WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

Science.gov (United States)

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30

2

Pumping emulsified crude oil and viscous oils using annular water injection and steam coils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two tests were conducted at Ohmsett in March 2000 to improve the ability to pump viscous oils and emulsions. The tests involved the use of annular water injection (AWI) and steam to examine how various systems can be improved, particularly steam lance, steam coil and AWI in pumping very cold heavy fuel where viscosity ranged between 12,000 to 35,000 centistokes. In October 2000, an additional test was conducted in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to determine the effectiveness of the AWI with weathered crude oil and the same oil emulsified to 40 and 60 per cent water by volume, resulting in a viscosity ranging from 1,000 to 50,000 centistokes. These tests were conducted as part of a broader study by Alaska Clean Seas on the handling and disposal of recovered oil. If Alaskan oil is spilled in open water or light ice conditions, it will most likely form stable emulsions. Weathered, unemulsified oils can have viscosities as high as 10,000 centistokes and emulsions formed from these oils can have viscosities of 100,000 centistokes or more and it may not be possible to pump at maximum flow rates. AWI is a method that can reduce the line pressures when pumping highly viscous fluids. The idea is to inject a small volume of water through a specially designed flange at the discharge side of the pump. The flange causes the water to form a thin layer that coats the inside wall of the hose which lubricates the viscous oil and reduces line pressures. Tests were conducted using a 50 per cent glycol/water solution, arctic diesel and arctic diesel with emulsion breaker. The injection rate was 5 per cent of the emulsion flow rate for all tests with AWI. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

Loesch, R. [United States Coast Guard, Washington, DC (United States); Potter, S. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Drieu, M. [United States Coast Guard, New Orleans, LA (United States); Moffatt, C. [United States Navy, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

2001-07-01

3

UV disinfection of injection and drinking water - an accepted method on offshore oil platforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultraviolet disinfection packages have been developed for the treatment of drinking water and injection water on offshore oil platforms. Large-scale tests with sulphate reducing bacteria out outlined. (Auth.)

4

Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

5

Process for treating by ion exchange the injection water oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This process is intended to prepare injection water free of sulfate ions by exchanging them for chloride ions by means of an ion exchange resin of strongly anionic nature in the chloride form. The resin then is reactivated or regenerated by contact with a brine of low total salinity. The water thus treated is injected into oil wells in order to increase their productivity.

1980-04-11

6

Thermal regime of an oil formation during injection of cold and hot water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field tests have shown that cold water injection lowers bottom-hole temperatures of Bashkiria wells by 10/sup 0/ to 15/sup 0/C. The radial thermal distribution around cold-water injection wells is shown graphically. After injecting 490 cu m of water per day for 1,650 days, formation temperature was 10/sup 0/C for the first 80 m, 20/sup 0/C at 110 m, and 24/sup 0/C at 150 m. Similar types of data are given for hot water injection. This study has also shown that the geothermal gradient along the reservoir varies considerably. A series of oil displacement tests were conducted with hot water. The tests showed that as water temperature increased, so did oil recovery. Oil recovery was also increased when 0.05% of surfactant OP-10 was added to the floodwater.

Babalyan, G.A.; Mustaev, Ya.A.; Chebotarev, V.V.

1968-11-01

7

Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 µg/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6 µg/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6 µg/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. PMID:21702059

Heinz, Gary H; Hoffman, David J; Klimstra, Jon D; Stebbins, Katherine R; Kondrad, Shannon L

2011-09-01

8

Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine composition but also the formation water composition affected the oil recovery at high temperatures from the Stevns Klint chalk rock.

Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander

2012-01-01

9

Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan

10

Water over oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fall of 2009, a large heavy oil producer approached Champion Technologies Inc., the world's second biggest oilfield chemical company, with a problem. The company had several wells that had the potential to be good producers if one obstacle could be overcome. The oil viscosity was so high that operators couldn't run the pumps at high enough speeds to get good production rates. After a year of research and development, Champion did its first field trial of a chemical additive called Champion Flow Plus VR-1100. The VR-1100 chemical is added to produce water injected into the annular space of the wellbore in order to encapsulate the oil in the water to create globules or droplets of oil surrounded by a water external surface. The goal is to reduce drag and enable the oil to flow more freely. The oil is dispersed within the water, and that oil-and-water dispersion has a lower viscosity than straight oil. When the oil/water dispersion reaches the surface production facilities and is allowed to sit in a tank, the oil and water separate readily. The primary purpose of the VR-1100 is to restore or increase production in wells that have the potential to be good producers if the viscosity problem can be overcome.

Roche, Pat

2011-11-15

11

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

12

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

13

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

Science.gov (United States)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

14

Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

Steiger, Judy I.

2007-01-01

15

Water injection profiling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

16

Study on the Fine Optimization of Water Injection in SZ Oilfield of Bohai Bay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bohai SZ Oilfield has entered into high water cut stage, how to realize the goal of fine optimization of water injection to enhance oil recovery is an important problem for reservoir engineers. Fine optimization of water injection needs ‘inject enough’, ‘inject well’ and ‘inject effectively’. The paper gets relationship between annual oil production rate and annual water production rate of different water cut stages of SZ Oilfield with the life cycle theory and draws the annual water injection rate and annual oil production rate chart to ensure ‘inject enough’, optimizes injection allocation method according to new reservoir research and gets a very good precipitation effect of increasing oil production. The paper also puts forward the method to recognize low effective and ineffective injection circulation to guide the oilfield ‘inject effectively’.Key words: Fine optimization of water injection; Logistic theory; Prediction of water injection; Injection allocation; Low effective and ineffective injection circulation

SUN Guangyi

2014-04-01

17

Injection technology increases oil recovery at Permian Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article provided a brief overview of the positive field results of the Powerwave injection technology at an oil field in the Permian Basin. The patented injection technology uses pulses of fluid pressure to create momentary elastic flexure of the pore structure to improve the flow of fluids in sedimentary soils and fractured rock, thereby optimizing the performance of chemical enhanced oil recovery technologies, liquid carbon dioxide injection, water injection, and surfactant/polymer flooding to effectively increase oil recovery. In the example of the West Texas waterflood, the Powerwave technology generated an overall production increase of nearly 50 percent. The significant improvements in production and the increased profitability that resulted from the installation of the Powerwave equipment are expected generate interest in the technology from other operators seeking to maximize oil recovery in their fields. The Edmonton-based company is actively pursuing other contracts in the Permian Basin. 1 fig., 1 ref.

Anon.

2010-09-15

18

Influence of Gamma Radiation on the Treatment of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in the Injection Water Used for the Enhanced Oil Recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The counts of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water samples collected from the well head (formation water) and outlet of petroleum treatment plant (Produced water) in a petroleum field in middle delta- Egypt were determined. The data showed a low count of (SRB) in the collected formation water sample and there was an obvious increase in the bacterial counts which appeared in the produced water, that may reveal that the presence of appropriate conditions for the growth of (SRB) in the closed system in treatment plant. Two scale inhibitors were tested through jar test, the scale inhibitor I had maximum efficiency at 20 ppm, two SRB biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides A was slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to B in presence of 20 ppm scale inhibitor. These biocides were test for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides to eliminate the negative impacts of the chemicals used and the radiation applied. The results demonstrated that, the lethal doses of biocides were (300 ppm) of biocides A or (400 ppm) of biocides B at 1 kGy irradiation dose. The treated produced water was evaluated in respect of enhanced oil recovery, the data showed increase of the recovery capacity by the irradiation and chemical treatment. This technology could be used for the water that are injected into reservoirs, and suitable for oil field and pipeline operators, and presented a viable bacteria control method

19

Schoonebeek oil field: the RW-2E steam injection project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Dutch Schoonebeek oil field initially contained 170 x 106 cu m of 25 API crude. Primary recovery is low mainly due to the high viscosity of the oil. Research on enhanced recovery began in 1950 and concentrated on thermal processes. The performance of hot water injection projects is declining and a gradual switch is being made toward steam injection. Steam injection was applied in 1960 in a depleted part of the field. In 1972 a pilot project was started to test the feasibility of steam injection in the much larger waterdrive part where pressures are kept at the hydrostatic level of 85 bar by aquifer water influx. This project indicated that steam injection under waterdrive conditions is a very effective recovery process. On the basis of the pilot results a large scale project was designed, the RW-2E steam injection project. It consists of 14 steam injection wells, 43 producers and 14 water disposal wells. Steam will be injected at a total rate of ca 3000 tons/day for a period of 6 yr. The project started in Jan., 1981. Total project life is estimated at 15 yr.

Troost, P.J.P.M.

1981-12-01

20

Gulf water injection pipeline and facilities de-bottlenecking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The complex water handling facilities at Gulf Canada Resources' oil producing field at Goose River, Alberta was discussed with focus on how the water injection system was modeled and de-bottlenecked for optimum operation. As the oil reservoir is drawn down, water re-injection becomes a priority to keep oil production volumes up. The entire system of pipelines, headers and pumps was modeled using simulation of pipeline route information, flow rates, pressure and ground conditions at well and pump discharge locations. The model which was based and calibrated on existing conditions, was used to determine the best possible locations to install added pumping capacity to accommodate the new injection flow rates and pressures. The water injection facilities consist of a buried water injection pipelines, one central battery, two satellites with storage, and one fresh water make-up facility. The objective of the de-bottlenecking project was to increase the field net water injection rate by 2500 m3/d, and to replace the obsolete battery water injection pumps with more reliable, multi-stage centrifugal down-hole type pumps. They Hysim model was used to predict the new water injection flows through the produced water injection network. The result was a satisfactory wellhead injection pressure as predicted by the program. 6 tabs., 3 figs.

Vargas, K.J. [Falcon EDF Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

1980-01-01

22

Bye-bye forms 17 and 17A : Pedigree salt water injection monitoring partners with ND Oil and Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Dakota-based Pedigree Technologies is a leading provider of web-based M2M applications for fleet, asset and supply chain management. This presentation described their simple web-based system which helps companies track, locate, monitor and control their fixed and mobile assets and equipment. It highlighted a typical class 2 injection well problem regarding compliance issues for saltwater injection well equipment. The solution was a cost-effective web-enabled remote monitoring system that activates alarms for equipment health conditions and reporting for compliance needs all in one system. In particular, the system replaces manual data entry of Forms 17 and 17A with automated remote monitoring and reporting. It allows real time access to alarms and trends of injection data. The solar powered monitoring system measures flow rate, pipe pressure and annulus pressure. It provides automated hourly readings and cellular communication. In addition to increasing process efficiency, the system decreases the costs of manual data collection at injection sites. tabs., figs.

Warner, A. [Pedigree Technologies, Fargo, ND (United States)

2010-07-01

23

Water injection in various fields of Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two successful pilot flood tests conducted in the Argentine oil fields have been sufficiently successful to indicate to Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) that many other fields having similar reservoir characteristics would respond well to waterflooding. In 1966, YPF contracted with companies specializing in secondary recovery to make a study of these 4 reservoirs: Canadon Leon, in Santa Cruz, to the south of Comodoro Rivadavia; Barrancas South, in Mendoza; and El Sauce and Cerro Bandera, both in Neuquen (as indicated on the base map). These studies revealed which of the formations were most likely to respond to water injection. For Canadon Leon and Barrancas, pilot operations were recommended, while for the others, water injection on a large scale was recommended. The scheme of large-scale waterflooding for Cerro Bandera (Neuquen) and El Sauce (Neuquen) is illustrated. In Canadon Leon and Barrancas alone, secondary recovery is expected to increase the oil recovery to around 3,500,000 bbl; of this total 1,327,282 is primary and 2,190,000 is secondary recovery. Tabular data show the anticipated results of water injection in the 4 studied fields.

1969-10-01

24

Pressure drop through pipe during transfer of viscous oils and oil-water mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented a solution to the problem of recovering spilled oil from a sunken ship, particularly when the oil viscosity is high. In such cases, the pipe friction resistance becomes large and oil transfer becomes difficult. In this study, the pipe pressure drop from the pipe entrance to the exit was measured, and the friction factor was obtained. The flow rate in the pipe was then calculated. The oil flow rate of the oil injected into the water was compared with cases where only the oil flowed and with an annular water injection method (AWI). The method of transporting viscous oil by injecting it in a water current proved to be a simple and effective method for reducing the friction coefficient of the pipe. In oil laminar flow, the friction drag was reduced by inserting the oil into water with a simple T joint, thereby increasing the amount of oil transfer. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

25

Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined theoretically at a larger scale.

Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina

2006-01-01

26

Oil water laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

27

Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

S. Siregar

2007-05-01

28

Water injection characterization using time-lapse seismic data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the global increase in energy consumption and declining hydrocarbon reserves, reservoir management strategies must be improved. The recovery of most reservoirs is less than 40 per cent. Understanding the water front pattern and the sweep efficiencies in water injection programs is critical to improve recovery efficiency and to model reservoirs for better simulation studies. A new method to estimate the microscopic sweep efficiencies in a water injection process using seismic data was presented along with a discussion of theories regarding time-lapse seismic monitoring of reservoir changes during primary or enhanced recovery. A new mathematical method for calculating saturation using seismic data was then introduced. Seismic wave velocity equations were applied to the following reservoir parameters: matrix bulk and shear modulus; matrix density; total porosity; fluid saturation; water salinity; oil API gravity; gas specific gravity; pressure; and, temperature. Water injection into a reservoir was also simulated. The model was created based on the typical reservoir properties and fluid PVT data of Iranian reservoirs of the National Iranian Oil Company. The mathematical approach was then applied to the seismic data. Synthetic seismograms generated before and after the injection were compared and the water saturation values after the injection were calculated using the newly proposed method. The calculated values showed a good match with the simulated ones. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

Vasheghani Farahani, F. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, M.A. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-07-01

29

Carbon dioxide injection may give high Sacroc oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sacroc Unit is located in W. Texas near the town of Snyder in Scurry County. The 50,000-acre unit comprises 98% of the Kelly-Snyder field and is the major unitized field among 4 units in the 35 x 5-mile Canyon Reef Formation. The field was discovered in 1948, and by 1951, at least 2000 wells had been drilled. It became apparent from the rapid pressure decline that a pressure maintenance program would be required to prevent excessive loss of recoverable reserves. In 1953, the Texas Railroad Commission approved unitization of Sacroc and the installation of a unique centerline water-injection program. The waterflood project was started in 1954, and performance since that time is shown graphically. Recovery of additional 230 MM bbl of oil is a target set for missible for COD2U flooding in the Sacroc unit. Carbon dioxide injection got underway Jan. 26. Anticipated recovery from the project tops the new reserves in any discovery in the U.S. in the last 10 yr, Alaska excluded. Over the next 9 yr or so, some 629 million cu ft of COD2U will be injected into the 202 pattern wells through a COD2U and water distribution system. The COD2U is delivered to Sacroc at 2400 psi through a 220-mile pipeline system from Val Verde Basin gas fields in SW. Texas.

Massey, J.A.; Cramer, T.D.

1972-04-10

30

Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

NONE

2006-07-01

31

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

32

The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity ch...

Xuezhong Wang

2012-01-01

33

Sulfide remediation by pulsed injection of nitrate into a low temperature Canadian heavy oil reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide formation by oil field sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be diminished by the injection of nitrate, stimulating the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB). We monitored the field-wide injection of nitrate into a low temperature (approximately 30 degrees C) oil reservoir in western Canada by determining aqueous concentrations of sulfide, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite, as well as the activities of NRB in water samples from 3 water plants, 2 injection wells, and 15 production wells over 2 years. The injection water had a low sulfate concentration (approximately 1 mM). Nitrate (2.4 mM, 150 ppm) was added at the water plants. Its subsequent distribution to the injection wells gave losses of 5-15% in the pipeline system, indicating that most was injected. Continuous nitrate injection lowered the total aqueous sulfide output of the production wells by 70% in the first five weeks, followed by recovery. Batchwise treatment of a limited section of the reservoir with high nitrate eliminated sulfide from one production well with nitrate breakthrough. Subsequent, field-wide treatment with week-long pulses of 14 mM nitrate gave breakthrough at an additional production well. However, this trend was reversed when injection with a constant dose of 2.4 mM (150 ppm) was resumed. The results are explained by assuming growth of SRB near the injection wellbore due to sulfate limitation. Injection of a constant nitrate dose inhibits these SRB initially. However, because of the constant, low temperature of the reservoir, SRB eventually grow back in a zone further removed from the injection wellbore. The resulting zonation (NRB closest to and SRB further away from the injection wellbore) can be broken by batch-wise increases in the concentration of injected nitrate, allowing it to re-enter the SRB-dominated zone. PMID:20000549

Voordouw, Gerrit; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A; Lambo, Adewale; Lin, Shiping; Park, Hyung Soo; Jack, Thomas R; Coombe, Dennis; Clay, Bill; Zhang, Frank; Ertmoed, Ryan; Miner, Kirk; Arensdorf, Joseph J

2009-12-15

34

Efficacy of experimental Newcastle disease water-in-oil oil-emulsion vaccines formulated from squalane and squalene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-in-oil inactivated Newcastle disease oil-emulsion vaccines were formulated with the terpene oils squalane or squalene, or mixtures thereof, and injected into 4-week-old broilers. Vaccine efficacy based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers was comparable to that of control mineral oil vaccines. Tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of the terpene oil emulsion vaccines was greatly reduced 3 weeks post-vaccination compared with that of mineral oil-based vaccine. Viscosity of the terpene oil vaccines was satisfactory but increased three to four times that of mineral oil vaccine when the antigen phase volume increased from 5% to 20%. PMID:2149264

Stone, H D; Xie, Z X

1990-01-01

35

High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

2014-05-01

36

Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

Pierazzo, E.

2005-01-01

37

Removing oil from produced water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the design, operation, and performance of a new gas-assisted clarifier system which acts to remove oil from waste water. The system has no moving parts and uses no chemical additives. The results show that the system can be successfully used to reduce the oil content of waste water to acceptable effluent limits. The systems are designed for offshore oil and gas production facilities. Test results are provided which show the reduction of oil and grease from 211 mg/L to 3 mg/L

38

Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

39

Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing [n-1-14C] octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs

40

Enhanced oil recovery. Operators fight corrosion with fiberglass injection pipe, casing and sucker rods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operators have been fighting corrosion in the Permian Basin since the first oil (along with saltwater and H/sub 2/S gas) was produced. However, with ever- increasing attempts to squeeze more oil out of the ground through secondary and tertiary recovery methods, a new high in corrosive properties has been reached. It starts when waterflooding is introduced, and reaches its maximum effect when CO/sub 2/ is injected to recover tertiary oil. Corrosion strikes whenever contaminated water, H/sub 2/S or wet CO/sub 2/ is injected or produced. Even the dry CO/sub 2/ used in most tertiary injection projects becomes extremely corrosive when it contacts water or wet surfaces. Amoco is designing its injection and production facilities to be corrosion resistant. A major element in the fight against corrosion at Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee in the Kelly-Snyder field in Scurry County, Texas, has been the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) materials in high pressure surface injection pipes, saltwater gathering lines, casing liners and sucker rods. Amoco has used fiberglass flowlines for injection wells in waterflood operations as well as FRP sucker rods in producing wells.

Wash, R.

1983-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Hydrogen gas injection system to reactor water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the efficiency in the reduction of oxygen concentration in reactor water. Constitution: Upon injecting hydrogen gases into reactor water to reduce the oxygen concentration and thereby suppress stress corrosion cracks in reactor component materials in BWR type nuclear power plants, hydrogen in the reactor core portion is injected directly by using a control rod driving water stream, instead of conventional method of injecting hydrogen from feedwater system, to thereby improve the reducing efficiency of the oxygen concentration. In this method, it is possible to add hydrogen gas at a high concentration directly near the neutron irradiation region in the reactor core, whereby the reducing effect for the oxygen concentration can be promoted. (Kamimura, M.)

42

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

43

Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of ?-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells. PMID:25149457

da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

2014-11-01

44

Water injection profiling by nuclear logging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the injection of water into a cased well borehole, the injection water is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV energy or greater and the subsequent gamma radiation from the exposed water is detected by a pair of detectors spaced along the borehole. Counting rates of the two detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. The geometry of the borehole and that of the casing are used in conjunction with the count rate data to determine the volume flow rates of water moving upwardly behind the casing, downwardly behind the casing, along the inside of the casing below the perforation, and horizontally behind the casing into the formation

45

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was ...

R Raghu, G. Ramadoss

2011-01-01

46

Water vapor - Stratospheric injection by thunderstorms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infrared radiometric inference measurements of the mass of water vapor injected into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by a number of plains thunderstorms show an average threefold increase over the fair weather background mass of water vapor. These airborne measurements, made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Convair 990 jet laboratory, extended over a sample size much larger than that possible by balloon and other techniques.

Kuhn, P. M.; Lojko, M. S.; Petersen, E. V.

1971-01-01

47

Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO2 storage: CO2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO2, CO2-brine, and CO2-oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO22 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO2 and crude oil is ?100 kg/m3 and between CO2 and brine is ?350 kg/m3); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m3); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing properties and processes by performing numerical simulations. Results suggest that deep saline CO2 injection immediately below oil formations reduces buoyancy-driven CO2 migration and, at the same time, minimizes the amount of mobile CO2 compared to conventional deep saline CO2 injection (i.e., CO2 injection into brine formations not below oil-bearing strata). Finally, to investigate practical aspects and field applications of this injection paradigm, we characterized oil-bearing formations and their thickness (capacity) as a component of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) field deployments. The field-testing program includes specific sites in Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and western Texas of the United States.

48

Coalescence of dry foam under water injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

When a small volume of pure water - typically a drop - is injected within an aqueous foam, it locally triggers the rupture of foam films, thus opening an empty cavity in the foam's bulk. We consider the final shape of this cavity and we quantify its volume as a function of the volume of injected water, the diameter of the bubbles and the liquid fraction of the foam. We provide quantitative understanding to explain how and when this cavity appears. We epitomize the dilution of surfactants at the water-air interfaces as the main cause lying behind the coalescence process. We identify a new coalescence regime for which a critical surfactant concentration rules the stability of the foam. PMID:24975210

Mensire, Rémy; Piroird, Keyvan; Lorenceau, Elise

2014-09-28

49

Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water  

Science.gov (United States)

Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

Wörman, A.

2009-04-01

50

Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

Daggett, David L.

2005-01-01

51

Evaluating oil/water separators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

52

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester, raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21° CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

R. Raghu1, G. Ramadoss

2011-07-01

53

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21{sup o} CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

Raghu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayam College of Engineering and Technology, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramadoss, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Peter' s University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-07-01

54

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

CERN Document Server

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

55

Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum  

Science.gov (United States)

A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

1997-01-01

56

High-pressure water injection of the foot with associated subcutaneous emphysema: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the literature yields few reported cases of industrial-strength high-pressure water injection injuries involving the foot, and sources of information for industrial-strength high-pressure water injection injuries reside primarily in the hand surgical literature. Toxic materials, such as grease, paint, and diesel oil, are relatively common agents involved in injection injuries, and these substances are associated with increased morbidity in comparison with injection of water or air. Treatment of high-pressure injection of a toxic substance is a surgical emergency requiring irrigation, debridement, antibiotic administration, and monitoring for signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome. There are, however, documented cases where less extreme treatment regimens have met with success. We report a successful limb salvage case, and review of the literature, related to a high-pressure water injury involving the foot with associated extensive subcutaneous emphysema. PMID:20493728

Bussewitz, Bradly; Littrell, Scott; Fulkert, Karl; VanCourt, Robert

2010-01-01

57

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25 °C, 40 °C, 55 °C and 70 °C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effects of microorganisms in the injected waters on microbial community compositions in the produced waters is. In addition, microbes inhabiting in the produced waters of the four water-flooded oil reservoirs were varied but all dominated by Proteobacteria. Moreover, most of the detected microbes were not identified as indigenous. The objective of this study was to expand the pictures of the microbial ecosystem of water-flooded oil reservoirs. PMID:23094135

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Chai, Lu-Jun; Banat, Ibrahim M; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

2012-01-01

58

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effects of microorganisms in the injected waters on microbial community compositions in the produced waters is. In addition, microbes inhabiting in the produced waters of the four water-flooded oil reservoirs were varied but all dominated by Proteobacteria. Moreover, most of the detected microbes were not identified as indigenous. The objective of this study was to expand the pictures of the microbial ecosystem of water-flooded oil reservoirs. PMID:23094135

Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Chai, Lu-Jun; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

2012-01-01

59

New natural injection-moldable composite material from sunflower oil cake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a twin-screw extrusion process the native structure of sunflower oil cake was completely transformed (globular protein denaturation/texturization and husk fiber defibration) into a simpler matrix-fiber structure, as could be seen on SEM micrographs. Further chemical reduction of protein disulfide bridges greatly reduced the melt viscosity of the moistened composite that it could be injection-molded. The molded specimens were tested and their tensile and flexural properties and water absorption calculated. Their water resistance appeared to be particularly high, and could be enhanced further after a thermal treatment (N2, 200 degrees C). The proteic matrix seemed to behave like a natural thermoset resin. Sunflower oil cake could be used without any additives to make biodegradable, water resistant and exceptionally cheap materials. PMID:15961308

Rouilly, A; Orliac, O; Silvestre, F; Rigal, L

2006-03-01

60

Extraction of oil from stable oil-water emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a process of extracting oil from oil-water emulsions containing suspended solid particulates. It comprises introducing the emulsion into vessel in an extraction system, pressurizing the vessel with a volatile hydrocarbon whereby the volatile hydrocarbon is in the liquified state and forms a two-phase system with the emulsion, maintaining the pressure for a period of time sufficient to effect the replacement of at least some of the oil in the emulsion phase with the volatile hydrocarbon, the replaced oil being dissolved in the volatile hydrocarbon phase, withdrawing at least a portion of the oil-containing volatile hydrocarbon phase while maintaining the pressure on the two-phase system, reducing the pressure on the two-phase system whereby volatile hydrocarbon dissolved in the emulsion is vaporized, and the emulsion separates into a water phase and an oil phase, and recovering the oil phase from the water phase

 
 
 
 
61

Fast water oil spill response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the many manuals currently available for oil spill response, few have any information on fast-water conditions even though just more than half of all oil spilled by volume in the United States between 1992 and 1997 happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot. The Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. Two major parts of the project were to provide information on deployment strategies and techniques to identify equipment that could improve recovery capabilities where existing systems do not work well. This paper described field demonstrations where boom deflectors and boom vanes were used. Efforts to increase the capability of booms and skimmers were also described. A field guide was developed for training and response purposes for spills in fast-water which makes it possible for on-scene commanders and area supervisors to define techniques and terminology for responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. 20 refs., 4 figs

62

Study on the Determination of Separated Layer Water Injection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to determine the separated layer water injection is a problem which reservoir engineers concern in flood development oil field. These various influential factors of dividing coefficient method are analyzed in this study. Grey correlation analysis method is used to determine the dominant influential factors. And the weight of different dominant influential factors is determined, which realizes the quantitative comparison among them in dividing coefficient formula. This method considers the impact of these factors which are consist of the measure transformation coefficient, perforation thickness, injector producer distance, location coefficient and the number of injector and producer. The separated layer water injection formula is determined. The scientific and reasonable injection allocation is realized. The problem which the contradiction exists in the same layer or between the layer and the layer is obvious in the S block through combining with the current water injection development. The separated layer water injection method is proposed necessarily. The formula for water injection is determined by grey correlation analysis method in Block S. These factors considered are more with the actual situation. And the reasonable injection allocation is realized. It is directive and referenced for other oil field or block.

