentrations on interfacial properties were compared. (Author)

Farooq, Umer

2010-09-15

133

Oil removal from water using biomaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

A batch study was conducted to evaluate efficiencies of four types of biomaterials to remove oil from water. The oils used in the study were standard mineral oil, vegetable oil and cutting oil. Two fungal biomasses of Mucor rouxii and Absidia coerulea along with chitosan and walnut shell media were the biomaterials used. The study was carried out with an initial oil concentration of 200mg/L for 6h. Non-viable M. rouxii biomass was found to be more effective than A. coerulea biomass in removing oil from water. The study demonstrated that the removal efficiencies by M. rouxii for these oils were in the 77-93% range at a pH of 5.0. The adsorption capacities for standard mineral oil, vegetable oil and cutting oil were 77.2, 92.5, and 84 mg/g of biomass, respectively. The adsorption capacities for various oils exhibited by M. rouxii biomass were less than those of chitosan and walnut shell media. PMID:20378341

Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari

2010-09-01

134

Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is a part of the research project High oil injection rates in a blast furnace, which is a part of the National Energy Research Program SULA 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the test rig and in the interpretation of the results. It has to be noted, however, that the surface tension of the test liquids was higher than what would have been desirable and that full similarity between model experiments and the actual blast furnace was therefore not achieved. The experiments were recorded on video tapes for visual observation of the injection process. A Malvern Particle Sizer was used for the measurement of the spray drop size distributions. The results show that the mean size of the drops increases with increasing liquid flow rate and with increasing surface tension of the liquid and that the mean size of the drops decreases with increasing velocity of the blast and with increasing diameter of the injection lances. The mean size of the drops was found to be independent of the viscosity of the liquid. A correlation equation was fitted to the experimental data and good fit was obtained. A correlation equation in dimensionless form was also developed. The results were compared with correlation equations presented in the literature. (18 refs.)

Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

1996-12-31

135

Study on Advanced Water Injection Time in Low Permeability Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A certain formation pressure level must be kept due to the threshold pressure of the low-permeability reser-voir during the seepage. Advanced water injection can keep the formation pressure at a higher level and keep a higher pressure gradient, which is an effective way to develop low-permeability reservoir. Based on the mechanism of advanced water injection and characteristic of porous flow in low permeability reservoir, a seepage model considering threshold pressure gradient is established to determine the formation pressure distribution at anytime as the water is injected at a constant speed. The optimum water injection time for the advanced water injection technology can be determined by using this model. The calculated result coincides basically with the numerical simulation result, which indicates that the model put forward in this paper is feasible.

Linli Wei

2011-05-01

136

Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

2002-01-01

137

Effects of oil spills on land and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil spills on land and water and their effects on vegetation, terrestrial animals and aquatic organisms are briefly discussed. The toxicity of oils, the ecological effects of oil spills and the significance of marine oil pollution are also considered. (UK).

Nelson-Smith, A.

1985-09-01

138

Operation and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Esterified Cotton Seed Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable oils are renewable in nature and can be directly used as fuels in diesel engines.  However, their high viscosity and poor volatility lead to reduced thermal efficiency and increased hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. Transesterification is one of the methods by which viscosity could be drastically reduced and the fuel could be adopted for use in diesel engine.  This Esterified vegetable oil is popularly known as Bio-diesel and that is commercially available in the developed countries due to its distinct advantage over the conventional diesel. In this work, neat cotton seed oil was converted into  Bio diesel  by  the   transesterification  process  and  the  viscosity  was  reduced from 21.4 ×10-6 m2/s to 4.8×10-6 m2/s (viscosity of the neat Cotton seed oil. A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm was used for the experimental investigations which include combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. Base data was generated for diesel first and subsequently, it was replaced by the Bio diesel and both the results were compared and discussed.

Murugu Mohan Kumar Kandasamy

2009-02-01

139

Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

2013-01-01

140

Boilover burning of oil spilled on water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ burning of fuels spilled on water is of interest as a means for cleaning up these spills. It also is a potential important hazard in unwanted fires. This paper reports the results of small-scale experiments that investigate the combustion of thin layers of heating oil on water, and the events that take place in this complex combustion process, which can lead to the occurrence of explosive burning, normally referred to as boilover. The work concerns primarily the influence of the initial oil-layer thickness and pool diameter on the burning rate, time to the start of boilover, burned mass ratio, boilover intensity, and temperature history of the oil and water. The temperature measurements show that the phenomenon may be due to boiling nucleation near the oil/water interface, in sublayer water that has been superheated. The violent eruptive vaporization of the water bubbles tends to atomize the oil layer above, with subsequent projection of burning droplets. The boilover intensity appears closely related to initial oil-layer thickness and pan diameter. This is discussed in terms of surface tension effects, and growth and expansion of the water bubbles at the nucleation sites

1994-08-05

 
 
 
 
141

Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir simulations also indicate that original rock properties are the dominant factor for the ultimate oil recovery for both primary recovery and gas injection EOR. Because reservoir simulations provide critical inputs for project planning and management, more effort needs to be invested into reservoir modeling and simulation, including building enhanced geologic models, fracture characterization and modeling, and history matching with field data. Gas injection EOR projects are integrated projects, and the viability of a project also depends on different economic conditions.

Pu, Wanli

142

Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

Wennberg, Kjell Erik

1998-12-31

143

Seismic properties of a Venezuelan heavy oil in water emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several procedures for the production of low-viscosity, surfactant-stabilized, easy-transportable dispersions of heavy crude oil in water-briefly, oil in water (or o/w) emulsions - have been recently patented. Some of them propose to form the o/w emulsion in the reservoir, after the injection of a mixture of water and surfactants, increasing significantly the per well daily production. Progression of the o/w emulsion front, through the reservoir to the production wells, can be monitored in seismic planar slices with successive 3D seismic surveys (413 seismic), if enough contrast exists between the seismic velocity value of the o/w emulsion and the one of the oil in place. To facilitate the analysis of the contrast, this study presents high frequency acoustic velocity measurements performed in the laboratory. The experimental setup includes two reflectors and an ultrasonic transducer with double burst train emission. The estimated velocity precision is 0.02%. The measured samples are: a Venezuelan heavy o/w emulsion, a mixture of the same heavy oil and gasoil and a saturated sandstone core containing the o/w emulsion. Additionally, seismic velocities of the actual pore fluids - live oil and five o/w emulsion - and saturated sandstone are calculated using the above laboratory measurements, Wood`s equation, and Gassman`s and Biot`s models.

Maldonado, F.; Liu, Y.; Mavko, G.; Mukerji, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-08-01

144

Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR) operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require a...

Vladimir Alvarado; Xiuyu Wang; Mehrnoosh Moradi

2011-01-01

145

Modelling of water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-in-oil emulsions are grouped into the following four states: stable, mesostable, unstable and entrained water. Only stable and mesostable states are characterized as emulsions. The states are established by their stability over time, their appearance, and by rheological measurements. This paper described the development of a new modelling scheme in which density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin contents are used to compute a class index, which predicts an unstable or entrained water-in-oil state of a meso-stable or stable emulsion. A prediction scheme was also presented to estimate the water content and viscosity of the resulting water-in-oil state and the time to formation given a sea wave-height. The study demonstrated that empirical data can be used to predict the formation and characteristics of emulsions. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

2004-06-08

146

Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

2014-01-01

147

Water Jet Impingement Flow Characteristics in Direct Vessel Injection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water jet impingement is a peculiar phenomenon in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) in which the safety injection nozzle is located in the outer reactor vessel, not in the cold leg such as in OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1,000 MWe). Therefore, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) water spreads with a form of parabolic liquid film in the inner barrel after impinging. It is presently considered that the downcomer flow behavior is strongly governed by the location and geometry of the water injection nozzles. The impingement in the reactor vessel downcomer is one of the unknown important phenomena during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). There is thus a strong need to find how the injected flow strikes the inner downcomer wall and how wide the liquid film spreads by the impingement phenomenon. The liquid film gets in contact with the steam flow in the reactor downcomer such that the interfacial area of liquid film affects the direct bypass according to the nozzle location and geometry. The water jet impingement consists of three rather distinctive flow regions. Albeit the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics are simple and well known in simple geometries, the findings are not readily applicable in the annular reactor downcomer. Analytical and experimental approaches for impingement flow by water injection have yielded detailed flow mechanisms classified in the downcomer. The water injected through three boundaries showed varying behavior according to the injection velocity, injection nozzle diameter, wall curvature, and injection nozzle inclination. As the water injection velocity increases the liquid film spreading width increases, but the spreading width proportional to the injection velocity is tapered due to breakup. Given the injection velocity, a large diameter of injection nozzle increases the film spreading width. Impingement on the flat plate has a larger film spreading width than on the curved plate. Moreover, a larger curvature decreases the film spreading width. The inclined angle of the injection nozzle is a pivotal factor in reducing the film width by increasing the downward velocity. Given the same conditions, the film spreading width lessens as the inclined angle increases. (authors)

2006-06-04

148

Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammme...

1989-01-01

149

Organically modified clay removes oil from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more

1995-01-01

150

Oil well rig with water tower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An oil well rig having a flotatable hull and support legs which are lifted and supported by the floating hull for moving the oil well rig and moved down to engage the sea bottom and jack up or raise the hull above the water at an operating site for drilling or servicing a well or serving an offshore well platform. A water tower has pipes longitudinally mounted by brackets on each side on a beam and is mounted for vertical movement in a well in the hull. An elevator mechanism mounted in the hull is employed to raise and lower the water tower which has guide means fitting a guide portion of the well to provide guided vertical movement of the water tower. When the water tower is lowered, a pump at the bottom of the pipe pumps sea water through the pipe to machinery on the hull to meet the water requirements of the machinery.

Younes, D. T.

1984-09-18

151

Water Local Volume Fraction on Oil in Water Dispersion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phase distribution of water-oil flows was studied experimentally from a separated flow without mixer to a oil in water or water in oil dispersed in horizontal tubes. Under most conditions the pattern was oil continuous in water dispersed or water continuous in oil dispersed flow continuously and there is entrainment in the form of drops of phase into the other. The investigations were carried out through the cross-sectional phase distribution in the flow of mixtures of water and kerosene such as EXXSOL-D80 in a horizontal 25.4 mm bore stainless steel section. The phase fraction distribution was determined using a traversing beam gamma densitometer, with the beam being traversed in three directions (00, 450 and 900 of the vertical line passing through the axis of the tube. Measurements were made at three positions spaced along the 9.7 m test section length (1.0 m, 5.85 m and 7.72 m along the horizontal tube. The measurements were done in the Two-phase Oil Water Experimental Rig (TOWER facility. This facility allows the two fluids to be fed to the test section before they are separated and returned once more to the test line. The flow developed naturally from an initial stratified flow in which the oil and water were introduced separately at the top and the bottom of the test section respectively. It was found that the liquids were fully inter-dispersed by the end of the test section. The results were also used to define the flow patterns in water-oil liquid-liquid flow system. The phase fraction distribution was shown to be homogeneously mixed near to the outlet of the test section.

siti aslina hussain

2008-01-01

152

Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely transferred to operators, particularly to small or medium-sized independent U.S. companies. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is to assess the feasibility of promising oil and gas technologies that offer improved operating performance, reduced operating costs, or greater environmental protection. To further this mission, the NPTO provided funding to a partnership of three organizations a DOE national laboratory (Argonne National Laboratory), a private-sector consulting firm (CH2M-Hill), and a state government agency (Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission) to assess the feasibility of DOWS. The purpose of this report is to provide general information to the industry on DOWS by describing the existing uses of simultaneous injection, summarizing the regulatory implications of simultaneous injection, and assessing the potential future uses of the technology. Chapter 2 provides a more detailed description of the two major types of DOWS. Chapter 3 summarizes the existing U.S. and Canadian installations of DOWS equipment, to the extent that operators have been willing to share their data. Data are provided on the location and geology of existing installations, production information before and after installation of the DOWS, and costs. Chapter 4 provides an overview of DOWS-specific regulatory requirements imposed by some state agencies and discusses the regulatory implications of handling produced water downhole, rather than pumping it to the surface and reinjecting it. Findings and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5 and a list of the references cited in the report is provided in Chapter 6. Appendix A presents detailed data on DOWS installations. This report presents the findings of Phase 1 of the simultaneous injection project, the feasibility assessment. Another activity of the Phase 1 investigation is to design a study plan for Phase 2 of the project, field pilot studies. The Phase 2 study plan is being developed separately and is not included in this report.

Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.; Environmental Assessment; CH2M Hill; Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission

1999-01-31

153

Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

Norum, Thomas D.

2004-01-01

154

Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace. Masuunin raskaan polttooeljyn ruiskutuksen kokeellinen tutkimus pienoismalleilla  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is part of the research project 'High oil injection rates in a blast furnace' which is part of the National Energy Research Program Sula 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the testing rig and in the interpretation of the results.

Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

1996-01-01

155

Enhanced Oil Recovery by CO2 and CO2-foam Injection in Fractured Limestone Rocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is part of an ongoing study of integrated enhanced oil recovery methods in Reservoir Physics group at the Department of Physics and Technology at the University of Bergen. This experimental thesis investigates through laboratory tests the miscible, liquid CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in an outcrop limestone rock, analogue to carbonate reservoirs. A total of 18 CO2 injection experiments have been performed to study the influence on CO2 EOR from parameters such as presenc...

Langlo, Stig Andre Winter

2013-01-01

156

Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

1999-07-01

157

Process and apparatus for introducing aqueous chloride dioxide into high pressure water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for treating a high pressure water-containing line used for carrying water into a subterranean oil field so as to minimize clogging and corrosion of the pipeline, the method comprising the steps of: providing a small diameter tube centrally disposed along the longitudinal axis of the line and having a discharge end provided with at least one opening to permit the effluence of an aqueous solution from the tube, the tube being made from an NCMC alloy; introducing an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution into the tube; and injecting the aqueous chlorine dioxide solution into the high pressure water-containing line.

Sacco, F.J.

1989-04-25

158

Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

2006-03-15

159

Control system for emergency water injection facility in nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To economize water of the emergency water injection facility by controlling to maintain the reactor water at a normal level upon loss of feedwater accidents or other rapture accidents in the nuclear reactor and controlling to stop the pump driving if the water in the reactor rises to an abnormally high level. Constitution: If the water level in the reactor should be lowered abnormally upon occurrence of rapture accidents or the likes, a switch for detecting the abnormal level lowering is actuated to drive a pump. The water level in the reactor can thus be maintained at a normal level. As the result of water injection, if the water level in the reactor goes abnormally high, a switch for detecting the abnormal level increase is actuated to operate a stopping circuit to close the valve and stop the pump driving. (Kawakami, Y.)

1981-01-01

160

Subconjunctival cysts following silicone oil injection: A clinicopathological study of five cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To study the occurrence, risk factors and management of subconjunctival cysts formed following the use of intraocular silicone oil as a tamponade. Methods: We analysed 5 cases of single and multioculated subconjunctival oil cysts between 1986 and 1996. Results: Cysts were observed 15 days to 4 months following silicone oil injection. Clinically they showed minimal inflammatory signs but histopathology of removed cysts showed emulsified silicone oil globules with chronic inflammatory cellular infiltration. Conclusion: Though silicone oil is considered to be nontoxic, it can cause chronic inflammation when spilled into the subconjunctival space

Biswas Jyotirmay

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Biomass fueled closed cycle gas turbine with water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct water injection has been studied for a small scale ({approx} 8 MW fuel input) closed cycle gas turbine coupled to a biomass fueled CFB furnace. Two different working fluids have been considered (helium-water mixture and nitrogen-water mixture). The water injection could take place between the compressor stages, as an intercooler, or after the high pressure compressor, as an aftercooler. Both this options have been studied, varying the relative humidity levels after the injection and the temperatures of the injected water. The effect of water injection on thermodynamic properties of the working fluids has been studied, together with its effect on turbomachinery isentropic efficiency. A sensitivity analysis on turbomachinery efficiency and cycle base pressure has been included. The results from this study have been compared to the performance of a dry closed cycle without water injection. The wet cycle shows an electric efficiency in the range 29-32% with helium-water mixture as working fluid and 30-32% with nitrogen-water mixture as working fluid, while the total efficiency (referring to the fuel LHV) is always higher than 100%. In the non-injected cycle the electric efficiency is 30-35% with helium and 32-36 with nitrogen. The total efficiency in the dry case with two level intercooling and postcooling is 87-89%, while is higher than 100% when only one stage inter- and postcooling is present. Aside from this, the study also includes a sizing of the heat exchangers for the different cycle variations. The heat transfer area is very sensible to the working fluid and to the amount of injected water and it's always higher when a nitrogen-water mixture is used. Compared to the cycle without water injection, by the way, the number of heat exchangers is reduced. This will lead to a lower pressure drop and a simpler plant layout. The total heat transfer area, however, is higher in the wet cycle than in the dry cycle.

Bardi, Silvia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

2001-01-01

162

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test, SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test, TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test, information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru M.

2013-05-01

163

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru, M.; Goran, N.

