WorldWideScience

Sample records for water injection oil

  1. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  2. Water injection in viscous oil through horizontal well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R.F.; Bonet, E.J.; Schiozer, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Unicamp (Brazil)

    2005-11-01

    The economic success of heavy-oil, deep water fields depends upon the placement of wells, particular in reservoirs where water injection is used as a recovery method. This study analyzed the behavior of heavy oil displacement by water injection into viscous oil. The porous media was also characterized using simulation studies of an experimental and numerical design. A rock plate, filled with porous media, an Eolian sandstone from Botucatu formation, was prepared for laboratory tests. Its porosity, permeability distribution, relative permeabilities and capillary pressure were measured. Two horizontal wells were used and the laboratory tests included an oil saturation phase and a displacement phase. To analyse distortions in the horizontal wells due to friction effects, saturation maps were developed. A numerical simulation model then reproduced the observed behavior from the experiment and pressure drop effects were compared. This was then used as the foundation of a hypothetical field scale reservoir prototype. The simulation results demonstrated that despite the high oil viscosity, friction pressure losses in the wellbore did not seem to affect the flow. 17 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  3. Water-injection or oil-injection for srew-compressors in comparison; Wassereinspritzung oder Oeleinspritzung fuer Schraubenkompressoren im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinder, L.; Kuchler, M.; Hackl, H. [TU Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente

    2004-07-01

    Water injection in screw compressors has in comparison with the currently used oil-injection many advantages but also severe disadvantages. This is the reason why water injection is not common today. The main advantages of water-injected compressors are: oil-free air, saving of energy, no danger of condensate in the oil-separator vessel and in the bearing lubricant, low temperatures, no fire hazard, no environmental pollution and high pressure ratios in one stage are possible. The main disadvantages of water injected compressors are: Separate bearing-lubrication-system, problems with the sealing of the bearing casing, inadequate lubrication of the rotor flanks, expensive materials for the rotors and stainless materials for the housing, high accuracy of manufacturing, poor sealing of the rotor gaps, high noise level, high water consumption and steam saturated air at the outlet as well as problems with biological contamination after long periods out of use. The aim of our experimental investigation was to find out how far it is possible to use modified standard screw compressor with oil injection for water injection. The limits for the tip speed, the pressures and the temperatures were determined. A comparison between oil-injection and water-injection for the same compressor was carried out. (orig.)

  4. Inline gas/oil/water separation technology integrated with water injection facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, Paul; Schook, Rob

    2006-07-01

    The presentation presents applications of separation technology with water injection possibilities. The main conclusions are: Processing direct well streams requires control and monitoring in order to cater for: Dynamics of in-line equipment in a full process from production wells to oil export line and water injection wells. Short-residence time and small inventory in-line processing should be robust against process upsets. Control of slugging of feed through upstream ''conditioning''. Process control of flow splits e.g. by on-line monitoring of quality of fluid outlets (tk)

  5. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Yan, Wei

    2012-01-01

    with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability...

  6. Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition ...

  7. Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Salinity Formation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of Laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium and strontium sulfates in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of calcium and strontium ions at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage cause...

  8. Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits on...

  9. Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Badr Bin Merdhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig. The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of barium ions.

  10. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  11. Selective water injection completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldaz Cifuentes, Santiago [Schlumberger Smith Completions, Celle (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    This article presents the development and applications of modern completion systems for Selective Water Injection. It is based on a field study performed in Argentina adding records of successful technology application and development over time as well as benefits for the oil industry. A Selective Completion System used and developed by Schlumberger Smith Completions is defined as a set of tools characterized by isolating a single or more zones of interest along the oil well in order to take absolute control of the zone of interest. The principle of the technological development is based on replacing traditional mechanical packers by hydraulic systems bringing a new generation of tools developed for challenging well architecture. A Selective Completion System also implies the interaction of logging tools, tubing conveyed perforations and proper reservoir management systems. This article also highlights reservoir management concepts and water injection benefits for recovery factor improvements based on development from simple completion systems up to selective completion systems as part of the successful operational development of Schlumberger Smith Completions in Argentina. (orig.)