Junting Zhang

2013-04-01

63

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NOx emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

64

Appraisal of oil-water separation in field by injection of demulsifier through gas-lift line; Avaliacao da separacao agua-oleo em campo injetando desemulsificante atraves da linha de gas-lift  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the petroleum dehydrating process, the use of demulsifiers is fundamental in the coalescing of emulsions formed in field from the produced petroleum and water. Injection of demulsifiers should be performed the most upstream possible of the processing plant, not only to allow better product performance but to avoid the formation of smaller water drops, due to shearing during flowing of production. Herein presented are the test results of the d emulsifier's performances in field, injected through the gas-lift line of petroleum producing wells. The results showed water removal in the three-phase separator, even when operating in low processing temperature and low liquid residence time inside vessel. (author)

Ramalho, Joao Batista Vianey da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

2001-12-01

65

Feasibility of steam injection process in a thin, low-permeability heavy oil reservoir of Arkansas -- a numerical simulation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the findings of an in-depth study undertaken to assess the viability of the steam injection process in the heavy oil bearing Nacatoch sands of Arkansas. Published screening criteria and DOE`s steamflood predictive models were utilized to screen and select reservoirs for further scrutiny. Although, several prospects satisfied the steam injection screening criteria, only a single candidate was selected for detailed simulation studies. The selection was based on the availability of needed data for simulation and the uniqueness of the reservoir. The reservoir investigated is a shallow, thin, low-permeability reservoir with low initial oil saturation and has an underlying water sand. The study showed that the reservoir will respond favorably to steamdrive, but not to cyclic steaming. Steam stimulation, however, is necessary to improve steam injectivity during subsequent steamdrive. Further, in such marginal heavy oil reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterized by thin pay zone and low initial oil saturation) conventional steamdrive (i.e., steam injection using vertical wells) is unlikely to be economical, and nonconventional methods must be utilized. It was found that the use of horizontal injectors and horizontal producers significantly improved the recovery and oil-steam ratio and improved the economics. It is recommended that the applicability of horizontal steam injection technology in this reservoir be further investigated.

Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

1993-12-01

66

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturated porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

J. Bruining

2003-01-01

67

Tracing the fate of injected CO{sub 2} during enhanced oil recovery using stable isotope techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable isotope data were used to detect and quantify carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration applications. The study demonstrated that when injected CO{sub 2} is isotopically distinct from CO{sub 2} already present in the reservoir, measurable variations in the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of CO{sub 2} and water can be used to determine the fate of injected CO{sub 2} in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Monitoring data obtained from the Penn West Pembina Cardium CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery monitoring pilot study and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO{sub 2} monitoring and storage project were used to demonstrate the method. Isotopic variations included carbon isotope ratios and oxygen isotope ratios. It was concluded that carbon isotope ratios are an effective means of tracing the movement and reaction of injected CO{sub 2} in mature oil fields. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Johnson, G.; Raistrick, M.; Mayer, B.; Taylor, S.; Shevalier, M.; Nightingale, M.; Hutcheon, I. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

68

PCA: uma ferramenta para identificação de traçadores químicos para água de formação e água de injeção associadas à produção de petróleo / PCA: a tool for identification of chemical tracers for formation and injection waters associated with oil production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This study describes the use of Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the chemical composition of water produced from eight oil wells in three different production areas. A total of 609 samples of produced water, and a reference sample of seawater, were characterized according to their levels of [...] salinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium and sulphate (mg L-1) contents, and analyzed by using PCA with autoscaled data. The method allowed the identification of variables salinity, calcium and strontium as tracers for formation water, and variables magnesium and sulphate as tracers for seawater.

Fabiana Alves de Lima, Ribeiro; Guilherme Alvarenga, Mantovani; Ronei Jesus, Poppi; Francisca Ferreira do, Rosário; Maria Carmen Moreira, Bezerra; Andre Luis Mathias, Bastos; Vera Lúcia Alves de, Melo.

1281-12-01

69

Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling or hot watering is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of ``hot oiling`` and the potential for the fluid to aggravate well problems and cause formation damage. Field tests have shown that the chemical and thermal processes that occur during ``hot oiling`` are very complex and that there are significant variations in practices among operators. Key issues include: (1) During a typical hot oiling job, a significant amount of the fluid injected into the well goes into the formation, and hence, particulates and chemicals in the fluid have the potential to damage the formation. (2) Hot oiling can vaporize oil in the tubing faster than the pump lifts oil. This interrupts paraffin removal from the well, and thus the wax is refined into harder deposits, goes deeper into the well, and can stick rods. These insights have been used to determine good ``hot oiling`` practices designed to maximize wax removal and minimize formation damage.

Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barker, K.M. [Petrolite Corp. (United States)

1994-03-01

70

Water injection control device for emergency core cooling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable reliable abnormality detection in the water injection line for emergency core cooling systems, by providing a pair of flow rate detectors to the water injection line and further providing a pair of water injection controllers which are actuated on the flow rate signals obtained from the detectors. Constitution: Water injection pumps, control valves and exit stop valves as dynamic equipments are disposed in the dual system of branched pipeways respectively for the water injection line. A pair of flow rate detection elements are provided to the same location of the water injection line where the two pipeways are joined. The flow signal generators convert the flow rate values obtained in the flow rate detection elements into predetermined electric signals (flow rate signals) respectively and apply them to a pair of water injection controllers. In this arrangement, if one of the two water injection controller systems generates an abnormality the abnormality can surely be detected and backup operation by the other of the system is possible. (Seki, T.)

71

Operation and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Esterified Cotton Seed Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable oils are renewable in nature and can be directly used as fuels in diesel engines.  However, their high viscosity and poor volatility lead to reduced thermal efficiency and increased hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. Transesterification is one of the methods by which viscosity could be drastically reduced and the fuel could be adopted for use in diesel engine.  This Esterified vegetable oil is popularly known as Bio-diesel and that is commercially available in the developed countries due to its distinct advantage over the conventional diesel. In this work, neat cotton seed oil was converted into  Bio diesel  by  the   transesterification  process  and  the  viscosity  was  reduced from 21.4 ×10-6 m2/s to 4.8×10-6 m2/s (viscosity of the neat Cotton seed oil. A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm was used for the experimental investigations which include combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. Base data was generated for diesel first and subsequently, it was replaced by the Bio diesel and both the results were compared and discussed.

Murugu Mohan Kumar Kandasamy

2009-02-01

72

Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir simulations also indicate that original rock properties are the dominant factor for the ultimate oil recovery for both primary recovery and gas injection EOR. Because reservoir simulations provide critical inputs for project planning and management, more effort needs to be invested into reservoir modeling and simulation, including building enhanced geologic models, fracture characterization and modeling, and history matching with field data. Gas injection EOR projects are integrated projects, and the viability of a project also depends on different economic conditions.

Pu, Wanli

73

Model study on the kinetics of oil field formation damage due to salt precipitation from injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the extensive use of water injection for oil displacement and pressure maintenance in oilfields, many reservoirs experience the problem of scale deposition when injection water starts to break through. In most cases, the scaled-up wells are caused by the formation of sulfate and carbonate scales of calcium and strontium. Due to their relative hardness and low solubility, there are limited processes available for their removal and preventive measures such as the 'squeeze' inhibitor treatment have to be taken. It is therefore important to gain a proper understanding of the kinetics of scale formation and its detrimental effects on formation damage under both inhibited and uninhibited conditions.This paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study of permeability reduction of porous media caused by scaling. Two incompatible solutions of calcium and sulfate/carbonate ions were injected into the porous medium, where calcium sulfate or calcium carbonate was generated by chemical reaction. Mechanisms by which a precipitate reduces permeability include solids deposition on the pore walls due to attractive forces between the particles and the surfaces of the pores, individual particles blocking pore throats, and several particles bridging across a pore throat. The characteristics of the precipitate influence the extent of formation damage. Conditions such as large degree of supersaturation, presence of impurities, change in temperature, and rate of mixing control the quantity and morphology of the precipitating crystals.

Moghadasi, J.; Jamialahmadi, M. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Petroleum University, Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart, D-70550, Stuttgart (Germany); Sharif, A. [Chemical and Process Engineering Department, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2004-08-01

74

Analysis of Data from a Downhole Oil/Water Separator Field Trial in East Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology is available to separate oil from produced water at the bottom of an oil well. Produced water can be injected directly to a disposal formation rather than lifting it to the surface, treating it there, and reinjecting it. Because of a lack of detailed performance data on DOWS systems, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided funding to secure DOWS performance data. A large U.S. oil and gas operator offered to share its data with Argonne National Laboratory. This report summarizes data from the DOWS installation in eastern Texas.

Veil, John A.; Layne, Arthur Langhus

2001-04-19

75

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturate [...] d porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

J., Bruining; D., Marchesin; C.J., Van Duijn.

76

Oil-tainted water and fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to identify the compounds responsible for oily taint in fish, caused by the ingestion of oily wastewater, eels (Anguilla japonica) were cultered in sea water located near an oil refinery in Japan. Results obtained indicated toluene and benzene were present in the cultured eel flesh. A parallel relationship between an oily flavor (taste and/or odor) in sea water and that in the decoyed eels was observed. The grade of oily flavor in eel flesh caused by toluene was examined. Greenfish (Givella punctuate) and eels (Anguilla rostrata) were kept in a fuel oil suspension and the relationship between concentration of the oil suspension and contact time was determined by sensory and gas chromatographic analysis. A survey of oil-flavored fish found all over Japan indicated that these fish were contaminated by wastewater from oil refineries and by oil spillage at sea. An investigation was made of the compounds present in the oil tainted fish by wastewater from oil refineries, olefinic and monoaromatic hydrocarbons in fish contaminated by one spilled fuel oil and alkyl benzothiophenes in fish contaminated by another fuel oil. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Ogata, M.; Fujisawa, K.

77

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : formation of water-in-oil states from heavy oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formation of water-in-oil states from heavy oils was examined. Previous studies have demonstrated that viscosity is a significant factor affecting the formation and stability of water-in-oil emulsions. It was suggested that a viscosity window is a necessary requirement for the formation of stable emulsions. Highly viscous oils produce an entrained water state. A stable or meso-stable emulsion is rarely produced by heavy oils. In most cases, heavy oils result in an entrained water-in-oil state that lasts days longer than the entrained water-on-oil state of lighter oils. This can be explained by the lower migration rate of water droplets from a heavy oil compared to that of a light oil. These results were used to conduct an evaluation of the basis for using the stability index. This index provides a quantitative characterization of the stability of an emulsion, under varying formation regimes. The stability factor has been previously defined as the complex modulus of the water-in-oil state after emulsion formation, divided by the starting oil viscosity. It was shown that this stability factor remains a robust indicator, despite being less predictive in the case of heavy oils. The use of the newly developed stability scale produced values that were similar for water-in-oil states of both light and heavy oils. It was concluded that this new stability scale is complex, but the discriminating power over the old stability scale is not better. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

2003-07-01

78

Partitioning of olive oil antioxidants between oil and water phases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The partition coefficient (K(p)) of the natural phenolic antioxidant compounds in the olive fruit between aqueous and olive oil phases was determined. The antioxidants of olive oil are either present in the olive fruit or formed during the olive oil extraction process. The antioxidants impart stability to and determine properties of the oil and are valuable from the nutritional point of view. The olive oil antioxidants are amphiphilic in nature and are more soluble in the water than in the oil phase. Consequently, a large amount of the antioxidants is lost with the wastewater during processing. The determination of antioxidants was performed using HPLC, and the K(p) was estimated to be from as low as 0.0006 for oleuropein to a maximum of 1.5 for 3,4-DHPEA-EA (di-hydroxy-phenyl-ethanol-elenolic acid, oleuropein aglycon). Henry's law fitted very well to the experimental data. The partition coefficients were also estimated by applying the activity coefficients of the antioxidants in the two phases using a predictive group contribution method, the UNIFAC equation. The K(p) values estimated with UNIFAC method were of the same order of magnitude but varied from the experimental values. Nevertheless, this method may be a rough predictive tool for process optimization or design. Because the K(p) values were very low, some changes in the process are recommended in order to achieve a higher concentration of antioxidants in the oil. A temperature increase may lead to increasing the partition coefficient. Also, limiting the quantity of water during oil extraction could be a basis for designing alternative processes for increasing the antioxidant concentration in the olive oil. PMID:11804535

Rodis, Panayotis S; Karathanos, Vaios T; Mantzavinou, Antonia

2002-01-30

79

Recovering oil by injecting aqueous alkali, cosurfactant and gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process of recovering oil from a subterranean reservoir in which the oil is acidic but forms monovalent cation soaps of only relatively low interfacial activity when reacted with aqueous alkaline solutions, comprises displacing the oil toward a production location with a mixture of gas and cosurfactant-containing aqueous alkaline solution.

Reisberg, J.; Bielmowicz, L. J.; Thigpen, D. R.

1985-01-15

80

Water Jet Impingement Flow Characteristics in Direct Vessel Injection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water jet impingement is a peculiar phenomenon in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) in which the safety injection nozzle is located in the outer reactor vessel, not in the cold leg such as in OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1,000 MWe). Therefore, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) water spreads with a form of parabolic liquid film in the inner barrel after impinging. It is presently considered that the downcomer flow behavior is strongly governed by the location and geometry of the water injection nozzles. The impingement in the reactor vessel downcomer is one of the unknown important phenomena during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). There is thus a strong need to find how the injected flow strikes the inner downcomer wall and how wide the liquid film spreads by the impingement phenomenon. The liquid film gets in contact with the steam flow in the reactor downcomer such that the interfacial area of liquid film affects the direct bypass according to the nozzle location and geometry. The water jet impingement consists of three rather distinctive flow regions. Albeit the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics are simple and well known in simple geometries, the findings are not readily applicable in the annular reactor downcomer. Analytical and experimental approaches for impingement flow by water injection have yielded detailed flow mechanisms classified in the downcomer. The water injected through three boundaries showed varying behavior according to the injection velocity, injection nozzle diameter, wall curvature, and injection nozzle inclination. As the water injection velocity increases the liquid film spreading width increases, but the spreading width proportional to the injection velocity is tapered due to breakup. Given the injection velocity, a large diameter of injection nozzle increases the film spreading width. Impingement on the flat plate has a larger film spreading width than on the curved plate. Moreover, a larger curvature decreases the film spreading width. The inclined angle of the injection nozzle is a pivotal factor in reducing the film width by increasing the downward velocity. Given the same conditions, the film spreading width lessens as the inclined angle increases. (authors)

 
 
 
 
81

Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

2014-01-01

82

The reconstitution of powders for injection with ?-irradiated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earlier studies on the use of ?-radiation for the sterilization of water for injections have demonstrated the production of H2O2. The effect of irradiated water on oxidation-susceptible drugs has been tested. The results show that such drugs are not generally degraded by radiation-sterilized water. (author)

83

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

84

Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

Norum, Thomas D.

2004-01-01

85

Modelling of water-in-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsions are grouped into the following four states: stable, mesostable, unstable and entrained water. Only stable and mesostable states are characterized as emulsions. The states are established by their stability over time, their appearance, and by rheological measurements. This paper described the development of a new modelling scheme in which density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin contents are used to compute a class index, which predicts an unstable or entrained water-in-oil state of a meso-stable or stable emulsion. A prediction scheme was also presented to estimate the water content and viscosity of the resulting water-in-oil state and the time to formation given a sea wave-height. The study demonstrated that empirical data can be used to predict the formation and characteristics of emulsions. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre

2004-07-01

86

Oil sands mining water use and management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are currently 4 bitumen mining operations operating along the Athabasca River in northern Alberta. This paper presented details of the water licences, historical water use, present water use, and future plans for water management in relation to oil sands mining operations. The study was based on work currently conducted for the Oil Sands Developers Group (OSDG) and Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), as well as on mine site water balance analyses for proposed mines in the region. Typical mine site water balances were discussed, and water use rates for the mining operations were reviewed. The new Athabasca River water management framework may require that mines provide additional water storage or delayed reclamation of mine areas in order to offset water losses during winter low-flow periods. New regulations may also reduce the requirement for make-up water. The study also noted that release criteria are still being developed for on-site water within closed-loop mine operations. The oil sands industry will need to balance various factors related to water use in the future. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Bender, M.; Long, D.; Fitch, M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

87

Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

1999-07-01

88

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

Edwin A. Chukwudeme

2009-09-01

89

Subconjunctival cysts following silicone oil injection: A clinicopathological study of five cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To study the occurrence, risk factors and management of subconjunctival cysts formed following the use of intraocular silicone oil as a tamponade. Methods: We analysed 5 cases of single and multioculated subconjunctival oil cysts between 1986 and 1996. Results: Cysts were observed 15 days to 4 months following silicone oil injection. Clinically they showed minimal inflammatory signs but histopathology of removed cysts showed emulsified silicone oil globules with chronic inflammatory cellular infiltration. Conclusion: Though silicone oil is considered to be nontoxic, it can cause chronic inflammation when spilled into the subconjunctival space

Biswas Jyotirmay

1999-01-01

90

Impact of iodized oil injection during pregnancy on thyroid function tests of offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1± 2.9 mU/L, respectively; p3 and decreased TSH were seen in infants of mothers who were injected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Injection of iodized oil in pregnant women does not cause hypothyroidism in the offsprings, however it does cause a transient increase in serum thyroid hormones and a decrease in TSH concentrations

91

Control system for emergency water injection facility in nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To economize water of the emergency water injection facility by controlling to maintain the reactor water at a normal level upon loss of feedwater accidents or other rapture accidents in the nuclear reactor and controlling to stop the pump driving if the water in the reactor rises to an abnormally high level. Constitution: If the water level in the reactor should be lowered abnormally upon occurrence of rapture accidents or the likes, a switch for detecting the abnormal level lowering is actuated to drive a pump. The water level in the reactor can thus be maintained at a normal level. As the result of water injection, if the water level in the reactor goes abnormally high, a switch for detecting the abnormal level increase is actuated to operate a stopping circuit to close the valve and stop the pump driving. (Kawakami, Y.)

92

Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely transferred to operators, particularly to small or medium-sized independent U.S. companies. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is to assess the feasibility of promising oil and gas technologies that offer improved operating performance, reduced operating costs, or greater environmental protection. To further this mission, the NPTO provided funding to a partnership of three organizations a DOE national laboratory (Argonne National Laboratory), a private-sector consulting firm (CH2M-Hill), and a state government agency (Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission) to assess the feasibility of DOWS. The purpose of this report is to provide general information to the industry on DOWS by describing the existing uses of simultaneous injection, summarizing the regulatory implications of simultaneous injection, and assessing the potential future uses of the technology. Chapter 2 provides a more detailed description of the two major types of DOWS. Chapter 3 summarizes the existing U.S. and Canadian installations of DOWS equipment, to the extent that operators have been willing to share their data. Data are provided on the location and geology of existing installations, production information before and after installation of the DOWS, and costs. Chapter 4 provides an overview of DOWS-specific regulatory requirements imposed by some state agencies and discusses the regulatory implications of handling produced water downhole, rather than pumping it to the surface and reinjecting it. Findings and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5 and a list of the references cited in the report is provided in Chapter 6. Appendix A presents detailed data on DOWS installations. This report presents the findings of Phase 1 of the simultaneous injection project, the feasibility assessment. Another activity of the Phase 1 investigation is to design a study plan for Phase 2 of the project, field pilot studies. The Phase 2 study plan is being developed separately and is not included in this report.

Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.; Environmental Assessment; CH2M Hill; Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission

1999-01-31

93

Water injection-induced shear fracturing in the Ekofisk Field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For several years Phillips Petroleum Company has been waterflooding portions of the Ekofisk Field reservoir for purposes of enhanced oil recovery. Boreholes drilled in waterflooded portions of the reservoir have encountered poor core recoveries and highly fractured rock. Results of laboratory compression tests designed to simulate production-related compaction and subsequent waterflooding indicate that injection pressures currently used to inject seawater into the reservoir are high enough to induce shear failure in high porosity reservoir chalks. A model of chalk deformation explains brittle failure of chalk that has been subjected to stresses well in excess of yield stress. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Rhett, D.W (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Teufel, L.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1991-01-01

94

On-demand separation of oil-water mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the first-ever membrane-based single unit operation that enables gravity driven, on-demand separation of various oil-water mixtures is developed. Using this methodology, the on-demand separation of free oil and water, oil-in-water emulsions, and water-in-oil emulsions is demonstrated, with ?99.9% separation efficiency. A scaled-up apparatus to separate larger quantities (several liters) of oil-water emulsions is also developed. PMID:22689385

Kwon, Gibum; Kota, Arun K; Li, Yongxin; Sohani, Ameya; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish

2012-07-17

95

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test, SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test, TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test, information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru M.

2013-05-01

96

Water Local Volume Fraction on Oil in Water Dispersion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phase distribution of water-oil flows was studied experimentally from a separated flow without mixer to a oil in water or water in oil dispersed in horizontal tubes. Under most conditions the pattern was oil continuous in water dispersed or water continuous in oil dispersed flow continuously and there is entrainment in the form of drops of phase into the other. The investigations were carried out through the cross-sectional phase distribution in the flow of mixtures of water and kerosene such as EXXSOL-D80 in a horizontal 25.4 mm bore stainless steel section. The phase fraction distribution was determined using a traversing beam gamma densitometer, with the beam being traversed in three directions (00, 450 and 900 of the vertical line passing through the axis of the tube. Measurements were made at three positions spaced along the 9.7 m test section length (1.0 m, 5.85 m and 7.72 m along the horizontal tube. The measurements were done in the Two-phase Oil Water Experimental Rig (TOWER facility. This facility allows the two fluids to be fed to the test section before they are separated and returned once more to the test line. The flow developed naturally from an initial stratified flow in which the oil and water were introduced separately at the top and the bottom of the test section respectively. It was found that the liquids were fully inter-dispersed by the end of the test section. The results were also used to define the flow patterns in water-oil liquid-liquid flow system. The phase fraction distribution was shown to be homogeneously mixed near to the outlet of the test section.

siti aslina hussain

2008-01-01

97

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

98

Disposal of oil cuttings by downhole fracturing injections : slurry product specifications issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of using on-site injection of oil contaminated drill cuttings is attracting considerable attention as a cost effective means of complying with environmental legislation concerning discharges of drilling wastes. The slurrification and injection of oil based cuttings into a casing annulus, a process developed in 1989 by a major oil and gas producer/ operator, has proven to be a significant step toward reduction of such environmental waste. This paper discusses the development of the cuttings reinjection, slurrification, slurry properties and benefits of quality slurry, and behaviour of solid laden slurries in a fracture in conjunction with down-hole disposal operations

99

Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

2006-03-15

100

Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

Campbell, K. [Miswaco(CANADA); Phair, C [Mneme Corp, CALGARY (Canada); Alloisio, S [SWS, Vancouver (CANADA); Novotny, M [SWS, Denver, (United States); Raven, S [Oilsands Quest Inc., Calgary (CANADA)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

102

Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil reservoir management methodology to maximize both fluid recovery and free up currently injected HC gases for domestic consumption. Moreover, this study identified the main uncertainty parameters impacting the gas and oil production performance with all proposed alternatives. Maximizing both fluids oil and gas in oil rim reservoir are challenging. The reservoir heterogeneity will have a major impact on the performance of non hydrocarbon gas flooding. Therefore, good reservoir description is a key to achieve acceptable development process and make reliable prediction. The lab study data were used successfully to as a tool to identify the range of uncertainty parameters that are impacting the hydrocarbon recovery.

Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

103

Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

2011-12-01

104

Electrical birefringence in water-oil microemulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical anisotropy measurements were carried out on a water-in-oil microemulsion against water addition in the interval 0.3< C<0.55, (C, mass fraction). Electrical birefringence was induced with a 33 V/cm electric field in isotropic samples, while a decrease of electrical anisotropy was observed in samples exhibiting a natural birefringence. The water concentration at which the electro-optic behaviour inverts was found to be C = 0.5. (author)

105

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

106

Efficiency analysis of greenhouse gas sequestration during miscible CO2 injection in fractured oil reservoirs.  

Science.gov (United States)

During CO2 injection into naturally fractured oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, the great portion of oil is recovered by matrix-fracture interaction. Diffusive mass transfer between matrix and fracture controls this process if CO2 is miscible with matrix oil. Oil expelled from matrix is replaced by CO2, and the matrix could be potentially a good storage medium for the long-term. For the cooptimization of the oil recovery and CO2 storage, i.e., maximizing the oil recovery while maximizing the amount of CO2 stored, we propose an efficiency analysis using a dimensionless term defined as the global effectiveness factor. The Biot number and Thiele modulus were incorporated in the development of the global effectiveness factor. Diffusion coefficients and the rate of mass-transfer constants were obtained from our previous finite element modeling study. We first defined and derived the dimensionless groups to be used in the efficiency analysis and then formulated a relationship between the dimensionless groups and the efficiency indicators, i.e., the ratios of total solute (oil) produced to total solvent injected and total solvent stored to total solvent injected. It was shown that the efficiency of the process can be represented by a dimensionless group that consists of well-known dimensionless numbers such as the Reynolds number, the Peclet number, the Sherwood number, and the global effectiveness factor. PMID:18754463

Trivedi, Japan; Babadagli, Tayfun

2008-08-01

107

Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

2014-01-01

108

Experimental Study of Heavy Oil Displacement by Hot Water in Porous Media  

Science.gov (United States)

The injection of one fluid to displace another in a porous medium is the basis of many industrial processes such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). EOR applications are encouraged by high oil prices and growing oil demand. Therefore, performance prediction of EOR processes is of great importance to their success. Core flooding experiments are well known practices in the petroleum industry that provide economical means of determining the responses of reservoir rock and fluids to the driving mechanism responsible for production. Lab experiments provide both insight into the behavior of fluid displacements and data with which to test and calibrate numerical simulators. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted in order to test the effectiveness of hot water injection to displace heavy oil from a given porous medium. The objective was to find the optimum design parameters in terms of injection temperature and hot water slug size that will yield the best performance. Analysis of these experiments has revealed the functional relationships between the scaling groups describing the displacement and the oil recovery obtained from such displacement. Results obtained from several design configurations are presented. These relationships can be used as a tool for the design of hot water injection to recover heavy oil. They also provide conditions under which a given design may yield better recovery performance.