2013-05-01

164

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Inter-well tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Campina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results. (authors)

2011-06-06

165

New heavy fuel oil injection system; Neues Schweroel-Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2001 Waertsilaeand L'Orange launched the first common rail injection system for heavy fuel oil applications on the WaertsilaeW32 engine. This common rail system is very complex and relatively slow, compared to the marine diesel common rail systems. The second generation of heavy fuel oil common rail systems will be improved regarding functionality, costs, lifetime and maintainability. (orig.)

Senghaas, Clemens; Schneider, Hartmut; Reinhard, Steffen [L' Orange GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Bereich Entwicklung; Jay, Dave; Ehrstroem, Kenneth [Waertsilae, Vaasa (Finland)

2011-01-15

166

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

167

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

168

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

169

Optimal injection policies for enhanced oil recovery: Part 1-Theory and computational strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory of optimal control of distributed-parameter systems is presented for determining the best possible injection policies for EOR processes. The optimization criterion is to maximize the amount of oil recovered at minimum injection costs. Necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin's weak minimum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection policies.

Ramirez, W.F.; Cagnol, J.L.; Fathi, Z.

1984-06-01

170

Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil reservoir management methodology to maximize both fluid recovery and free up currently injected HC gases for domestic consumption. Moreover, this study identified the main uncertainty parameters impacting the gas and oil production performance with all proposed alternatives. Maximizing both fluids oil and gas in oil rim reservoir are challenging. The reservoir heterogeneity will have a major impact on the performance of non hydrocarbon gas flooding. Therefore, good reservoir description is a key to achieve acceptable development process and make reliable prediction. The lab study data were used successfully to as a tool to identify the range of uncertainty parameters that are impacting the hydrocarbon recovery.

Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

171

Prokaryotic Community Structure and Sulfate Reducer Activity in Water from High-Temperature Oil Reservoirs with and without Nitrate Treatment? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. One strategy to control SRP activity is the addition of nitrate to the injection water. Production waters from two adjacent, hot (80°C) oil reservoirs, one with and one without nitrate treatment, were compared for prokaryotic community structure and activity of SRP. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed higher prokaryotic abunda...

Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

2009-01-01

172

Laboratory Experiments on Oil Spill Protection of a Water Intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat of oil pollution to water intakes is a serious problem in areas with oil exploration and production activities, refineries and oil transport. The Delft Hydraulics Laboratory has performed an extensive study on protective measures for the specif...

G. A. L. Delvigne

1984-01-01

173

Valve controls water injection in gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water valve expressly designed to control water in systems used to reduce nitrous oxide (NO/sub x/) emissions in gas turbines has been developed and tested by the Woodward Governor Co. The valve is being used on several models of gas turbines such as the General Electric LM2500 and LM5000, the Rolls Royce Olympus, and the Pratt and Whitney FT4. The valve may be used on any gas turbine. The valve should be particularly useful in areas with very stringent emission regulations like West Germany, Japan, and Florida and California in the USA. In NO/sub x/ reduction applications deionized water is metered into the fuel or the turbine combustion chamber and this lowers combustion temperatures. The lowered combustion temperature not only reduces NO/sub x/ emissions but also increases turbine power output. The 3151A water valve has increased resistance to cavitation, corrosion, and erosion. The valve achieves its high degree of reliability through the use of ceramic technology, hardened stainless steel parts, and the unique design of a spool-type metering valve. 1 figure.

Bering, F.

1986-04-01

174

Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

1997-06-01

175

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

176

Oil-spill-combatting water craft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An oil-spill-combatting water craft is provided with at least one protruding boom but most suitably one on each side of the craft. Each boom directs surface water and oil present in it into a conduit inside the craft, the inlet and the outlet of the conduit being located in the side of the craft. The purpose is to provide a simple, high-capacity arrangement in which the flow is, nevertheless, relatively calm even when the sea is rough. With this in mind, the conduit has been implemented as a circulation conduit, the outlet of which is situated nearer the bow than the inlet and in which the water flows automatically owing to the water-raising and water-guiding effect of the boom. Separating means for water and oil, fitted inside the conduit, is a rotating arrangement that allows water to flow through and is, for example, made up of rows of bristles. In front of the outlet of the conduit there is fitted a baffle that extends obliquely outwards and backwards.

Lundin, L.

1988-12-28

177

Heavy oil-in-water emulsion as a novel sealant in the near well bore region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dispersion of two mutually insoluble liquids, such as water and oil is called an emulsion. When oil is dispersed in water, the emulsion is called an oil-in-water emulsion which has a lower viscosity than the oil constituents. Emulsions occur in most phases of oil production and processing. Because natural emulsifiers exist in petroleum reservoirs, much of the world's crude oil is produced in emulsion form. Emulsions can also be formed in-situ in several enhanced oil recovery processes such as chemical flooding, carbon dioxide flooding, steam flooding and fire flooding. This paper presented the results of an experimental study that examined the blocking mechanism of heavy oil-in-water emulsions injected into a porous medium. Micro-models were injected with well-characterized heavy oil-in-water emulsions and visualization experiments were utilized to record their behavior. Several characteristics were studied, including the effect of droplet-to-pore size ratio; droplet stability; and, surfactant type and concentration. The paper presented the results obtained from the visualized microscopic experiments and evaluated the flow behavior of the emulsion and factors affecting its propagation rate into the porous medium. The paper also discussed the effectiveness of the sealing process through high pressure core flooding experiments. Last, it provided guidelines for future field applications. It was concluded that the experiments showed that an oil-in-water emulsion was effective in sealing unconsolidated cores for long periods of time as emulsions carrying more viscous oils could resist higher pressures. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs.

Zeidani, K.; Polikar, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Huang, H. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Boyd, J. [Seal-MastR Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

178

Laboratory investigation of air injection process for depleted light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air injection into light oil reservoirs is now a proven field technique, because of its unlimited availability and low access cost of the injectant. Laboratory experimental set up was developed to understand air injection process, assess oxygen consumption and to sustain the combustion front for improving oil recovery from depleted light oil reservoirs. Non-Isothermal experiments from 40-500 degree C and a pressure of 300 and 500 psig were conducted. Unconsolidated formation impregnated with light crude oil was used in these experiments. Oxidation of the impregnated formation for sustaining the combustion front through the combustion cell carried out by injecting synthetic air (79% nitrogen and 21% oxygen). The produced combustion gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen and nitrogen were analyzed using Gas Chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector. Higher consumption of oxygen was observed at a temperature immediately after an ignition of oil, generating high temperature oxidation zone. This also resulted more efficient carbon oxides, and created an oil bank ahead of thermal front. (author)

2007-07-01

179

Phase behaviour of China reservoir oil at different CO{sub 2} injected concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high-pressure PVT unit was used in this study to investigate the phase behaviour of oil from a reservoir in China. The study examined different carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection concentrations at 385.2 K. Seven groups of reservoir fluids with CO{sub 2} mole contents ranging from 0 to 71.29 percent were prepared. The saturation pressure of reservoir fluids and CO{sub 2} solubility in oil for seven CO{sub 2} injected contents were measured from PVT relation curves. The reservoir oil density and viscosity at different pressures under reservoir temperature were also obtained. The study showed that the saturation pressure increases with an increase in CO{sub 2} concentration, and that it can increase from 4.7 MPa to 25.7 MPa after 71.29 mol percent of injected CO{sub 2}. The reservoir viscosities decrease as CO{sub 2} concentration increases when the system pressure rises above the bubble point for different injection concentrations. The reservoir viscosity can decrease by 70 percent if 71.29 mol CO{sub 2} is injected. It was concluded that the results of this study will be useful in evaluating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection as an enhanced oil recovery method. tabs., figs.

Yang, X.; Sun, C.Y.; Tang, X.L.; Peng, B.Z.; Chen, G.J. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing

2010-07-01

180

Flotation aids for oil-in-water emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An oil-in-water emulsion is separated to float the oil and thereby clarify the water. It is useful for recovering water used in secondary recovery of petroleum in oil fields and also in recovering water from other oil-in-water emulsions. The clarification of water in an oil-in-water emulsion and the recovery of oil from such an emulsion is enhanced by treating the oil-in-water emulsion to separate the emulsion and float the oil incidental to recovering one of the emulsion phases. This is done by adding to the emulsion an effective amount of a cationic polyacrylamide such as a diethylaminoethylmethacrylamid acrylamide copolymer, or a dialkyl aminopropylmethacrylamide, acrylamide copolymer or similar copolymers. 3 claims.

Allain, D.J.; Fong, D.W.

1982-12-14

 
 
 
 
181

Characteristics of breaking up water--oil emulsions in the oil-collector reservoirs of the Arlan field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given for the breakdown of water--oil emulsions in a collection system by using various demulsifiers. For this purpose an experimental industrial area 8-km long was equipped to collect the products of seven group instruments. The area included 4 stratal sampler probes and a ND 63/100 metering pump. They made it possible to select emulsions from a desired interval along the cross section of the pressure reservoir. This set of instruments made it possible to obtain the required information about the physico-chemical parameters of the water--oil emulsion and the flow structure at any distance from the demulsifier feeder. The demulsifier used was Separol 50-14. The test samples were measured for emulsion density, water, oil, water content, the dynamic viscosity of the emulsion at the beginning sector of the reservoir. Also studied was the oil--water distribution throughout the oil-collecting reservoir in relation to the specific expenditure of the demulsifier. Also measured was the residual water in the oil after a total emulsion settling period of two hours, etc. The fluid demulsifier Separol 50-14 is injected within the limits of 20 to 30 g/ton. This produces a sharp decrease in the dynamic viscosity of the emulsion at the beginning sector of the reservoir and the pressure is reduced by two times. When the demulsifier reagent is placed in the emulsion at the above-indicated limits it is possible to produce oil with residual water within the range of 2 to 5% at an average inundation level of 73%. When no demulsifier is used, the residual water in the oil is sustained at from 15 to 50% even after 16 hours of settling at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C.

Mullagallyamov, T.Sh.; Khokhlov, N.G.; Islamov, F.Ya.; Gabdrakhmanov, A.G.

1978-01-01

182

The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation of continuous CO2 flooding with uniform initial water saturation. As a follow-up of the previous study, this study extends theinvestigation to two more realistic scenarios (1) CO2 injection into water flooded reservoir and (2) water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection with CO2 as the injection gas. A series of 1-D simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different factors, including temperature, pressure, salinity, water injection pore volume, WAG ratio and CO2 slug size, on the simulation results was also discussed. In addition, the results for CO2 injection into water flooded reservoirs were also compared with those from the previous study.

Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

2010-01-01

183

Modeling of Ion Injection in Oil-Pressboard Insulation Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To make a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission more energy efficient, the voltage of the system has to be increased. To allow for that the components of the system must be constructed to handle the increases AC and DC stresses that this leads to. One key component in such a transmission is the HVDC converter transformer. The insulation system of the transformer usually consists of oil and oil-impregnated pressboard. Modeling of the electric DC field in the insulation system is curr...

2012-01-01

184

Waste water treatment options for SAGD oil production facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water treatment facilities produce concentrated waste streams that contain high concentrations of total dissolved solids. The waste streams are typically partially recycled to upstream processes or injected into wells. However, these methods can result in the precipitation of silicate compounds and chemical imbalances in upstream water treatment processes. This study simulated 2 SAGD processes and MVC and once-through steam generator (OTSG) waste water treatment options. MVC waste water treatments were simulated with sulfuric acid only; with sulfuric acid and magnesium oxide; and low TH-high silica OTSG blowdown. Results of the simulations showed that the waste water generated was adequately treated with a combination of acid and magox. Further reductions in pH reduced silica contents and alkalinity. Costs for the treatment were estimated at $6.17 per metre{sup 3} for MVC waste water and $1.77 m{sup 3} for blowdown waste water. The addition of magox lowered the cost for silica removal to $4.60 per m{sup 3}. It was concluded that waste water treatment is needed to make produced water treatment options viable with the oil sands industry. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

Portelance, S.N. [WorleyParsons MEG Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

185

Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

Pinto Jair Sebastião S.

2006-01-01

186

Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by transarterial injection of anticancer agents in iodized oil suspension or of radioactive iodized oil solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transarterial injection of modified iodized oil was performed in 48 patients with hepatoma. In 41 cases an adriamycin and/or mitomycin C-iodized oil suspension was administered into the proper hepatic artery or peripheral hepatic branches. A reduction in tumor size of over 50% was obtained in 14 of the 33 patients in whom CT examination was performed before and after treatment. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels decreased in 20 of 21 cases within the first month after injection. The one-year survival rate was estimated at 55% in advanced hepatoma. In 7 patients, transarterial internal irradiation using radioactive iodized oil was carried out. A decrease in tumor size was observed in all cases and in alpha-fetoprotein levels in 6 cases. One patient with severe liver cirrhosis died in hepatorenal failure. No severe complications or other adverse reactions were encountered with either of the methods. (orig.)

1986-01-01

187

Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) present promising ''greener'' substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported in the literature, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. Experiments were also conducted using various blends of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), smoke opacity, CO2, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on Jatropha oil (preheated and blends), performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior. (author)

2007-09-01

188

Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

2005-01-01

189

Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. In order to meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling and foaming the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years. In order to inhibit gas hydrate formation in subsea pipelines monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and to evaluate their impact on marine life. Furthermore distribution of chemicals is important information for downstream processing of oil and gas. The purpose of this project is the experimental measurement and the thermodynamic modeling of distribution of these complex chemicals in oil-water systems. Traditionally distribution of chemicals in oil-water system is calculated using octanol-water partition coefficients. But experiments carried out by StatoilR & D have shown that octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) do not always mimic oil-water partition coefficients (Koil-water) and therefore calculations may not be always correct. In the first phase of this project experimental data on Kow, Koil-water and Khw (hexane-water partition coefficients) are collected and investigations were carried out to develop correlations so that Koil-water can be predicted using Kow and Khw. However, due to scarcity of experimental data and limited information about the molecular structure of production chemicals the correlation could only be obtained for few families like alcohols, glycols and alkanolamines with varying degree of reliability. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. When methanol and MEG are used as gas hydrate inhibitors, the most significant disadvantage, especially for methanol, is their loss in hydrocarbon phase(s). The successful estimation of inhibitor loss would enable the inhibitors injection optimization as a function of the system parameters such as temperature and water cut. In this project the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol, MEG) in various phases is modeled using the CPA EoS. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems containing mixture-1 over a range of temperature and pressure. Similarly the methanol content in gas phase of mixture-1 + water + methanol systems is predicted satisfactorily with accuracy in the range of experimental uncertainty. For VLLE of mixture-2 + water, mixture-2 + MEG + water and mixture-2 + methano

Riaz, Muhammad

2011-01-01

190

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06

191

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field

2001-01-01

192

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies

2002-11-25

193

One-step process for transforming a water-in-oil emulsion into an oil-in-water emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for the production of an oil-in-water emulsion for pipeline transmission which comprises: (a) producing a hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion; (b) adding to the hydrocarbon crude when the crude is at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/F, an emulsifier system capable of forming and sustaining an oil-in-water emulsion at the temperature and at ambient pipeline transmission temperatures. The amount of emulsifier system added is sufficient to form and sustain an oil-in-water emulsion having a selected water content of from about 15 percent to about 35 percent by weight water and a viscosity sufficiently low for pipeline transmission; (c) agitating the hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion and the added emulsifier system, to form an oil-in-water emulsion; and (d) separating any excess water from the formed oil-in-water emulsion.

Prasad, R.R.S.

1986-12-09

194

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

195

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23

196

Emulsifier combination to emulsilfy oil in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns an emulsifier combination to emulsify oil in water. By using hydroxy ethylating fatty acids alkanol amide. R/sub 1/-CO-NX-R-/sub 2/-OH and secondary alkane sulphate, it is possible with extraordinarily large emulsification to simultaneously obtain great emulsion stability. Hence this type of emulsifier combination is suitable for preparing cosmetic and pharmaceutic products which, e.g., might contain the following substances; aliphatic hydrocarbons, silicon oils, fatty alcohols, polyfunctional alcohols, fatty acids; fatty acid esters, soaps, perfume oils, as well as plant, animal and synthetic substances. In the above-mentioned formula, R/sub 1/ is a saturated or unsaturated alkyl residue with 12 to 20 carbon atoms. R/sub 2/ is an ethylene or isopropylene residue. X is hydrogen or R/sub 2/-OH. 10 Emulsifier combinations with their mixtures and stabilities at storage temperatures of 20/sup 0/or 40/sup 0/C are given in a survey.

Bergerhausen, H.; Reng, A.; Sauerwald, G.; Taeuber, G.