Alajmi, Abdullah; Gharbi, Ridha; Algharaib, Meshal

2008-11-01

109

Method of increasing the breakdown of water-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of the breakdown of water-oil emulsions by means of treatment with an oil-in-water emulsion consisting of unstable benzene in water, stabilized by a reagent demulsifier of the water-in-oil emulsion is demonstrated.

Zaripov, A.G.; Pozdnyshev, G.N.; Shamov, V.D.

1981-01-01

110

Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

2001-12-17

111

Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

112

The impact of gas injection on the oil recovery of a giant naturally fractured carbonate reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results and the impact of a long-term gas cap injection project in an Iranian carbonate oil reservoir is discussed. The estimated oil in place is some 45 billion STB, making it one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Studies on the effects of natural fractures on the behaviour of fluids in porous media indicated that long-term reservoir pressure maintenance by gas cap injection might improve ultimate oil recovery. After 15 years of gas cap injection, and field data combined with predicted data under natural depletion have shown that pressure maintenance would ultimately increase oil recovery by approximately two billion barrels, which is 16 per cent over primary recovery, but much less than the recovery predicted by the previous study. Moreover, it will have to be done over a longer period of time. Long-term studies and 15 years of gas cap injection results lead one to conclude that gas cap injection for pressure maintenance in a naturally fractured reservoir must be conducted very carefully. Nevertheless, the project is considered economically feasible. Profitability of the project will depend on the availability of gas, the rate of inflation, and future petroleum prices. 12 refs., 12 figs., 4 appendices.

Badakhshan, A.; Golshan, H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Musavi-Nezhad, H. R.; Sobbi, F. A. [Univ. of Petroleum Industry, Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1998-12-01

113

Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

2002-01-01

114

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23

115

Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. PMID:22592548

Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

2012-10-01

116

Enhancement of Spin Injection into Graphene by Water Dipping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We immerse single layer graphene spin valves into purified water for a short duration (<1 min) and investigate the effect on spin transport. Following water immersion, we observe an enhancement in nonlocal magnetoresistance. Additionally, the enhancement of spin signal is correlated with an increase in junction resistance, which produces an increase in spin injection efficiency. This study provides a simple way to improve the signal magnitude and establishes the robustness o...

Mccreary, K. M.; Wen, Hua; Yu, H.; Han, Wei; Johnston-halperin, E.; Kawakami, R. K.

2011-01-01

117

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

118

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

119

Characteristics of breaking up water--oil emulsions in the oil-collector reservoirs of the Arlan field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given for the breakdown of water--oil emulsions in a collection system by using various demulsifiers. For this purpose an experimental industrial area 8-km long was equipped to collect the products of seven group instruments. The area included 4 stratal sampler probes and a ND 63/100 metering pump. They made it possible to select emulsions from a desired interval along the cross section of the pressure reservoir. This set of instruments made it possible to obtain the required information about the physico-chemical parameters of the water--oil emulsion and the flow structure at any distance from the demulsifier feeder. The demulsifier used was Separol 50-14. The test samples were measured for emulsion density, water, oil, water content, the dynamic viscosity of the emulsion at the beginning sector of the reservoir. Also studied was the oil--water distribution throughout the oil-collecting reservoir in relation to the specific expenditure of the demulsifier. Also measured was the residual water in the oil after a total emulsion settling period of two hours, etc. The fluid demulsifier Separol 50-14 is injected within the limits of 20 to 30 g/ton. This produces a sharp decrease in the dynamic viscosity of the emulsion at the beginning sector of the reservoir and the pressure is reduced by two times. When the demulsifier reagent is placed in the emulsion at the above-indicated limits it is possible to produce oil with residual water within the range of 2 to 5% at an average inundation level of 73%. When no demulsifier is used, the residual water in the oil is sustained at from 15 to 50% even after 16 hours of settling at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C.

Mullagallyamov, T.Sh.; Khokhlov, N.G.; Islamov, F.Ya.; Gabdrakhmanov, A.G.

1978-01-01

120

Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

Nwafor, O.M.I.; Rice, G.; Ogbonna, A.I. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imo State (Nigeria)

2000-12-01

122

Nuclear-energy application studied as source of injection steam for heavy-oil recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study into the feasibility of adapting a well-proven nuclear reactor as a centralized source of injection steam for the recovery of heavy oil has shown that the reactor modifications are practicable and well within the bounds of current technology. The gas-cooled reactor is capable of meeting the highest steam supply pressure requirement and it possesses a high degree of inherent safety. The injection of steam for the recovery of heavy oil is the most well developed of the available options. At current price levels of oil and uranium, nuclear heat can be generated at a fraction of the running costs of oil fired thermal plant. Taken over a project lifetime of 25 years for the field model used for this assessment, the improved earnings for the nuclear option could amount to as much as /10 billion. The program requirements for a typical development have been examined and the construction times for the gas reactor steam plant, the oil-field development and the upgrading plant are compatible at between five and six years. The economic advantage of steam generation by nuclear energy gives a further recovery breakthrough. It becomes possible to continue the steam drive process up to much more adverse recovery ratios of steam quantity injected for unit oil produced if nuclear energy is employed

123

Theoretical and experimental study of particle movement and deposition in porous media during water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The flow of particulate suspensions and brines in porous media is encountered in a wide range of industrial situations such as oil production, soil erosion, and ground water pollution and in the operation of filter beds. Three major classes of such problems are addressed in this paper, namely particle movement, deposition and filtration. Particle movement and deposition are known to be serious problems in oil reservoirs where incompatible brine is brought into contact with the formation. Dramatic reductions in permeability are observed in such cases due to the release of fine particles that subsequently plug flow channels downstream. An experimental investigation was undertaken to look into the possible causes of the injectivity loss in a typical Iranian oil field. Glass bead and sand beds were used to study the general behavior of fine particle movement and deposition in porous media. The experiments were conducted with injection rates from 12.5 to 200 cm{sup 3}/min. Aluminium oxide particles were suspended in the injected water to simulate fine particle migration in porous media. The particles were injected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 2000 ppm. It was observed that the build-up of flow resistance was mostly due to frontal face plugging. In subsequent experiments, aluminium oxide particles were added to the glass beads to study the effect of particles initially present in the glass bead pack. A mathematical model is presented that simulates the porosity impairment by particle movement and deposition. This model is based on the mass balance of particles flowing through the porous medium, and predicts the initial porosity and subsequently its reduction with time. The equations are relatively general and can be used to model the permeability reduction for any given pore or particle size distribution.

Moghadasi, J.; Jamialahmadi, M. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Petroleum University, Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Sharif, A. [Chemical and Process Engineering Department, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2004-08-01

124

OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright with development ongoing and a commercialization plan in place. We expect that this DOE sponsored technology will be a major technical and commercial success story in the coming years.

Michael Wilt

2004-02-01

125

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

126

Fractal-like charge injection kinetics in transformer oil stressed by high-voltage pulses  

Science.gov (United States)

Kerr electro-optic measurements are taken to study the transient electrode charge injection in high voltage pulsed transformer oil. It is found that the injection current densities from two stainless-steel parallel-plate electrodes with distinct surface roughness display fractal-like kinetics, i.e., power-law time dependence. Our measurement data agree with numerical simulation results of the time-dependent drift-diffusion model with the experimentally determined injection current boundary conditions. The fractal-like kinetics implies that the electric double layer processes contributing to injection are diffusion-limited. Physical mechanisms based on formative steps of adsorption-reaction-desorption reveal possible connections between geometrical characteristics of electrode surfaces and fractal-like kinetics of charge injection.

Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

2014-04-01

127

Increase in oil recovery by changing chemistry of water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bernard (1967) investigated the relative effectiveness of fresh and salt waters in flooding oil from cores containing clays. Experimental results indicated that when hydratable clays are present, more oil is produced with fresh-water flood, than with a brine flood. The fresh-water flood, however, is accompanie by lowering in permeability and development of relatively high pressure drop. The result obtained by Bernard (1967) and those described by Sinnokrot and Chilingar (1961) are probably due to the effect of chemistry of water on relative permeabilities. Relative premeability curves of oil + alkaline water lie above those of oil + hard water. In the case of polar oils, the residual oil and water saturations also shift, due to the chemistry of water (Babalyan, 1956). This is due to the fact that the following is true in the case of alkaline waters: (1) low interfacial tension between oil and water, (2) low values of contact angle, (3) slow coalescence of oil droplets in water, and (4) greater degree of dispersion of oil in water. In the case of hard waters, the oil becomes a dispersed phase at higher water saturations of porous medium than in alkaline waters.

Chilingar, G.V.

1968-01-01

128

Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University via test and analyses. In this paper, experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below are addressed. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was molten lead or a lead alloy (Pb-Bi). For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: (1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with lumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and (2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these current experimental findings for ALWR ex-vessel coolability are discussed

129

Radiating chemical decomposition of oil hydrocarbons in water environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Water resources purification problems from natural oil and mineral oils has an important value as for extracting additional oil resources from oilcontained waste waters, so for safeguard of water resources from pollution. For the past 150 years there were 250 artificial lakes formed on the territory of Absheron peninsula of Azerbaijan as a result of oil deposits exploitation, concentration of which sometimes exceeds 25 mg/l. Every year enterprises of Azerbaijan oil industry reset more than 4-5 tons of waste waters to an environment during production of 1 ton of oil. Taking into account the fact that the larger danger for environment represents an oil slicks and emulsified mineral oils in it, the possibility of application of ionizing radiation for mineral oils of waste waters becomes the more important circumstance during solving of some ecological problems. The possibilities radiation-chemical technology application while purification of waste waters from oil pollutions had been studied and also it is studied some legitimacies of radiation-chemical molding of oil hydrogens in water sphere. In case of radiation purification of water from oil impurities it is possible the radiation-chemical molding of oil hydrogens during the process and removal of molding products from water. Data given in this article proves that there are happens an effective interaction between active particles of different origin.

130

Suppression of Tip Vortex Cavitation by Water and Polymer Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Tip vortex cavitation (TVC) is typically the first form of cavitation observed in propellers; therefore a delay of its inception is desirable. In this study, TVC inception was delayed via mass injection from the tip of a modified NACA-66 elliptic plan-form hydrofoil. The injected mass used were water and Polyox WSR 301 solutions with concentrations from 10 to 500 ppm. The free-stream nuclei content was measured using a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter, and the TVC inception event rate was quantified with a light scattering system. The vortical flow field in the region of inception was characterized using Stereo Particle Imaging and Velocimetry (SPIV), with measurements taken from 0.25 to 1 chord length at various concentrations and injection rates. It was observed that TVC inception was delayed with injection by a ?? of 0.03 to 1.8 from a baseline of ? = 3.5. Injection with higher polymer concentrations and higher volume flux led to larger delays. A saturation effect for the TVC suppression was observed for both the polymer concentration (125ppm) and volume flux rate (Qj/Qc = 0.48). These effects are related to the SPIV flow field.

Chang, Natasha; Yakushiji, Ryo; Ceccio, Steven

2008-11-01

131

CO2 and H2S gas injection heavy oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heavy oils constitute one of the largest fossil fuel reserves on earth; among them there are naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs under bottomwater. Those reservoirs are composed of sour heavy oil and its recovery is difficult, miscible processes are expensive and thermal methods are inefficient due to the harsh conditions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of injection of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide mixtures. Fluid and reservoir characterizations were conducted using published observations, dynamic modeling and a comparative study. Reservoir performance under natural depletion and immiscible gas injection with effluent gas were then analyzed and compared. Expected breakthrough and composition of the produced fluid were presented in this study to provide the input necessary for operational planning. This paper presented a comparison between reservoir performance under natural depletion and immiscible gas injection, providing qualitative information to evaluate an effluent gas project.

Padua, K.G.O. [Petrobras (Canada)

2011-07-01

132

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time....

Ranalli, A.

1992-01-01

133

Comparison of Water Use for Hydraulic Fracturing for Unconventional Oil and Gas versus Conventional Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared water use for hydraulic fracturing (HF) for oil versus gas production within the Eagle Ford shale. We then compared HF water use for Eagle Ford oil with Bakken oil, both plays accounting for two-thirds of U.S. unconventional oil production in 2013. In the Eagle Ford, we found similar average water use in oil and gas zones per well (4.7-4.9 × 10(6) gallons [gal]/well). However, about twice as much water is used per unit of energy (water-to-oil ratio, WOR, vol water/vol oil) in the oil zone (WOR: 1.4) as in the gas zone (water-to-oil-equivalent-ratio, WOER: 0.6). We also found large differences in water use for oil between the two plays, with mean Bakken water use/well (2.0 × 10(6) gal/well) about half that in the Eagle Ford, and a third per energy unit. We attribute these variations mostly to geological differences. Water-to-oil ratios for these plays (0.6-1.4) will further decrease (0.2-0.4) based on estimated ultimate oil recovery of wells. These unconventional water-to-oil ratios (0.2-1.4) are within the lower range of those for U.S. conventional oil production (WOR: 0.1-5). Therefore, the U.S. is using more water because HF has expanded oil production, not because HF is using more water per unit of oil production. PMID:25233450

Scanlon, B R; Reedy, R C; Nicot, J-P

2014-10-21

134

Experimental study of low flow steam injection into subcooled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an experimental study of low-flow vapor injection, three different modes of steam chugging were observed. For one of these modes, the encapsulating bubble chug, photos are presented from detailed motion pictures of the steam/water interface; and the pressure oscillations at the pool solid boundaries are plotted. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic motion is not severely affected by the heat transfer except when turbulence is generated at the interface. 9 refs

135

Effect of Combined Low Salinity and Surfactant Injection on Oil Recovery in Aged Bentheimer Sandstones at Different Temperatures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A moderate increase in crude oil recovery by reduction in salinity of the injection brine has been observed for numerous laboratory core flood experiments. The underlying mechanisms behind increased recovery by low salinity injection are not fully understood and are suggested to relate to complex crude oil/rock/brine interactions. Recent studies have also shown a positive effect by combining injection of low salinity brine and surfactant flooding. In this study, ...

Riisøen, Solveig

2012-01-01

136

Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties. PMID:22183525

Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

2012-02-01

137

EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cyl...

Mahalingam, S.; Rameshbapu, B. R.

2014-01-01

138

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that eucalyptus oil could be direct injectable in a regular diesel engine after little engine modification. This method showed almost same brake thermal efficiency (BTE at full load compared to standard diesel operation. Except NOx emission other emissions were found closer to diesel baseline operation. This mode offered almost 50% smoke free operation at all loads compared to standard diesel operation. Also this method successfully proved the complete replacement of diesel fuel by eucalyptus oil.

D. TAMILVENDHAN

2011-08-01

139

Flow oscillations induced by subcooled water injection into steam flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Condensation of steam occurs when subcooled water is injected into steam flow in pipe, and steam-water condensing flow oscillates under a certain condition. The mechanisms of the oscillations and also the predominant parameters to them were made clear through both small scale simulation experiments and simplified analyses. Oscillation threshold was analyzed using the linear stability criterion. Frequencies of both plug oscillation and ON-OFF oscillation were analyzed basing on the linear oscillation theory and on a simplified analytical model, respectively. The analyses were also applied to explain the experiments by Akimoto et al. and CREARE. Heat transfer coefficients at direct contact condensation during oscillation were also discussed

140

Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

Mac Dowall, J.

1969-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

142

COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

HARIRAM V.

2013-02-01

143

Bio-physicochemical treatment of oil contaminated sea water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article introduces a combined physicochemical and biological process for treatment of oil contaminated sea water. In this process, a new polymeric surfactant is successfully applied with a dosage of 0.0015 g/g of crude oil to accumulate oil spots on the sea water in a microcosm. In the next step, microbial degradation of accumulated oil spots using isolated bacteria from oil contaminated Caspian Sea water was studied. The results of a proposed process for treatment of contaminated sea water in a pilot scale, using a 1500-l microcosm with several basins at different conditions are presented

144

Bio-physicochemical treatment of oil contaminated sea water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article introduces a combined physicochemical and biological process for treatment of oil contaminated sea water. In this process, a new polymeric surfactant is successfully applied with a dosage of 0.0015 g/g of crude oil to accumulate oil spots on the sea water in a microcosm. In the next step, microbial degradation of accumulated oil spots using isolated bacteria from oil contaminated Caspian Sea water was studied. The results of a proposed process for treatment of contaminated sea water in a pilot scale, using a 1500-l microcosm with several basins at different conditions are presented.

Vasheghani-Farahani, E.; Mehrnia, M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modarres University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran)

2000-05-01

145

Bodcau In Situ Combustion Project. First annual report. [Simultaneous injection of air and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technical efficiency and economics of the simultaneous air and water in situ combustion process. The project is being conducted on five recently developed patterns of Cities Service Company's Bodcau Fee ''B'' lease in the Bellevue Field. The five patterns were a part of an eight-pattern expansion of Cities' combustion operations in the field. Twenty-nine producers and five injectors are included in the five patterns. Three compressors with a combined output of 20 MMCFD at 250 psig provide the air for combustion. Ignition of the five patterns was accomplished using a 30-kW, 440-volt, three-phase heater. The ignition phase began following air injectivity and falloff testing in August 1976 and was completed on September 24, 1976. Following ignition and completion of facility construction, five temperature observation wells were drilled and will be used to monitor the progress of the combustion front. Laboratory combustion tube runs and produced oil and gas analyses were made. Field tests included falloff and pulse tests. Production steadily increased from 69 BOPD in June 1976 to 420 in June 1977. Combustion has been monitored by gas analyses at producing wells. The five injection wells were converted to simultaneous air and water injection in April 1977, with initial design rates of 150 barrels per million cubic feet of air injected per well. For the first year of the project, the total cost per barrel of oil produced has been $10.03. 62 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)

1977-09-01

146

Planning of tritium injections for ground water recharge measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater recharge takes place through various sources and it depends upon the local soil composition, vegetative cover, surface topography, subsurface geology and hydrological conditions, etc. The measurement of recharge of groundwater reservoir using tritium tracer is based on the principle of a piston-type flow. The downward movement of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone is followed by tagging a layer of soil with tritiated water (10 ?Ci/ml) below the root zone before the onset of monsoon rains or any other recharge source. The experiments were conducted in Haryana during 1973-74 by adopting a layout of 2 points at 2 m apart in a row with a close group of 5 injections in 10 cm radial distance at each point at one site. This study was done on an extensive scale by having 26 injections sites spread over 44222 sq.km area of the state. Although the tritium injections layout adopted was an improved version of the similar experiments earlier conducted in the Uttar Pradesh and Punjab, further modifications in layout seem to be imperative to obtain realistic data on recharge rates in case of comprehensive microlevel investigations. The determination of the soil moisture and density was done with conventional methods. It is felt that the use of nucleonic gauges should have been more suitable. This paper discusses the modifications in the layout of tritium injections and suggests necessary improvements. (author)

147

Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

2010-01-01

148

CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

149

Alternative water injection device to reactor equipment facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention injects water to the reactor and the reactor container continuously for a long period of time for preventing occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type reactor and maintaining the integrity of the reactor container even if the accident should occur. Namely, diesel-driven pumps disposed near heat exchangers of a reactor after-heat removing system (RHR) are operated before the reactor is damaged by the after heat to cause reactor melting. A sucking valve disposed to a pump sucking pipeline connecting a secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. A discharge valve disposed to a pump discharge pipeline connecting a primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. With such procedures, sea water is introduced from a sea water taking port through the top end of the secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and water is injected into the inside of the pressure vessel or the reactor container by way of the primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger. As a result, the reactor core is prevented from melting even upon occurrence of a severe accident. (I.S.)

150

Treatment of well-bore area of injection wells with carbonated water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water injection wells in the Aleksandrovsk (Tuimazy) Field were stimulated with carbonated water. In a typical treatment, 2 to 10 tons COD2U were injected as 2 to 5% aqueous solution. The COD2U greatly increased water intake rates. A schematic diagram of COD2U injection equipment is shown. High-pressure water was passed through a tube loaded with solid COD2U. The COD2U solution was then injected into the formation. (12 refs.)

Babalyan, G.A.; Kovalenko, K.I.; Kislyakov, Yu.P.

1967-04-01

151

Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of wateržoil emulsified fuel (W/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to study indirectly the physical effects of wat...

Samec, Niko; Kegl, Breda; Dibble, Robert W.

2012-01-01

152

Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage  

Science.gov (United States)

The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

1984-01-01

153

SAMPLING OIL-WATER MIXTURES AT OHMSETT (OIL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TANK)  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes procedures developed at the Oil and Hazardous Material Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) for sampling oil and water mixtures. Two procedures for sampling in containers are discussed: grab and stratified sampling. Both of these techniques require str...

154

Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

Seibert, D. L.

1985-08-13

155

Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup. PMID:22607241

Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

2012-06-26

156

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

CERN Document Server

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01

157

Wellbore downward steam/water flow modeling in steam injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to depletion of conventional oil resources and an increase in oil demand, oil is now being extracted from heavy oil and bitumen resources. Unfortunately production from these resources is not simple; one effective way would be steam injection but it is very complex and requires accurate design and modeling. The aim of this paper is to develop a model to simulate downward flow in the wellbore during steam injection. A numerical non-isothermal wellbore model was developed to compute wellbore fluid temperature, pressure, density and velocity profiles. The model was tested and compared to other models and data from 2 different fields. Results demonstrated good concordance between the results from the model and field data. Thus the model developed herein could be used for designing well completion and accurately determining parameters in the steam injection process and thereby for predicting oil recovery from the steam injection method.

Mozaffari, M.; Ehsani, M.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering of Isfahan University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikookar, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering of Isfahan University of Technology and IOR Research Institute, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahranavard, L.; Emadi, M.A. [IOR Research Institute, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-01

158

Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) present promising ''greener'' substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported in the literature, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. Experiments were also conducted using various blends of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), smoke opacity, CO{sub 2}, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on Jatropha oil (preheated and blends), performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior. (author)

Agarwal, Deepak [Environmental Engineering and Management Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

2007-09-15

159

CO2 injection: reducing Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) in Reconcavo basin oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide miscible injection application as a tertiary recovery method in Reconcavo Basin fields is limited by the pumping costs associated with the process and the risk of fracturing the reservoir formation. Addition of solvents to CO2 may reduce the Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP), thus lowering the injection costs. The aim of this paper is to present a strategy to identify, amongst the solvents available in Reconcavo Basin region, the alternatives which promote the greatest reduction in MMP. It covers the screening of potential additives through phase behavior simulation and the experimental determinations of MMP. The use of CO2 in enhanced oil recovery projects, besides increasing the final oil recovery factor, has a strong ecological appeal, since it brings the possibility of using an industrial pollutant, which otherwise would be discarded into the atmosphere. (author)

160

Performance of Scroll-Type Helium Compressor with Oil Injection Cooling Device  

Science.gov (United States)

In the cryoelectronics field where the helium gas is utilized as a working field, rotary-type and reciprocating-type compressors are popular for the discharge capacity of less than 200Nm3/h and screw-type compressor for a larger capacity. In this study, scroll-type fluid machinery, featuring both high efficiency and high reliability, is applied to a helium compressor with the discharge capacity of 50 Nm3/h. Experimental investigations are performed about oil injection cooling methods and improvement of the compression efficiency. As a result, a volumetric efficiency of 92 % and an overall adiabatic efficiency of 79 % are obtained under the condition of a theoretical compression ratio of 5.2 by a developed scroll compressor with a nominal motor output 2.2 kW. At the same time an effective cooling method with a single oil injection port is obtained.

Shiibayashi, Masao; Tomita, Yoshikatsu; Izunaga, Yasushi; Maeda, Naoki

 
 
 
 
161

Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation

162

The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeability when sandstones are heated from 20°C to 70–200°C. The pore surface area per unit pore volume was used to normalise permeability data, so that the temperature effect on samples with different pore size could be compared. In sandstones containing the clay mineral kaolinite, heating reduced permeability, suggesting that the observed permeability reduction was due to kaolinite mobilisation. The effect was partly reversible.

Rosenbrand, Esther; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

2014-01-01

163

A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

164

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

165

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

166

Fat crystallisation at oil-water interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of lipid crystallisation at or in the vicinity of an interface in emulsified systems and the consequences regarding stability, structure and thermal behaviour. Amphiphilic molecules such as emulsifiers are preferably adsorbed at the interface. Such molecules are known for their ability to interact with triglycerides under certain conditions. In the same manner that inorganic crystals grown on an organic matrix see their nucleation, morphology and structure controlled by the underlying matrix, recent studies report a templating effect linked to the presence of emulsifiers at the oil/water interface. Emulsifiers affect fat crystallisation and fat crystal behaviour in numerous ways, acting as impurities seeding nucleation and, in some cases, retarding or enhancing polymorphic transitions towards more stable forms. This understanding is of crucial importance for the design of stable structures within emulsions, regardless of whether the system is oil or water continuous. In this paper, crystallisation mechanisms are briefly described, as well as recent technical advances that allow the study of crystallisation and crystal forms. Indeed, the study of the interface and of its effect on lipid crystallisation in emulsions has been limited for a long time by the lack of in-situ investigative techniques. This review also highlights reported interfacial effects in food and pharmaceutical emulsion systems. These effects are strongly linked to the presence of emulsifiers at the interface and their effects on crystallisation kinetics, and crystal morphology and stability. PMID:24238924

Douaire, M; di Bari, V; Norton, J E; Sullo, A; Lillford, P; Norton, I T

2014-01-01

167

21 CFR 522.2005 - Propofol injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propofol injection. 522.2005 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2005 Propofol injection. (a) Specifications...oil-in-water emulsion containing 10 milligrams of propofol per milliliter. (b)...