1977-09-22

197

Study of an Oil Field (Hassi Messaoud) by Injection of Tritiated Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas is injected into a deposit to increase the yield of oil contained in the rock and to maintain the pressure of the fluids at a value sufficient for the wells to remain naturally eruptive. The efficiency of this technique depends mainly on establishing a uniform displacement front in spite of heterogeneities. When the gas is injected simultaneously into several wells, the gas-oil displacement can be checked only if the origin of the gas reaching the producer wells is known with certainty. This is achieved by mixing with the gas from each of the injection wells a radioactive tracer whose path in the oil-bearing rock faithfully reproduces the movement of the gas-oil front. The tracers used are tritiated methane, ethane, propane and butane, which are injected respectively into four wells in amounts of up to 200 Ci. The distance separating each injection well from a producer well is considerable (1-6 km) and the oil volume is great, so that the radioactive tracer undergoes very marked dilution during its displacement. For industrial-scale detection of the arrival of the different tracers at the producers, it is therefore necessary to use very sensitive methods. Samples of oil are taken at the head of the producers at a pressure of approx. 50 kg/cm2. The gas in solution in the oil is separated into four fractions, which are respectively rich in C1, C2, C3 and C4 with a degree of purity better than 90%. The beta radiation of each of the fractions is then measured using a double-envelope proportional counter placed in a lead container and connected to an anti-coincidence counting system. The long-term possibility of isotopic exchange between the different tracers and the hydrocarbons present in the rock were studied experimentally under the conditions of pressure and temperature at the deposit. (author)

1967-06-01

198

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs

2009-01-01

199

Ultra high-temperature solids-free insulating packer fluid for oil and gas production, steam injection and geothermal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uncontrolled heat transfer from production/injection tubing during thermal oil recovery via steam injection can be detrimental to the integrity of the casing and to the quality of the steam that is injected into the reservoir. An aqueous-based insulating packer fluid (IPF) was introduced to improve the steam injection process by controlling the total heat loss from the produced fluids to the surrounding wellbore, internal annuli and formation. The IPF was developed for elevated temperature environments through extensive investigation across multidisciplinary technology. The innovative system delivers performance beyond conventional systems of comparable thermal conductivity. Its density range and conductivity measurements were presented in this paper. High-temperature static aging tests showed superior gel integrity without any phase separation after exposure to temperatures higher than 260 degrees C. The new fluids are hydrate inhibitive, non-corrosive and pass oil and grease testing. They are considered to be environmentally sound by Gulf of Mexico standards. It was concluded that the new ultra high-performance insulating packer fluid (HTIPF) reduced the heat loss significantly by both conduction and convection. Heat transfer within the aqueous-based HTIPF was 97 per cent less than that of pure water. It was concluded that the HTIPF can be substituted for conventional packer fluids without compromising any well control issues. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

Ezell, R.G.; Harrison, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-10-15

200

Additive for inclusion in a heavy oil reservoir undergoing steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The viscosity of heavy oil may be incrementally reduced over what can be achieved by steam alone, by introducing an aqueous metal salt solution into a reservoir undergoing steam injection. The metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Al. In a preferred feature CO is also introduced as a second additive, with a further oil viscosity reduction being observed with certain of the metal ions.

Hyne, J. B.; Clark, P. D.

1985-03-26

 
 
 
 
201

Correlation Study Between Streaming Potential Signal and Waterfront Progression During Water Alternate Gas (WAG Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous Potential (SP is commonly measured during reservoir characterization. The SP signals are also generated during hydrocarbon production due to the streaming potential occurrence. Measurement of streaming potential has been previously proposed to detect the water encroachment towards a production well. The objectives of this study are to quantify the magnitude of the SP signal during production by WAG injection and to investigate the possibility of using SP measurements to monitor the sweep efficiency. The peak of the signal corresponds to the waterfront, where there is a change of saturation from ionic water to non-polar hydrocarbon. Similar trend is predicted in the case of WAG, where we have several interfaces between the injected water and the injected gas. This project involves numerical modeling and experimental work. Results from the experimental work will be used in the simulation work to correlate the measured SP signals with the distance of the waterfront in the WAG process. These observations suggest that WAG displacement process can be monitored indirectly from the signal acquired. Water or gas override can be detected and controlled if wells were equipped with inflow-control valves. This study is significant because monitoring the progress of water and gas in a WAG process is key in the effectiveness of this enhanced oil recovery method. Measurement of the streaming potential provides another method besides using tracers to monitor the WAG profile. Better monitoring will lead to more efficient displacement and great benefits in term of economy and environment.

S.M.M. Anuar

2014-01-01

202

Nuclear-energy application studied as source of injection steam for heavy-oil recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study into the feasibility of adapting a well-proven nuclear reactor as a centralized source of injection steam for the recovery of heavy oil has shown that the reactor modifications are practicable and well within the bounds of current technology. The gas-cooled reactor is capable of meeting the highest steam supply pressure requirement and it possesses a high degree of inherent safety. The injection of steam for the recovery of heavy oil is the most well developed of the available options. At current price levels of oil and uranium, nuclear heat can be generated at a fraction of the running costs of oil fired thermal plant. Taken over a project lifetime of 25 years for the field model used for this assessment, the improved earnings for the nuclear option could amount to as much as /10 billion. The program requirements for a typical development have been examined and the construction times for the gas reactor steam plant, the oil-field development and the upgrading plant are compatible at between five and six years. The economic advantage of steam generation by nuclear energy gives a further recovery breakthrough. It becomes possible to continue the steam drive process up to much more adverse recovery ratios of steam quantity injected for unit oil produced if nuclear energy is employed

1981-08-03

203

Water injection in longwall top-coal caving face in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the means of improving dust control efficiency using water injection. At first, the authors point out that internal water has effect on dust control. The objective of water injection is to increase the amount of internal water. Secondly, by analyzing the development trend of crack in top-coal, proper water injection station and boreholes can be determined for dust control.

Yong, Z.; Gui, F.

1999-07-01

204

Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

1990-04-09

205

Membrane filter tests evaluate quality of injection water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much information about an injection water can be determined from membrane filter tests. These tests can identify air leaks, mixing of incompatible waters, or severe localized corrosion areas--the latter by the quantity and type of corrosion by-product. Membrane filter tests, used with water analysis, microbiological examination and other tests, serve as a useful adjunct in the successful evaluation of field waters for injection and disposal. The apparatus consists of a pressurized lucite container, membrane filters, Tygon tubing, and a 1,000 ml graduated cylinder. In operation, the container is filled with water, a preweighed membrane filter is inserted, and the container is pressurized from either a CO2 cartridge or a nitrogen bottle. During filtration, time intervals for a given volume of throughput are recorded. After filtration, the filter is removed and carefully washed with distilled water to remove water-soluble salts. The membrane filter is dried and weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg. The total suspended material in the test water is found by substituting in the equation given. Membrane filter is then extracted with pentane or hexane, dried, and reweighed. From the quantitative data obtained in the determination of suspended solids, an estimate of the hydrocarbons in the suspended matter can be calculated.

Smith, H.L.; Strickland, L.N.

1972-01-01

206

OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright with development ongoing and a commercialization plan in place. We expect that this DOE sponsored technology will be a major technical and commercial success story in the coming years.

Michael Wilt

2004-02-01

207

Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

2000-01-01

208

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time....

1992-01-01

209

Microgels at oil/water interfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Particle-stabilized emulsions, so called Pickering Emulsions, are known for more than a century. In such emulsions particles, mostly inorganic particles in the nm to µm range, adsorb to oil/water interfaces and stabilize emulsions by coulomb and sterical repulsion. Pickering emulsions are usually of very high stability, and a lot of energy is needed when such emulsions should be broken. Emulsions which stability depends on external stimuli have drawn much attention in recent years, as they a...

Brugger, Bastian Matthias

2009-01-01

210

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

211

Evaluating mineralization of connate water and initial oil saturation of collector rocks using results of core sample studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility is examined of determining the mineral composition of residual water from a core sample taken in wells of the Uzen field with the use of inverted-emulsion solutions as the flushing fluids. Information is provided about the initial oil saturation in the zones untouched by injected water in the process of working the Uzen field. The correlation is shown between the initial oil saturation computed from residual water saturation, and open porosity.

Mel' nikova, Yu.S.; Kuznetsov, V.V.; Pronyakov, V.A.; Tolstaya, Ye.M.; Yefremova, L.N.; Yurchak, V.P.

1981-01-01

212

Demulsification of dilute oil/water emulsions with organic electrolytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tetraalkylammonium and tetraalkylphosphonium ions induce oil droplet coalescence in dilute oil/water emulsions stabilized by sodium dodecanoate. This was shown by dynamic light-scattering, monitoring oil droplet sizes, and kinetic measurements of oil droplet aggregation. A large ion size, a symmetrical ion geometry and a strongly interacting counterion were found to be important criteria for organic electrolytes to be efficient demulsifiers.

Jansson, M.; Pes, M.A. (Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden))

1994-03-15

213

Method for removing water from produced crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for removing emulsified water from a crude oil stream produced from a subterranean, oil-containing formation, the oil stream containing about 14 to about 65% by volume of emulsified water. The method consists of: (a) passing the crude oil stream containing emulsified water through a bed of a water-saturated hydrophilic coalescing medium selected from the group consisting of sand, crushed quartz, diatomaceous earth, porous silica and ground walnut shells, whereby the water coalesces and an oil phase, substantially free of water, and a water phase are formed; and (b) separating the oil phase containing less than 3 volume percent of water from the water phase by gravitational separation or centrifuging.

McMillen, J.M.

1986-06-03

214

Fractal-like charge injection kinetics in transformer oil stressed by high-voltage pulses  

Science.gov (United States)

Kerr electro-optic measurements are taken to study the transient electrode charge injection in high voltage pulsed transformer oil. It is found that the injection current densities from two stainless-steel parallel-plate electrodes with distinct surface roughness display fractal-like kinetics, i.e., power-law time dependence. Our measurement data agree with numerical simulation results of the time-dependent drift-diffusion model with the experimentally determined injection current boundary conditions. The fractal-like kinetics implies that the electric double layer processes contributing to injection are diffusion-limited. Physical mechanisms based on formative steps of adsorption-reaction-desorption reveal possible connections between geometrical characteristics of electrode surfaces and fractal-like kinetics of charge injection.

Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

2014-04-01

215

Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

1976-10-01

216

Charge of water droplets in non-polar oils  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in droplet manipulation methods by electric fields and signals require a deeper understanding of water droplet charge. In this paper, we have investigated the electrophoretic motion of individual water microdroplets injected into non-polar silicone and paraffin oil by video optical microscopy on an individual droplet basis to determine droplet charge. It was found that the initial surface charge density of surfactant free droplets directly after injection from a micropipette is positive and of the order of 10-6 C/m2, regardless of pH and ion concentration in the range from pH 4 to pH 10 and from 0.01 mmol/l to 1.5 mol/l, respectively. The experimental results together with molecular dynamics simulations show that the nature and polarity of the charge can be explained by anisotropic orientation of water molecules at the interface rather than selective adsorption of ions. Furthermore, we showed that slip at the liquid-liquid boundary must be taken into account when interpreting electrophoretic measurements of droplets.

Schoeler, Andreas M.; Josephides, Dimitris N.; Sajjadi, Shahriar; Lorenz, Christian D.; Mesquida, Patrick

2013-10-01

217

Coal-Oil Mixture Combustion Program: Injection into a Blast Furnace.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and ...

S. G. Jansto A. Mertdogan L. A. Marlin V. D. Beaucaire

1982-01-01

218

Treatment of Renal Colic Using Intracutaneous Injection of Sterile Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To evaluate the intracutaneous injection of sterile water in the treatment of renal colic.

Hassan Ahmadnia; Mahdi Younesi Rostami

2004-01-01

219

The Appearance and Visibility of Thin Oil Films on Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report examines the inherent optical characteristics and corresponding inherent visual effects of thin films of oil on water. The objective of the laboratory study is to determine the feasibility of visual means of oil spill detection. Factors conside...

B. Hornstein

1972-01-01

220

Dispersant Effectivenss Testing on Alaskan Oils in Cold Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine if Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 dispersants are effective in dispersing Alaskan crude oils in cold-water conditions at the National Oil Spill Response Test Facility (Ohmsett).

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Direct steam generation using a water injection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One way to reduce plant price is by an increase in efficiency. About 3/4 of the energy in the Rankine cycle is used to evaporate water. By allowing the evaporation to take place directly in the collector tube, most of the tube temperature would be around the saturation temperature. Another advantage is the high amount of energy that can be store in the water-to-steam phase change. This reduces the required mass flow (tubing cost, (parasitics) in the solar field. At the moment there are two Direct Steam Generator systems which show promise. Luz developed the once-through boiler, BII developed the injection system

1993-02-01

222

Conceptual design of safety injection tanks using saturated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) which is the one of Safety Injection System (SIS) play an important role in mitigating the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). APR1400 has the advanced 4 SITs directly connected to a reactor vessel. We expect the capacity of the SITs is getting more important since the coolant from SITs equipped with a FD during LBLOCA can replace the injection from low pressure safety injection pumps (LPSIPs). In designing a larger capacity SIT, we may have three problems; the excessively large volume for pressurized N2 gas, which is about 1/3 of the total volume, the difficulties controlling injection flowrate and the solubility of the non-condensable N2 gas in the coolant. In here, there is the contradiction which is 'there must be nitrogen gas for pressurization but there must not be nitrogen gas for more coolant.' For this problem, the axiomatic design (AD) theory enabled us to define or regularize the intrinsic problem which is termed the coupling and the contradiction. TRIZ facilitates creating solutions on the contradiction. This study proposes a conceptual design of SITs which are pressurized by steam from the saturated water as a demonstration of the conceptual design framework, AD theory and TRIZ. The purpose of this conceptual design is to increase coolant volume and to reduce N2 gas volume in SITs. In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design, we derived an analytical model to find the heat loss of saturated water and thermo-hydraulic safety analysis using MARS3.1. To confirm the safety and integrity of core, we conducted LBLOCA simulation to find peak cladding temperature (PCT) of design using the proposed SITs comparing with the conventional SITs. From the analysis results, the benefits of the new SIT design were observed in terms of the PCT, the quenching time and the size. And the new SIT design may enable emergency core cooling water to be injected efficiently and can be applicable to SIT which has smaller size than the existing and simplified design of SIS

2009-05-18

223

Conceptual design of safety injection tanks using saturated water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) which is the one of Safety Injection System (SIS) play an important role in mitigating the Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). APR1400 has the advanced 4 SITs directly connected to a reactor vessel. We expect the capacity of the SITs is getting more important since the coolant from SITs equipped with a FD during LBLOCA can replace the injection from low pressure safety injection pumps (LPSIPs). In designing a larger capacity SIT, we may have three problems; the excessively large volume for pressurized N{sub 2} gas, which is about 1/3 of the total volume, the difficulties controlling injection flowrate and the solubility of the non-condensable N{sub 2} gas in the coolant. In here, there is the contradiction which is 'there must be nitrogen gas for pressurization but there must not be nitrogen gas for more coolant.' For this problem, the axiomatic design (AD) theory enabled us to define or regularize the intrinsic problem which is termed the coupling and the contradiction. TRIZ facilitates creating solutions on the contradiction. This study proposes a conceptual design of SITs which are pressurized by steam from the saturated water as a demonstration of the conceptual design framework, AD theory and TRIZ. The purpose of this conceptual design is to increase coolant volume and to reduce N{sub 2} gas volume in SITs. In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed design, we derived an analytical model to find the heat loss of saturated water and thermo-hydraulic safety analysis using MARS3.1. To confirm the safety and integrity of core, we conducted LBLOCA simulation to find peak cladding temperature (PCT) of design using the proposed SITs comparing with the conventional SITs. From the analysis results, the benefits of the new SIT design were observed in terms of the PCT, the quenching time and the size. And the new SIT design may enable emergency core cooling water to be injected efficiently and can be applicable to SIT which has smaller size than the existing and simplified design of SIS.

Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Won Joon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

224

Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, ...

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Suliman, A.; Hadow, Mahmmoud M.

2008-01-01

225

Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

2012-07-01

226

Oil-in-water emulsion as a modifier of water reflectance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a component of the water reflectance in the visible region, stimulated by oil-in-water emulsion in the concentration of 1 ppm. A proxy for reflectance which is in use in oceanic optics has been studied. A significant change in reflectance for water contaminated by oil emulsion is revealed. In general, the reflectance generated by oil emulsion grows with light wavelength increase and in cases when small oil droplets dominate in oil-emulsion.

Zbigniew Otremba

2009-01-01

227

Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of wateržoil emulsified fuel (W/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to study indirectly the physical effects of wat...

Samec, Niko; Kegl, Breda; Dibble, Robert W.

2012-01-01

228

COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

HARIRAM V.

2013-02-01

229

Underground upgrading of heavy oil using THAI : toe-to-heel air injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd. is building its first field test of the Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI) process through its subsidiary, Whitesands Insitu Ltd. THAI is a thermal recovery method that achieves very stable combustion performance in heavy oil wells by controlling gas override. It also captures the underground upgrading because the horizontal producer well process operates through by a short-distance displacement mechanism, similar to that of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. In the THAI process, injected air migrates preferentially to the combustion front into a horizontal producer well. This paper described the reservoir and site features, processing plant design, pilot objectives and the expected economics and environmental benefits of the pilot project at Christina Lake, Alberta. There is a stable combustion front propagation in all THAI direct line-drive well configurations, which include a parallel pair arrangement. Very high sweep efficiencies are achieved, according to the movement of the high temperature front through the sandpack. A well-controlled, narrow mobile oil zone (MOZ) lies just ahead ahead of the combustion front, creating a pathway for the injected air to reach the combustion front and for combustion gases and mobilized fluids to be produced via the open section of the horizontal producer well. A cold heavy oil layer exists downstream of the combustion front-MOZ region. Results indicate that excellent upgrading can be achieved and there were several positive indicators regarding the quality of the produced oil. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

Greaves, M.; Xia, T.X. [Bath Univ., Bath, England (United Kingdom); Ayasse, C. [Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-11-01

230

Alternative water injection device to reactor equipment facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention injects water to the reactor and the reactor container continuously for a long period of time for preventing occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type reactor and maintaining the integrity of the reactor container even if the accident should occur. Namely, diesel-driven pumps disposed near heat exchangers of a reactor after-heat removing system (RHR) are operated before the reactor is damaged by the after heat to cause reactor melting. A sucking valve disposed to a pump sucking pipeline connecting a secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. A discharge valve disposed to a pump discharge pipeline connecting a primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. With such procedures, sea water is introduced from a sea water taking port through the top end of the secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and water is injected into the inside of the pressure vessel or the reactor container by way of the primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger. As a result, the reactor core is prevented from melting even upon occurrence of a severe accident. (I.S.)