2010-04-01

168

Mercury ion responsive wettability and oil/water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel Hg(2+) responsive oil/water separation mesh with poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel coating is reported. The mesh can separate oil and water because of the superhydrophilicity of the poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel coating on the mesh, and switch the wettability based on the chelation between Hg(2+) and poly(acrylic acid) . The reversible change in oil contact angle of as-prepared mesh is about 149° after immersion in Hg(2+) solution. This mesh is an ideal candidate for oil-polluted water purification, especially for water that contains Hg(2+) contaminant. PMID:25110804

Xu, Liangxin; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Lu, Fei; Chen, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Feng, Lin; Wei, Yen

2014-08-27

169

A refining system used to treat hydrogen-sulfide-containing formation water at the ''Suleevneft'' oil and gas production administration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The initial drainage of formation water in horizontal sumps under differential pressure is described. As a result of this process, a need for oil pumps arises. Because of the stable injection of demulsifier in the clustered measuring devices as it approaches a thermochemical device, the emulsion separates into oil and water. A sealed formation water purification system makes it possible to significantly decrease the corrosion speed of the water conduits. This scheme is particularly essential in purifying hydrogen-sulfide-containing formation waters.

Tachaev, V.A.; Lazarev, E.D.; Nurgaliev, F.N.

1981-01-01

170

Dynamics of capillary imbibition when surfactant, polymer, and hot water are used as aqueous phase for oil recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Capillary imbibition is an oil recovery mechanism in naturally fractured reservoirs if rock matrix is water wet and there is enough water in fractures in contact with matrix. It, however, may not yield an effective recovery under certain circumstances even if these conditions are maintained. Heavy matrix oil, high interfacial tension (IFT), oil-wet matrix sample, and limited contact area of matrix with water in fractures require additional effort to enhance the oil recovery by capillary imbibition. Chemicals and heat can be injected into naturally fractured reservoirs to improve the capillary imbibition recovery performance. With the involvement of low IFT fluid, heat, and polymer solution in the process, capillary imbibition dynamics may change and this entails an identification of the dynamics of the process through laboratory experiments before injection of these expensive fluids into oil reservoirs. In this study, the dynamics of capillary imbibition was studied experimentally. Static imbibition experiments were conducted on oil- and water-wet rock samples under different boundary conditions and saturated with different types of oil. The analyses were conducted using three indicators, namely the capillary imbibition rate, ultimate oil recovery, and shape of the recovery profile. Based on these indicators, the dynamics of capillary imbibition of different aqueous phases were evaluated for different oil types and matrix properties. The conditions that cause weak or strong capillary imbibition were identified. PMID:16290401

Babadagli, Tayfun

2002-02-01

171

Behavior of water spray injected into air/steam environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behavior of a water spray injected into both an air and a steam environment was studied. The water spray was divided into two parts - sheet portion and droplet portion. An analytical model is proposed for explaining the spray behavior. Experiments were performed to substantiate the analytical results. Holographic pictures were used to obtain the droplet size distribution. These size distributions were used for computing the motion of spray droplets in the analytical model. For the sprays used in this study, the sheet portion plays a very important role in the heat transfer phenomenon. The spray angle is primarily governed by the sheet portion. In addition, the axial extent (length) of sheet is a very important parameter in determining the spray angle. A correlation is obtained experimentally for breakup length in terms of the Weber number and the Jakob number

172

Multisyringe flow injection spectrophotometric determination of uranium in water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multisyringe flow injection analysis method for the determination of uranium in water samples was developed. The methodology was based on the complexation reaction of uranium with arsenazo (III) at pH 2.0. Uranium concentrations were spectrophotometrically detected at 649 nm using a light emitting diode. Under the optimized conditions, a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 4.0 ?g mL-1, a 3? detection limit of 0.04 ?g mL-1, and a 10? quantification limit of 0.10 ?g mL-1 were obtained. The reproducibility (%) at 0.5, 2.5, and 4.0 ?g mL-1 was 2.5, 0.9, and 0.6%, respectively (n = 10). The interference effect of some ions was tested. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of uranium in water samples. (author)

173

Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

2014-01-01

174

Gas turbine installation with total water injection in the combustion chamber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the authors present the results of their thermodynamic analysis, regarding gas turbine installations (GTIs) with total water injection in the combustion chamber (CC). Among existing GTIs, the majority are without water or steam injection in the working fluid, while some of them employ partial water/steam injection (GTIWI). The technical solution proposed by the authors, with total water injection (GTITWI), is designed to realize the desired temperature in the CC by means of the injected water exclusively. The introduced air flow is only the quantity strictly needed to produce combustion. As a result, for many cases, we have higher values for the thermal efficiency in a GTITWI compared with the GTIs without water/steam injection. Consequently, from this point of view, GTIWI are situated between GTI and GTITWI. Also, like for all GTIWI, for GTITWI too, using water injection results in much lower values for NO{sub x} emissions. (Author)

Cardu, Mircea [SOCET SA, 168-184 Calea 13 Septembrie, Sector 5,76302, Bucharest (Romania); Baicah, Malvina [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Wisconsin, 800 West Main Street, 53190-1313, Whitewater, WI (United States)

2002-11-01

175

Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

176

Synthesis of radiolabelled organic compounds for use as water tracers in oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injection of water into oil containing strata to maintain field pressure and to replace oil is usually the primary choice to enhance oil-recovery. Use of tracer methods is becoming an important part of the oil companies' basis for making economical decisions. Such water tracing requires passive tracers, i.e. compounds that behave exactly like the substance studied under the conditions of interest. This implies that a water-tracer in a water-flooded oil-field must fulfil requirements like no absorption to reservoir rock, no partitioning (or distribution) with respect to the other fluids present, long time thermal stability, microbial resistance and high detectability. In addition, the tracer compound has to be environmentally acceptable and available at a reasonable cost. Among the extensive number of compounds tested according to these criteria in the laboratory we have qualified four compounds as tracers for water in oil reservoirs. For three of them we propose radiolabelling syntheses with 14C as radioactive label to lower detection limits. The compounds are benzene 1,2- and 1,3-dicarboxylic acids and benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. (author)

177

Effects of the density difference between water and oil on stabilization of powdered oil-in-water emulsions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A powdered oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion is a dispersed system in which the continuous phase of a particle-stabilized o/w emulsion is dispersed in air by encapsulating the water globules with hydrophobic particles. During their preparation, oil droplets in water globules are forced to move because of high-shear mixing, leading to creaming of the oil droplets and possible wetting of the hydrophobic particles with the oil droplets, which induces destabilization. To prepare powdered o/w emulsions efficiently, the extent of creaming of the oil droplets has to be suppressed. We describe how to achieve this by mixing two oils of different densities and preparing powdered o/w emulsions from oil mixtures exhibiting a decreasing density difference with water. As the extent of creaming is reduced, enhanced stabilization of the powdered emulsions occurs. PMID:24359471

Murakami, Ryo; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Binks, Bernard P

2014-01-21

178

The density behaviour of heavy oils in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. The study showed by over-washed oils generally have a density of 0.99 to 1.02 g/ml. The mechanisms for oil submergence in water include evaporation, temperature change, uptake of solid matter, photooxidation and extreme weathering. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs

179

The density behaviour of heavy oils in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent concern regarding the difficulty of cleaning up Low API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled in water was discussed. Sinking and overwashing are 2 phenomena related to the behaviour of these heavy oils in water. Sinking refers to the complete submergence of the oil to the bottom of a waterbody, while over-washing refers to the overflowing of a layer of water over dense oil at sea when the oil is still close to the surface. The latter is important because even a micron-layer of water could render the oil undetectable, particularly at acute viewing angles, such as from a ship. This paper reviewed the properties of heavy oil, the prediction of density changes and the sinking/over-washing of heavy oil. In particular, it discussed a spill which occurred in August 2005 when 11 tank cars from train derailment spilled 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with high PAH-containing pole-treating oil into Lake Wabamun, Alberta. The behaviour of the oil included submergence, neutral buoyancy, resurfacing and formation of several types of aggregates of oil. This study summarized the behaviours and processes that transformed the particles of oil into small tar balls, larger logs, sheets, and large lumps into a slick. Sediment uptake or loss was found to be the major process that caused the changes in density. The behaviour of the oils was compared with respect to density and uptake of various types of sediment. The paper also reviewed the literature on dense oil behaviour. Weathering experiments performed on dense oils to determine if extensive weathering could render oils heavier than water showed that rarely is weathering the only factor in the bulk sinking of oil. Once an oil is submerged, little weathering occurs, either by dissolution or volatilization. The uptake of particulate matter is the most important process in increasing density. This study reviewed over-washing experiments to develop a mathematical solution of the conditions required for oil to be covered by a layer of water. The study showed by over-washed oils generally have a density of 0.99 to 1.02 g/ml. The mechanisms for oil submergence in water include evaporation, temperature change, uptake of solid matter, photooxidation and extreme weathering. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

2006-07-01

180

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...service wells include gas injection, water injection...water supply for injection, observation, or injection for in-situ combustion...being completed for hydrocarbon production. The...Undeveloped oil and gas reserves....

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor  

Science.gov (United States)

NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

1996-01-01

182

EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cylinder constant speed direct injection (DI diesel engine has been used to analyze the emission characteristics of biodiesel.The diesel engine for various fuel injection pressures (210,220 and 240 bar at no load to full load wasinvestigated. The injection pressure was changed in the engine head by adjusting the fuel injector spring tension. The two proportions of biodiesel were used in diesel engine such as 20% of biodiesel (Jatropha oil and Rubber seed oil with 80% of pure diesel fuel named as B20 and 40% of biodiesel with 60% of pure diesel fuel named as B40.From the test result,the nitric oxide (NOx was analyzed for different injection pressures. In emission characteristicsanalysis, it was found that the increase in injector opening pressure increases the NOxemission. The injection pressure of 240 bar and B20 proportion gives better emission reduction compared to other blended fuels.

S. Mahalingam

2014-04-01

183

Oil spill cleanup from sea water by sorbent materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three sorbents were compared in order to determine their potential for oil spill cleanup. Polypropylene nonwoven web, rice hull, and bagasse with two different particle sizes were evaluated in terms of oil sorption capacities and oil recovery efficiencies. Polypropylene can sorb almost 7 to 9 times its weight from different oils. Bagasse, 18 to 45 mesh size, follows polypropylene as the second sorbent in oil spill cleanup. Bagasse, 14 to 18 mesh size, and rice hull have comparable oil sorption capacities, which are lower than those of the two former sorbents. It was found that oil viscosity plays an important role in oil sorption by sorbents. All adsorbents used in this work could remove the oil from the surface of the water preferentially. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Bayat, A.; Moheb, A. [Chemical Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84154 (Iran); Aghamiri, S.F. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran); Vakili-Nezhaad, G.R. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran)

2005-12-01

184

Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

185

Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

186

USING COHERENT WATER JETS TO CONTROL OIL SPILLS  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of coherent water streams to induce a surface current in water and thus control a floating oil slick was examined at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT). The objective of the tests ...

187

Determination of zinc in edible oils by flow injection FAAS after extraction induced by emulsion breaking procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new procedure using extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) procedure has been developed for extraction/preconcentration of zinc in various edible oils (canola oil, corn oil, hazelnut oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil) prior to its determination by the single line flow injection (FI) flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the procedure were investigated including the type and concentrations of surfactant, the concentration of HNO3, and the other operational conditions (emulsion breaking time and temperature). The limits of detection of 1.1 and 1.0 ?g L(-1) were observed for zinc when aqueous standard and oil-based standards were added to the emulsions for calibration, respectively. The proposed procedure of combining EIEB and single line FI-FAAS can be regarded as a new procedure for the determination of zinc in edible oil samples. PMID:24423524

Bakircioglu, Dilek; Topraksever, Nukte; Kurtulus, Yasemin Bakircioglu

2014-05-15

188

Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

189

Key development technologies of heavy oil reservoirs with strong water sensitivity in Wangzhuang oilfield  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examined development technologies used during thermal recovery optimization processes at a heavy oil reservoir with strong water sensitivity. The reservoir was a proximal fan-delta glutenite deposit at a lake basin edge. The reservoir had a high clay content, low permeability, and uneven oil distribution. Although elastic drive recovery, waterflooding, and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) were used at the reservoir, the ratio of total oil produced to original oil in place (OOIP) was only 4.5 per cent. The study included an investigation of water sensitivity evaluation methods, water sensitivity mechanisms, anti-swelling mechanisms, reservoir protection and transformation modes during thermal processes. Development schemes were also reviewed. Results of the investigation demonstrated that the reservoir had high amounts of clay, chilkinite, and montmorillonite mix-beds caused by proximal material and low effective permeability. Laboratory experiments showed that rock minerals and swollen clay materials converted to chilkinites as steam injection temperatures increased. Nitrogenous anti-swelling agents were then used swelling in the reservoir. It was concluded that reservoirs with water sensitivity can be developed by enhancing steam injection processes. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Li, W.Z.; Shi, D.H.; Sun, J.F.; Min, L.Y. [SINOPEC, Shengli (China). Shengli Oil Field Co. Ltd.

2006-07-01

190

Effects of water in oil and oil in water on single-phase flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of two-phase flow on the performance of a range of single-phase flowmeters has been investigated experimentally using the National Standard Multiphase Flow facilities at NEL. The flowmeters tested were 2-inch and 4-inch positive displacement meters, venturi meters, helicoidal and flat-bladed turbine meters, 2-inch U-tube, 3-inch and 1.5-inch straight tube Coriolis meters and a 4-inch vortex shedding meter. The flowmeters were tested in oil flow with water and water flow with oil. The second component fractions were varied from 3% up to 15% by volume. The aim of the project was to quantify the effect of second-phase fluid components on the basic uncertainty of a range of single-phase. These tests have provided evidence of the suitability of particular flowmeters for two-component flow applications. Comparisons have been made between generic type and size of flow-meter and water-in-oil tests indicated that the uncertainty in the outputs of the flowmeters tested were generally within {+-} 1% relative to the reference flowrates, although some errors as high as 5-10% were also observed. Most of the measurements from the turbine flowmeters and the positive displacement flowmeters were within {+-} 0.4% of the reference flowrates. (author)

Skea, A.F. [University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom). Fluid Mechanics Research; Hall, A.R.W. [NEL, East Kilbride (United Kingdom). Flow Centre

1999-09-01

191

Isotopic composition of uranium, water and oils of some oil-gas bearing provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study into the pattern of distribution of uranium isotopes and 234U/238U ratio in the stratal waters, oils and water-bearing rocks of active water-exchange zones and oil fields in Central Asia, the Terek-Sunzha region, and the Volga region has been made. The radioactive ratios for stratal waters in the water-oil contact area are suggestive of an active isotopic exchange which leads to an isotopic equilibrium at the water-oil interface. The less intensive interphase isotopic exchange of uranium in the ''oil-rock'' system, as compared to the ''water-rock'' system, is indicative of a stronger link between uranium and oil, than between uranium and water. The deficit of the 234U isotope in the hypergenesis zone attests to the fact that, in the active water-exchange zone, depletion of rocks in 234U is currently taking place, while the values of 234U/238U ratios close to equilibrium, in water-bearing rocks indicate the absence of processes of intensive uranium migration in the rocks of the oil-gas provinces studied

192

Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

193

Upgrading of crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the influence of a Pt/C catalyst, high-pressure H2, and pH on the upgrading of a crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water (SCW). The SCW treatment led to a product oil with a higher heating value (?42 MJ/kg) and lower acid number than the crude bio-oil. The product oil was also lower in O and N and essentially free of sulfur. Including the Pt/C catalyst in the reactor led to a freely flowing liquid product oil with a high abundance of hydrocarbons. Overall, many of the properties of the upgraded oil obtained from catalytic treatment in SCW are similar to those of hydrocarbon fuels derived from fossil fuel resources. Thus, this work shows that the crude bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of a microalga can be effectively upgraded in supercritical water in the presence of a Pt/C catalyst. PMID:20801646

Duan, Peigao; Savage, Phillip E

2011-01-01

194

An experimental study of stability of oil-water emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been much interest in alternative fuels made from coal which is much more abundant than oil. The coal-oil-water slurry is a new type of oil-based synfuel composed of finely pulverized coal, oil and water. It has lower viscosity, lower ignition point and higher heating value than coal-water slurry. The preparation of stable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion is critical for the success of production of stable coal-oil-water slurry. The present study was undertaken to experimentally investigate the effects of different process variables on emulsion stability. The emulsion was prepared using 100 ml colloid mill with sorbitan monooleate (SM) as emulsifier. The variables studied include emulsifier dosage, ratio of oil to water, stirring intensity, emulsifying temperature and mixing time. The results showed that the optimum process conditions are: emulsifier dosage, 0.5%; oil to water ratio, 1:1; stirring intensity, 2500 rpm; and mixing temperature, 30 {sup o}C.

Chen, Gonglun; Tao, Daniel [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky, 234E MMRB, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

2005-02-25

195

Investigation of the two- and three-phase relative permeability relation in carbon dioxide-oil-water systems for light and heavy oil reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 flooding has gained increased interest in regard to both light and heavy oil reservoirs, as a means of combining improved oil recovery and geological storage of CO2 in partially depleted oil reservoirs. Distribution and movement of CO2 in oil reservoirs is a function of the relative permeability of three phases of water, oil, and CO2 in oil reservoirs. In general, three-phase relative permeability relations are required with respect to the design of CO2 field projects for accurate predictions via numerical reservoir simulation of CO 2 flood performance and to model production and injection problems. However, a two-phase relative permeability relation is used to generate the three-phase relative permeability relation for use in reservoir simulations. An overview of the available literature indicates few attempts have been made to experimentally determine the three-phase relative permeability relation for CO2-oil-water systems under practical reservoir conditions. This research attempts to investigate the two- and three-phase relative permeability relation of CO2-oil-water systems through a series of carefully designed laboratory experiments. Fourteen experiments in two-phase systems, and four experiments in three-phase systems with heavy and light oils, were conducted in order to study the effect of pressure, temperature, viscosity, and flow rate on the relative permeability relation. It was shown that relative permeability is temperature dependent and increases with an increase in temperature. Pressure and oil viscosity had similar effects, although higher pressure caused a decrease in relative permeability to water in water-oil and water-oil-gas systems. Investigating the effect of flow rate it was found that higher injection flow rate caused increase in relative permeability values. The effect of the injection flow rate on relative permeability behaviour can be explained by the formation of emulsion during the displacement process. A set of new correlations with which to calculate two- and three-phase relative permeabilities was developed. The new correlations, when compared to existing correlations, can better predict relative permeability values which take into account the effects of pressure, viscosity, and flow rate.

Zarivnyy, Ostap

196

Numerical method for nitrogen and steam injection in a porous medium with water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The frequent widespread occurrence of contamination due to spills and leaks of organic materials, such as petroleum products, that occur during their transport, storage and disposal constitute a menace to our high-quality ground-water resources. In spite of increased awareness of the environmental impacts of oil spills, it appears to be impossible to avoid these accidents, so it is necessary to develop techniques of groundwater remediation. Traditional clean up methods of these spills, such as pump-and-treat are slow because diffusion/dissolution are the main removal mechanisms used. Removal of contaminants with steam is considered an alternative solution. Steam injection is widely studied in Petroleum Engineering see 'Bruining et. al. (2003)'. From mass balance and conservation of enthalpy equations, we formulate conservation laws governing steam and nitrogen injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Compressibility, heat conductivity and capillarity are neglected. We present an upstream semi implicit method to solve numerically this model, so that optimal clean up strategies can be developed. (author)

Lambert, Wanderson; Marchesin, Dan; Albuquerque, Daniel L. [Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IMPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bruining, Johannes [TUDELFT (Netherlands)

2004-07-01

197

Numerical simulation of steam injection in bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs. Phase 1. Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The one-dimensional steam injection simulator, developed in part 1 of this work to track the movement of the steam front as it progresses through a one dimensional core, is extended to two dimensions. The technique for handling the dynamic grid, and the block-balance method used to develop the finite-difference approximation to the governing equations, boundry conditions, and matching conditions (at the steam front) are described in considerable detail. Some preliminary numerical results are presented for the two-dimensional simulation. An extensive survey of the open literature describing the physical properties of the Cold Lake heavy oil deposit, required for the numerical simulation of the oil recovery process, was also carried out. Tables of reported properties are provided and values considered representative are summarized. 14 figs., 5 tabs.

DeBuda, P.G.; Cormack, D.E.

1986-09-01

198

Gas/oil/water flow measurement by electrical capacitance tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

In the oil industry, it is important to measure gas/oil/water flows produced from oil wells. To determine oil production, it is necessary to measure the water-in-liquid ratio (WLR), liquid fraction and some other parameters, which are related to multiphase flow rates. A research team from the University of Manchester and Schlumberger Gould Research have developed an experimental apparatus for gas/oil/water flow measurement based on a flow-conditioning device and electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave sensors. This paper presents the ECT part of the developed apparatus, including the re-engineering of an ECT sensor and a model-based image reconstruction algorithm, which is used to derive the WLR and the thickness of the liquid layer in oil-continuous annular flows formed by the flow-conditioning device. The ECT sensor was tested both at Schlumberger and on TUV-NEL's Multiphase Flow Facility. The experimental results are promising.

Li, Yi; Yang, Wuqiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Huang, Songming; Wu, Zhipeng; Tsamakis, Dimitrios; Lenn, Chris

2013-07-01

199

A New Mathematical Model for Pipe Friction Coefficient Inversion in Oilfield Water Injection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In simulation and operation optimization of oil field water-injection system, pipe friction factors are important parameters. Because pipelines have been corroded and they have been built for a long time, the pipe friction factors have been changed and we need to correct friction factors. Now the optimization model of friction factors inversion is mainly established by using multi-operating mode dates. Because dates of multi-operating mode are not easy to get, it is necessary to correct friction factors under single operating mode. This paper analyzes multiple solutions property of pipe friction coefficient inversion, presents two theorems about multiple solutions property of inversion. This paper especially establishes a new mathematical model of pipe friction coefficient inversion under single operating mode. The calculating results in example show the effectiveness of the method.

Wang Yu-xue

2013-01-01

200

Technique for locating injected gas in oil bearing formations behind casing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for determining the location of injected gas in an oil well comprising the steps of: obtaining data representing a near count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; obtaining data representing a far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; scaling the near count rate and the far count rate; plotting the scaled near count rate and the scaled far rate; comparing the scaled near count rate plot and the scaled far count rate plot and; determining the location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled near count rate and the plot of the scaled far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; obtaining data representing a second near count rate for a compensated neutron logging tool at a second time; obtaining data representing a second far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool at the second time; scaling the second near count rate and the second far count rate; plotting the scaled second near count rate and the scaled second far count rate; comparing the scaled second near count rate plot and the scaled second far count rate plot; determining a second location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled second near count rate and the plot of the scaled second far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; and determining the migration of the injected gas by comparing the location with the second location

 
 
 
 
201

Nano-and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable thickness oil films, using polyisobutylen based (PIB) surfactants co-spread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to - 100A thick above the water surface as determined using x-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a non-ionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil, nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10?m at the interface. At low surface pressure (? mNm-1) large, -10?m inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at ? 24mNm-1 a structure with a spongy appearance and a micron-scale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions.

202

The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

203

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

204

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

Carlson, Mike R. [RPS Energy Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2012-05-15

205

Produced water: Market and global trends - oil production - water production - choice of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)

206

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.

Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.

2009-04-01

207

Influence of fuel additives on performance of direct-injection Diesel engine and exhaust emissions when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on shale oil that has been treated with multi-functional fuel additives. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the fuel additives Marisol FT (Sweden) and SO-2E (Estonia) as well as to verify their ability to increase energy conversion and reduce brake specific fuel consumption, contamination and smoke opacity of the exhausts when fuelling the Diesel engine with shale oil. Test results show that application of these additives could be a very efficient means to improve Diesel engine performance on shale oil, especially when operating at the light load range. The brake specific fuel consumption at light loads and speeds of 1400-2000 min-1 reduces by 18.3-11.0% due to the application of the Marisol FT. The additive SO-2E proves to produce nearly the same effect. The total NO x emission from the fully loaded Diesel engine fuelled with the treated shale oil reduces by 29.1% (SO-2E) and 23.0% (Marisol FT). It is important that the lower NO x is obtained due to reducing both harmful pollutants, NO and NO2. The CO emission at rated power increases by 16.3% (SO-2E) and 48.0% (Marisol FT), whereas the smoke opacity of the exhausts increases by 35% and over 2 times, respectively. The effect of the fuel additives on the HC emission seems to be complicated and ambiguous

208

Imaging of CO{sub 2} injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of time-lapse seismic cross well and single well experiments were conducted in a diatomite reservoir to monitor the injection of CO{sub 2} into a hydrofracture zone, using P- and S-wave data. During the first phase the set of seismic experiments were conducted after the injection of water into the hydrofrac-zone. The set of seismic experiments was repeated after a time period of 7 months during which CO{sub 2} was injected into the hydrofractured zone. The issues to be addressed ranged from the detectability of the geologic structure in the diatomic reservoir to the detectability of CO{sub 2} within the hydrofracture. During the pre-injection experiment, the P-wave velocities exhibited relatively low values between 1700-1900 m/s, which decreased to 1600-1800 m/s during the post-injection phase (-5 percent). The analysis of the pre-injection S-wave data revealed slow S-wave velocities between 600-800 m/s, while the post-injection data revealed velocities between 500-700 m/s (-6 percent). These velocity estimates produced high Poisson ratios between 0.36 and 0.46 for this highly porous ({approx} 50 percent) material. Differencing post- and pre-injection data revealed an increase in Poisson ratio of up to 5 percent. Both, velocity and Poisson estimates indicate the dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the liquid phase of the reservoir accompanied by a pore-pressure increase. The results of the cross well experiments were corroborated by single well data and laboratory measurements on core data.

Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

2003-04-29

209

In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two

210

A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water : Results for Crude and Pure Oils  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil (Grane) and two pure oils (n-Octane and dodecane) with different initial oil layer thicknesses include burning efficiency, burning rate, regression rate, flame height and boilover. Pyrex glass cylinders (157 and 260 mm ID) placed on top of a steel foot in a water basin (1m x 1m x 0.5m) enabled free circulation of the water, which, along with the large water-to-oil ratios (up to 10,000) ensured that the oil burning barely increased the temperature of the surrounding water environment, which created more realistic offshore conditions than seen in many other laboratory studies. The burning efficiency was found to be nearly 100% for n-Octane and of dodecane, whereas the crude oil burning efficiency ranged between 35% and 65%. The main reason for this variation proved to be the onset of an extremely violent boilover, which occurs for oils with relatively high boiling temperatures when the water sub layer is superheated. When the initial crude oil layer thickness exceeded 20 mm the oil became solid and no boilover occurred. The heat-loss to the water sub-layer also had an effect on the burning efficiency and the regression rate was found to reach a constant value after increasing continuously as the oil was heated. Similar results were found regarding the flame height which reached a steady flame height. The pure fuels, n-Octane and dodecane, produced a much higher steady flame height than the crude oil, however they did not reach boilover, though dodecane showed boilover tendencies. Theoretical predictions with existing correlations and input data specific for the current oils generally compared well with the experimental data for both the time to boilover and the regression rates. As such, the COFA is envisioned to produce high-fidelity results in the future and thereby contribute to the further development of in-situ burning as an alternative response technique for oil spills on water.