1994-05-30

231

Water injection system for turbine driven BWR type reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a water injection system of a turbine driven nuclear reactor for maintaining the function thereof even upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type nuclear reactor. That is, the system comprises a differential pressure detection means for measuring a pressure difference between the downstream of a the turbine and a reactor container and an interrupting means for stopping the supply of steams to the turbine when the differential pressure exceeds a predetermined value. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the turbine driven water injection system is locally increased, the differential pressure detection means detects the differential pressure, to interrupt the supply of the steams to the turbine. Further, upon occurrence of a severe accident that a pressure in the reactor container is abnormally elevated, differential pressure is not caused between the downstream of the turbine and the reactor container. Accordingly, a protection function is not operated by the differential pressure detection means. Accordingly, injection of coolants to the reactor can be continued even upon loss of AC power source. (I.S.)

1992-07-31

232

Impact of iodized oil injection during pregnancy on thyroid function tests of offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that injection of iodized oil in pregnant women can be used as a prophylactic strategy for iodine deficiency disorders and may improve the growth indices of their offspring. Since administration of pharmacological doses of iodine may lead occasionally to large goiter and rarely to hypothyroidism, in the present study the thyroid function tests of neonates and infants born to women who had received 480 mg iodized oil intramuscularly during pregnancy were assessed and compared to those of a control group. Off 277 cord blood samples obtained from Mazandaran and Khohkiluyeh-Boyerahmad provinces, 125 made up the case (injected) and 152 the control (non-injected) group. Of 1026 blood samples of the neonates and infants from Mazandaran province. 544 made up the case and 482 the control group. Serum T4, T3 and TSH concentrations were measured with RIA kits. in the cord blood samples, mean serum T4 in cases who had received iodized oil was lower than that of the control group:140± 32 vs. 149± 33 nmol/L, respectively; p3 and TSH were not however different. In the neonates and infants, T4 and T3 concentrations were significantly higher in the case than control group:178± 40 vs. 168± and 3.5±0,02 nmol/L, respectively, both p3 and decreased TSH were seen in infants of mothers who were injected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Injection of iodized oil in pregnant women does not cause hypothyroidism in the offsprings, however it does cause a transient increase in serum thyroid hormones and a decrease in TSH concentrations

2002-05-01

233

Optimal injection policies for enhanced oil recovery: Part 2--Surfactant flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimal control theory of distributed-parameter systems has been applied to the problem of determining the best injection policy of a surfactant slug for a tertiary oil recovery chemical flood. The optimization criterion is to maximize the amount of oil recovered while minimizing the chemical cost. A steepest-descent gradient method was used as the computational approach to the solution of this dynamic optimization problem. The performance of the algorithm was examined for the surfactant injection in a one-dimensional flooding problem. Two types of interfacial tension (IFT) behavior were considered. These are a Type A system where the IFT is a monotonically decreasing function with solute concentration and a Type B system where a minimum IFT occurs at a nominal surfactant concentration. For a Type A system, the shape of the optimal injection strategy was not unique; however, there is a unique optimum for the amount of surfactant needed. For a Type B system, the shape of the optimal injection as well as the amount injected was unique.

Fathi, Z.; Ramirez, W.F.

1984-06-01

234

Fat crystallisation at oil-water interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of lipid crystallisation at or in the vicinity of an interface in emulsified systems and the consequences regarding stability, structure and thermal behaviour. Amphiphilic molecules such as emulsifiers are preferably adsorbed at the interface. Such molecules are known for their ability to interact with triglycerides under certain conditions. In the same manner that inorganic crystals grown on an organic matrix see their nucleation, morphology and structure controlled by the underlying matrix, recent studies report a templating effect linked to the presence of emulsifiers at the oil/water interface. Emulsifiers affect fat crystallisation and fat crystal behaviour in numerous ways, acting as impurities seeding nucleation and, in some cases, retarding or enhancing polymorphic transitions towards more stable forms. This understanding is of crucial importance for the design of stable structures within emulsions, regardless of whether the system is oil or water continuous. In this paper, crystallisation mechanisms are briefly described, as well as recent technical advances that allow the study of crystallisation and crystal forms. Indeed, the study of the interface and of its effect on lipid crystallisation in emulsions has been limited for a long time by the lack of in-situ investigative techniques. This review also highlights reported interfacial effects in food and pharmaceutical emulsion systems. These effects are strongly linked to the presence of emulsifiers at the interface and their effects on crystallisation kinetics, and crystal morphology and stability. PMID:24238924

Douaire, M; di Bari, V; Norton, J E; Sullo, A; Lillford, P; Norton, I T

2014-01-01

235

Sensitivities to Component Characterizations of Heavy Oil Viscosity in Numerical Reservoir Simulation of Steam-Injection Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work examines heavy oil viscosity modelling during simulation of steam injection processes, such as steam-line-drive and SAGD, and the sensitivity of oil recovery predictions to the uncertainty in the oil viscosity. Analytical models to predict the sensitivity have been developed, confirmed by numerical simulation. Heavy oil compositional component viscosities are modelled with the Free Volume model. The model is extended in this thesis to estimate the viscosities of long-chain n-alka...

La Porte, Jacoba

2013-01-01

236

Effect of water on lubricating properties of synthetic oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of water on the lubricating properties of the synthetic oils VNII NP 50-1-4f, B-3V, and 36/1KU-A (all based on esters) and the isoparaffinic oil IMP-10 were investigated in a four ball friction tester. The results from this study of the influence of water on the lubricating properties of synthetic oils are presented. The effects of water on the limit of operability of the oils was manifested in many specified ways. In conclusion, short term contact of ester-based oil with a small amount of water, if there is no hydrolysis, does not give any changes in the lubricating properties. But any further increase in water leads to a decrease in the lubricating properties. Hydrolysis of synthetic oils leads to a considerable drop in the level of antiwear and extreme-pressure properties.

Echin, A.I.; Kondrat' eva, T.B.; Novosartov, G.T.

1983-09-01

237

Synthesis of radiolabelled organic compounds for use as water tracers in oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of water into oil containing strata to maintain field pressure and to replace oil is usually the primary choice to enhance oil-recovery. Use of tracer methods is becoming an important part of the oil companies' basis for making economical decisions. Such water tracing requires passive tracers, i.e. compounds that behave exactly like the substance studied under the conditions of interest. This implies that a water-tracer in a water-flooded oil-field must fulfil requirements like no absorption to reservoir rock, no partitioning (or distribution) with respect to the other fluids present, long time thermal stability, microbial resistance and high detectability. In addition, the tracer compound has to be environmentally acceptable and available at a reasonable cost. Among the extensive number of compounds tested according to these criteria in the laboratory we have qualified four compounds as tracers for water in oil reservoirs. For three of them we propose radiolabelling syntheses with 14C as radioactive label to lower detection limits. The compounds are benzene 1,2- and 1,3-dicarboxylic acids and benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. (author)

1998-04-19

238

The density behaviour of heavy oils in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. The study showed by over-washed oils generally have a density of 0.99 to 1.02 g/ml. The mechanisms for oil submergence in water include evaporation, temperature change, uptake of solid matter, photooxidation and extreme weathering. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs

2006-06-06

239

The density behaviour of heavy oils in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. The study showed by over-washed oils generally have a density of 0.99 to 1.02 g/ml. The mechanisms for oil submergence in water include evaporation, temperature change, uptake of solid matter, photooxidation and extreme weathering. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

2006-07-01

240

Fresh water supply to oil producing countries by means of crude oil tankers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil producing area and oil consuming area in the world sometimes coincide with water deficient area and water surplus area, like as Arabian Gulf area and Japan. Ocean transportation of oil over these areas is being made by oil tankers, but return voyage of tankers has so far not been put to productive use. By boost of international regulation to prevent marine pollution caused by discharging sea water ballast, such half used bridge will provide with practical measures of fresh water transportation to oil producing arid area. This is to report the proposed scheme to transport and supply fresh water to Arabian Gulf area by means of return voyages of crude oil tankers voyaging between Arabian Gulf area and Japan with it technical and economical aspects as well as its effect and additional advantages to be expected by the scheme.

Akiyama, Y.

1980-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

1995-01-01

242

Removal of oil from produced water by coalescence/filtration in a granular bed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil production generates a significant amount of water byproduct known as produced water. Following primary gravity separation, produced water is normally disposed of by injection into the formation from which it came. However, high amounts of suspended solids or oil in the produced water may cause clogging of the injection formation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of coalescence/filtration in treating two produced water samples obtained from Saskatchewan heavy oil production sites. In the coalescence/filtration experiments, percentage removals of oil and suspended solids were observed to be as high as 97 and 91 percent, respectively. Mechanisms of filtration and coalescence were identified and observed through experimental data and mathematical models. The maximum coalescence efficiency observed was three percent at the lowest flow rate. Coalescence efficiencies decreased with increasing flow rate. Experimental data for single and two-phase flow were shown to fit the Carmen-Kozeny filtration equation. Coalescence/filtration satisfied a first order rate equation using the Crickmore model. PMID:16749621

Multon, L M; Viraraghavan, T

2006-05-01

243

A study of the effect of pumps and desanding cyclones on oil droplets in produced water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of petroleum resources includes co-producing water. This water contains oilproducts and needs to be treated before discharge to sea or re-injection into the reservoir. Theamount of produced water increases with the age of a field, as does often the amount of solids.The pressure of the reservoirs will decrease with time.The primary equipment for treating produced water is the hydro cyclone. It’s operated with alower limit with regards to oil droplet size of ~10 ?m although sm...

2011-01-01

244

A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

2009-02-01

245

Oil spill cleanup from sea water by sorbent materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three sorbents were compared in order to determine their potential for oil spill cleanup. Polypropylene nonwoven web, rice hull, and bagasse with two different particle sizes were evaluated in terms of oil sorption capacities and oil recovery efficiencies. Polypropylene can sorb almost 7 to 9 times its weight from different oils. Bagasse, 18 to 45 mesh size, follows polypropylene as the second sorbent in oil spill cleanup. Bagasse, 14 to 18 mesh size, and rice hull have comparable oil sorption capacities, which are lower than those of the two former sorbents. It was found that oil viscosity plays an important role in oil sorption by sorbents. All adsorbents used in this work could remove the oil from the surface of the water preferentially. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Bayat, A.; Moheb, A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84154 (Iran); Aghamiri, S.F. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran); Vakili-Nezhaad, G.R. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran)

2005-12-01

246

Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here.

Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

2014-01-01

247

Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

2011-01-01

248

Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

249

Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1994-01-01

250

Apparatus for manufacturing fluid coal-oil-water fuel mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus is disclosed for manufacturing a coal-oil-water fuel mixture comprising a grinder for grinding coal to a relatively fine particle size, a mixer for controllably mixing the coal particle with oil, water and a high molecular weight organic mixture. These devices may be used in combination with coal cleaning apparatus for removal of ash and impurities from the coal. The high molecular weight organic compound may be contained in a heavy residual oil containing paraffinic fractions.

Poetschke, L.E.

1983-09-13

251

The utilization of water soluble polymers for oil desalination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laws of demulsification activity are studied for water soluble polymers during perturbation of oil emulsion. Possibilities are indicated for their use as self-contained reagents in a process of oil desalination without the use of expensive surface-active waters (PAV).

Svitova, T.F.; Isanbaev, A.G.; Rygalov, V.A.; Spiridonova, V.A.; Tolstaya, S.N.

1981-01-01

252

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

Sharma, G.D.

1995-07-01

253

Analysis of data from a downhole oil/water separator field trial in east Texas.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is interested in promoting new technologies that can produce oil and gas at a lower cost or with enhanced environmental protection at a reasonable cost. Several years ago, DOE became aware of a new technology for produced water management known as a downhole oil/water separator (or DOWS). A DOWS system separates oil from water at the bottom of a production well and injects the water directly to a disposal zone without lifting it to the surface. DOWS technology offered three potential advantages over traditional pumping systems. First, DOWS were reported to reduce the volume of produced water brought to the surface. Second, the volume of oil produced often increased. Third, because large volumes of produced water were not being lifted to the surface past drinking water zones and subsequently reinjected downward past the same drinking water zones, there was less opportunity for contamination of those zones.

Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B.

2002-08-15

254

Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

2012-01-01

255

Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

256

Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

2009-02-25

257

Stability Investigation of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water in-crude oil emulsion has great importance in the oil industry. Experimental data are presented to investigate the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions in both creaming and coalescence states were measured as a function of sodium chloride concentration. Also the stability of w/o emulsion is investigated over a wide range of parameters. These parameters are salt concentration (0-5.5%, mixing speed (800-1600 rpm, water concentration (10-80% and temperature. For economic and operational reasons, it is necessary to separate the water completely from the crude oils before transporting or refining them. The emulsions were found to fall into three categories on the basis of both rheological properties and visual appearance: stable; mesostable and unstable. The present research found that, microwave radiation method can enhance the demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions in a very short time compared to the conventional methods.

Abdurahman H. Nour

2006-01-01

258

Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

2013-07-01

259

Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor  

Science.gov (United States)

NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

1996-01-01

260

Isotopic composition of uranium, water and oils of some oil-gas bearing provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study into the pattern of distribution of uranium isotopes and 234U/238U ratio in the stratal waters, oils and water-bearing rocks of active water-exchange zones and oil fields in Central Asia, the Terek-Sunzha region, and the Volga region has been made. The radioactive ratios for stratal waters in the water-oil contact area are suggestive of an active isotopic exchange which leads to an isotopic equilibrium at the water-oil interface. The less intensive interphase isotopic exchange of uranium in the ''oil-rock'' system, as compared to the ''water-rock'' system, is indicative of a stronger link between uranium and oil, than between uranium and water. The deficit of the 234U isotope in the hypergenesis zone attests to the fact that, in the active water-exchange zone, depletion of rocks in 234U is currently taking place, while the values of 234U/238U ratios close to equilibrium, in water-bearing rocks indicate the absence of processes of intensive uranium migration in the rocks of the oil-gas provinces studied

1977-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2004-07-01

262

Hot solvent injection for heavy oil-bitumen recovery : an experimental investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam injection and generation costs can have a significant influence on the overall economics of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes. The economic feasibility of miscible recovery methods is based on the use of effective solvent retrieval procedures. This study investigated the performance of solvents at higher temperatures. Glass bead packs and Berea sandstone cores were used to represent different types of pore structures in a series of laboratory experiments. The samples were saturated with heavy oil and exposed to paraffinic solvent vapors at temperatures above boiling point at a pressure of 1500 kPa. The solvents were then collected from each sample and analyzed in order to determine composition, viscosity, and asphaltene content. The amounts of oil recovered were also analyzed and the quantity of the asphaltene precipitated with each of the tested solvents was determined. Results of the study were then used to determine optimal conditions for each solvent type and to assess which solvents had the highest recovery rates. Butane diluted the oil more than propane, which resulted in a lower asphaltene content and decreased viscosity in the oil samples. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Edmunds, N.R. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

263

EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cylinder constant speed direct injection (DI diesel engine has been used to analyze the emission characteristics of biodiesel.The diesel engine for various fuel injection pressures (210,220 and 240 bar at no load to full load wasinvestigated. The injection pressure was changed in the engine head by adjusting the fuel injector spring tension. The two proportions of biodiesel were used in diesel engine such as 20% of biodiesel (Jatropha oil and Rubber seed oil with 80% of pure diesel fuel named as B20 and 40% of biodiesel with 60% of pure diesel fuel named as B40.From the test result,the nitric oxide (NOx was analyzed for different injection pressures. In emission characteristicsanalysis, it was found that the increase in injector opening pressure increases the NOxemission. The injection pressure of 240 bar and B20 proportion gives better emission reduction compared to other blended fuels.