Jomaas, Grunde

2014-01-01

211

Strategies for Efficient Microfiltration of Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the issue of the separation of oil droplets from water for oil spill mitigation and produced water treatment. The effective separation of oil-in-water dispersions involves high flux of water through a membrane and, at the same time, high rejection rate of oil droplets, while avoiding membrane fouling. In this study, the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on rejection of oil droplets by pores of different cross-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure, which is required for the oil droplet entry into a circular pore of given surface hydrophobicity, agrees well with analytical predictions based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing crossflow velocity, the shape of the oil droplet residing at the pore entrance is elongated along the flow and the critical pressure increases. In the case of pores with an elliptical cross-section, the water flux through the membrane is enhanced, in agreement with simple analytical considerations. The results of the numerical simulations are used to outline strategies for the experimental design of porous filters for oil spill remediation and produced water treatment applications.

Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai

2011-11-01

212

Resolution of oil-in-water emulsions containing uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of resolving oil-in-water emulsions resulting from the organic solvent extraction of uranium from aqueous acidic leach liquors which comprises treating the emulsions in accordance with the following steps: (a) adding to the emulsions a water-in-oil emulsion which contains from 2 to 50% by weight of a water-soluble acrylamide copolymer which contains from 5 to 50% by weight of a lower alkyl substituted tertiary aminoethyl methacrylate and quaternary ammonium salts thereof in an amount to provide at least 20 parts per million of the acrylamide copolymer; (b) adjusting the pH of the emulsion being treated with ammonia to at least 9; (c) adding to the ammonia treated emulsion a water-soluble surfactant which is capable of inverting the water-in-oil emulsion which contains the polymer; and then (d) slowly mixing the treated oil-in-water emulsion for at least one-half hour to obtain good resolution thereof

213

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

214

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpechín filtrado «defenolado» con ácido de Caro (H2SO5 (tipo B, con DCX igual a 30 g/l; los complexos LLMO y PSBIO se utilizan en alpechines provenientes de la elaboración de otras variedades de aceitunas, filtradas y diluidas en la relación 1:0,5 (tipo C con DQO inicial igual a 44 g/l, y también en alpechín filtrado y sometido previamente a criotratamiento (tipo D, con DQO inicial de 22 g/l aproximadamente. La DQO residual, con la formulación microbiana SNKD, ha resultado igual a 15 g/l (Tipo A y a 5 g/l (tipo B, con el PSBIO a 7 g/l (tipo C y a 1,5 g/l (tipo D; con la formulación microbiana LLMO a 6 g/l (tipo C y a 1,3 g/l (tipo D.

Ranalli, A.

1992-02-01

215

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection  

Science.gov (United States)

A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

1951-01-01

216

CHEMOMETRICS QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER AND OIL REPELLENT NUBUCK  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water and oil repellent shoe nubuck was tested before and after multiple washing and drying in domestic laundry machine. Programs and detergents for sensitive garments were used. Applied tests were rub fastness by Veslic and Crockmeter, Spray test, Ballys dynamic penetrometer test, water drop test, 3M water and oil repellency before and after the abrasion, determination of fatty substances by extraction method using dichloromethane, pH determination of aqueous extract from leather, determina...

Geohelli, Bos?tjan

2009-01-01

217

Three-phase pressure drop in heavy oil, water and gas flow in a horizontal pipe for application in heavy oil transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant extent of the Brazilian oil reserves consists of heavy oil, and its importance and economic value have been increasing in the last years. However, these oils, besides their elevated densities (API degree lower than 20), have viscosities higher than 100 mPa.s , which makes it more difficult to transport them through pipelines. A solution for this problem is the injection of water in the pipe, in such a way to reduce friction and, consequently, the energy expend for a given oil flow rate. The two-phase flow of heavy oil and water has been the object of a number of recent studies, and concepts such as the core-flow technology can be useful for heavy oil transportation. But in production operations, gas is also present, initially dissolved in the oil phase then leaving the solution to form a free gas phase if the pressure is below the bubble point pressure. Thus the study of three-phase flow of heavy oil, water and gas is in order. The present paper presents the three-phase flow pressure drop measured in a horizontal glass tube of 2.84 cm i.d. at several combinations of the individual flow rates. Initially, for the development of the experiment, two-phase flow of heavy oil-water and gas-water were studied to establish the flow rate ranges that cover the main patterns already known. The superficial velocities used varied from 0.04 to 0.5 m/s for water, 0.04 to 9.0 m/s for gas and 0.02 to 1.2 m/s for oil. For each test run, the three-phase flow pressure drop was determined with the help of absolute and differential pressure transducers. The results are shown in the form of maps in terms of superficial velocities. (author)

Trevisan, Francisco E.; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2003-07-01

218

Mechanical- and oil-durable superhydrophobic polyester materials for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The low stability and complicated fabrication procedures seriously hindered practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we present a facile approach for preparing durable superhydrophobic polyester materials by dip-coating in a nanocomposite solution of polymerized tetraethoxysilane and n-hexadecyltriethoxysilane. The coated samples exhibit excellent superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity, mechanical and chemical stabilities. This is attributed to the tight binding of the nanocomposite on the polyester fibers and the inherent stability of silicone. The coated samples can quickly absorb petrol, diesel and crude oil, and show very high selectivity in oil/water separation. In addition, the coated samples could maintain their superhydrophobicity, oil absorption capacity and oil/water selectivity after harsh mechanical damage, 90 days of immersion in oils and ten cycles of absorption-desorption. Moreover, this approach is simple and can be easily scaled up for producing samples on a large size, which makes it very promising for practical oil absorption. PMID:24183438

Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Wang, Aiqin

2014-01-01

219

Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

220

Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Water-in-oil emulsions : studies on water resolution and rheology over time  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsions, which often form following oil spills, make cleanup very difficult because the physical properties and characteristics of the oil change significantly after the spill. In this study, water-in-oil mixtures from crude oil and petroleum products were studied in a laboratory for up to one year. The types of mixtures were characterized by resolution of water and rheology measurements at one and seven days, and some after one year. Oil and petroleum products formed 4 clearly-defined water-in-oil types when mixed with water. These were categorized as stable, unstable, mesostable and entrained. The distinct physical properties of each category were described in this paper. The water-in-oil types were characterized using a newly developed numerical stability index which is the product of the ratio of viscosity increase and a ratio of the elasticity increase. The index was also used to correlate stability with oil compositions and properties. The asphaltene and resin content in the starting oil, along with its viscosity and density were the most important factors for water uptake and emulsion formation, as determined by a comparative evaluation of the properties of the starting oils before mixing. The saturate content and asphaltene-to-resin ratio are other important factors. 42 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division

2008-07-01

222

Water-in-oil emulsions : studies on water resolution and rheology over time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-in-oil emulsions, which often form following oil spills, make cleanup very difficult because the physical properties and characteristics of the oil change significantly after the spill. In this study, water-in-oil mixtures from crude oil and petroleum products were studied in a laboratory for up to one year. The types of mixtures were characterized by resolution of water and rheology measurements at one and seven days, and some after one year. Oil and petroleum products formed 4 clearly-defined water-in-oil types when mixed with water. These were categorized as stable, unstable, mesostable and entrained. The distinct physical properties of each category were described in this paper. The water-in-oil types were characterized using a newly developed numerical stability index which is the product of the ratio of viscosity increase and a ratio of the elasticity increase. The index was also used to correlate stability with oil compositions and properties. The asphaltene and resin content in the starting oil, along with its viscosity and density were the most important factors for water uptake and emulsion formation, as determined by a comparative evaluation of the properties of the starting oils before mixing. The saturate content and asphaltene-to-resin ratio are other important factors. 42 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

223

Study of transient air injection into a pool of water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been conducted to study the hydrodynamic phenomena associated with the transient injection of air into a pool of water through single and double vent tubes placed in an axisymmetric vessel. The effect of such geometric parameters as submergence depth, distance of vent exit from the bottom of the test chamber, and the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the tube to that of the test chamber has been studied for single tubes. The data show that the bottom maximum pressure increases with submergence depth and that two-dimensional effects start to play a role at submergence depths of about 20 cm (test chamber diameter = 45 cm). The minimum downward force is observed to occur when the momentum of the expanding bubble is at its maximum. The double vent data show that a superposition principle will tend to overestimate the maximum downward force, while a reduction in cell size will reduce the magnitude of the local maximum and tend to make the pressure uniform over the bottom of the test chamber. Prediction of the maximum average downward force for double vents is found to be possible from single vent observations if the single vent is assumed to be placed in between the double vents and if it has a cross-sectional area equal to the sum of the areas of the two vents. A comparison of predictions based on the present work with the experimentally observed forces in a 1/5th scale Mark I BWR torus has been made

224

Modeling and detection of oil in sea water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field.

Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus

2013-01-01

225

Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE. The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased from 60 to 90 bars while the injection temperature was varied from 150 to 210°C. The highest tensile strength of the composites was achieved at 70 bar holding pressure and 150°C injection temperature. However, the highest fracture strength was achieved at 80 bars whilst maintaining the injection temperature at 150°C. Flexural strength was shown to be unaffected by the varying pressure. The optimal processing parameters for highest mechanical performance were found to be at holding pressure of 80 bars and injection tempera

M.S. Ramli

2011-01-01

226

Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises studies of water-in-oil emulsions, their stability, and modelling of their formation. Studies show that water-in-oil emulsions might be characterised into three categories (stable, mesostable and unstable). These categories were established by visual appearance, elasticity and viscosity difference. It was also shown that water content was not an important factor. A fourth category of water-in-oil exists, that of water entrainment, which is not an emulsion. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stabilities as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents. The differences in the emulsion types are readily distinguished both by their rheological properties, and simply by appearance. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second, is at least three orders-of-magnitude greater than the starting oil. An unstable emulsion usually has a viscosity no more than one order-of-magnitude greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion has a significant elasticity, whereas an unstable emulsion does not. Stable emulsions have sufficient asphaltenes (>?7%) to establish films of these compounds around water droplets. Mesostable emulsions have insufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Stability is achieved by visco-elastic retention of water and secondarily by the presence of asphaltene or resin films. Mesostable emulsions display apparent viscosities of about 80-600 times that of the starting oil and true viscosities of 20-200 times that of the starting oil. Mesostable emulsions have an asphaltene and resin content greater than 3%. Entrained water occurs when a viscous oil retains larger water droplets, but conditions are not suitable for the formation of an emulsion. Entrained water may have a viscosity that is similar or slightly greater (? 2-10 times) than the starting oil. It was found that emulsion formation occurs at a threshold energy, however this energy has not been accurately defined. Emulsions from many oils have been characterised. This information is used to describe how this process can be accurately modelled and what information gaps exist for complete description of the physical process. The modelling of emulsions is reviewed. A new modelling scheme based on the new physical findings, is suggested. (Author)

227

Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarises studies of water-in-oil emulsions, their stability, and modelling of their formation. Studies show that water-in-oil emulsions might be characterised into three categories (stable, mesostable and unstable). These categories were established by visual appearance, elasticity and viscosity difference. It was also shown that water content was not an important factor. A fourth category of water-in-oil exists, that of water entrainment, which is not an emulsion. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stabilities as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents. The differences in the emulsion types are readily distinguished both by their rheological properties, and simply by appearance. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second, is at least three orders-of-magnitude greater than the starting oil. An unstable emulsion usually has a viscosity no more than one order-of-magnitude greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion has a significant elasticity, whereas an unstable emulsion does not. Stable emulsions have sufficient asphaltenes (>{approx}7%) to establish films of these compounds around water droplets. Mesostable emulsions have insufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Stability is achieved by visco-elastic retention of water and secondarily by the presence of asphaltene or resin films. Mesostable emulsions display apparent viscosities of about 80-600 times that of the starting oil and true viscosities of 20-200 times that of the starting oil. Mesostable emulsions have an asphaltene and resin content greater than 3%. Entrained water occurs when a viscous oil retains larger water droplets, but conditions are not suitable for the formation of an emulsion. Entrained water may have a viscosity that is similar or slightly greater ({approx} 2-10 times) than the starting oil. It was found that emulsion formation occurs at a threshold energy, however this energy has not been accurately defined. Emulsions from many oils have been characterised. This information is used to describe how this process can be accurately modelled and what information gaps exist for complete description of the physical process. The modelling of emulsions is reviewed. A new modelling scheme based on the new physical findings, is suggested. (Author)

Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben [Environment Canada, Emergencies Science Div., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mullin, Joe [United States Mineral Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)

1999-07-01

228

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PURIFICATION PROCESS OF OIL CONTAMINATED WATERS ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sorption properties of carbonic sorbents on natural raw materials for purification of waste waters frompetroleum products are investigated. Temperature influence on sumption properties of sorbents on naturalraw materials to increase the purification degree of water ecosystem is studied. Mathematical model ofpurification process of oil contaminated waters is developed?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??...

?????????, ?. ????????????? ???????????? ???????????; ?????, ?. ????????????? ???????????? ???????????; ??????, ?. ????????????? ???????????? ???????????

2012-01-01

229

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PURIFICATION PROCESS OF OIL CONTAMINATED WATERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption properties of carbonic sorbents on natural raw materials for purification of waste waters frompetroleum products are investigated. Temperature influence on sumption properties of sorbents on naturalraw materials to increase the purification degree of water ecosystem is studied. Mathematical model ofpurification process of oil contaminated waters is developed

?. ????????

2012-04-01

230

Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability : An Analysis Of Experimental Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The seasonal imbalance between supply and demand of renewable energy requires temporary storage, which can be achieved by hot water injection in warm aquifers. This requires that the permeability and porosity of the aquifer are not reduced significantly by heating. We present an overview of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation. Heating causes thermal expansion, which results in porosity reduction if the sandstone is confined. The maximum effect of porosity reduction as a result of thermal expansion on permeability is modelled and compared the change in specific surface that is computed from the reported data. This does not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx of colloidal particles due to corrosion of the apparatus at elevated temperature causes permeability reduction in a number of investigations. Mobilisation of internal particles, particularly kaolinite particles, is considered a probable mechanism of permeability reduction for the other experiments reviewed here. The parameters that strongly affect the success of heat storage therefore include the quality of the equipment and particularly the prevention of corrosion, as well as the sandstone lithology and its interaction with the reservoir fluid.

Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2012-01-01

231

Turbulent flow of oil-water emulsions with polymer additives  

Science.gov (United States)

The article outlines direct and reverse oil-water emulsions. Microphotography study of these emulsions was carried out. The effect of water-soluble and oil soluble polymers on the emulsion structure and their turbulent flow velocity in cylindrical channel was investigated. It has been experimentally proven that if the fluid being transported is not homogeneous, but a two-phase oil-water emulsion, only the polymer that is compatible with dispersion medium and capable of dissolving in this medium can reduce the hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid flow. Thus, the resistance in direct emulsions can be reduced by water- soluble polyacrylamide, while oil-soluble polyhexene can be applied for reverse emulsions.

Manzhai, V. N.; Monkam Clovis Le Grand, Monkam; Abdousaliamov, A. V.

2014-08-01

232

Oil sands water quality issues : properties, treatment and discharge options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current level of land disturbance caused by oil sand development at Syncrude Canada Ltd. (SCL) was illustrated in a map depicting Albian, Syncrude, Suncor and Aurora North leases. Water quality is altered by the processing of oil sands, with the biggest changes being in the levels of dissolved inorganic and organic constituents. The reclamation goals at SCL is to produce a self-sustaining landscape that has comparable productive capability to the pre-disturbed habitat. This presentation compared process-affected waters with surface waters of the lease areas, and demonstrated which properties are different. Environmental issues and risks associated with process-affected waters were highlighted along with potential reclamation options. Studies have shown that although oil sand processing changes water quality, there is little evidence of anthropogenic chemicals of concern. Trace metals do not pose an environmental concern. The greatest water quality concern lies with salts, some dissolved organics and the presence of hydrocarbons. Huge volumes of potential recharge waters are also an important factor to reclamation. This presentation focused on the reclamation options that integrate wet and dry landscapes, with reference to lakes, wetlands, low lands and uplands. The presentation included flow charts, graphs and maps illustrating oil sands operations and the factors affecting process water composition. Water from oil sands operations are affected by leaching, dissolution and recycling. Biologically detrimental effects are moderated by natural bioremediation, attenuation processes and microbial impacts. tabs., figs.

MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort, McMurray, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

233

Cellulose as a novel amphiphilic coating for oil-in-water and water-in-oil dispersions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The amphiphilic character of cellulose molecules provides the opportunity to use it as a novel eco-friendly emulsifying agent for formation of stable oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions. This may be done by mixing water, oil and cellulose solution in an ionic liquid. A more practical alternative is to form first a hydrogel from the cellulose/ionic liquid solution by coagulation with water and applying it into the sonicated water/oil or oil/water mixtures. The dissolution/regeneration process affords higher mobility to the cellulose molecules so an encapsulating coating can be formed at the water-oil interface. A solid-state dispersion was obtained by drying liquid dispersions, which can be repeatedly dissolved in excess water reforming a sustainable dispersion. The damp dispersion can be blown under reduced pressure, yielding a nanoporous foam ("aerocellulose"). The n-eicosane based solid dispersion as well as the aqueous dispersion possess a very high effective heat-absorption capacity. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the encapsulating cellulose shell is indeed in the amorphous state. Small-angle diffraction patterns of n-eicosane dispersions exhibit two sharp reflections. One is due to the n-eicosane triclinic crystal bulk phase and the other at somewhat smaller angles is interpreted as due to less ordered phase, possibly due to interactions with the encapsulating cellulose. PMID:22901681

Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Cohen, Yachin

2012-11-15

234

Usefulness of hepatic artery injection of iodized oil and 131I-labelled iodized oil before the therapeutic decision in hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assesses the usefulness of intra-arterial injection of iodized oil (Lipiodol) as a tool for evaluating the therapeutic choice in a series of 72 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 52 of these patients a scintigraphic study of the biodistribution of iodized oil was done, using 131I-iodized oil injection. A single tumor was detected in only 17 cases; 18 patients had a tumor involving only 1 lobe; in 7 cases CT scan disclosed a minute nodule in the opposite lobe of the main tumor. 18 patients had a portal thromobosis; in 12 of these cases CT scan showed iodized oil in the tumor emboli. The degree of intratumoral retention of iodized oil depended on the size of tumors and on the presence of arterioportal shunts. The authors study demonstrates that only a few patients (4%) with HCC might benefit from curative surgery. The therapeutic benefit of methods using iodized oil injection might be estimated by means of its biodistribution variables (CT and/or scintigraphic data). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

235

Usefulness of hepatic artery injection of iodized oil and [sup 131]I-labelled iodized oil before the therapeutic decision in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the usefulness of intra-arterial injection of iodized oil (Lipiodol) as a tool for evaluating the therapeutic choice in a series of 72 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 52 of these patients a scintigraphic study of the biodistribution of iodized oil was done, using [sup 131]I-iodized oil injection. A single tumor was detected in only 17 cases; 18 patients had a tumor involving only 1 lobe; in 7 cases CT scan disclosed a minute nodule in the opposite lobe of the main tumor. 18 patients had a portal thromobosis; in 12 of these cases CT scan showed iodized oil in the tumor emboli. The degree of intratumoral retention of iodized oil depended on the size of tumors and on the presence of arterioportal shunts. The authors study demonstrates that only a few patients (4%) with HCC might benefit from curative surgery. The therapeutic benefit of methods using iodized oil injection might be estimated by means of its biodistribution variables (CT and/or scintigraphic data). 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Raoul, J.L.; Duvauferrier, R.; Bretagne, J.F.; Bourguet, P.; Heresbach, D.; Siproudhis, L.; Gosselin, M. (Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France))

1993-03-01

236

Effect of mixed gas solvent injection on performance of the Vapex process in an Iranian heavy oil sample  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vapor extraction (VAPEX) process involves the injection of vaporized hydrocarbon solvents into oil reservoirs in order to decrease in-situ oil viscosity. The solvents are often used with non-condensable gases in high pressure reservoirs to lower the dew point of the gas mixture and prevent condensation. This study investigated the effects of mixed gas solvent injection on the VAPEX process with an Iranian heavy oil sample. A set of experiments were conducted at low, medium, and high pressure rates on a 2-D visual model. A transparent face was used in the model in order to monitor the size of the vapor chamber and the position of the gas-oil interface. Production and injection wells were placed above each other and at the center of the model. The effects of solvent concentration, and carrier gas type on production parameters and produced oil properties were also investigated. Propane was used as a solvent, and methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were used as carrier gases. Results of the study showed that high injection pressures caused fluctuations in system behaviour. The solvent chamber grew in a lateral direction, and less asphaltene precipitation was observed. It was concluded that the VAPEX process can be used in high pressure reservoirs when combined with non-condensable carrier gases. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

Derakhshanfar, M.; Kharrat, R.; Rostami, B. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etminan, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

237

Performance and exhaust emissions of an indirect-injection (IDI) diesel enginewhen using waste cooking oil as fuel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was carried out on the influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) and its blends with D2 fuel on the performance, exhaust emissions, combustion and fuel injection processes of an indirect injected diesel engine. Tests were carried out using different fuels, under the same conditions. Exhaust emissions and engine performance were measured and compared. Combustion chamber pressure was also acquired, and the rate of heat-release curves were computed by means of a zero-dimensional one-zone comb...

Hribernik, Ales?; Kegl, Breda

2012-01-01

238

Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE). The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased ...

Ramli, M. S.; Abdul Latif, M. R.; Megat-yusoff, P. S. M.

2011-01-01

239

Novel concepts for the containment of oil in flowing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both a laboratory study of the hydrodynamic properties of variously shaped objects and a meso-scale flume study of several containment concepts have been undertaken to determine whether these can be used to contain oil in fast flowing water. The laboratory study showed that stable vortices are difficult to generate and that spilled oil is not easily trapped by them. Only two of the structures studied showed some promise of trapping oil in fast moving water: a partially submerged barrier with fins placed at an angle across the flume and a horizontal hydrofoil placed across the channel near the surface. Several filter materials were tested in an outdoor flowing channel with both floating and neutrally buoyant oil. Although some of these materials trapped and held heavy oil, they were not a significant improvement over nylon fishing nets which had been tested previously. The filter materials would not hold a medium gravity oil. A hydrofoil device which generated a horizontal eddy successfully trapped and held surface oil at water speeds up to 0.35 m/s. Neutrally buoyant oil was often caught by the eddy but was never held for more than 1-2 minutes. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

240

Formation of water-in-oil emulsions and application to oil spill modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-in-oil mixtures were grouped into four states or classes: stable, mesostable, unstable, and entrained water. Of these, only stable and mesostable states can be characterized as emulsions. These states were established according to lifetime, visual appearance, complex modulus, and differences in viscosity. Water content at formation was not an important factor. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stability as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents, as well as differences in the viscosity of the starting oil. The different types of water-in-oil classes are readily distinguished simply by appearance, as well as by rheological properties. A review of past modelling efforts to predict emulsion formation showed that these older schemes were based on first-order rate equations that were developed before extensive work on emulsion physics took place. These results do not correspond to either laboratory or field results. The present authors suggest that both the formation and characteristics of emulsions could be predicted using empirical data. If the same oil type as already studied is to be modelled, the laboratory data on the state and properties can be used directly. In this paper, a new numerical modelling scheme is proposed and is based on empirical data and the corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation. The density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin contents are used to compute a class index which yields either an unstable or entrained water-in-oil state or a mesostable or stable emulsion. A prediction scheme is given to estimate the water content and viscosity of the resulting water-in-oil state and the time to formation with input of wave height. PMID:15036641

Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

2004-02-27

 
 
 
 
241

The Description of Oil Displacement Mechanism in Steam Injection of Multi-Field Synergy with Exergy Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steam injection is a most effective way for improving heavy oil recovery efficiency, and it has academic and practical significance for the mechanism of multi-field synergy oil displacement. Mechanism of “diversified” oil displacement which is obtained by traditional study methods in the exploitation territory of oil and gas fields has both respective roles and mutual cross shortages. To describe and analyze the displacement process of multi-field coupling with exergy transfer can simplify this kind of problem by introducing a unified goal-driving exergy. It needs to use the method of theoretical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental validation to study the basic law of exergy transfer in the oil displacement process of multi-field synergy, make a thorough research for the flooding process of steam injection with exergy transfer theory and reveal the oil displacement mechanism in steam injection of multi-field synergy. Thus the theory instruction and technical support can be provided to improve reservoirs producing degree and extraction ratio.