S. Mahalingam

2014-04-01

264

Simultaneous injection of polymer and surfactant for improving oil recovery; Injecao simultanea de polimero e surfactante para aumento da recuperacao de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injection of polymeric solutions in petroleum reservoirs is a supplemental method of petroleum recovery, that seeks to increase the volumetric efficiency of swept of the oil with the decrease of the mobility of the injection water. In the contact between two non miscible fluids, superficial tensions are established, that can influence the relations between the rock and the fluids, depending on the nature of both. Therefore, the combined injection of a surfactant and a polymer can promote improvements in the injectivity and in the global recovery efficiency. In this work it was used samples of commercial polyacrylamide, which were characterized through hydrolysis degree, molecular weight and rheological behavior. From these results it was chosen one sample to be used associated to a polymeric surfactant. Through a core flood system, the following tests were done: injection of polymer solution; injection of surfactant solution followed by polymer solution and injection of surfactant / polymer mixture. The results showed that the injection of surfactant / polymer mixture promoted a significant increase in the residual resistance factor, in relation to the other situations. (author)

Medeiros, Ana C.R.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Fagundes, Fabio P.; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

2004-07-01

265

Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection in the Aneth Oil Field, San Juan County, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

Microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, is supporting this field demonstration, which includes extensive monitoring and analysis of CO2 migration and ultimate sequestration associated with a field-wide CO2 enhanced oil recovery operation. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Starting in March, 2008 small microearthquakes (M -1 to 0) within about 2 km of the geophone string were detected episodically at rates ranging from about of 0 to 10 events per day. Most of these events delineate a NW-SE oriented fracture zone within the oil reservoir. On June 6, 2008 a M3.7 earthquake occurred approximately 15 km west of the Aneth oil field, near the town of Bluff, Utah. Both reservoir seismicity and oil production rates in the study area increased immediately after the M3.7 event. Seismicity rates over the 3 months since have been elevated and at more steady rates of 10 to 20 events per day. Oil production measured at a nearby tank battery increased approximately 25% above the average rates of the preceding year. While intensive oil field operational activities in the area have contributed to the increase in production rates, the coincident increase in seismicity and production rate may also suggest that the M3.7 regional event remotely changed stress and/or pore pressure conditions within the reservoir. Poroelastic models of the Aneth reservoir suggest a definitive correlation between fluid pressure increases resulting from injection and fracture/strain propagation that is likely responsible for the induced seismic activity. Finally, we are examining seismic data to evaluate whether shear-wave velocity anisotropy might reflect the inferred pore-fluid pressure changes.

Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Huang, L.; McPherson, B.

2008-12-01

266

Application of tritiated water as a tracer for quantitative determination of water flow distribution in an oil-field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the flow of water in an underground oil reservoir, tritiated water was injected in a well and, subsequently, tritium was determined in the water produced by the surrounding wells. Since the specific radioactivity of the water produced by the more remote wells appeared to be rather low, partly owing to dilution of the tritium water by the water present in the formation, enrichment methods were used, in order to increase counting sensitivity. Three methods of enrichment were examined: exchange with ethanol, conversion to toluene, and electrolysis. The latter method proved to be the most useful. The tritium was determined with a liquid scintillation counter; the scintillator consisted of a toluene-ethanol (2:1) mixture with DPO and POPOP, the water sample being dissolved in this liquid. Some statistical problems in connexion with the minimum detectable specific activity and the reduction of background are discussed briefly. (author)

1962-01-01

267

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

Carlson, Mike R. [RPS Energy Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2012-05-15

268

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

2012-05-01

269

Nodal analysis of oil wells with downhole water sink completions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Any representative analysis of well production must consider water coning. Water coning in partially completed wells refers to the movement of water toward the oil zone which thereby changes the saturation profile near the wellbore. The vertical movement of the water is rate and time dependent. If the oil rate is under the critical rate, the partial completion prevents water breakthrough. Water coning decreases the area where oil flows into the wellbore and oil productivity is decreased because the oil flow path becomes blocked. The total mobility is degraded due to the relative permeability effects. This paper presents a new nodal analysis method for downhole water sink (DWS) wells which includes 5 new operational constraints to evaluate natural flow rate. The method identifies the operational range of top and bottom rates, with water coning at the top completion and oil-free water production at the bottom completion. DWS wells were shown to be effective in improving well productivity by reducing water coning and the resulting adverse multiphase effects. The maximum pressure drawdown limits early production rates. Tubing performance controls production rate when reservoir pressure drops. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

Arslan, O.; White, C.D.; Wojtanowicz, A.K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2004-07-01

270

Resolution of oil-in-water emulsions containing uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of resolving oil-in-water emulsions resulting from the organic solvent extraction of uranium from aqueous acidic leach liquors which comprises treating the emulsions in accordance with the following steps: (a) adding to the emulsions a water-in-oil emulsion which contains from 2 to 50% by weight of a water-soluble acrylamide copolymer which contains from 5 to 50% by weight of a lower alkyl substituted tertiary aminoethyl methacrylate and quaternary ammonium salts thereof in an amount to provide at least 20 parts per million of the acrylamide copolymer; (b) adjusting the pH of the emulsion being treated with ammonia to at least 9; (c) adding to the ammonia treated emulsion a water-soluble surfactant which is capable of inverting the water-in-oil emulsion which contains the polymer; and then (d) slowly mixing the treated oil-in-water emulsion for at least one-half hour to obtain good resolution thereof

1979-01-01

271

A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water : Results for Crude and Pure Oils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil (Grane) and two pure oils (n-Octane and dodecane) with different initial oil layer thicknesses include burning efficiency, burning rate, regression rate, flame height and boilover. Pyrex glass cylinders (157 and 260 mm ID) placed on top of a steel foot in a water basin (1m x 1m x 0.5m) enabled free circulation of the water, which, along with the large water-to-oil ratios (up to 10,000) ensured that the oil burning barely increased the temperature of the surrounding water environment, which created more realistic offshore conditions than seen in many other laboratory studies. The burning efficiency was found to be nearly 100% for n-Octane and of dodecane, whereas the crude oil burning efficiency ranged between 35% and 65%. The main reason for this variation proved to be the onset of an extremely violent boilover, which occurs for oils with relatively high boiling temperatures when the water sub layer is superheated. When the initial crude oil layer thickness exceeded 20 mm the oil became solid and no boilover occurred. The heat-loss to the water sub-layer also had an effect on the burning efficiency and the regression rate was found to reach a constant value after increasing continuously as the oil was heated. Similar results were found regarding the flame height which reached a steady flame height. The pure fuels, n-Octane and dodecane, produced a much higher steady flame height than the crude oil, however they did not reach boilover, though dodecane showed boilover tendencies. Theoretical predictions with existing correlations and input data specific for the current oils generally compared well with the experimental data for both the time to boilover and the regression rates. As such, the COFA is envisioned to produce high-fidelity results in the future and thereby contribute to the further development of in-situ burning as an alternative response technique for oil spills on water.

Jomaas, Grunde

2014-01-01

272

????????????????? Numerical Simulation of Oil and Water Tow-Phase See-page in Stress Sensitivity Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The mathematical model of oil and water two-phase seepage was derived and solved by numerical limited difference method in the paper. During the simulation, permeability values of every time step were calculated by relation curves between dimensionless permeability and effective stress obtained by experiment. Then the pressure distribution of next time step was calculated by the new permeability distribution. The situation of non-stress sensitivity and three different kinds of sensitive degree are studied respectively through numerical stimulation method. Figures of the dimensionless permeability space distribution, the daily oil production and the average reservoir pressure were drawn. Results show the stronger the stress sensitivity is, the variation range of the average reservoir pressure is small and the daily oil production is lower during the water free oil production period. While the weaker the stress sensitivity is, the variation range of the average reservoir pressure is large and the daily oil production is higher during the water free oil production period. Permeability distribution changes sharply around production and injection wells, while smoothly far from wells.

??

2011-12-01

273

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experi...

2007-01-01

274

Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydr...

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Abu Hassan, Mohd A.; Rosli Mohd Yunus

2007-01-01

275

A New Mathematical Model for Pipe Friction Coefficient Inversion in Oilfield Water Injection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In simulation and operation optimization of oil field water-injection system, pipe friction factors are important parameters. Because pipelines have been corroded and they have been built for a long time, the pipe friction factors have been changed and we need to correct friction factors. Now the optimization model of friction factors inversion is mainly established by using multi-operating mode dates. Because dates of multi-operating mode are not easy to get, it is necessary to correct friction factors under single operating mode. This paper analyzes multiple solutions property of pipe friction coefficient inversion, presents two theorems about multiple solutions property of inversion. This paper especially establishes a new mathematical model of pipe friction coefficient inversion under single operating mode. The calculating results in example show the effectiveness of the method.

Wang Yu-xue

2013-01-01

276

Characterization of oil sands naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to protect surface waters in the Athabasca oil sands region, oil sands operations cannot discharge process-affected water to the surrounding environment. The bitumen extraction process enhances the release of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water that is stored in tailings impoundments. This study developed, verified and optimized fluorescence spectrophotometry as a quick, accurate, and cost-effective analytical technique to characterize naphthenic acids by generating fingerprint signatures. For this study, process-affected water samples were collected from 3 oil sands operations in the Athabasca region. Groundwater samples were supplied from a nested monitoring well near a tailings pond. All water samples were obtained in the winter of 2009. Naphthenic acid concentrations in the oil sands process-affected waters were in the order of 10 mg/L. Qualitative analysis was conducted in this study to determine if unique fingerprints would be detected in environmental samples using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Both oil sands process-affected and ground water samples were analyzed to determine if signals differed between samples. The study showed that the fluorescence signals in the samples of process waters were different from groundwater collected near a tailings pond. A dilution series prepared with process-affected water produced a linear response curve, following correction for inner filtering effects. It was concluded that fluorescence spectrophotometry is a potentially powerful tool for characterizing and quantifying naphthenic acids in waters. 17 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, L.D.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-07-01

277

Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided. PMID:23394956

Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

2013-04-01

278

Evaluation of water injection effect on compressor and engine performance and operability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas turbine performance enhancement technologies such as inlet fogging, combustor water/steam injection and overspray are being employed by users in recent years without fully evaluating their effect on gas turbine performance and operability. The water injection techniques can significantly affect the engine operating point thus a careful analysis should precede the application of performance enhancement devices, especially when the devices are retrofitted to old engines or engines operating at extreme conditions. The present paper examines the most widespread techniques that implement water injection by using in-house models that can reproduce the effects of water injection on the gas turbine and compressor off-design operation. The results are analyzed with respect to both performance augmentation and engine operability in order to give further insight on gas turbine operation with water injection. The behaviour of the gas turbine is interpreted while the risks on engine integrity due to water injection are identified. (author)

Roumeliotis, I.; Mathioudakis, K. [Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15773 (Greece)

2010-04-15

279

Mechanical- and oil-durable superhydrophobic polyester materials for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The low stability and complicated fabrication procedures seriously hindered practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we present a facile approach for preparing durable superhydrophobic polyester materials by dip-coating in a nanocomposite solution of polymerized tetraethoxysilane and n-hexadecyltriethoxysilane. The coated samples exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, mechanical and chemical stabilities. This is attributed to the tight binding of the nanocomposite on the polyester fibers and the inherent stability of silicone. The coated samples can quickly absorb petrol, diesel and crude oil, and show very high selectivity in oil/water separation. In addition, the coated samples could maintain their superhydrophobicity, oil absorption capacity and oil/water selectivity after harsh mechanical damage, 90 days of immersion in oils and ten cycles of absorption-desorption. Moreover, this approach is simple and can be easily scaled up for producing samples on a large size, which makes it very promising for practical oil absorption. PMID:24183438

Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Wang, Aiqin

2014-01-01

280

BP philosophy to PWRI and field experiences. Benefits and risks of produced water re-injection[Produced water re-injection (PWRI)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation discusses that water injection performance can be successfully modeled with a high degree of confidence. This applies to PW as well as SW and there is needs to understand the parameters that impact injection performance, how changing fluid type influences this. The key factors which influence PWRI are injection pressure, temperature and water quality (in particular solids). Furthermore the PWRI should be considered as part of an overall water management strategy, rather than as a retrofit option and as such there are needs to design surface facilities for PWRI operation (s and management) (tk)

Sweeney, Frank

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

1989-09-01

282

Condensate injection soak as an enhanced oil recovery technique in the Niger Delta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental investigation has been carried out on condensate injection soak in a two-dimensional micro model. The condensate was allowed to contact a resident crude. The aim being to ascertain the lowering of interfacial tension between the two liquids through convergence of composition and flatting of free surface energy. A field pilot condensate injection soak was carried out on an abandoned well in the Niger Delta which yielded additional 5% recovery. Condensate was injected at a given rate and back produced after a time lag. In the micro model experiment the condensate soak was observed to enhance the flow of the resident crude after a period of contact as a result of low interfacial tension in the system. Similarly, in the abandoned well in the Niger Delta the resident crude was recovered on back production of the injected condensate soak. This success did not only improve recovery of the residual oil, but provides means of handling and utilisation of condensate from a nearby reservoir. (orig.)

Chukwu, O.; Obah, B. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

1999-01-01

283

Technique for locating injected gas in oil bearing formations behind casing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for determining the location of injected gas in an oil well comprising the steps of: obtaining data representing a near count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; obtaining data representing a far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; scaling the near count rate and the far count rate; plotting the scaled near count rate and the scaled far rate; comparing the scaled near count rate plot and the scaled far count rate plot and; determining the location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled near count rate and the plot of the scaled far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; obtaining data representing a second near count rate for a compensated neutron logging tool at a second time; obtaining data representing a second far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool at the second time; scaling the second near count rate and the second far count rate; plotting the scaled second near count rate and the scaled second far count rate; comparing the scaled second near count rate plot and the scaled second far count rate plot; determining a second location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled second near count rate and the plot of the scaled second far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; and determining the migration of the injected gas by comparing the location with the second location

1987-01-01

284

Stability Investigation of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water in-crude oil emulsion has great importance in the oil industry. Experimental data are presented to investigate the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions in both creaming and coalescence states were measured as a function of sodium chloride concentration. Also the stability of w/o emulsion is investigated over a wide range of parameters. These parameters are salt concentration (0-5.5%), mixing speed (800-1600 rpm), water concentration (10-80%) and temperature. For economic and op...

2006-01-01

285

Chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of oil-water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ongoing chemical and ecotoxicological study of Water Accommodated Fraction of oils is presented and the preliminary findings are discussed. The study aims at obtaining improved and realistic data on potential environmental effects of various oils released and weathered at sea. Such data will be used for improving algorithms in present fate and effect models for damage assessment studies and 'Net Environmental Benefit Analysis' of response alternatives in various spill scenarios. Preliminary results show that models used to assess effects in the water column will need to resolve the water soluble fraction of oils into more than one single bulk parameter to produce realistic estimates of effects. (Author)

1999-01-01

286

Intrasilicone oil injection of bevacizumab at the end of retinal reattachment surgery for severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

PurposeTo evaluate the role of bevacizumab injected into the silicone oil at the end of retinal reattachment surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) associated with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) for prevention of postoperative PVR and compare the results with those without intrasilicone injection.MethodsIn this prospective comparative interventional study, eyes with RRD with grade C PVR were included. Standard 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, and retinal reattachment was performed. In case group, 1.25?mg bevacizumab was injected into the silicone oil at the end of surgery. The rate of retinal redetachment associated with PVR was assessed.ResultsIn all 38 eyes of 38 patients (19 cases and 19 controls) with a mean age of 46.6±18.3 years were studied. The two groups were matched for age, sex, preoperative visual acuity, presence of anterior and posterior PVR, extent of PVR, and history of previous retinal detachment surgery. Retinal redetachment with PVR occurred in nine (47.3%) and seven (36.8%) eyes in case and control groups, respectively (P=0.5). Extensive subretinal fibrous proliferations in addition to preretinal membranes occurred more in the case group (55.5 vs 14.3%). At final visit, visual acuity was similar between the two groups (1.6±0.8 and 1.6±0.6, respectively, P=0.9).ConclusionIntrasilicone injection of bevacizumab at the end of vitrectomy for RRD with severe PVR does not eliminate the risk of postoperative PVR. PMID:24556886

Ghasemi Falavarjani, K; Hashemi, M; Modarres, M; Hadavand Khani, A

2014-05-01

287

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

288

Water-in-oil emulsions : studies on water resolution and rheology over time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-in-oil emulsions, which often form following oil spills, make cleanup very difficult because the physical properties and characteristics of the oil change significantly after the spill. In this study, water-in-oil mixtures from crude oil and petroleum products were studied in a laboratory for up to one year. The types of mixtures were characterized by resolution of water and rheology measurements at one and seven days, and some after one year. Oil and petroleum products formed 4 clearly-defined water-in-oil types when mixed with water. These were categorized as stable, unstable, mesostable and entrained. The distinct physical properties of each category were described in this paper. The water-in-oil types were characterized using a newly developed numerical stability index which is the product of the ratio of viscosity increase and a ratio of the elasticity increase. The index was also used to correlate stability with oil compositions and properties. The asphaltene and resin content in the starting oil, along with its viscosity and density were the most important factors for water uptake and emulsion formation, as determined by a comparative evaluation of the properties of the starting oils before mixing. The saturate content and asphaltene-to-resin ratio are other important factors. 42 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

2008-06-03

289

Dispersion of Arabian Crude Oils in Sea Water by Finasols ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiencies of 3 commonly used chemical dispersants in Saudi Arabia were tested in the laboratory. Effects of variations of both ratios of applied dispersants to oil intended to be removed from water surface and stabilization time for the produced oil dispersion were assessed. The results obtained showed that amongst the tested Finasols-type dispersants, 90% of arabian light crude oil could be removed by the application of a quantity of 10% diluted Finasol-5 corresponding to half of the ...

Awad, H.; Gashlan, S.

1990-01-01

290

Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

2001-12-01

291

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

1951-01-01

292

From oil-based mud to water-based mud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

1991-11-11

293

A study of individual rheological properties of water and oil emulsions of different oils of Bashkiriya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the dependence of the viscosity of an emulsion (Em)on its water content and, consequently, on its density, a high speed method is developed for evaluating the viscosity of emulsions. The wide use of the developed method showed that for determining the initial data for calculating industrial processes, using several samples of different oils, it is possible to produce standard graphs and tables. This makes it possible to evaluate the viscosity of emulsions with a specific water content, and gradient of speed and temperature. The dependence of the viscosity of water and oil emulsions with water contents of 20, 40, 50, 60 and 70 percent on the gradients of speed at temperatures of 283, 293, 303 and 313K are identified in a study of oil and water emulsions of individual oils from different deposits in Bashkiria (Urshaksk, Tuymazinsk, Arlansk and others).

Gafurov, O.G.; Radionova, T.V.; Zaytseva, T.A.

1982-01-01

294

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field.

Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-01-01

295

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field. PMID:24116417

Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-10-01

296

Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice Infested Waters (MORICE) Phase 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes research work conducted in Phase 1 of the Program for Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice Infested Waters (MORICE).The program aims at developing better methods and technologies for the mechanical recovery of oil in ice. The objectives of...

B. O. Johannessen H. Jensen L. Solsberg T. Lorenzo

1996-01-01

297

The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field is an intelligent measuring instrument, integrating light, machine and electricity. It bases on 8031 SCP and makes full use of CASIO printing calculate's functions of calculation, keyboard and printing

1992-09-01

298

Carboxylic acid distribution in oil- and water-phases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carboxylic acids are the most abundant oxygen containing organic molecules found in oils and oilfield waters. Their partition behaviour in the oil/water system is a function of molecular weight, where the homologous n-carboxylic acids distribute systematically between the phases. Previous work has, however, indicated an in situ source for the aqueous acids, controlled by the overall red-ox conditions in the reservoir. Higher molecular weight acids in the oil phase are more likely generated in the petroleum source rock. The amounts and distributions of carboxylic acids (as carbon number range) in oils and corresponding formation waters have been measured. The results are compared to equivalent data on phenols and BTX distributions (presented elsewhere) using multivariate techniques. The effect of biodegradation on the distribution of organic solutes in petroleum system waters is also addressed. The results are discussed both in the context of partition and red-ox as controlling factors.

Barth, T.; Pettersen, A.R.; Moen, L.K.; Dale, J.D. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)] [and others

1996-10-01

299

Oil Field Produced Water Discharges into Wetlands in Wyoming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the States Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program. Wyoming is one of a few states that allows th...

P. Ramirez

2002-01-01

300

Experimental and analytical determination of the motion of hydraulically operated valve stems in oil engine injection systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

1930-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of canola oil emulsion injection on processing characteristics and consumer acceptability of three muscles from mature beef.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the combined effect of blade tenderization and canola oil emulsion injection on processing yield and eating quality-related parameters of selected loin and hip muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL, biceps femoris, BF and semimembranosus, SM) from over thirty month (OTM) cattle. Canola oil emulsion injection significantly reduced shear force, increased sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness, and made connective tissue less perceptible. Targeted levels of omega-3 fatty acids can be achieved by the inclusion of canola oil containing marinades/emulsions at levels sufficient to retain omega-3 fatty acids in cooked product. All consumer acceptability attributes of OTM muscles were improved with the use of canola oil emulsion injection treatments without compromising colour although slightly decreasing oxidative stability of BF muscle. Injection of omega-3 oil emulsions in combination with blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to enrich injected products in essential fatty acids and enhance eating quality of OTM beef. PMID:23089241

Pietrasik, Z; Wang, H; Janz, J A M

2013-02-01

302

Comprehensive waste-free technology for reprocessing accompanying oil waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology has been developed for extracting Ca, Mg, Sr, NaCl, Br, Li from accompanying oil waters. The created experimental technological units were tested in semiindustrial conditions. The use of technology for reprocessing waters of the Dybnishskiy oil field will guarantee production of an industrial product costing about 6 million lev per year. The expected economic effect will be 0.5 million lev per year.

Zlatanova, M.P.; Dimitrova, St.G.; Neykova, Ye.K.A.

1980-01-01

303

Fractal characteristics of oil-gas-water multiphase flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted with oil-gas-water multiphase flow in a horizontal pipe under different flow patterns. The fractal method was applied to analyze the pressure drop signals measured in the experiments. The fractal dimensions of the signals were calculated. Preliminary results indicated that the fractal dimensions were small and different under different flow patterns. The fractal dimensions could be used to identify the flow patterns of the oil-gas-water multiphase flows.

Qian, Huanqun; Hu, Zhihua; Sun, Hedong; Zhou, Fangde

2002-02-01

304

Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

1981-02-01

305

Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modification of the Trautz-Schorigin reaction into a flow-injection analysis configuration is described. Different approaches were used at the optimization of chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in water based on the reaction of formaldehyde, gallic acid and hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline solution. Detection system with a 218microl chemiluminescence cell was optimized by both a one-variable-at-a-time method, and a modified simplex method. A calibration graph is linear in the concentration range 4x10(-8) to 1x10(-5)M HCHO. The detection limit of formaldehyde for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 is 4x10(-8)M. The relative standard deviations for 15 repeated measurements of 1x10(-6) and 5x10(-6)mol l(-1) HCHO are 4.32 and 3.33%, respectively. The analysis time is 1.5min. The method was applied to the determination of formaldehyde in urban rainwater. A comparison of results found by proposed method with those obtained by fluorimetric reference method provided a good agreement. PMID:19071392

Motyka, Kamil; Onjia, Antonije; Mikuska, Pavel; Vecera, Zbynek

2007-02-15

306

The containment of heavy oil in flowing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Viscous bitumen from Alberta oil sand deposits is diluted with a gas condensate before pipeline transport. Because of its unique properties, the diluent/bitumen mix (dilbit) may require novel containment and recovery techniques in the case of an accidental spill. Preliminary experiments were conducted in a large flowing water channel to determine whether several conventional containment devices could be utilized to trap weathered and emulsified dilbit and bitumen. These devices included a conventional river boom, a nylon fine-weave net, and a low-pressure bubble barrier. The behavior of the oil samples during boom failure was noted in order to understand more completely the mechanisms of failure. The river boom failed to hold viscous floating oil by vortex shedding at flows of under 0.25 m/s. A fine mesh net successfully trapped both floating and mid-channel neutrally buoyant oil but the retention time depends on the oil viscosity. The bubble barrier was not successful in trapping either floating viscous oil or neutrally buoyant oil. At low water velocities, the barrier was able to divert some oils but in an inconsistent manner. The results indicate that conventional barriers need improvement to be effective at higher water velocities and suggest that new concepts in containment should be considered. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

1992-06-10

307

Oil/water and pre-emulsified oil/water (PIT) dispersions in a stirred vessel: Implications for fermentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines dispersions of rapeseed oil (RSO) in water by mechanical agitation under conditions mimicking those found in certain antibiotic fermentations; for example, in the presence of air, antifoam, and finely divided CaCO(3) particles. A problem with residual oil has been reported for such fermentations, and it has been suggested that the use of pre-emulsified oil can reduce this problem. Hence, the dispersion of a pre-emulsified oil produced by the "phase inversion temperature (PIT) method" has been evaluated. In both cases, the volume fraction of oil was 2%. For the RSO systems, a relatively high agitation speed was required to disperse the oil, especially in the presence of the particles and, when the agitation was stopped, separation occurred rapidly. The Sauter mean drop diameters depended on the system, being at an average energy dissipation rate of approximately 0.9 W kg(-1), 180 microm for RSO/water, 130 microm for RSO/water(antifoam)/air, 580 microm for RSO/water/CaCO(3), and 850 microm for RSO/water(antifoam)/air/CaCO(3). For the same four systems, the PIT emulsion, once dispersed, was very stable and the drop size was essentially independent of the operating conditions, with a Sauter mean diameter of approximately 0.3 microm. The implications of these findings for fermentations in which oil is used as a carbon source are assessed. PMID:12652478

Erler, S T; Nienow, A W; Pacek, A W

2003-06-01

308

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Science.gov (United States)

...Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60... if I use water or steam injection? (a...the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

2010-07-01

309

Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

Thomas, B.L.

1984-07-01

310

The immunological effects of oil sands surface waters and naphthenic acids on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influenced waters, NAs extracted and purified from oil sands tailings waters, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a positive control. After a 7d exposure, blood, spleen, head kidney, and gill samples were removed from a subset of fish in order to evaluate the distribution of thrombocytes, B-lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and T-lymphocytes using fluorescent antibodies specific for those cell types coupled with flow cytometry. The remaining trout in each experimental tank were injected with inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida and held in laboratory water for 21 d and subjected to similar lymphatic cell evaluation in addition to evaluation of antibody production. Fluorescent metabolites in bile as well as liver CYP1A induction were also determined after the 7 and 21 d exposure. Oil sands waters and extracted NAs exposures resulted in an increase in bile fluorescence at phenanthrene wavelengths, though liver CYP1A was not induced in those treatments as it was with the BaP positive control. Trout in the oil sands-influenced water exposure showed a decrease in B- and T-lymphocytes in blood as well as B-lymphocytes and myeloid cells in spleen and an increase in B-lymphocytes in head kidney. The extracted NAs exposure showed a decrease in thrombocytes in spleen at 8 mg/L and an increase in T-lymphocytes at 1mg/L in head kidney after 7d. There was a significant decrease in antibody production against A. salmonicida in both oil sands-influenced water exposures. Because oil sands-influenced waters affected multiple immune parameters, while extracted NAs impacts were limited, the NAs tested here are likely not the cause of immunotoxicity found in the oil sands-influenced water. PMID:24036435

Leclair, Liane A; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Phalen, Laura J; Köllner, Bernd; Hogan, Natacha S; van den Heuvel, Michael R

2013-10-15

311

A review of knowledge on water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlined the basics of water-in-oil emulsification which is often considered to be the second most important behavioural characteristic of oil after evaporation. In the event of oil spills on water, water in-oil emulsions are formed by the emulsification process which changes the physical properties and characteristics of the oil. Stable emulsions contain from 60 to 80 per cent water, thereby expanding the spilled material from 2 to 5 times the original volume. The density of the resulting emulsion is also greater than the starting density and the viscosity of the oil generally increases. The liquid product is thus transformed into a heavy, semi-solid material. As a result of emulsification, evaporation of oil spills slows by orders-of-magnitude, spreading slows and the oil rides lower in the water column. Emulsification also affects cleanup response because emulsions are hard to treat, burn or recover mechanically. This paper also reviewed dielectric and rheological methods that study the formation mechanisms and stability of emulsions made from different types of oils. Other standard chemical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical analysis techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, interfacial pressure and interfacial tension have also been applied to emulsions. After 15 years of studies, data on water-in-oil emulsions have shown good correlation between laboratory, test tank and field scale studies. Reported test results on about 400 oils and petroleum products have shown that emulsions can be grouped into 3 categories, each with distinct physical properties. These include stable, unstable and meso-stable emulsions. An examination of the asphaltene and resin content has shown that the stability of emulsions can be predicted by the asphaltene content and its viscosity. Emulsion formation was found to occur at a threshold energy, defined in terms of relative sea state. A recently proposed numerical modeling scheme based on empirical data and corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation has been proposed. A class index of unstable or entrained water-in-oil state and a meso-stable or stable emulsion was determined based on density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin content. 133 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

2006-06-06

312

Exploratory study on prevaporation membranes for removal of water from water-crude oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of removing water from oil/water and water/oil emulsions by means of prevaporation. Simulated oil/water and water/oil emulsions were prepared by mixing water and kerosene of various concentrations and stabilized by adding sodium lauryl sulfate. Preliminary experiments were conducted on 12 membranes fabricated from two different materials. One membrane of each type of material was chosen for further work based on the results of preliminary tests, in which two different kinds of membranes, cellulose and polyvinylalcohol, were used. All experiments were carried out under two different down-stream pressures and various temperatures. The tests showed clearly that permeation rate increases at increasing temperatures. It was demonstrated that over 97% of water can be recovered from synthetic oil emulsions. The results also proved that both cellulose and polyvinylalcohol membranes produced permeates relatively free of oil even when the synthetic or crude oil emulsions had oil content higher than 90%. The study concluded that prevaporation was effective, but more extensive studies on various field oil emulsions with improved membrane material and systems were necessary due to the complex and site-specific characteristics of the actual field emulsions. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

1989-01-11

313

Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1) and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C) and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 ...

Gamel, T. H.; Kiritsakis, A.

1999-01-01

314

Usefulness of hepatic artery injection of iodized oil and 131I-labelled iodized oil before the therapeutic decision in hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assesses the usefulness of intra-arterial injection of iodized oil (Lipiodol) as a tool for evaluating the therapeutic choice in a series of 72 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 52 of these patients a scintigraphic study of the biodistribution of iodized oil was done, using 131I-iodized oil injection. A single tumor was detected in only 17 cases; 18 patients had a tumor involving only 1 lobe; in 7 cases CT scan disclosed a minute nodule in the opposite lobe of the main tumor. 18 patients had a portal thromobosis; in 12 of these cases CT scan showed iodized oil in the tumor emboli. The degree of intratumoral retention of iodized oil depended on the size of tumors and on the presence of arterioportal shunts. The authors study demonstrates that only a few patients (4%) with HCC might benefit from curative surgery. The therapeutic benefit of methods using iodized oil injection might be estimated by means of its biodistribution variables (CT and/or scintigraphic data). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

1993-03-01

315

Oil components modulate the skin delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its ester prodrug from oil-in-water and water-in-oil nanoemulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study evaluated the potential of nanoemulsions for the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl ALA (mALA). The drugs were incorporated in oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) formulations obtained by using soybean oil or squalene as the oil phase. The droplet size, zeta potential, and environmental polarity of the nanocarriers were assessed as physicochemical properties. The O/W and W/O emulsions showed diameters of 216–256 and 18–125 nm, which, respectively, w...

2011-01-01

316

Tritiated water with water injection for determining fluid movement and characterisation of a carbonate reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive tracers add a detailed picture of subsurface phenomena. In interwell tracer test they can be used to follow the fluid front. Tritiated water is probably the best performing and most widely used single tracer in industry. A multi-well multi-tracer programme is in progress with water injection in a carbonate reservoir for determining fluid movement inside subsurface and reservoir characterisation. Preliminary results obtained so far indicate directional permeability trends and vertical heterogeneity. This paper discusses programme design monitoring and inference drawn to this date. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

317

Combustion of water/heavy fuel oil emulsions and oil. Raskaan polttooeljyn ja sen vesiemulsion poltto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the emissions of residual oil (oil) and water/oil emulsion (emulsion) combustion. To investigate the effect of emulsion water contents on the emissions of particulates, NO and SO/sub 2/, as series of experiments was conducted at the NESTE OY Combustion Laboratory, Skoeldvik 5.-21. October 1987. A 1.5 MW boiler, a burner which modulates a pressurejet atomizer, and a water/oil emulsion apparatus. Preliminary investigation demonstrated the necessity to study emulsion combustion by changing one parameter at a time in order to optimize the process for minimum particulate emissions and maximum efficiency. The experimental results show clearly, that emulsion combustion prodused less particulate emissions than oil combustion. In oil combustion the average particulate emission was 135 mg/m/sup 3/n, and in emulsion combustion, with 8.9% water added, 93 mg/m/sup 3/n. The particle size distribution was also affected. Coarse particle (> 4 ..mu..m) emissions were reduced strongly, while fine particle (< 4 ..mu..m) remained unaffected. The average particle size was therefore much smaller in emulsion combustion (3.4 ..mu..m) than oil combustion (5.1 ..mu..m). Emulsion had no effect on the emissions of NO and SO/sub 2/.

Kaukanen, E.; Pyykkoenen, A.

1988-01-01

318

Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE. The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased from 60 to 90 bars while the injection temperature was varied from 150 to 210°C. The highest tensile strength of the composites was achieved at 70 bar holding pressure and 150°C injection temperature. However, the highest fracture strength was achieved at 80 bars whilst maintaining the injection temperature at 150°C. Flexural strength was shown to be unaffected by the varying pressure. The optimal processing parameters for highest mechanical performance were found to be at holding pressure of 80 bars and injection tempera

M.S. Ramli

2011-01-01

319

Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130°C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20g/mL after 30min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100°C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

Ravber, Matej; Knez, Zeljko; Skerget, Mojca

2015-01-01

320

Models, data available, and data requirements for estimating the effects of injecting saltwater into disposal wells in the Greater Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas fields, northern Uinta Basin, Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving models, available data, and data requirements for estimating the effects of injecting salt water into disposal wells in the Greater Altamount-Bluebell oil and gas fields in northern Uinta Basin, Utah.