Qinglin Cheng

2013-06-01

242

Improvement of techniques for age grading hematophagous insects: ovarian oil-injection and ovariolar separation techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

After injection of oil into the oviduct of hematophagous Diptera, the ovarioles become completely separated from each other, allowing examination of a large number of undamaged ovarioles, an important advantage over other techniques for accurately determining the physiological age of mosquitoes. The technique has been simplified and improved, especially by using a sodium chloride-glycerol-formaldehyde mixture for mounting preparations, which are more convenient and permanent for examination of the ovarioles. The difficulties of using the technique, their possible causes, and possibilities for overcoming them are described. Similar results can be obtained with an alternative technique, the ovariolar separation technique, using strongly diluted Carnoy's solution, which leaves ovaries in a fixed condition. Both techniques can be used for several hematophagous dipteran groups. PMID:8667373

Hoc, T Q; Schaub, G A

1996-05-01

243

Compositions of microbial communities associated with oil and water in a mesothermic oil field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of produced water and oil obtained from the Enermark field (near Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada) were separated into oil and aqueous phases first gravitationally and then through centrifugation at 20°C in an atmosphere of 90% N(2) and 10% CO(2). Biomass that remained associated with oil after gravitational separation (1×g) was dislodged by centrifugation at 25,000×g. DNA was isolated from the aqueous and oil-associated biomass fractions and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers targeting bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. DNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatics tools were used to characterize the resulting 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The oil-associated microbial community was less diverse than that of the aqueous phase and had consistently higher representation of hydrogenotrophs (methanogens of the genera Methanolobus and Methanobacterium and acetogens of the genus Acetobacterium), indicating the oil phase to be a primary source of hydrogen. Many known hydrocarbon degraders were also found to be oil-attached, e.g. representatives of the gammaproteobacterial genus Thalassolituus, the actinobacterial genus Rhodococcus and the alphaproteobacterial genera Sphingomonas, Brevundimonas and Stappia. In contrast, all eight representatives of genera of the Deltaproteobacteria identified were found to be associated with the aqueous phase, likely because their preferred growth substrates are mostly water-soluble. Hence, oil attachment was seen for genera acting on substrates found primarily in the oil phase. PMID:22038128

Kryachko, Yuriy; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Voordouw, Gerrit

2012-03-01

244

Countercurrent steam/water flow above a perforated plate-vertical injection of water. Topical report, August 1980-July 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Countercurrent flow limiting phenomenon above a perforated plate has been studied in a steam/water environment. Water was injected as a vertical jet and the injection height above the perforated plate was changed from 0 cm to 35.6 cm. The 15 hole perforated plate has a rectangular cross section with a perforation ratio of 0.423. The weep-points and total dumping points have been determined for low and high water injection heights above the perforated plate and the results have been compared to those of the horizontal water spray experiments. The data corresponding to high water injection heights were similar to those of the horizontal water spray experiments. However, a different behavior was observed for the weep-point data with low water inlet heights. The dumping point was little affected by the water inlet position above the perforated plate. The dimensionless effective steam flow rate defined for the experiments with horizontal water spray was used to correlate the data corresponding to both the onset of weeping and the total dumping points. The correlation was successful for the weep-point data with high water injection heights. However the dimensionless parameter was redefined for the weeping-point data with low water injection heights

245

The immunological effects of oil sands surface waters and naphthenic acids on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influenced waters, NAs extracted and purified from oil sands tailings waters, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a positive control. After a 7d exposure, blood, spleen, head kidney, and gill samples were removed from a subset of fish in order to evaluate the distribution of thrombocytes, B-lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and T-lymphocytes using fluorescent antibodies specific for those cell types coupled with flow cytometry. The remaining trout in each experimental tank were injected with inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida and held in laboratory water for 21 d and subjected to similar lymphatic cell evaluation in addition to evaluation of antibody production. Fluorescent metabolites in bile as well as liver CYP1A induction were also determined after the 7 and 21 d exposure. Oil sands waters and extracted NAs exposures resulted in an increase in bile fluorescence at phenanthrene wavelengths, though liver CYP1A was not induced in those treatments as it was with the BaP positive control. Trout in the oil sands-influenced water exposure showed a decrease in B- and T-lymphocytes in blood as well as B-lymphocytes and myeloid cells in spleen and an increase in B-lymphocytes in head kidney. The extracted NAs exposure showed a decrease in thrombocytes in spleen at 8 mg/L and an increase in T-lymphocytes at 1mg/L in head kidney after 7d. There was a significant decrease in antibody production against A. salmonicida in both oil sands-influenced water exposures. Because oil sands-influenced waters affected multiple immune parameters, while extracted NAs impacts were limited, the NAs tested here are likely not the cause of immunotoxicity found in the oil sands-influenced water. PMID:24036435

Leclair, Liane A; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Phalen, Laura J; Köllner, Bernd; Hogan, Natacha S; van den Heuvel, Michael R

2013-10-15

246

A review of knowledge on water-in-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlined the basics of water-in-oil emulsification which is often considered to be the second most important behavioural characteristic of oil after evaporation. In the event of oil spills on water, water in-oil emulsions are formed by the emulsification process which changes the physical properties and characteristics of the oil. Stable emulsions contain from 60 to 80 per cent water, thereby expanding the spilled material from 2 to 5 times the original volume. The density of the resulting emulsion is also greater than the starting density and the viscosity of the oil generally increases. The liquid product is thus transformed into a heavy, semi-solid material. As a result of emulsification, evaporation of oil spills slows by orders-of-magnitude, spreading slows and the oil rides lower in the water column. Emulsification also affects cleanup response because emulsions are hard to treat, burn or recover mechanically. This paper also reviewed dielectric and rheological methods that study the formation mechanisms and stability of emulsions made from different types of oils. Other standard chemical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical analysis techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, interfacial pressure and interfacial tension have also been applied to emulsions. After 15 years of studies, data on water-in-oil emulsions have shown good correlation between laboratory, test tank and field scale studies. Reported test results on about 400 oils and petroleum products have shown that emulsions can be grouped into 3 categories, each with distinct physical properties. These include stable, unstable and meso-stable emulsions. An examination of the asphaltene and resin content has shown that the stability of emulsions can be predicted by the asphaltene content and its viscosity. Emulsion formation was found to occur at a threshold energy, defined in terms of relative sea state. A recently proposed numerical modeling scheme based on empirical data and corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation has been proposed. A class index of unstable or entrained water-in-oil state and a meso-stable or stable emulsion was determined based on density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin content. 133 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

2006-07-01

247

Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer at a topographically high recharge area. Water levels in the surficial aquifers and the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer were nearly the same along the Cuyahoga River. Ground water in the upper sandstone aquifer flows radially from topographically high recharge areas into the glacial deposits in the buried valleys. Much of the ground water in these surficial aquifers discharges into the Cuyahoga River. Most ground water in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer flows toward discharge areas near the Cuyahoga River and Eagle Creek. In June 1988, the Cuyahoga River gained 15.8 cubic feet per second of water from the aquifers between the northern edge of Portage County and State Route 303. Ground water may have discharged into the upstream end of Lake Rockwell but did not discharge into the downstream end of the Lake during most of the period from October 1987 through September 1988. Measurements of the specific conductance of ground water sampled from areas near the 13 brine-injection wells and along the Cuyahoga River indicate no widespread ground-water contamination related to brine injection. Chemical analysis of water from 25 wells indicates that most ground waters are a calcium bicarbonate type. Water analyses show that four wells sampled contain water with chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter. Sodium concentrations in water from these four wells ranged from 67 to 190 milligrams per liter. A mixing diagram constructed from bromide and chloride data was used to distinguish between the sources of elevated chloride concentrations in these four wells. Waters from two of the wells have been mixed with oilfield and gasfield brine, and waters from the other two wells have been mixed with a salt-solution brine such as that derived from diluted highway-deicing salts.

Eberts, S.M.

1991-01-01

248

Separation of oil from a water/oil mixed drop using two nonparallel plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we have developed a simple approach to separate oil from a microliter-scaled water/oil mixture by squeezing the mixture using two nonparallel plates. Three pairs of plates with Teflon, SU-8, and SiO2 coatings, respectively, are used in the tests, and all of these plates are capable of separating the water/oil mixed drops. 95.5% silicone oil and 97.0% light mineral oil have been collected from their corresponding mixtures with water through the pair of Teflon plates. Furthermore, on the basis of pressure difference inside a liquid drop, theoretical models have been developed to interpret the corresponding mechanisms of the separation process, as well as the observed phenomena. To judge whether two immiscible liquids could be separated using the developed approach, a sufficient condition has also been derived, which includes three theoretical relations. The sufficient condition is subsequently validated by experiments. This condition also provides criteria for choosing a good plate coating. Such a coating should ensure (i) the oil wets the plate surface with a relatively large contact angle, and has small contact angle hysteresis, and (ii) the advancing contact angle that the water/oil interface forms on the plate surface is larger than 90°. PMID:25073653

Luo, Cheng; Heng, Xin

2014-08-26

249

Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1) and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C) and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 ...

Gamel, T. H.; Kiritsakis, A.

1999-01-01

250

Water for oil shale: framework for the legal issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While current world oil prices make development of Colorado's oil-shale reserves economically feasible, political conflicts in the Middle East and other parts of the world make such development an economic and geopolitical necessity. The magnitude of Colorado's future oil-shale industry is still speculative, but there is no doubt that it will be substantial. Large-scale oil shale development will place new demands on the state's limited water resouces. While this demand will develop over a period of years, present planning for an orderly and adequate supply is essential. Even less certain are the long-range impacts of oil shale development on the quality of the state's water resources. Because the magnitude of shale development is unknown and the water impacts uncertain, a multitude of legal problems will surface as the oil-shale industry seeks adequate and dependable supplies of water. These legal problems are further compounded by the labyrinth of federal regulations and Colorado's specialized water-law system. Ultimate resolution of these legal questions by the courts will significantly influence Colorado's role in helping the United States achieve energy independence. 95 references.

Robinson, C.; Walta, M.E.

1981-01-01

251

Application of flexible slurries: an alternative for oil wells subject to cyclic steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil wells that receive cyclic steam injection are subject to high temperature variations during their life cycle. This causes volumetric expansion of the metallic casing which leads to cracks and channels in the formation of the cement. Studies show that volumetric expansion caused by temperature variation may cause wells to rise up to 20-in. at the surface. This paper presents alternative materials that improve the elastic properties of set cement slurries, focusing on maintaining sufficient resilience to maximize the life of the cement. We compare a set of fourteen formulations, some currently in use, selecting those with high flexibility. Analysis was based on the mechanical properties of the set slurries as well as tests according to standards from ABNT and from API Spec 10B. This work contributes new formulations for wells that under-go cyclic steam injection. These new formulations are presented as alternatives to current flexible slurry technology. We can obtain high-quality, more resilient slurries using materials that are more economical, have better cost-benefit, and are easily available in the market. (author)

Suzart, J. Walter P.; Paiva, Maria D.M.; Cunha, Marcelo C.S. [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States); Farias, Antonio Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

252

?????????????????? Research on Numerical Simulations of Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery by Steam Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????B-L????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????–???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The works on the developments of the numerical scheme for multi-phase flows in porous media and the adaptive mesh refinement in numerical simulations of heavy oil thermal recovery by steam injection are introduced. First, a finite analytic method was developed to deal with a challenging problem in numerical simulations in the case of strong geological heterogeneity, which cause the upscaling permeability to have a rapid change cross the grid interfaces and therefore the nodal flow effects will lead the flow fingering to the high permeability region. With the traditional numerical scheme, refining the coarse grid enough is the only manner to describe the flow pattern accurately. Second, for the incompressible two-phase flows, a numerical scheme, which could avoid the grid orientation effects efficiently, was proposed. Next, the adaptive mesh refinement technique was applied to the numerical simulations for the processes of thermal recovery by steam injection, where the different heterogeneous cases of the reservoir were considered, like the reservoir with the permeability variations, the different rock-types, the fractured porous media, the complex faulted reservoir or complex boundary reservoirs. The proposed AMR technique is fast and can give good accuracy. At last, on the basis of above theoretical research, a software package for the reservoir simulations, where the AMR technique was included, was developed.

???

2013-03-01

253

Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

2015-01-01

254

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31

255

Modeling of Miscible WAG Injection Using Real Geological Field Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maximizing oil recovery is the challenge for the oil industry in the North Sea and world wide. Norwegian national company Statoil set the goal to reach oil recovery of 60% for their fields on NCS. To achieve this target a number of enhanced oil recovery technologies are being applied, including water alternating gas injection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of effective improvement of oil recovery with WAG injection for the field, which has high permeability zone ...

Shpak, Roman

2013-01-01

256

Using coherent water jets to control oil spills. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of coherent water streams to induce a surface current in water and thus control a floating oil slick was examined at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT). The objective of the tests was to evaluate coherent water streams as an alternative to fabric booms and water sprays in concentrating, diverting, and containing oil slicks. The water jets were constructed from standard pipe fittings and supplied with water from common centrifugal water pumps. They were mounted on the main towing bridge, built into small floats that were angled across the direction of tow, and extended from the bows of a catamaran. Currents of up to six knots were induced by towing the water jets from the main bridge. The tests showed that coherent jets could induce a significant surface current and move an oil slick with little oil entrainment. The non-breaking waves produced by the OHMSETT wave generator did not greatly affect performance except where the jet nozzels were cantilevered off the front of the catamaran. The best position for the untended water jets tested was to be vertically directed at the surface of the water with the outlet 0.4 to 1.0 meters above the surface. The vertical component of a coherent water stream was found to be as useful, if not more so, as the horizonal component. A water jet supplied by a 30 Kw electric motor/centrifugal pump system performed better than a source of compressed air (210 KPA) extended 0.6 m below the surface supplied by a 50 Kw gasoline-driven air compressor.

Breslin, M.K.

1981-08-01

257

Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CDR downstream the turbine pumps that supply water to the injector wells. Velocity and the injection rate of water to the injector wells (with no CDR added were measured. From the field results, 20ppm of CDR injection gave optimum injection increase of 13% and adding a third side outlet 3? pipeline into the wellheads gives independent 16% increase in injectivity. The test had no negative impact on the environment. The result could be applied as an aid and quick means of predicting water-flooding operation in similar operating condition as Ukpokiti field.

Amieibibama JOSEPH

2010-12-01

258

Theoretical analysis of the effect of water and ethanol injection on axial compressor instabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of instabilities that occur in compression systems rotating stall and surge have an adverse effect on the compressor performance. Several techniques have been explored to minimize the effect of these instabilities. It has been observed that injection of a liquid into the compressor not only improves thermodynamic efficiencies but also results in stabilizing the system. Therefore, water and ethanol injection has been investigated as an effective tool for controlling these compressor instabilities. In the present paper a modified Moore-Greitzer model has been proposed for wet compression-based system using water and ethanol. Under this work the effect of injection of water (1) at various stages of compressor, (2) at different altitudes and (3) by varying amounts has also been presented. The effect of various parameters on wet compression such as (a) Optimum stage for liquid injection (b) Optimum amount of liquid injection and (c) Effect of altitude on liquid injection is also examined in the present work which shows that the liquid injection helps in improving the performance of compression systems in terms of increase in the stall margin and pressure rise coefficient. - Highlights: ? We model the effect of liquid injection on the performance of axial flow compressors. ? The basic Moore-Grietzer's model has been appropriately modified. ? Injection of liquid in the later stages of the compressor resulted in improved stall margin and pressure rise. ? Use of ethanol was found to give better performance than water.

259

Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

2011-12-01

260

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

 
 
 
 
261

CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SHALE MINE WATERS, CENTRAL PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to characterize the oil shale mine waters in the Piceance Basin. The study sites were Federal Prototype Lease Tracts C-a and C-b, located in the central portion of the basin. The objective was to collect water quality data in order to characterize the mine w...

262

Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

Abdurahman H. Nour

2007-01-01

263

Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

264

Program for mechanical oil recovery in ice infested waters (MORICE)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives and activities of the Program for Mechanical Oil Recovery in Ice Infested Waters (MORICE) were described. The Program was initiated to remedy the lack of efficient techniques to clean up oil spills during winter conditions by developing oil-in-ice response technologies that can be ultimately commercialized. The Program is multinational, supported by government and industry from Norway, Canada, USA, Germany, and Sweden. During 1996, a committee reviewed past work, considered the applicability of existing methods, as well as new concepts which arose from the technical discussions. Several of these concepts are now the subject of laboratory scale investigations. A database of information on previous efforts to develop oil-in-ice recovery equipment, as well as information on historical spills and oil behaviour in ice was also compiled. Conclusions from work to date, and future plans for study are also provided. 4 refs., 10 figs

265

17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...  

Science.gov (United States)

...producing activities include: (A) The search for crude oil, including condensate and natural...facilities. (D) Property taxes and insurance applicable to proved properties and wells...water injection, steam injection, air injection, salt-water disposal,...

2010-04-01

266

Design and operation of laboratory combustion cell for air injection into light oil reservoirs: potential application in Sindh field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical experimental work on the combustion oil recovery processes consists of both laboratory and field studies. Although field experiments are the ultimate test of any oil recovery process, they are costly, time consuming and difficult to analyze quantitatively. Laboratory CC (Combustion Cell) experiments are cost effective and less time consuming, but are subject to scaling and interpretation challenges. Experimental set up has been developed to understand air injection process for improving oil recovery from light oil reservoirs taking into account the sand pack petro physical and fluid properties. Some important design problems; operational criteria and considerations important to interpretation of results are pointed out. To replicate subsurface reservoir conditions or pressure and temperature, experiments up to 6895 KPa, at non-isothermal conditions with 5 deg. C/min ramp-up are performed on unconsolidated cores with reservoir oil samples. Correlations were obtained for low temperature oxidation rate of oil, the fuel deposition rate and the rate of burning fuel as a fuel concentration. Various parameters such as (sand pack, pressure, oil saturation and flow rate/air flux) were changed to investigate their impact on reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned. To determine the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, he hydrogen-carbon ratio and m-ratio was calculated. For further confirmation Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.0 order of reaction with carbon concentration which is also confirmed.This research will contribute to the overall understanding of air injection process; help to determine the most appropriate lOR (Improved Oil Recovery) technique in the development of the tertiary phase of production in light oil reservoirs in Lower Indus Basin (Sindh) fields. (author)

267

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w. The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r2 = 0.996. Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD% was better than 5% (2% typical for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

Gustavo Pignalosa

2005-01-01

268

Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformathe packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

269

Formation and Stability of an Oil in Water Emulsion Containing Lecithin, Xanthan Gum and Sunflower Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The optimisation of the formation and stability of an oil in water emulsion containing lecithin, xanthan gum and sunflower oil was evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and nonlinear regression. The main and combined effects of three independent variables; concentration of sunflower oil (10-20% v/v), soy lecithin (1-5% w/v) and xanthan gum (0.01-3% w/v) on the responses were examined. The main objectives of the study were to model and optimise maximum emulsion storage stability a...

Traynor, Mark; Burke, Roisin; Frias, Jesus Maria; Gaston, Edurne; Barry-ryan, Catherine

2013-01-01

270

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Science.gov (United States)

...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX...

2010-07-01

271

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Science.gov (United States)

...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions,...

2010-07-01

272

[Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].  

Science.gov (United States)

On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

Medverec Kneževi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2011-12-01

273

Study on Flow of Flushing Water in Oil Pipeline of Diameter 8 Inches Using Radioisotope Tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Br-82 isotope in the form of paradibromo benzene solution has been injected into oil pipeline of 8 inches in diameter to investigate flow pattern of flushing water inside the pipeline. Two scintillation detectors are put on the pipeline at the distance of 10.52 meter and 39.7 meters respectively from injection point to obtain residence time distribution curves of injected isotope. The flow-rate of flushing water that is calculated by utilizing the mean residence time is 49.7 meter/minute. The model parameter, n, has been analyzed by implementation of tanks-in series model in order to determine the flow pattern of the flushing water inside the pipeline. From this calculation, it is obtained that n = 10 for the first rtd curve and n = 9.17 for the second rtd curve. This result indicates that the characteristic of the flow pattern of flushing water is well mixed flow with quite high degree of turbulence due to the scaling and pit corrosion in the inner wall of the pipe. (author)

274

Mechanics and upscaling of heavy oil bitumen recovery by steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoirs method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed a numerical modelling scheme applied to the steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoirs (SOS-FR) method for a single-matrix block. After modelling the process at the core scale, sensitivity tests were performed to determine the optimal injection conditions for efficient oil recovery and solvent retrieval. The basic mechanisms and physics of the process were described along with the amount of injectant and the time required for recovering target oil for field-scale application. In the physics of the recovery mechanism, gravity was found to have a substantial effect on oil recovery when the matrix was exposed to solvent. Special attention was paid to the solvent retrieval rate and amount in the third cycle and the permeability reduction caused by asphaltene precipitation in the solvent injection phase; the latter factor was observed to be substantially critical for the process. An upscaling analysis yielded an encouraging straight-line relationship between the time value to reach ultimate recovery and the matrix size with a non-integer exponent less than 2. 21 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

Singh, R.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2011-01-15

275

Determination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in formation water during oil exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is conducted, in order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in Iran petroleum industry. Samples were collected from offshore oil company for analysis of 238U, 235U, and 232Th series in produced waters. The activities of samples were determined by high-purity germanium detector, well for low level activity ?-spectrometry. The results have shown that, 226Ra concentration ranges from 5.26 Bq/L to 27.93 Bq/L. Also the total activity in produced water is in the range of 16-840 Bq/L were mainly due to enhanced levels of dissolved 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi ions. Also, enhanced dissolution of elements such as radium by increasing of salinity, result in higher concentration of NORM in old oil region. Measured values are above EPA regulation (40 CFR 141055) and aqueous Derived Release Limit (DRL) of Canadian guideline for the management of (NORM). Therefore produced water has to dispose in pits which have to design for decrease the environmental effects. Also according to this study, re-injection of produced water in to abandon well of Iran Offshore Oil Company in Persian Gulf, have preference over discharging to the pits. (author)

276

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demulsification (emulsion breaking is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation between good performance (fast coalescence and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

Abdurahman, H. Nour

2007-01-01

277

Condensation of steam bubbles injected into sub-cooled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bubble condensation plays an important role e.g. in sub-cooled boiling or steam injection into pools. Since the condensation rate is proportional to the interfacial area density, bubble size distributions have to be considered in an adequate modeling of the condensation process. The effect of bubble sizes was clearly shown in experimental investigations done previously at the TOPFLOW facility of FZD. Steam bubbles were injected into a sub-cooled upward pipe flow via orifices in the pipe wall located at different distances from measuring plane. 1 mm and 4 mm injection orifices were used to vary the initial bubble size distribution. Measurements were done using a wire-mesh sensor. Condensation is clearly faster in case of the injection via the smaller orifices, i.e. in case of smaller bubble sizes. In a previous work a simplified test solver, developed especially to test models for vertical pipe flow was used to simulate these effects. Now the results will be transferred to the CFD code CFX from ANSYS. Recently the Inhomogeneous MUSIG model was implemented into the code enabling the simulation of poly-dispersed flows including the effects of separation of small and large bubbles due to bubble size dependent lift force inversion. It allows to divide the dispersed phase into size classes regarding the mass as well as regarding the momentum balance. Up to now transfers between the classes in the mass balance can be considered only by bubble coalescence and breakup (populatby bubble coalescence and breakup (population balance). Now an extension of the model is proposed to include the effects due to phase transfer. The paper focuses on the derivation of equations for the extension of the Inhomogeneous MUSIG model and presents a new experimental setup for the investigation on steam bubble condensation. (author)

278

Water in soybean oil microemulsions as medium for electrochemical measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microemulsions of water in soybean oil (w/o ME) were prepared with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant and amyl or isoamyl alcohol, as co-surfactants. Microemulsions containing 40.0% oil, 43.2% alcohol, 10.8% SDS and 6.0% water in weight, in the ratio 1:4 [SDS]:[alcohol] showed the highest thermodynamic stability. The aqueous droplet size and its diffusion coefficient Dw/o in the ME were determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS). Voltammetric measurements in the ME at a Pt disk...

Mendonça Carla R. B.; Bica Clara I. D.; Piatnicki Clarisse M.S.

2003-01-01

279

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

Science.gov (United States)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

2008-07-01

280

Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Influence of ethanol-amine injection on flow accelerated corrosion rate in pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have introduced ethanol-amine (ETA) injection for the purpose of decreasing iron transfer in the steam generator (SG). The ETA injection is supposed to decrease the rate of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) by increasing the pH of the secondary system. However, the water chemistry in the secondary system is very complicated and so water chemistry following ETA injection and the effect of ETA injection on FAC rate have not been studied systematically. To assess the influence of ETA injection on FAC rate, we use a model that assumes the FAC rate is proportional to the concentration gradient of magnetite. We then calculate the chemical concentration and magnetite solubility of the secondary system and approximately evaluate the change of FAC rate. It is shown that ETA injection reduces the FAC rate to about 1/3 - 1/22 of that of ammonia. In some portions of the secondary system, we also measured the effects of ETA injection experimentally by rotating disk test, and found that the FAC rate decreases under ETA conditions. The peak FAC rate shifted to a higher temperature after ETA injection. At 274degC, the FAC rates are nearly the same under the conditions of high pH of ETA and low pH of ammonia. (author)

282

Influence of ethanol-amine injection on flow accelerated corrosion rate in pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have introduced ethanol-amine (ETA) injection for the purpose of decreasing iron transfer in steam generator (SG). The ETA injection is supposed to decrease flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) rate, because of secondary system pH increase. But the water chemistry in the secondary system is very complicated. So water chemistry following ETA injection and the effect of ETA injection on FAC rate have not been studied systematically. To assess the influence of ETA injection on FAC rate, it is assumed that the model of FAC rate is proportional to the concentration gradient of magnetite. Then chemical concentration and magnetite solubility of the secondary system are calculated and the change of FAC rate is evaluated in the outline. It has been clarified that the effect of ETA injection reduces the FAC rate to about 1/3-1/22 of that of ammonia. In some portions of the secondary system, the effects of ETA injection have been measured experimentally by rotary disk test. The FAC rate of ETA injection is larger than that of ammonia at high temperature. And the FAC rate peaks at about 180degC in the case of ammonia, but the peak seems to shift to higher temperatures in the case of ETA. (author)

283

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : stability and oil properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions were studied by examining the asphaltene and resin content of oils. The visco-elastic properties of 82 oils from Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division were also examined to determine which factors are responsible for the stability regimes. The stability of emulsions were grouped into three categories: (1) stable, (2) unstable, and (3) meso-stable. It was shown that there is a range of compositions and viscosities in which each type of water-in-oil state exists. It was also shown that the viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second is about three times greater than that of the starting oil. An unstable emulsion typically had a viscosity of 20 times greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion had pronounced elasticity, but an unstable emulsion did not. A meso-stable emulsion had properties between stable and unstable, but broke down after a few days of standing. It was concluded that the formation of both stable and meso-stable emulsions is due to the combination of surface-active forces from resins and asphaltenes from viscous forces. Only a small difference was detected between stable and meso-stable emulsions. Stable emulsions were found to have more asphaltenes and less resins and a narrow viscosity window. Instability results when the oil has either a high viscosity or a very low viscosity and when the resins and asphaltenes are less than about 3 per cent. In highly viscouss than about 3 per cent. In highly viscous oils, the migration of asphaltenes and resins is too low to permit droplet stabilization, therefore the formation of stable or meso-stable emulsions does not occur in highly viscous oils. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

284

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : stability and oil properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions were studied by examining the asphaltene and resin content of oils. The visco-elastic properties of 82 oils from Environment Canada`s Emergencies Science Division were also examined to determine which factors are responsible for the stability regimes. The stability of emulsions were grouped into three categories: (1) stable, (2) unstable, and (3) meso-stable. It was shown that there is a range of compositions and viscosities in which each type of water-in-oil state exists. It was also shown that the viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second is about three times greater than that of the starting oil. An unstable emulsion typically had a viscosity of 20 times greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion had pronounced elasticity, but an unstable emulsion did not. A meso-stable emulsion had properties between stable and unstable, but broke down after a few days of standing. It was concluded that the formation of both stable and meso-stable emulsions is due to the combination of surface-active forces from resins and asphaltenes from viscous forces. Only a small difference was detected between stable and meso-stable emulsions. Stable emulsions were found to have more asphaltenes and less resins and a narrow viscosity window. Instability results when the oil has either a high viscosity or a very low viscosity and when the resins and asphaltenes are less than about 3 per cent. In highly viscous oils, the migration of asphaltenes and resins is too low to permit droplet stabilization, therefore the formation of stable or meso-stable emulsions does not occur in highly viscous oils. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mullin, J. [Minerals Management Services, Herndon, VA (United States)

1998-09-01

285

Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

M.A. Plummer

2013-09-01

286

Persistence of crude oil spills on open water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of reports on oil spill incidents around the world was conducted. A Microsoft access database was then compiled in which spill information parameters were identified. These include general information about when and where the spill occurred, weather, sea conditions, oil properties and cleanup methods. The available information was assessed to determine statistically significant relationships between spill persistence, spill size and spill persistence factors. The objective was to identify links between dissipation times for spills and spill size. Another objective was to determine quantitative relationships between on-water spill persistence and associated environmental factors; physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil; and, response effort parameters. A mathematical description of the persistence of crude oil spills at sea was developed using historical spill data. The results are used by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) to estimate probable durations for spill trajectories in the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. This study also refined the spill-size/spill-persistence correlation in terms of other variables such as oil type, weather and sea conditions and spill type. Correlation analyses were conducted on 3 data sets, indicating the importance of different variables and their dependencies. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs

287

Effect of pressure on forward combustion by injecting air into light oil reservoir  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been performed at non isothermal conditions ramp of 5 degree C/min., for the purpose of extending data on forward combustion from 2069 KPa pressure to 6895 KPa with unconsolidated cores (sand pack) impregnated with light oil at representative conditions of the reservoir for air injection process. Forward combustion appears to be fuel dominated process where in peak temperature and combustion zone velocity are not very sensitive to changes in pressure. The moderate effect of pressure shows that most of the oxygen has been consumed upto 97% at 3585 KPa. However, at higher pressure 6895 KPa the consumption of oxygen was decreased upto 80%. With this provision, increasing the pressure decreases the frontal velocity and increases the peak temperature. To investigate the reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned by changing pressure as a parameter and to see the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, the apparent Hydrogen-Carbon ratio and the molar carbon oxides ratio were calculated. For further confirmation an Arrhenius plot was obtained by Relative reaction rate versus inverse of temperature, which also confirmed that at higher pressure low activation energy is required and vice versa. (author)

288

Numerical simulation of steam injection in bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs. Phase 1. Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sequential, iterative, fully implicit, one-dimensional, steamflood simulator is presented. The technique effectively divides the governing equations into two groups, which are iteratively solved in a sequential manner at each time step. It is shown that mass and energy balance errors can be maintained at extremely small levels using this technique. It is demonstrated in theory that for three-dimensional simulations of systems with several oil components, the sequential method potentially offers significant savings in computation time. However, this optimism is tempered with the observation that certain techniques which were used to speed the convergence of the one-dimensional simulator are likely to be considerably less successful in two and three dimensions. In the second part of the report, a procedure is presented by which the location of the steam front can be tracked with the purpose of improving the accuracy of the simulator. The velocity of the steam front, and several state variables at the steam front, are solved for directly from the governing equations. It is demonstrated that the front-tracking technique is able to reduce considerably spurious oscillations in state variables and injection rates as the steam front advances through the computational grid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the front-tracking technique displays smaller truncation errors than does the method without front-tracking.

DeBuda, P.G.; Cormack, D.E.

1987-02-05

289

Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2010-07-01

290

Prediction of the extent of formation damage caused by water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a general practice water is injected along the O/W contact to maintain reservoir pressure during production. Down hole analysis of the injected water shows that, even after surface treatment, it still can contain a considerable amount of solid particles. These particles can bridge formation pores and cause a considerable reduction in the injectivity. To ensure good injectivity over a longer term, the concentration and size of these solids should not exceed certain limits. In this article core flood tests were carried out to simulate high rate injectors. The injected brine contained solid particles in different concentrations and sizes. Particle concentration was between 5 and 20 ppm and the particle mean size was between 2 and 9 {mu}m. The results were presented as damaging ratio versus pore volume injected. Contrarily to previous studies instead of using experimental results in calibrating or evaluating certain theoretical models, the results in this study were directly fitted to produce equations which can predict the extent of damage caused by injected water by knowing the mean size and concentration of the solid particles contained in that water. (orig.)

Al-Homadhi, Emad S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

2013-06-15

291

Studies of water-in-oil emulsions: stability studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stability of water-in-oil emulsions was studied in three different oil samples, using rheological methods. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at the shear rate of one reciprocal second was found to be at least three orders of magnitude greater than the fresh oil. It also has significant elasticity. By contract, the viscosity of an unstable oil is less than one order of magnitude greater than the starting oil and has no significant elasticity. Mesostable oils (intermediate between stable and unstable) lack the stability of stable oils due to the presence of sufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Another reason might be that mesostable emulsions still contain too many destabilizing materials such as smaller aromatics which tend to dissolve the asphaltenes. When comparing viscometer readings, it was found that viscometers which do not apply controlled stress were not useful for characterizing unknown emulsions. Elasticity produces high viscosity readings and the high shear stress rate can break some emulsions producing unusually low readings. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs.

Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div.; Mullin, J. V. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States)

1997-10-01

292

Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is injected into the gas stream for the purpose of cooling the reaction products resulting from the stochiometric combustion of hydrogen with oxygen. The penetration of the jet decisively influences the temperature profile across the flow cross section in the water vapor. The penetration of the water jet into the stream is calculated using the jet shedding model and compared with the garden hose model. Models for the evaporation of water droplets in superheated steam are developed for calculating the evaporation paths. The parameters which influence the injection and evaporation process are subjected to variation and their effects in the evaporation paths are analyzed.

Beer, Stefan

1991-07-01

293

Lubrication mechanisms for oil-in-water Emulsions{copyright}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous analyses and experiments regarding emulsions have been conducted, and seemingly contradictory nations of remulsion behavior claimed. Theoretical approaches include plate-out, dynamic concentration and mixture theory. Experimental observers report great disparities in film thicknesses and film thickness dependence on emulsion properties such as base oil characteristics and process variables such as rolling speed. This paper surveys the published research and attempts to reconcile apparent contradictions from different researchers. Different lubrication mechanisms of oil-in-water emulsions are identified and described, all of which are highly dependent on speed effects. At low speeds, plate-out is found to be the chief lubricating mechanisms. As speed increases, the plated oil film is starved, leading to a decrease in film thickness. At even higher speeds, which are typical of most engineering applications, dynamic concentration of oil is the prevalent mechanism. Ultimately, mixture theory becomes useful at very high speeds. 36 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Schmid, S.R. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Wilson, W.R.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-02-01

294

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressurefor the Omani Oils for CO2 Injection EOR Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Oman there are still large remaining oil reserves that require implementation of Enhanced Oil Recovery processes such as CO2 injection, for light oil. CO2-Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP is the key parameter for the design and operations of successful CO2 flood. This study is based on developing a method of calculating the MMP for Omani oil reservoirs. Part-1 of the studyis the experimental work based on the Rising Bubble Apparatus (RBA measurement of MMP and part-2 is the examination of the existing models for MMP predictions and the adjustment of parameters for obtaining the most accurate predictions by the equation of state fluid PVT modeling simulator PVTPro5.2.1software. The RBA system set-up was successfully developed for the first time at Sultan Qaboos University. CO2 MMP measurements were carried out for three different oil samples using the RBA. For the RBA experiments, the PVTPro5.2.1 simulator was used to adjust the best setting parameters for CO2 MMP predictions. Very good agreement between the experimental MMP and the software predictions were achieved within the range of 2.27% error maximum. Moreover, some existing well-known models have been examined for CO2–Oil MMP predictions with the observed errors of up to 43.55%.

Khalid Al-Hinai

2014-04-01

295

Water transport across oil membranes and related phenomena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The many uses for emulsion liquid membranes (ELM) was discussed with particular reference to separation processes. Emulsion liquid membranes can be used to remove, recover and purify organic and inorganic compounds from dilute solutions of industrial interest. Swelling is one of the main challenges associated with ELMs, along with break-up during separation processes. The globules of water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) ELM swell because of the transfer of water from the external aqueous phase to the internal water droplets. This study examined the osmotic and isotonic swelling behaviours of the WOW emulsion globules. Induced osmotic water transport showed that water molecules from one side permeate through the oil membrane by surfactant facilitation, resulting in swelling of the aqueous phase on the other side. The study examined the effects of surfactant concentration, structural configuration of emulsion globules, pH and salt on the swelling behaviour. The study explained the mechanism of osmotic water transport. Isotonic swelling behaviour of agitated WOW emulsion globules were also studied. The main factors that influence isotonic swelling behaviour are also surfactant concentration, pH, salts, and mixing conditions. It was concluded that isotonic swelling is controlled by surfactant diffusion to the interface in cases where the surfactant sorbitan monooleate is used during the oil membrane phase.

Yan, J.

2004-07-01

296

Blowdown and cold water injection experiments: comparisons with the FIREBIRD-III and RELAP-5 codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermohydraulics computer codes FIREBIRD-III and RELAP-5 have been used to simulate a cold water injection experiment done at Washington Canada Incorporated and a blowdown plus injection experiment done in the RD-12 loop at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. The cold water injection experimental facility contains two parallel horizontal channels, each containing a 6-m long, 37-element electrically heated bundle. RD-12 is an integrated facility containing pumps, boilers and two electrically heated test sections. Parametric trands have been studied by simulaing several additional cold water injection experiments using FIREBIRD-III. The predictions of the two codes are compared to measurements. Overall, the predictions are reasonable, although some discrepancies occur

297

Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. PMID:25016300

Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

2014-10-15

298

Self-Driven One-Step Oil Removal from Oil Spill on Water via Selective-Wettability Steel Mesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine oil spills seriously endanger sea ecosystems and coastal environments, resulting in a loss of energy resources. Environmental and economic demands emphasize the need for new methods of effectively separating oil-water mixtures, while collecting oil content at the same time. A new surface-tension-driven, gravity-assisted, one-step, oil-water separation method is presented for sustained filtration and collection of oil from a floating spill. A benchtop prototype oil collection device uses selective-wettability (superhydrophobic and superoleophilic) stainless steel mesh that attracts the floating oil, simultaneously separating it from water and collecting it in a container, requiring no preseparation pumping or pouring. The collection efficiencies for oils with wide ranging kinematic viscosities (0.32-70.4 cSt at 40 °C) are above 94%, including motor oil and heavy mineral oil. The prototype device showed high stability and functionality over repeated use, and can be easily scaled for efficient cleanup of large oil spills on seawater. In addition, a brief consolidation of separation requirements for oil-water mixtures of various oil densities is presented to demonstrate the versatility of the material system developed herein. PMID:25329492

Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Lu, Yao; Bu, Xiangwei; Mates, Joseph E; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P; Xu, Wenji; Megaridis, Constantine M

2014-11-26

299

Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells  

Science.gov (United States)

A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

Vail, W.B. III.

1993-02-16

300

Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2005-09-15

 
 
 
 
301

Mechanics and upscaling of heavy oil bitumen recovery by steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoir method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In fractured reservoirs, heavy matrix oil recovery is a big challenge; the steam over solvent injection method was developed to enhance recovery. This method consists in three phases: steam is injected, then the solvent and finally steam again to recover more oil and retrieve the solvent. Previous studies have proved this method to be both technically feasible and economical but have not been able to determine the recovery mechanisms involved. Thus this study focused on identifying these mechanisms and efficient application conditions, using a numerical model and then performing an upscaling analysis. The results determined the asphaltene precipitation to be important to the process and showed that solvent mostly escape from the core in its gas form. In addition gravity was identified as controlling the process in the matrix and that it is enhanced by solvent diffusion. This research showed encouraging results and further studies should be undertaken to obtain a universal scaling relationship.

Singh, R.; Badadagli, T. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2011-01-15

302

Jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The jet mixing of water in crude oil pipelines by single nozzle and multi-nozzle mixers was studied by dividing the mixing domain into to three regions. the penetration. near field and farfield regions. At the penetration region the quantitative experimental data were aided by a flow visualisation study in an attempt to to form fundamental semi-empirical correlations to estimate the entrainment rate of stratified water from the bottom and the Sauter mean diameter of the e...

Fernando, L. M.

1990-01-01

303

Diverse bacteria isolated from microtherm oil-production water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In total, 435 pure bacterial strains were isolated from microtherm oil-production water from the Karamay Oilfield, Xinjiang, China, by using four media: oil-production water medium (Cai medium), oil-production water supplemented with mineral salt medium (CW medium), oil-production water supplemented with yeast extract medium (CY medium), and blood agar medium (X medium). The bacterial isolates were affiliated with 61 phylogenetic groups that belong to 32 genera in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Except for the Rhizobium, Dietzia, and Pseudomonas strains that were isolated using all the four media, using different media led to the isolation of bacteria with different functions. Similarly, nonheme diiron alkane monooxygenase genes (alkB/alkM) also clustered according to the isolation medium. Among the bacterial strains, more than 24 % of the isolates could use n-hexadecane as the sole carbon source for growth. For the first time, the alkane-degrading ability and alkB/alkM were detected in Rhizobium, Rhodobacter, Trichococcus, Micrococcus, Enterococcus, and Bavariicoccus strains, and the alkM gene was detected in Firmicutes strains. PMID:24318281

Sun, Ji-Quan; Xu, Lian; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Yan; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei

2014-02-01

304

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, Jose? L.

2009-01-01

305

Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

Juan Fernández-Bolaños

2009-05-01

306

Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 ?g/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 ?g/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

307

40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.  

Science.gov (United States)

...drinking water. (3) Radioactive waste disposal wells...connection with conventional oil or natural gas production...used for the purpose of oil or natural gas production...inject fluids into a non-oil or gas producing zone...fresh water; (11) Radioactive waste disposal...

2010-07-01

308

A study of water-in-oil emulsification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic mechanisms by which asphaltenes, resins, and waxes stabilize water-in-oil emulsions are examined. Experiments were conducted on the emulsification behavior of model oils which consisted of an alkane component, an aromatic component, and the emulsifying agents. Results from this study clearly demonstrate the importance that the physical state of an emulsifying agent has upon its ability to stabilize emulsions. It was found that to be effective emulsifiers, asphaltenes, resins, and waxes must be in the form of sub-micron particles. In addition, it was shown that the solvency strength of an oil, which is determined by its alkane and aromatic components, controls the solubility/precipitation behavior of these emulsifiers. The chemical composition of the oil determines not only the amount and size of precipitated particles, but also the composition and wetting properties of the particles. All these factors were found to have an influence upon emulsification. The potential application of a solubility model, using the Hildebrand-Scatchard equation, to predict the physicochemical conditions which favor water-in-oil emulsification, is discussed. Theories on various emulsification processes are also discussed in terms of mousse formation at sea. 52 refs., 46 figs., 1 tab

309

One-dimensional modeling of steam injection in tar sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-dimensional numeric model of steam injection was developed and used to simulate experimental steam and hot water injection in the Asphalt Ridge tar sands. The model described a 3-phase flow system of water, steam and oil with interphase mass transfer of water. The mass and energy balance equations were solved simultaneously by a semi-implicit Sequential Solution method. The results of the linear numeric simulator showed moderate agreement with the observed results from the steam and hot water injection experiments. The simulator predicted that (1) changes in relative permeability, thermal expansion coefficient of oil and oil viscosity are important factors affecting oil recovery from tar sands, and (2) the oil response time is decreased with increasing steam injection rate and quality, and is decreased by reducing steam injection temperature. 22 references.

Chen, C.S.; Hutchinson, H.L.

1983-01-01

310

26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (i) Waterflooding—The injection of water into an oil reservoir...producing well; (ii) Cyclic gas injection—The increase or maintenance of pressure by injection of hydrocarbon gas into the reservoir from...

2010-04-01

311

Measurement of fluid velocities during water injection into natural porous rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to measure flow velocities in Casper sandstone and San Andres dolomite. The cores are initially saturated with water, and the flow velocities are monitored during water injection. Such results are useful in determining how much of a core is contracted during a coreflood experiment

312

Bacterial Swimming at Air/Water and Oil/Water Interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbes inhabiting the planet over billions of years have adapted to diverse physical environments of water, soil, and interfaces between water and either solid or air. Following recent studies on bacterial swimming and accumulation near solid surfaces, we turn our attention to the behavior of Caulobacter crescentus, a singly flagellated bacterium, at water/air and water/oil interfaces. The latter is motivated by relevance to microbial degradation of crude oil in light of the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Our ongoing study suggests that Caulobacter swarmer cells tend to get physically trapped at both water/air and water/oil interfaces, accumulating at the surface to a greater degree than boundary confinement properties like that of solid surfaces would predict. At the water/air interface, swimmers move in tight circles at half the speed of swimmers in the bulk fluid. At the water/oil interface, swimming circles are even tighter with further reduced swimming speed. We report experimental data and present preliminary analysis of the findings based on low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, the known surface tension, and surface viscosity at the interface. The analysis will help determine properties of the bacterium such as their surface charge and hydrophobicity.

Morse, Michael; Huang, Athena; Li, Guanglai; Tang, Jay

2012-02-01

313

The estimation of oil water displacement functions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of t [...] he equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefore, the estimation problem is carried out over a set of parameters which are functions. The parameter is inferred from measurements of saturation at different spatial points as a function of time. The estimation procedure is carried out linearizing the solution of the direct model with respect to the parameter and then computing the least-squares solution in functional spaces. The sensitivity equations are derived. We test the algorithm with several numerical experiments.

G. B., Savioli; E. M., Fernández-Berdaguer.

2007-09-01

314

The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, usage of methyl ester obtained from waste frying oil (WFO) is examined as an experimental material. A reactor was designed and installed for production of methyl ester from this kind of oil. Physical and chemical properties of methyl ester were determined in the laboratory. The methyl ester was tested in a diesel engine with turbocharged, four cylinders and direct injection. Gathered results were compared with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine tests results obtained with the aim of comparison from the measures of torque, power; specific fuel consumptions are nearly the same. In addition, amount of emission such as CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and smoke darkness of waste frying oils are less than No. 2 diesel fuel. (author)

Utlu, Zafer [Education-Teaching Department, Guelhane Military Academy, TR-34668 Istanbul (Turkey); Kocak, Mevluet Suereyya [Automotive Sciences Department, Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College, 10110 Balikesir (Turkey)

2008-08-15

315

Radiolytic reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III) in water and water-in oil microemulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to investigate the reduction of NaAuCl4 in water and water-in-oil micro emulsion. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of hydrated electrons with Au3+ was determined in water-in-oil micro emulsion. Gold colloid formation has been formed when water is being used as the medium and gelatin as stabilizer. In micro emulsion gold colloid has not been observed up to a dose of 3.6 kGy. (author)

316

The visibility and detectability of oil slicks and oil discharges on water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature on the visibility of oil slicks and oil discharges on water are reviewed. Except for some work done recently, the literature on oil slick visibility is very old, dating back to the early part of this century. Considerable differences were found between recent experiments and some of the older thickness-visibility relationship tables. This finding was attributed to the the fact that evaporation and inhomogeneity of the slick were ignored in the early studies. Literature on the visibility of oil discharges was also reviewed and compared to slick visibility results. Some correlation was achieved in converting discharge to approximate slick thickness. A new correlation table relating wind speed and vessel discharge speed wth the visibility threshold is also presented. Overall, the data indicated that the minimum visible threshold for discharge is about 100 ppm oil in water, except for a calm situation at two knots where it may be as little as 50 ppm. Data collected on remote sensing thresholds showed that the thresholds could be lowered somewhat by both video and traditional photography. 33 refs., 6 tabs

317

Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly decrease the amount of some emulsifier that is normally involved in every emulsification process. A central composite rotatable experimental design was implemented to analyze the impact of the contents of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and pumpkin seed oil in the continuous phase, as well as water phase content in the emulsion on droplet size distribution and the response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal conditions for water-in-oil emulsion preparation. Mean size diameter of water droplets was in a range from 400 to 850 nm, with mean peak width of 100 to 220 nm, respectively. The influence of all three investigated factors on the emulsification was determined. Additionally, the emulsions prepared with pumpkin seed oil showed a higher stability during the storage time compared to the emulsions with sunflower oil.

Nikolovski Branislava G.

2011-01-01

318

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 ?m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with s...

Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Ka?re; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1994-01-01

319

Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign

320

Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

 
 
 
 
321

Membrane technology to improve water management in oil sands operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of a bench-scale experiment designed to improve water management in oil sands processing using a membrane technology. The study addressed the following two aspects of water management: (1) reducing the hardness of water used in technological processes, and (2) reducing the toxicity in effluent streams caused by the presence of naphthenic acids. Both issues were also addressed through the evaluation of a membrane separation process called nanofiltration. The primary focus of this study was to choose an appropriate membrane and to determine its subsequent ability to reduce the hardness from groundwater and remove naphthenic acids from discharge water. The study revealed that nanofiltration technology is a good water management tool in oil sands operations. Membrane filtration managed to reduce water hardness significantly. A high napthenic acid removal efficiency (up to 94 per cent) was noted for both synthetic solutions and actual water samples. Permeate flux was also maintained at a high level of 15 litres per square metre per hour or more. A 90 per cent water recovery was obtained by reducing the feed volume by 10 fold. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

322

Thermodynamic behavior of nitrogen gas used in pressurized water reactor boron injection tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The boron injection tank (BIT) of a pressurized water reactor safety system is filled with borated water and pressurized by a nitrogen blanket. Accurate evaluation of the gas polytropic index (n) during the injection process is important to assure required flow from such tanks. An experimental setup simulating a typical BIT system was built and used to evaluate n of the gas under different test conditions. When the N2 regulator valve was left open, n at the end of the injection process was much lower than 1.0. For the conservative situation with a closed N2 regulator valve, however, n was close to 1.0 under all test conditions. Test duration, which was a strong function of initial gas properties and gas expansion rate, had a noticeable effect on n at the endpoint. Although heat transfer from tank walls had a minor effec at the endpoint, its effect on n after time t from starting injection was noticeable

323

Cold Water Injection Into Single- and Two-Phase Geothermal Reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximate analytical solutions are derived for cold water injection into single- and two-phase "porous medium" geothermal reservoirs. A numerical geothermal reservoir simulator is used to verify the applicability of the analytical solutions for pressure transient analysis. In accordance with these numerical results the analytical solutions indicate that the pressure buildup behavior during injection into either a single-phase liquid or two-phase reservoir is governed by the kinematic viscosity of the cold injected fluid. The falloff pressures after cold water injection into a single-phase liquid reservoir (except for very early shut-in times) are primarily controlled by the kinematic viscosity of the in situ (hot) reservoir fluid. For two-phase reservoirs, however, the falloff behavior is considerably more complex and cannot be fully described by the analytical solution developed in this paper.

Garg, S. K.; Pritchett, J. W.

1990-02-01

324

Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

325

A study of gas turbine power augmentation by water and steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much of Sudan's electricity demands are met by gas turbines in open-cycle power plants or combined-cycle plants. Gas turbines operating under hot climatic conditions produce less power than their design capacity, and also consume more fuel. Sudan's National Electricity Corporation (NEC) could gain additional megawatts from existing gas turbines if it were to use gas-turbine power-augmentation method such as inlet-air cooling or water/steam injection. This additional capacity would be made available at a fraction of the cost of installing new generation plants. This paper presented a thermodynamic analysis which compared the effects of water and steam injection on the power and thermal efficiency of a gas-turbine. Although water injection increased the turbine's power at the expense of decreasing its efficiency, steam injection increased both the gas turbine's generation capacity and its thermal efficiency. In order to gain the maximum benefit from steam injection, steam must be injected at the highest temperature possible in order to maximize the efficiency of the gas turbine. The computed results also showed that it is more advantageous to keep the fuel-consumption constant during the initial stage of steam injection, thereby allowing the combustion temperature to slightly decrease. The turbine load increases during that initial stage. However, in order to increase the load beyond that point, more fuel should be injected at the maximum rate of steam injection until the maximum allowable load is reached. 12 refs., 5 figs.

El-Awad, M.M.; Abdalla, K.N.; Abdalla, S.A. [Khartoum Univ., Khartoum (Sudan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2007-07-01

326

Radiative shielding by water mist: comparisons between downward, upward and impacting injection of droplets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiative shielding with water curtain has been studied numerically, investigating three different possibilities of droplet injection: downward, upward and impacting on a wall to be protected. The efficiency has been evaluated based on radiation attenuation predicted considering a given incident flux attenuated when crossing the area where water is injected. For upward and downward injection, a simple water curtain is considered. For the impacting spray case, a water film streaming on the wall is considered in addition to the spray (an idealized film with constant and fixed thickness for the moment). The dynamics has been imported from an Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation and radiative transfer has been addressed with a Monte Carlo method. Results show that the upward injection performs better than the downward injection due to a favoring dynamics that increases the residence time of droplets. The impacting spray could be even more efficient owing to the possible high attenuation efficiency of films, but present results still make use of simplifications on the water film falling on the wall and present promising observations require further verification.

327

Evaluation of fast-water oil recovery equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The containment and cleanup of spills in water carrying a current of more than 1 knot was discussed to examine ways to improve response capabilities of the Coast Guard and commercial response organizations. The impetus for this study was the fact that 70 per cent of all oil transported on U.S. waterways occurs in such waters where oil spills are difficult to control and recover. In addition, approximately 58 per cent of all of the oil spilled by volume between 1992 and 1997 in the United States occurred in fast-waters. This paper describes work in which five contracts were awarded under a Broad Agency Announcement to address fast-water issues in 1999. This was followed by the performance of five sets of tests at Ohmsett during the summer of 2000 to obtain data. The evaluations included a prototype rope mop system, sheet absorbents, flow diverters, modifications to the U.S. Coast Guard's High Speed Skimmer (HSS) and measurement of towing forces on diversion booms. This paper described each piece of prototype equipment along with its test setup and presented the results of the tests. The data on the JBF skimmer will help the United States Coast Guard to fine-tune their equipment. The flow diverters provide a tool that can control oil on the surface of the water without the use of vessels. The ZRV Rope Mop system has improved on the existing equipment. Sheet sorbent booms might have a place for polishing the waterway during a spill. The data collected for the towing forces on diversion booms can be used by responders for boom deployments. Skimmer manufacturers can also use the information to help design booms. It was suggested that this type of effort to acquire data should continue to ensure that safe and reliable equipment is available to respond to spills in fast-waters. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 24 figs.