Freethey, G.W.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Anxiogenic Effects of Acute Injection of Sesame oil May be Mediated by ?-1 Adrenoceptors in the Basolateral Amygdala.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: A few studies have indicates that the sesame oil influences anxiety, but many reports show that ?-1 adrenoceptors (ARs) of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a pivotal role in this regard. Therefore, in this study the effect of acute injection of sesame oil on anxiety-like behavior in the presence and absence of the BLA ?-1 ARs in the male Wistar rats were investigated. Methods: Guide cannulas, for seven groups of rats, were implanted bilaterally into the BLA. Two weeks after the stereotaxic surgery, anxiety-like behaviors (the OAT%, OAE % and locomotor activity) were evaluated by Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) for all groups. 3 groups received different volumes of sesame oil (i.p.) and they were compared with control group (received saline via i.p.), and the anxiogenic volume of sesame oil (1.5ml/kg) was determined. Then, 3 other groups received constant effective volume of sesame oil (1.5ml/kg) along with 3 different doses of betaxolol, selective ?-1 ARs antagonist, intra BLA microinjection in order to be compared with sesame oil group (1.5 ml/kg). Results: The acute injection of sesame oil with the volume dependent manner showed an anxiogenic effect with reduction of the OAT% and OAE% which the maximum effect of sesame oil was observed in the dose of 1.5mg/kg. Also, betaxolol with dose dependent manner attenuated the anxiogenic effects of sesame oil (1.5mg/kg), but this reduction could not remove the anxiety effects completely. Conclusion: It seems that the sesame oil acute (i.p.) injection induces anxiety, and this effect is attenuated by inhibition of ?-1ARs in the BLA. PMID:24409407

Kesmati, Mahnaz; Mard-Soltani, Maysam; Khajehpour, Lotfolah

2014-01-01

322

Anxiogenic Effects of Acute Injection of Sesame oil May be Mediated by ?-1 Adrenoceptors in the Basolateral Amygdala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: A few studies have indicates that the sesame oil influences anxiety, but many reports show that ?-1 adrenoceptors (ARs of the basolateral amygdala (BLA plays a pivotal role in this regard. Therefore, in this study the effect of acute injection of sesame oil on anxiety-like behavior in the presence and absence of the BLA ?-1 ARs in the male Wistar rats were investigated. Methods: Guide cannulas, for seven groups of rats, were implanted bilaterally into the BLA. Two weeks after the stereotaxic surgery, anxiety-like behaviors (the OAT%, OAE % and locomotor activity were evaluated by Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM for all groups. 3 groups received different volumes of sesame oil (i.p. and they were compared with control group (received saline via i.p., and the anxiogenic volume of sesame oil (1.5ml/kg was determined. Then, 3 other groups received constant effective volume of sesame oil (1.5ml/kg along with 3 different doses of betaxolol, selective ?-1 ARs antagonist, intra BLA microinjection in order to be compared with sesame oil group (1.5 ml/kg. Results: The acute injection of sesame oil with the volume dependent manner showed an anxiogenic effect with reduction of the OAT% and OAE% which the maximum effect of sesame oil was observed in the dose of 1.5mg/kg. Also, betaxolol with dose dependent manner attenuated the anxiogenic effects of sesame oil (1.5mg/kg, but this reduction could not remove the anxiety effects completely. Conclusion: It seems that the sesame oil acute (i.p. injection induces anxiety, and this effect is attenuated by inhibition of ?-1ARs in the BLA.

Mahnaz Kesmati

2013-12-01

323

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

324

An Analytical Model for Simulating Heavy-Oil Recovery by Cyclic Steam Injection Using Horizontal Wells, SUPRI TR-118  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this investigation, existing analytical models for cyclic steam injection and oil recovery are reviewed and a new model is proposed that is applicable to horizontal wells. A new flow equation is developed for oil production during cyclic steaming of horizontal wells. The model accounts for the gravity-drainage of oil along the steam-oil interface and through the steam zone. Oil viscosity, effective permeability, geometry of the heated zone, porosity, mobile oil saturation, and thermal diffusivity of the reservoir influence the flow rate of oil in the model. The change in reservoir temperature with time is also modeled, and it results in the expected decline in oil production rate during the production cycle as the reservoir cools. Wherever appropriate, correlations and incorporated to minimize data requirements. A limited comparison to numerical simulation results agrees well, indicating that essential physics are successfully captured. Cyclic steaming appears to be a systematic met hod for heating a cold reservoir provided that a relatively uniform distribution of steam is obtained along the horizontal well during injection. A sensitivity analysis shows that the process is robust over the range of expected physical parameters.

Diwan, Utpal; Kovscek, Anthony R.

1999-08-09

325

Process for the mining exploitation of an oil-bearing layer with underlying water, and products obtained by said process. Procede d'exploitation miniere d'une couche petrolifere a eau sous-jacente et produits obtenus par ledit procede  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This mining method for the exploitation of an oil-bearing layer consists of drilling supplemental wells from work galleries into the aquifer in the zone of the water-oil contact with injection of a heat carrier fluid into the injection wells; the oil is produced from producing wells. Water is withdrawn from the supplemental wells. This process is applicable to the production of high viscosity oil and of liquid bitumen.

Vakhnin, G.I.; Verty, V.G.; Tjunkin, B.A.; Fotieva, L.I.

1982-07-09

326

Effect of mixed gas solvent injection on performance of the Vapex process in an Iranian heavy oil sample  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vapor extraction (VAPEX) process involves the injection of vaporized hydrocarbon solvents into oil reservoirs in order to decrease in-situ oil viscosity. The solvents are often used with non-condensable gases in high pressure reservoirs to lower the dew point of the gas mixture and prevent condensation. This study investigated the effects of mixed gas solvent injection on the VAPEX process with an Iranian heavy oil sample. A set of experiments were conducted at low, medium, and high pressure rates on a 2-D visual model. A transparent face was used in the model in order to monitor the size of the vapor chamber and the position of the gas-oil interface. Production and injection wells were placed above each other and at the center of the model. The effects of solvent concentration, and carrier gas type on production parameters and produced oil properties were also investigated. Propane was used as a solvent, and methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were used as carrier gases. Results of the study showed that high injection pressures caused fluctuations in system behaviour. The solvent chamber grew in a lateral direction, and less asphaltene precipitation was observed. It was concluded that the VAPEX process can be used in high pressure reservoirs when combined with non-condensable carrier gases. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

Derakhshanfar, M.; Kharrat, R.; Rostami, B. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etminan, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

327

Here is how to measure water in oil; Slik maales vann i olje  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Any oil may contain a given quantity of water. Just how much depends on the type of additives, how oxidized the oil is, temperature etc. Thus every oil type has its own water saturation curve that shows when the oil can no longer hold the water and separates it out as emulsified or free water. This article discusses this briefly and describes how to meter the water content in oil.

NONE

2003-07-01

328

Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines  

Science.gov (United States)

This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

Becker, Arthur

2006-01-01

329

Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE). The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased ...

Megat-yusoff, P. S. M.; Abdul Latif, M. R.; Ramli, M. S.

2011-01-01

330

[Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil. PMID:24555360

Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

2013-11-01

331

APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUE OF ELECTROFLOCCULATION USING ALTERNATE CURRENT IN TREATMENT OF WATER PRODUCTION FROM OIL INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is related to the electroflocculation process applied to the treatment of the production water, which is the main waste generated during the process of exploration and production of oil. This wastewater is contains toxic chemicals, inorganic salts and heavy metals, which hinders its treatment and final disposal. Lately, this water is being re-injected into the production wells to increase the pressure, but its quality is not adequate. For the treatment of this effluent various techn...

2010-01-01

332

Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

1982-01-01

333

The Description of Oil Displacement Mechanism in Steam Injection of Multi-Field Synergy with Exergy Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steam injection is a most effective way for improving heavy oil recovery efficiency, and it has academic and practical significance for the mechanism of multi-field synergy oil displacement. Mechanism of “diversified” oil displacement which is obtained by traditional study methods in the exploitation territory of oil and gas fields has both respective roles and mutual cross shortages. To describe and analyze the displacement process of multi-field coupling with exergy transfer can simplify this kind of problem by introducing a unified goal-driving exergy. It needs to use the method of theoretical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental validation to study the basic law of exergy transfer in the oil displacement process of multi-field synergy, make a thorough research for the flooding process of steam injection with exergy transfer theory and reveal the oil displacement mechanism in steam injection of multi-field synergy. Thus the theory instruction and technical support can be provided to improve reservoirs producing degree and extraction ratio.

Qinglin Cheng

2013-06-01

334

SURFACE WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR MONITORING OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report develops and recommends prioritized listings of chemical, physical, and biological parameters which can be used to assess the environmental impact of oil shale development on surface water resources. Each of the potential water-related problems is addressed in the con...

335

Method of injecting cooling water in emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of PWR type reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a cooling water injection method in an ECCS, which can perform effective cooling of the reactor core. Method: In a method of injecting cooling water in an ECCS as a countermeasure against a rupture accident of a pwr type reactor, cooling water in the first pressure storage injection system is injected into the upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a set pressure of from 50 to 90 atg. and a set temperature of from 80 to 2000C, cooling water in the second pressure storage injection system is injected into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel at a pressure of from 25 to 60 atg. which is lower than the set pressure and a temperature less than 600C, and further in combination with these procedures, cooling water of less than 600C is injected into a high-temperature side piping, in the high-pressure injection system of upstroke of 100 atg. by means of a pump and the low-pressure injection system of upstroke of 20 atg. also by means of a pump, thereby cooling the reactor core. (Aizawa, K.)

1979-01-01

336

Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions  

Science.gov (United States)

Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

Nour, Abdurahman H.; Abu Hassan, Mohd A.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli

337

Nonionic oil-in-water microemulsions: the effect of oil type on phase behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions stabilized by the nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene-10-dodecyl ether, polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl ether, N,N-dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide and N,N-dimethyloleylamine-N-oxide and containing a variety of pharmaceutically acceptable oils, namely ethyl butyrate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl oleate and the triglycerides, soybean oil, Miglyol 812 and tributyrin, has been examined at 298 K. The effect on microemulsion formation of replacing water with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and complete PBS has been established. In addition, the effect of changing temperature (from 298 to 310 K) on the phase behaviour of microemulsions formulated using PBS as continuous phase has been determined. Although some small differences in phase behaviour were noted when altering the continuous phase, the greatest difference in phase behaviour was observed when changing the experimental temperature, particularly for microemulsions stabilized by polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl ether. Regardless of the temperature and aqueous phase used, however the larger molecular volume oils (soybean oil, Miglyol 812 and ethyl oleate) were solubilized to a lower extent than the smaller molecular volume oils (namely, ethyl butyrate and ethyl caprylate). The only exception to this rule was when polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl ether was used as surfactant, particularly at 298 K, where it was the larger molecular volume oils that were solubilized to the greatest extent. Cloud point/phase inversion temperature experiments suggested that the higher molecular volume oils were incorporated into the microemulsions prepared using the polyoxyethylene-based surfactants in a different way than the smaller molecular volume oils and suggest that the smaller molecular volume oils are acting in much the same way as a cosurfactant in that they interchelate with their hydrophilic group interspersed in the surfactant head group region. As N,N-dimethyldodecylamine-N-oxide does not exhibit a cloud point it was not possible to determine the mode of oil incorporation in microemulsions prepared with this surfactant. PMID:10722947

Warisnoicharoen, W; Lansley, A B; Lawrence, M J

2000-03-30

338

Program for mechanical oil recovery in ice infested waters (MORICE)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives and activities of the Program for Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice Infested Waters (MORICE) were described. The Program was initiated to remedy the lack of efficient techniques to clean up oil spills during winter conditions by developing oil-in-ice response technologies that can be ultimately commercialized. The Program is multinational, supported by government and industry from Norway, Canada, USA, Germany, and Sweden. During 1996, a committee reviewed past work, considered the applicability of existing methods, as well as new concepts which arose from the technical discussions. Several of these concepts are now the subject of laboratory scale investigations. A database of information on previous efforts to develop oil-in-ice recovery equipment, as well as information on historical spills and oil behaviour in ice was also compiled. Conclusions from work to date, and future plans for study are also provided. 4 refs., 10 figs.

Johannessen, B. O.; Jensen, H. [SINTEF SI, Oslo (Norway); Solsberg, L. [Counterspil Research Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lorenzo, T. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Div.

1997-10-01

339

Program for mechanical oil recovery in ice infested waters (MORICE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives and activities of the Program for Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice Infested Waters (MORICE) were described. The Program was initiated to remedy the lack of efficient techniques to clean up oil spills during winter conditions by developing oil-in-ice response technologies that can be ultimately commercialized. The Program is multinational, supported by government and industry from Norway, Canada, USA, Germany, and Sweden. During 1996, a committee reviewed past work, considered the applicability of existing methods, as well as new concepts which arose from the technical discussions. Several of these concepts are now the subject of laboratory scale investigations. A database of information on previous efforts to develop oil-in-ice recovery equipment, as well as information on historical spills and oil behaviour in ice was also compiled. Conclusions from work to date, and future plans for study are also provided. 4 refs., 10 figs

1997-06-11

340

Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish

2003-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Modeling of Miscible WAG Injection Using Real Geological Field Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maximizing oil recovery is the challenge for the oil industry in the North Sea and world wide. Norwegian national company Statoil set the goal to reach oil recovery of 60% for their fields on NCS. To achieve this target a number of enhanced oil recovery technologies are being applied, including water alternating gas injection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of effective improvement of oil recovery with WAG injection for the field, which has high permeability zone ...

Shpak, Roman

2013-01-01

342

Stability of additive-free water-in-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We calculate ion distributions near a planar oil-water interface within nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, taking into account the Born self-energy of the ions in the two media. For unequal self-energies of cations and anions a spontaneous charge separation is found, such that the water and oil phases become oppositely charged in slabs with a typical thickness of the Debye screening length in the two media. From the analytical solutions, the corresponding interfacial charge density and the contribution to the interfacial tension is derived, together with an estimate for the Yukawa potential between two spherical water droplets in oil. The parameter regime is explored where the plasma coupling parameter exceeds the crystallization threshold, i.e. where the droplets are expected to form crystalline structures due to a strong Yukawa repulsion, as recently observed experimentally. Extensions of the theory that we discuss briefly, include numerical calculations on spherical water droplets in oil, and analytical calculations of the linear PB-equation for a finite oil-water interfacial width.

Zwanikken, Jos; De Graaf, Joost; Bier, Markus; Van Roij, Rene [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

2008-12-10

343

Influence of water on lubricating properties of synthetic oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of water on the lubricating properties of type 50-1-4f, B-3V and 36/IKU-A ester-based synthetic oils and isoparaffin oil IPM-10 was studied by introduction of 0.3, 1 and 5% water by mass and homogenization of the emulsion produced, followed by friction testing. Water does not influence the maximum lubricating capacity of VNII NP-50-1-4f oil in the range studied. The maximum lubricating capacity of B-3V oil and its mixture with diethylene glycol ester (36/1 KU-A) is 22-27% decreased, that of IPM-10 oil slightly increased. Antiwear properties are little affected at up to 1% water content, significantly decreased at 5% water content. The antiwear and antiseizing properties of dioctylsebacinate and C/sub 5/-C/sub 9/ SFA pentaerythrite ether improve after hydrolysis due to the formation of carboxylic acids which improve the lubricating properties of esters.

Yechin, A.I.; Novosartov, G.T.; Kondrat' eva, T.B.

1983-02-01

344

Flow injection determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils using capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A single line flow injection analysis (FIA) method that incorporated a preconcentrator column packed with C(18) particles and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) was developed for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) in vegetable oils. The carrier stream was methanol/1.5 mM sodium acetate (pH 8) 80:20 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Calibration curve was well correlated (r(2)=0.9995) within the range of 1-200 mg L(-1) FFA (expressed as palmitic acid). Sampling rate of 40-60 h(-1) was achieved. Good agreement was found between the standard non-aqueous titrimetry method and the proposed method when applied to the determination of FFA in palm (crude, olein, and refined, bleached and deodorised) and other vegetable (soybean, rice bran, walnut, corn and olive) oils. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the official method, especially in terms of simplicity, high sampling rate, economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost automated system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time. PMID:21565307

Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

2011-05-23

345

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02867d

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-10-01

346

Microbial response to reinjection of produced water in an oil reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial response to produced water reinjection (PWRI) in a North Sea oil field was investigated by a combination of cultivation and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic techniques. Special emphasise was put on the relationship between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), and results were used to evaluate the possibility of nitrate treatment as a souring management tool during PWRI. Samples were collected by reversing the flow of the injection water, which provided samples from around the injection area. The backflowed samples were compared to produced water from the same platform and to backflowed samples from a biocide-treated seawater injector, which was the previous injection water treatment of the PWRI well. Results showed that reinjection of produced water promoted growth of thermophilic SRB. Thermophilic fatty acid oxidising NRB and potential nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidising bacteria were also found. The finding of thermophilic NRB makes nitrate treatment during PWRI possible, although higher nitrate concentration will be necessary to compensate for the increased SRB activity. PMID:19430774

Lysnes, Kristine; Bødtker, Gunhild; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva O; Sunde, Egil

2009-07-01

347

?????????????????? Research on Numerical Simulations of Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery by Steam Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????B-L????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????–???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The works on the developments of the numerical scheme for multi-phase flows in porous media and the adaptive mesh refinement in numerical simulations of heavy oil thermal recovery by steam injection are introduced. First, a finite analytic method was developed to deal with a challenging problem in numerical simulations in the case of strong geological heterogeneity, which cause the upscaling permeability to have a rapid change cross the grid interfaces and therefore the nodal flow effects will lead the flow fingering to the high permeability region. With the traditional numerical scheme, refining the coarse grid enough is the only manner to describe the flow pattern accurately. Second, for the incompressible two-phase flows, a numerical scheme, which could avoid the grid orientation effects efficiently, was proposed. Next, the adaptive mesh refinement technique was applied to the numerical simulations for the processes of thermal recovery by steam injection, where the different heterogeneous cases of the reservoir were considered, like the reservoir with the permeability variations, the different rock-types, the fractured porous media, the complex faulted reservoir or complex boundary reservoirs. The proposed AMR technique is fast and can give good accuracy. At last, on the basis of above theoretical research, a software package for the reservoir simulations, where the AMR technique was included, was developed.

???

2013-03-01

348

Stability of a floating water droplet on an oil surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a new configuration of a water droplet floating on oil surface. The configuration is characterized by an acute contact angle (i.e., ?2 sunk by a small disturbance. By employing a common surfactant, the new configuration was experimentally verified in a mineral oil with a density similar to that of crude oils. The new droplet is kinetically more stable than the previous configuration and can sustain strong disturbances. The results also highlight the significance of dynamic interfacial adsorption on the stability of the floating droplet. PMID:24397603

Phan, Chi M

2014-01-28

349

Theoretical analysis of the effect of water and ethanol injection on axial compressor instabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of instabilities that occur in compression systems rotating stall and surge have an adverse effect on the compressor performance. Several techniques have been explored to minimize the effect of these instabilities. It has been observed that injection of a liquid into the compressor not only improves thermodynamic efficiencies but also results in stabilizing the system. Therefore, water and ethanol injection has been investigated as an effective tool for controlling these compressor instabilities. In the present paper a modified Moore-Greitzer model has been proposed for wet compression-based system using water and ethanol. Under this work the effect of injection of water (1) at various stages of compressor, (2) at different altitudes and (3) by varying amounts has also been presented. The effect of various parameters on wet compression such as (a) Optimum stage for liquid injection (b) Optimum amount of liquid injection and (c) Effect of altitude on liquid injection is also examined in the present work which shows that the liquid injection helps in improving the performance of compression systems in terms of increase in the stall margin and pressure rise coefficient. - Highlights: ? We model the effect of liquid injection on the performance of axial flow compressors. ? The basic Moore-Grietzer's model has been appropriately modified. ? Injection of liquid in the later stages of the compressor resulted in improved stall margin and pressure rise. ? Use of ethanol was found to give better performance than water.

2011-07-01

350

Determination of water in organic solvents by flow-injection analysis with Karl Fischer reagent and a biamperometric detection system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A flow-injection system with a biamperometric flow-through detector provided with two platinum plate electrodes was tested for the determination of water with a two-component pyridine-free Karl Fischer reagent. The response was shown to be linear in the concentration range 0.03-0.11% water in methanol, ethanol or 2-propanol, with methanol as the carrier solvent. The maximum sampling frequency was about 150 samples per hr. It appeared to be possible to introduce a membrane separation step, thus allowing for the determination of water in fouled process streams. To avoid direct contact between the Karl Fischer solution and the pumping tubes, and thus extend the lifetime of the tubes, an indirect delivery system, based on replacement of the solution by pumped silicone oil, was also applied. PMID:18964466

Liang, C; Vácha, P; van der Linden, W E

1988-01-01

351

Retention of polar oil components in low salinity water flooding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of brine chemistry, salinity and composition on the retention of polar oil components onto reservoir rock mineral surface in relation to low salinity water flooding (LSWF) was studied and evaluated in this piece of work using ultra-violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Five different brine compositions; sea water (SW), formation water (FW), LSW1 (FW diluted 100 times), LSW2 (FW diluted 1000 times) and KCl low salinity brine were studied and their effect on the retention of polar...

2013-01-01

352

Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

1999-01-01

353

Scope for converting an existing natural gas enhanced oil recovery project to carbon dioxide injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposed a scheme where carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can be applied to any natural gas field where a carbon capture power station can be constructed. In 2002 British Petroleum (BP) began EOR at the Magnus field in the North Sea using gas produced from fields West of Shetland (WoS). Gas is transported to Magnus via Sullom Voe terminal on Shetland, where it is enriched with natural gas liquids (NGLs) to improve miscibility. This paper proposed an alternative scheme that involves the construction of a 500 MW carbon capture power station at Sullom Voe using WoS gas to produce electricity, to be sold into the national power grid in the United Kingdom. The resulting CO{sub 2} would be captured for use in EOR projects. This new scheme also requires the construction of a subsea power cable from Shetland to Scotland which could connect to the Grid at Dounreay on the north coast of the Scottish mainland. A detailed reservoir study would be needed along with significant modifications at the field to separate and reinject wet CO{sub 2} produced with the oil as a result of the EOR process. This study considered the economic viability of the proposed changes to the current Magnus EOR project, as well as other potential benefits and challenges facing this scheme, such as the possibility of improving the infrastructure to support renewable energy schemes. This study showed that generating electricity using natural gas currently injected for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Magnus field, and injecting the resulting CO{sub 2} instead, could possibly give low emission power at comparable costs to other new technologies, even under realistic economic conditions. Although this would still not be commercially viable due to the current lack of support for carbon capture and sequestration schemes, this option should be considered as an alternative to natural gas EOR in the future. The Magnus scheme may have other benefits, such as helping to provide grid connections for large scale renewable generation in Shetland and Orkney, making a contribution of 0.2 per cent reduction in United Kingdom's CO{sub 2} emissions. 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

Chalmers, H.; Gibbins, J. [Imperial College of London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Technology for Sustainable Development Group

2005-07-01

354

Modelling the behaviour of oil spills in natural waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A state of the art review is presented of the different formulations of the physicochemical processes affecting the fate of spilled oil. These processes account for the transfer and loss of the surface oil, such as initial spreading, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, dispersion, photo-oxidation, and sedimentation. Suitable equations are selected for implementation of a mathematical model of oil spill behavior into a computer program. Blokker's equation (1964) is used to model the spread of oil, a solubility enhancement factor is adopted from Mackay and Leinonen (1977), dispersion is modelled according to the model of Delvigne and Sweeney (1988), and values relating to measurements of different wind and wave parameters as found in Bouwmeester and Wallace (1986) and Delvigne and Sweeney (1988) were adopted to represent the different sea conditions. The program calculates the amount of oil lost from the surface slick as a function of time. Its inputs include the type and composition of the oil, physical properties of each of the oil components, environmental and weather conditions, and spill size. To reflect field observations, the surface oil composition in the model is allowed to vary with time as a result of weathering. Model simulations were obtained for different sea states, wind speeds, and water temperatures. Comparisons of the model's individual components and field data have been favorable. 32 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Luk, G.K.; Kuan, H.F. (Ryerson Polytechnical Inst., Toronto, ON (Canada))

1993-01-01

355

Modelling the behaviour of oil spills in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A state of the art review is presented of the different formulations of the physicochemical processes affecting the fate of spilled oil. These processes account for the transfer and loss of the surface oil, such as initial spreading, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, dispersion, photo-oxidation, and sedimentation. Suitable equations are selected for implementation of a mathematical model of oil spill behavior into a computer program. Blokker's equation (1964) is used to model the spread of oil, a solubility enhancement factor is adopted from Mackay and Leinonen (1977), dispersion is modelled according to the model of Delvigne and Sweeney (1988), and values relating to measurements of different wind and wave parameters as found in Bouwmeester and Wallace (1986) and Delvigne and Sweeney (1988) were adopted to represent the different sea conditions. The program calculates the amount of oil lost from the surface slick as a function of time. Its inputs include the type and composition of the oil, physical properties of each of the oil components, environmental and weather conditions, and spill size. To reflect field observations, the surface oil composition in the model is allowed to vary with time as a result of weathering. Model simulations were obtained for different sea states, wind speeds, and water temperatures. Comparisons of the model's individual components and field data have been favorable. 32 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

1993-01-01

356

Compound for localization of the film of oil and oil products on the water surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To raise the efficacy of localization of the film of oil and oil products on the water surface polyethyleneglycolic ethers of oleic acid C/sub 17/H/sub 35/COO (CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/o) /SUB n/ H are added to the compound containing anhydrosorbit stearates and a solvent. The example of the compound preparation is given. The obtained preparation exceeds the efficiency of the previous ones by 24-51%.

Nesterova, M.P.; Anufrieva, H.M.; Levina, N.M.; Studenikin S.P.

1981-06-03

357

Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. ...

Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

1996-01-01

358

Optimizing injection-production well pattern in hot water dominated geothermal reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimization of an injection-production well pattern was examined based on the quantitative study about the effects of reinjection water on production water. Reservoir characteristics distributions and reinjection water flow behavior between the injection and production wells were monitored by a tracer test, and the effects of reinjection water on the pressure and temperature of production water were examined by a numerical reservoir simulation model. The pressure response induced by water production or injection was transmitted into the reservoir rather rapidly and widely, however, the temperature change induced by water injection was not transmitted so rapidly as the pressure response. The reservoir was cooled gradually with the advance of injected water front. In designing the optimal reinjection system, it was thus most important to control the water replacement front and its velocity, and to minimize the temperature effect of reinjection water on production water. Combined use of the tracer test and simulation was proved to be remarkably helpful in evaluating a reservoir heterogeneity and in optimizing the well pattern. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Omuta, H.; Obara, K. (Japan Oil Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo; Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Iwate)

1988-11-10

359

Formation and Stability of an Oil in Water Emulsion Containing Lecithin, Xanthan Gum and Sunflower Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The optimisation of the formation and stability of an oil in water emulsion containing lecithin, xanthan gum and sunflower oil was evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and nonlinear regression. The main and combined effects of three independent variables; concentration of sunflower oil (10-20% v/v), soy lecithin (1-5% w/v) and xanthan gum (0.01-3% w/v) on the responses were examined. The main objectives of the study were to model and optimise maximum emulsion storage stability a...

2013-01-01

360

The estimation of oil water displacement functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of the equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefor...

Savioli, G. B.; Ferna?ndez-berdaguer, E. M.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

BP philosophy to PWRI and field experiences. Benefits and risks of produced water re-injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses that water injection performance can be successfully modeled with a high degree of confidence. This applies to PW as well as SW and there is needs to understand the parameters that impact injection performance, how changing fluid type influences this. The key factors which influence PWRI are injection pressure, temperature and water quality (in particular solids). Furthermore the PWRI should be considered as part of an overall water management strategy, rather than as a retrofit option and as such there are needs to design surface facilities for PWRI operation (s and management) (tk)

2005-01-18

362

Mechanistic model calculates expected water dispersion in crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accuracy of sampling procedures commonly used to measure the amount of water in crude-oil flows depends upon the sample being fully representative of the bulk crude oil. This quality requires that the samples be located where the water is dispersed relatively uniformly over the pipe cross section. To calculate the expected degree of water dispersion at a given location, a mechanistic model has been developed. The model was validated in straight horizontal pipes by comparing the predicted water-concentration profiles with available data. The model has now been extended to include various upstream mixing elements. Good agreement with experimental water concentration data suggests that the model can be utilized successfully to supplement guidelines provided in the American Petroleum Institue's (API) standard on automatic sampling.

Segev, A.

1986-08-01

363

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Science.gov (United States)

Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation) between good performance (fast coalescence) and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

Abdurahman; Nour, H.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli; Jemaat, Zulkifly

364

Technique for breaking up water-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To improve efficiency of the process of breaking up water-oil emulsions where the emulsion is mixed with the demulsifier and the subsequent separation of water from the oil, the mixing is carried out in two steps. Processing in the first stage is done for 0.5-1 min at Re-300,000-400,000, and in the second stage for 5-7 min at Re-30,00050,000, where Re is the Reynolds number. For example, high-emulsion Mamontov deposit oil is demulsified as follows (oil contains, %: water 30, asphaltenes 1.61, silica gel tar 6.77, paraffin 3.11, viscosity of oil at 20/sup 0/ 28.6 sSt, density at 20/sup 0/ 0.875 g/cm/sup 3/). Emulsion with reagent, preheated to demulsifying temperature of 50/sup 0/ is initially agitated for a short period (0.5-1.0 min) at very high intensity (3600-5000 rpm. Re=300,000400,000), and then for a longer period (from 5 to 7 min) with a moderate intensity (500-700 rpm, Re=30,000-50,000). The emulsifier that was used is 15/100 programin, separol 5084, dissolvan 4490, SU-100. The demulsifiers are measured in the amount of 0.5% in an organic solvent. This process increased the breakup of water-oil emulsions by 1.5 times and increased by greater than or equal to 2.0 times the quality of the demulsified oil.

Marinin, N.S.; Fedorishchev, T.I.; Miroshnichenko, Ye.V.; Rudenko, L.I.

1982-01-01

365

Determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in formation water during oil exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is conducted, in order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in Iran petroleum industry. Samples were collected from offshore oil company for analysis of 238U, 235U, and 232Th series in produced waters. The activities of samples were determined by high-purity germanium detector, well for low level activity ?-spectrometry. The results have shown that, 226Ra concentration ranges from 5.26 Bq/L to 27.93 Bq/L. Also the total activity in produced water is in the range of 16-840 Bq/L were mainly due to enhanced levels of dissolved 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi ions. Also, enhanced dissolution of elements such as radium by increasing of salinity, result in higher concentration of NORM in old oil region. Measured values are above EPA regulation (40 CFR 141055) and aqueous Derived Release Limit (DRL) of Canadian guideline for the management of (NORM). Therefore produced water has to dispose in pits which have to design for decrease the environmental effects. Also according to this study, re-injection of produced water in to abandon well of Iran Offshore Oil Company in Persian Gulf, have preference over discharging to the pits. (author)

2010-01-01

366

Early water production and bypassed oil in edge water drive reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes oil recovery and water production in reservoirs under waterflood. Early water production in bottom water drive reservoirs is generally caused by water coning. Water coning can partially complete wells in edge-water drive systems with unfavorable mobility ratios, where water tongues could under-run the oil. Water coning, tonguing and their interactions affect the water breakthrough time, the post-breakthrough production and ultimate recovery. Although the effects of water coning and tonguing on well production are generally addressed separately, this study suggested that the combination of both mechanisms leads to excessive water problem, ineffective oil recovery due to water coning, and early well termination. Analytical expressions for diffuse and segregated flow conditions were used in this study to assess the severity of tonguing and coning. A numerical reservoir simulation identified the dominant reservoir conditions for early water production as well as the conditions for water coning and bypassed oil. The study showed that analysis of the following engineering factors help to determine well location and completion length: location; well spacing, gravity numbers, mobility ratio, well penetration ratios, and vertical mobility. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

Arslan, O.; Wojtanowicz, A.K.; Kumar, A.; White, C.D. [Louisian State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2004-07-01

367

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01

368

Design and operation of laboratory combustion cell for air injection into light oil reservoirs: potential application in Sindh field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical experimental work on the combustion oil recovery processes consists of both laboratory and field studies. Although field experiments are the ultimate test of any oil recovery process, they are costly, time consuming and difficult to analyze quantitatively. Laboratory CC (Combustion Cell) experiments are cost effective and less time consuming, but are subject to scaling and interpretation challenges. Experimental set up has been developed to understand air injection process for improving oil recovery from light oil reservoirs taking into account the sand pack petro physical and fluid properties. Some important design problems; operational criteria and considerations important to interpretation of results are pointed out. To replicate subsurface reservoir conditions or pressure and temperature, experiments up to 6895 KPa, at non-isothermal conditions with 5 deg. C/min ramp-up are performed on unconsolidated cores with reservoir oil samples. Correlations were obtained for low temperature oxidation rate of oil, the fuel deposition rate and the rate of burning fuel as a fuel concentration. Various parameters such as (sand pack, pressure, oil saturation and flow rate/air flux) were changed to investigate their impact on reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned. To determine the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, he hydrogen-carbon ratio and m-ratio was calculated. For further confirmation Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.0 order of reaction with carbon concentration which is also confirmed.This research will contribute to the overall understanding of air injection process; help to determine the most appropriate lOR (Improved Oil Recovery) technique in the development of the tertiary phase of production in light oil reservoirs in Lower Indus Basin (Sindh) fields. (author)

2011-01-01

369

Production, automatic delivery and bolus injection of O-15 water for positron emission tomography studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An automatic system allowing repetitive bolus injection of oxygen-15-labeled water for PET studies is described in this report. The production of this radiopharmaceutical by the 16O(p,pn)15O nuclear reaction on H216O, its purification and delivery nearby the PET camera, the injection system, and the quality controls are presented.

Vannaemen, John; Monclus, Michel; Damhaut, Philippe; Luxen, Andre?; Goldman, Serge

1996-01-01

370

Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 ?mol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Met