Hansen, K.A. [United States Coast Guard, Groton, CT (United States); DeVitis, D. [Mar Inc., Atlantic Highlands, NJ (United States); Ellis, S. [Ro-Clean Desmi, Norfolk, VA (United States); Potter, S. [SL Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Coe, T. [CSC Advanced Marine, Arlington, VA (United States)

2001-07-01

328

Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

Somsel, James P.

1998-01-01

329

Reproductive performance of mice after injection of tritiated water at different embryonic developmental stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mice dams injected with 5 MBq tritiated water (HTO)/g body-weight on gestation day 9 delivered offspring with reduced reproductive performance. The present study examines the fertility of offspring related to the prenatal injection day and the preantal dose of HTO. Other than the prenatal dose, the manner in which dose rates interfere sensitive developmental stages is also decisive in the reproductive performance. This main conclusion of the present study is supported by comparative data. (orig./MG)

330

Hebei Spirit oil spill monitored on site by fluorometric detection of residual oil in coastal waters off Taean, Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatiotemporal distributions of dissolved and/or dispersed oil in seawater and pore water were monitored on site by fluorometric detection method after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The oil concentrations in intertidal seawater, 15 days after the spill, were as high as 16,600 microg/L and appeared to decrease below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 microg/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. Fluorometric detection of oil in pore water was introduced to eliminate the effects of grain size for the quantification of oil in sediments and to better explain spatial and temporal distribution of oil pollution at sandy beaches. The fluorescence detection method was compared with the conventional laboratory technique of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis using gas chromatography. The method of fluorescence detection of oil was capable of generating results much faster and more cost-effectively than the traditional GC technique. PMID:19942234

Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Hyun-Woo; An, Joongeon; Won, Jongho; Shim, Won Joon

2010-03-01

331

Toxicity of oil shale waste waters to marine algae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioassays using Nitzschia closterium, a common Great Barrer Reef diatom, were carried out on Fischer Assay-produced retort waters and leachates of oil shale, spent shale and ashed shale. The abilities of spent and ashed shale and activated charcoal to remove the toxic components of retort water were also studied. Untreated retort waters were highly toxic to Nitzschia, growth being inhibited by concentrations as low as 0.01% (100 ppm) of retort water in seawater. A large fraction of this toxicity can be eliminated by stripping the retort water with nitrogen or steam to remove ammonia and other volatile bases. The application of chemical classification schemes showed that most toxicity resided in the hydrophilic base fraction, with a smaller fraction being in the hydrophilic and hydrophobic acid fractions. Measurement of the toxicities of a large number of model compounds indicated that ammonia and aliphatic acids are the main toxic components of retort waters. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Mann, K.; Florence, M.

1987-03-01

332

The risk of surface water contamination by oil products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the surface water contamination by oil substances in forest. The usage of forest mechanisms for felling, loading, and wood transportation belong to the activities which affect small but long-term natural environment contamination caused by mineral oil substances. These substances impact negatively on all components of the forest ecosystem. The oil substances were determined as non-polar extractable substances (NES by spectrophotometric method in infrared spectrum. The progress of NES concentrations and harvest intensity in all sampled locations shows evident connection with harvest intensity and season of the year. We tested biodegradability of selected petroleum products for better understanding the interaction of hydrocarbons in forest ecosystem.

Samešová Dagmar

2013-01-01

333

Water-in-oil emulsions: formation and prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formation process of water-in-oil emulsion was discussed in this work. A number of numerical models that describe this process were presented, and a new scheme was developed. The objective of this study is to generate an emulsion stability index, based on oil properties, to be used in optimizing a new scheme for emulsion formation. Tests and numerical modeling of previous efforts were presented, and the effects of oil properties such as viscosity, asphaltene content, and resin content, were discussed. Based on experimental data and previous modeling schemes, a set of new empirical equations were generated and recommended for modeling emulsion formation. In general, emulsion stability exhibited four different behaviors: stable, meso-stable, entrained, and unstable. Moreover, it was shown that emulsion formation mainly depends on viscosity and asphaltene and resin fractions. Based on these three properties, the regression equation for the stability index was generated, thereby making mixture formation and prediction more accurate.

Fingas, Merv F. [Spill Science (Canada)], email: fingasmerv@shaw.ca; Fieldhouse, Ben [Emergency Science and Technology Division, Environment Canada (Canada)], email: ben.fieldhouse@ec.gc.ca

2011-07-01

334

A guide to contingency planning for oil spills on water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An oil spill contingency plan should comprise: a strategy section, which should describe the scope of the plan, including the geographical coverage, perceived risks, division of responsibilities and role of authorities and the proposed response strategy; an action and operations section, which should set out the emergency procedures that will allow rapid mobilization of resources and an early response to the situation; and a data directory, which should contain all relevant maps, lists and data sheets required to assess an oil spill situation and conduct the response according to an agreed strategy. This guide aims to assist industry and governments in the preparation of such plans. It focuses on oil spills on water, primarily from ships or during transfer operations, but also contains information relevant to spills from exploration and production activities. It sets out an industry consensus and highlights the elements that together make up a comprehensive plan. It is not exhaustive in detail. (author)

335

Controlling water risks in extra heavy oil environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a major operator of the Orinco Belt in Venezuela, Sincor produces 8.5 API extra heavy oil (EHO) with a viscosity of 2500 cP at reservoir conditions. The oil occurs in a fluvio-deltaic geologic environment with high sand content, very good permeability and a large regional aquifer. The aquifer was initially identified as a major risk for both production and reserves because of extreme viscosity contrasts. This presentation demonstrated how phased development along with a comprehensive monitoring policy lead to a better understanding of the behavior of EHO crude in an unfavorable environment. Sincor was able to adapt its development plan to better control the risks associated with the aquifer. The first development phase has been completed and includes more than 300 horizontal wells. Sincor currently produces 200,000 bbl of EHO per day. The EHO is upgraded in Venezuela to market high quality 32 API synthetic crude oil. In preparation for the second development phase, this study examined the main lessons learned about the aquifer risk. Water entry during the first development phase was found to be very local in the wells. The risk of water interference between wells in the same sand was high, and wells accumulated large volumes of EHO after water breakthrough. Water banking at the well level was one of the specific characteristics of this EHO field that was observed by monitoring these wet wells. Other characteristics included a relationship between liquid rate and water cut. The acquired data allowed for partial quantification of aquifer strength. A production policy was implemented to allow for optimized production potential and reserves of existing wet wells. In order to maximize reserves, water handling capacity was adjusted with time. The future drilling sequence will consider planned modifications to water handling capacity as well as risks of water interference.

Le Parc, G.; Vincent, G.; Ichbia, J.M. [Total, Caracas (Venezuela); Pereira, E. [Sincor, Caracas (Venezuela); Johannesen, A. [Statoil, Caracas (Venezuela)

2006-07-01

336

A water-in-oil emulsion containing Kelex-100 for the speciation analysis of trace heavy metals in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion containing Kelex-100 (7-dodecenyl-8-quinolinol) and Span-80 (sorbitan monooleate, non-ionic surfactant) was ultrasonically prepared from 1.0 mol l-1 hydrochloric acid and a (1 + 3) mixture of toluene and n-heptane. The resulting emulsion was gradually injected into water sample and dispersed as numerous tiny globules (0.01-0.1 mm in diameter). Dissolved inorganic species (free metal species) of heavy metals (e.g., Fe, Co, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were selectively transported through the oil layer into the internal aqueous phase of the emulsion, leaving other species, such as humic complexes and suspended particles (larger than 1 ?m), in the sample solution. After collecting the dispersed emulsion globules, they were demulsified and the heavy metals in the segregated aqueous phase were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The emulsion-based separation method allowed the selective collection of free metal species with a high concentration factor of 100, whereas the conventional solvent extraction did not offer such discrimination. This unique property of the emulsion method was successfully applied to the selective determination of free species of heavy metals in fresh water samples

337

A water-in-oil emulsion containing Kelex-100 for the speciation analysis of trace heavy metals in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion containing Kelex-100 (7-dodecenyl-8-quinolinol) and Span-80 (sorbitan monooleate, non-ionic surfactant) was ultrasonically prepared from 1.0 mol l{sup -1} hydrochloric acid and a (1 + 3) mixture of toluene and n-heptane. The resulting emulsion was gradually injected into water sample and dispersed as numerous tiny globules (0.01-0.1 mm in diameter). Dissolved inorganic species (free metal species) of heavy metals (e.g., Fe, Co, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were selectively transported through the oil layer into the internal aqueous phase of the emulsion, leaving other species, such as humic complexes and suspended particles (larger than 1 {mu}m), in the sample solution. After collecting the dispersed emulsion globules, they were demulsified and the heavy metals in the segregated aqueous phase were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The emulsion-based separation method allowed the selective collection of free metal species with a high concentration factor of 100, whereas the conventional solvent extraction did not offer such discrimination. This unique property of the emulsion method was successfully applied to the selective determination of free species of heavy metals in fresh water samples.

Matsumiya, Hiroaki [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: h-matsu@numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ohkouchi, Ryohei [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hiraide, Masataka [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

2006-01-25

338

Oil spill trajectory analysis for US coastal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under Section 4111(b)(7) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), the US Coast Guard must evaluate whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be designated as zones where the movement of tankers should be limited or prohibited. The legislative history of OPA 90 specifies that the open-quotes tanker-free zoneclose quotes evaluation should particularly include areas where oil and gas leasing, exploration, or development are presently prohibited by legislative action. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the Coast Guard have combined efforts to provide offshore oil spill trajectory estimates in support of that evaluation. Multiple runs of the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model were used to characterize potential movements of tanker oil spills in US coastal waters off the east and west coasts and in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The mapped locations of 220 sensitive environmental resources were provided for the analysis by coastal academic institutions under subcontract to the Coast Guard. More than 3 million oil-spill trajectories were simulated in a stochastic analysis over all seasons. The modeled spills were moved in increments of 3 hours for up to 30 days at sea, based on a suite of wind and oceanographic data and models. Trajectory results from multiple spill sites offshore are expressed as mapped open-quotes risk contoursclose quotes showing the chance of seasonal contacts with coastal resources, assuming spill occurrence. Eal resources, assuming spill occurrence. Examples of the information used and the results of the simulations are shown

339

Purification of trona ores by conditioning with an oil-in-water emulsion  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is a trona concentrate and a process for floating gangue material from trona ore that comprises forming an emulsion, conditioning the trona ore at a high solids content in a saturated trona suspension, and then floating and removing the gangue material. The process for separating trona from gangue materials in trona ore can include emulsifying an oil in an aqueous solution to form an oil-in-water emulsion. A saturated trona suspension having a high solids content can also be formed having trona of a desired particle size. The undissolved trona in the saturated suspension can be conditioned by mixing the saturated suspension and the oil-in-water emulsion to form a conditioning solid suspension of trona and gangue material. A gas can be injected through the conditioning solid suspension to float the gangue material. Thus, the floated gangue material can be readily separated from the trona to form a purified trona concentrate without requirements of additional heat or other expensive processing steps.

Miller, J. D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

2009-04-14

340

SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

Perkins, H. C.

1974-01-01

342

Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-12-31

343

Novel preparation method for sustained-release PLGA microspheres using water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic-oil-in-water emulsion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xiaoyun Hong,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Liuqing Ma,2 Yinghui Chen,4 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2,* 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 3Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology, Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future. Keywords: protein, microspheres, water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water emulsion, sustained-release

Hong X

2013-07-01

344

Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of...

Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani; Mozhgan Emtyazjoo; Parinaz Poursafa; Sedigheh Mehrabian; Samira Bijani; Daryoush Farkhani; Parisa Mirmoghtadaee

2012-01-01

345

Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

Abdurahman H. Nour

2008-01-01

346

Archaeoglobus fulgidus isolated from hot north sea oil field waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75[degrees]C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 [mu]m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85[degrees]C with an optimum of 76[degrees]C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H[sub 2] were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO[sub 2]. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F[sub 420] was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil fields waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85[degrees]C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. 37 refs., 2 figs.

Beeder, J.; Nilsen, R.K.; Rosnes, J.T. Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. (Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway))

1994-04-01

347

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75 degrees C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 mum wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85 degrees C with an optimum of 76 degrees C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H(2) were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO(2). The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO(2) via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F(420) was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85 degrees C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. PMID:16349231

Beeder, J; Nilsen, R K; Rosnes, J T; Torsvik, T; Lien, T

1994-04-01

348

Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

R. Bhaskar Reddy

2014-08-01

349

Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

Schilling, Frank R.

2014-05-01

350

Shale oil from the LLNL pilot retort: Metal ions as markers for water and dust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A metal ion found primarily in one of the three phases (oil, water, or dust) can serve as a marker for that phase. Emulsified water contains most of the magnesium detected in a shale oil. Extraction with saturated salt solution removes most of that Mg. The Mg content of retort water and the percentage of water in the oil (by ASTM D-4006) provides a good estimate of an oil`s Mg content. Mineral matter elements with poorly water soluble carbonates (or oxides) at pH 8 (calcium, for example) serve as markers for dust. When the water is separated from the main and light oil fractions before adding the heavy fraction containing dust, a much drier oil can be obtained. However, when done in this way, a powder containing Ca and Si remains in the oil; it cannot be completely removed even by filtering through a 0.24-{mu} frit. Iron, and certain other transition metal ions, is quite oil soluble. Extraction with dilute nitric acid to remove basic amines reduces the Fe content of shale oil. Unlike carboxylate- complexed metal ions in crude oils, the iron in shale oil does not extract efficiently into an aqueous EDTA solution (pH 5.9). Distillation of shale oil leaves most of the iron and other metals behind in the vacuum residum. Shale oil corrodes the hottest condenser`s steel interior; this is the chief source of iron in the oil.

Coburn, T.T.; Duewer, T.I.; King, K.J.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

1993-12-31

351

Direct ?-flow injection isotope dilution ICP-MS for the determination of heavy metals in oil samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of trace elements in oil samples and their products is of high interest as their presence significantly affects refinery processes and the environment by possible impact of their combustion products. In this context, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) plays an important role due to its outstanding analytical properties in the quantification of trace elements. In this work, we present the accurate and precise determination of selected heavy metals in oil samples by making use of the combination of ?-flow direct injection and isotope dilution ICP-MS (ICP-IDMS). Spike solutions of 62Ni, 97Mo, 117Sn and 206Pb were prepared in an organic solvent, mixed directly with the diluted oil samples and tested to be fit for purpose for the intended ID approach. The analysis of real samples revealed strong matrix effects affecting the ICP-MS sensitivity, but not the isotope ratio measurements, so that accurate results are obtained by ICP-IDMS. Typical relative standard deviations were about 15% for peak area and peak height measurements, whereas the isotope ratios were not significantly affected (RSD < 2%). The developed method was validated by the analysis of a metallo-organic multi-element standard (SCP-21, typically applied as a calibration standard) and the standard reference material SRM1084a (wear metals in lubricating oil). The obtained results were in excellent agreement with the certified values (recoveries between 98% and 102%), so the proposed methodology of combining ?-flow direct injection and ICP-IDMS can be regarded as a new tool for the matrix-independent, multi-element and reliable determination of trace elements in oil and related organic liquids. (orig.)

352

Direct {mu}-flow injection isotope dilution ICP-MS for the determination of heavy metals in oil samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The determination of trace elements in oil samples and their products is of high interest as their presence significantly affects refinery processes and the environment by possible impact of their combustion products. In this context, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) plays an important role due to its outstanding analytical properties in the quantification of trace elements. In this work, we present the accurate and precise determination of selected heavy metals in oil samples by making use of the combination of {mu}-flow direct injection and isotope dilution ICP-MS (ICP-IDMS). Spike solutions of {sup 62}Ni, {sup 97}Mo, {sup 117}Sn and {sup 206}Pb were prepared in an organic solvent, mixed directly with the diluted oil samples and tested to be fit for purpose for the intended ID approach. The analysis of real samples revealed strong matrix effects affecting the ICP-MS sensitivity, but not the isotope ratio measurements, so that accurate results are obtained by ICP-IDMS. Typical relative standard deviations were about 15% for peak area and peak height measurements, whereas the isotope ratios were not significantly affected (RSD < 2%). The developed method was validated by the analysis of a metallo-organic multi-element standard (SCP-21, typically applied as a calibration standard) and the standard reference material SRM1084a (wear metals in lubricating oil). The obtained results were in excellent agreement with the certified values (recoveries between 98% and 102%), so the proposed methodology of combining {mu}-flow direct injection and ICP-IDMS can be regarded as a new tool for the matrix-independent, multi-element and reliable determination of trace elements in oil and related organic liquids. (orig.)

Bettmer, Joerg; Kutscher, Daniel J.; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain); Heilmann, Jens; Heumann, Klaus G. [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

2012-01-15

353

A versatile approach to produce superhydrophobic materials used for oil-water separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing functional materials that can be used for oil-water separation in an efficient and cost-effective process is highly desired yet still challenging. Herein, three functional materials used for oil-water separation are readily produced by a dip coating process. Three typical porous materials including copper mesh, fabric, and sponge were dipped into the solution of polyfluorowax-hydrophobic SiO2 to alter their surface texture and chemistry, allowing them to exhibit superhydrophobic property. It was found that the resulting superhydrophobic copper mesh and fabric can be used as a membrane to separate oil-water mixture efficiency; while the obtained superhydrophobic sponge was demonstrated as an oil sorbent scaffold to absorb oil from the oil-water mixture selectively. More importantly, these superhydrophobic materials can retain their oil-water separation efficiency even after 10 cycles of oil-water separation. PMID:25086383

Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xue, Qunji

2014-10-15

354

Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min{sup -1} speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min{sup -1} speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively. (author)

Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

2009-03-15

355

Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of a...

Hald, Jens; Ko?nig, Ralf; Benes, Ewald; Gro?schl, Martin

2010-01-01

356

Thermal-neutron fluxes in glycerin, base oil and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal-neutron fluxes produced in water, glycerin or base oil by two isotopic sources, 1 Ci (Am-Be) and 1.07 mCi (252Cf), used in turn, were measured by Au-foil activation. Activities produced in bare and cadmium-covered foils were determined with a 3 in.X3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. (orig.)

357

Thermal-neutron fluxes in glycerin, base oil and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal-neutron fluxes produced in water, glycerin or base oil by two isotopic sources, 1 Ci (Am-Be) and 1.07 mCi ({sup 252}Cf), used in turn, were measured by Au-foil activation. Activities produced in bare and cadmium-covered foils were determined with a 3 in.X3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. (orig.).

Raoof, M.A.; Al-Soraya, A.M. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics); Al-Horayess, O.S. (King Abdul Aziz City of Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1990-05-01

358

Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufacturing of products like ice cream. butter and whipped toppings partial coalescence is required to achieve the desired product properties. It contributes to the structure formation, the physicochem...

Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.

2010-01-01

359

Efecto de la inyección de vapor sobre la composición de crudos / Effects of steam injection on chemical composition of oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de conocer los cambios en la composición SARA (saturados, aromáticos, resinas y asfaltenos), elementos mayoritarios (C, S), traza (V, Ni), grupos funcionales en la fracción de asfaltenos y biomarcadores (terpanos y esteranos) en crudos de pozos sometidos a inyección de vapor, se est [...] udiaron 20 muestras provenientes de Campo Lagunillas (Cuenca de Maracaibo) tomadas de un pozo sin inyección de vapor (LS-SE), dos pozos en un primer ciclo (LS-A, LS-B) y un pozo en segundo ciclo (LS-C) de inyección de vapor. Los crudos analizados son extra-pesados ( Abstract in english In order to know the changes in SARA composition (saturated, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes), major (C, S), trace (V, Ni) elements, functional groups in the asphaltenes fraction and biomarkers (terpanes and steranes) in oils from wells under steam injection, 20 samples were studied from Lagunilla [...] s field (Maracaibo Basin) taken from a well without stem injection (LS-SE), two wells in a first cycle (LS-A, LS- B), and a well in the second cycle (LS-C) of steam injection. Oils analyzed are extra heavy ones (

Liliana, López; Karla, Quintero; Patricia, Lugo; Salvador, Lo Mónaco.

360

Efecto de la inyección de vapor sobre la composición de crudos / Effects of steam injection on chemical composition of oils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de conocer los cambios en la composición SARA (saturados, aromáticos, resinas y asfaltenos), elementos mayoritarios (C, S), traza (V, Ni), grupos funcionales en la fracción de asfaltenos y biomarcadores (terpanos y esteranos) en crudos de pozos sometidos a inyección de vapor, se est [...] udiaron 20 muestras provenientes de Campo Lagunillas (Cuenca de Maracaibo) tomadas de un pozo sin inyección de vapor (LS-SE), dos pozos en un primer ciclo (LS-A, LS-B) y un pozo en segundo ciclo (LS-C) de inyección de vapor. Los crudos analizados son extra-pesados ( Abstract in english In order to know the changes in SARA composition (saturated, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes), major (C, S), trace (V, Ni) elements, functional groups in the asphaltenes fraction and biomarkers (terpanes and steranes) in oils from wells under steam injection, 20 samples were studied from Lagunilla [...] s field (Maracaibo Basin) taken from a well without stem injection (LS-SE), two wells in a first cycle (LS-A, LS- B), and a well in the second cycle (LS-C) of steam injection. Oils analyzed are extra heavy ones (

Liliana, López; Karla, Quintero; Patricia, Lugo; Salvador, Lo Mónaco.

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Inhibition of ?-carotene degradation in oil-in-water nanoemulsions: influence of oil-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilisation of carotenoids as functional ingredients (pigments and nutraceuticals) in many food and beverage products is currently limited because of their poor water-solubility, high melting point, chemical instability, and low bioavailability. This study examined the impact of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of ?-carotene encapsulated within nanoemulsions suitable for oral ingestion. ?-Carotene was incorporated into oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by either a globular protein (?-lactoglobulin) or a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20). Nanoemulsions were then stored at neutral pH and their physical and chemical stability were monitored under accelerated stress storage conditions (55°C). ?-Carotene degradation was monitored non-destructively using colour reflectance measurements. The rate of ?-carotene degradation decreased upon addition of water-soluble (EDTA and ascorbic acid) or oil-soluble (vitamin E acetate or Coenzyme Q10) antioxidants. EDTA was more effective than ascorbic acid, and Coenzyme Q10 was more effective than vitamin E acetate. The utilisation of water-soluble and oil-soluble antioxidants in combination (EDTA and vitamin E acetate) was less effective than using them individually. Emulsions stabilized by ?-lactoglobulin were more stable to colour fading than those stabilized by Tween 20. These results provide useful information for designing effective nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that retard the chemical degradation of encapsulated carotenoids during long term storage. PMID:22953821

Qian, Cheng; Decker, Eric Andrew; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

2012-12-01

362

Radiation-thermal purification of waste water from oil pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: During the extraction, preparation, transportation and refining of oil the sewages containing oil contaminations are produced. The concentration of oil content in the water depends on used technology and may vary from a thousandths parts up to tens percents. There is a necessity of cleaning this pollution up to a permissible level. There are numerous methods (adsorption, mechanical, chemical and etc) of treating of waster water from oil contaminations. Radiation-chemical method is one of the effective among the above mentioned methods. The results of radiation-thermal decomposition of n-heptane micro-admixtures in water medium are adduced. The main parameters of radiolysis change within the intervals: temperature 20-400oC, absorbed dose - 0†10.8 kGy at dose rate 3.6 kGy/h. The correlation of n-heptane concentration and water steam changed within [C5H12]/[H2O] (1-100) 10-5. Total concentration of steam was about 1020 molec/ml. As a product of decomposition are observed H2, CO, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C4H8, hydrocarbons C5, and C6. The changes of n-heptane concentration in the reactor also were established. The chain regime of n-heptane decomposition at high temperatures in the irradiated mixture is observed. The critical value of temperature and mixture ratio of components, under which the break of chain process of normal n-heptane occurs are defined. The mechanisms of proceeding radiation thermal processes in hydrocarbons-water system are discussed. At the temperatures higher than 300oC the radiation-thermal decompositions of hydrocarbon micro-impurities in water into gas products occurs according a chain mechanism and the radiation-chemical yield of the decomposition exceeds 100 molec/100eV. This method can be used for purification of sewages from oil contaminations

363

Clear well physical water treatment technology for the oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deposits of various types are common problems associated with oil and gas production. Deposits of scale, paraffin can block tubing, cause pumps to stick and clog valves and chokes. The expense and widespread occurrence of deposition problems have resulted in the development of a variety of treatment options which have been marginally successful at best. This paper discusses a new and novel approach for controlling scale, paraffin using an electronic physical water treating device and results that have been achieved. This physical water treatment technology has been applied to oil and gas production wells which incorporate all forms of product lift. Units are now also being installed in several South American locations. This paper will discuss the results obtained from the use of these physical water treatment devices and discuss the criteria which are used to ascertain whether a particular well site's problems can be eased by use of these devices. These criteria will be discussed for both land based and offshore oil wells. (author)

Troncoso y Troncoso, Joao Ricardo [Weatherford Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rzeznik, Lawrence; Parker, Wiley L. [Weatherford International, Houston, TX (United States)

2008-07-01

364

Downhole oil/water separators - What's new?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office is interested in new technologies that can bring oil to the surface at a lower cost or with less environment impact. DOE is particularly interested in technologies that can accomplish both of these goals, and downhole oil/water separators (DOWS) seem to achieve that. They have the potential to reduce operating costs while providing a greater degree of environmental protection. DOE learned of the innovative DOWS technology and funded a team from Argonne National Laboratory, CH2M Hill (a private-sector consulting firm), and the Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (a state agency) to conduct an independent evaluation of the technical feasibility, economic viability, and regulatory applicability of the DOWS technology. The results of that investigation were published in January 1999 and represent the most complete publicly available reference material on DOWs technology (the full text of the report can be downloaded from Argonne's website at www.ead.anl.gov). Other abbreviated versions of this information have been published during the past year. Last January, in the 1999 Produced Water Seminar, the author provided an overview of the DOWS technology. For the 2000 Produced Wate