  12. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  13. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  14. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

  15. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  16. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  17. Injection Design for Simultaneous Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Storage in a Heavy Oil Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Sobers, Lorraine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We have identified a CO2 and water injection strategy to recover moderately heavy oil and store carbon dioxide (CO2) simultaneously. We propose the use of counter-current injection of gas and water to improve reservoir sweep and trap CO2; water is injected in the upper portion of the reservoir and gas is injected in the lower portion. This process is referred to as water over gas injection or modified simultaneous water alternating gas injection (SWAG). This thesis is based on ...

  18. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  19. Intramuscular Injection of “Site Enhancement Oil”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Louise; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkær; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2015-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injection of foreign substances for aesthetic purposes is well known. Complications are usually local to the site of injection but can be potentially lethal. Here, we present a case of "site enhancement oil" use in a 42-year-old man who died from asphyxia due to hanging....... Macroscopic and microscopic changes as well as computed tomographic changes in injected musculature are described and the potentially lethal adverse effects after site enhancement oil use are warranted....

  20. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  1. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  2. Enhanced heavy oil recovery by immiscible WAG injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Sayegh, S.; Huang, S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    With the increase in energy consumption and the decline of conventional oil in western Canada, there has been an increased interest in heavy oil for supplying Canada's energy needs. Some of the technical challenges facing enhanced heavy oil recovery were discussed. In addition to being very viscous, the heavy oil in western Canada is located in thin and shallow formations with low reservoir pressures. As such, miscibility between the oil and injected solvent gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), cannot be achieved. This study examined the feasibility of using CO{sub 2} and enriched flue gas in an immiscible water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection process in a Saskatchewan reservoir where thermal recovery methods are not economical. In an immiscible WAG process, gas and water are alternately injected. The water following gas injection drives the reduced-viscosity oil, resulting in displacement with an improved mobility ratio. In addition to reducing viscosity, the dissolved gas swells the oil so that for a given fixed residual oil saturation, less oil remains after a waterflood. This study focused on phase behaviour and fluid property measurements of CO{sub 2}, nitrogen and an enriched flue gas mixed with a heavy crude oil with an API gravity of 12.4. Coreflooding tests of immiscible WAG injection at reservoir conditions were performed to examine the effect of different gases, such as CO{sub 2} and impure CO{sub 2}, on oil recovery efficiency in the WAG process. Laboratory measurements were carried out to characterize the system, determine the influential mechanisms, and supply data for simulation of the field implementation. Tertiary recoveries of about 6 per cent initial oil in place were obtained, indicating that nitrogen in the enriched flue gas had a positive effect on oil recovery, as did the addition of a foaming agent with the injected CO{sub 2}. The phase behaviour measurements showed that the viscosity reduction mechanism of a conventional immiscible injection process cannot alone account for the results obtained in the laboratory coreflood tests. Additional mechanisms are suggested for oil recovery and water blocking by free gas. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil atomization, increased blast temperature and oxygen and injection of reducing gases into the bosh zone. (orig.) 25 refs.

  4. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  5. Influence of Gamma Radiation on the Treatment of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in the Injection Water Used for the Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The counts of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water samples collected from the well head (formation water) and outlet of petroleum treatment plant (Produced water) in a petroleum field in middle delta- Egypt were determined. The data showed a low count of (SRB) in the collected formation water sample and there was an obvious increase in the bacterial counts which appeared in the produced water, that may reveal that the presence of appropriate conditions for the growth of (SRB) in the closed system in treatment plant. Two scale inhibitors were tested through jar test, the scale inhibitor I had maximum efficiency at 20 ppm, two SRB biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides A was slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to B in presence of 20 ppm scale inhibitor. These biocides were test for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides to eliminate the negative impacts of the chemicals used and the radiation applied. The results demonstrated that, the lethal doses of biocides were (300 ppm) of biocides A or (400 ppm) of biocides B at 1 kGy irradiation dose. The treated produced water was evaluated in respect of enhanced oil recovery, the data showed increase of the recovery capacity by the irradiation and chemical treatment. This technology could be used for the water that are injected into reservoirs, and suitable for oil field and pipeline operators, and presented a viable bacteria control method

  6. Study on the Fine Optimization of Water Injection in SZ Oilfield of Bohai Bay

    OpenAIRE

    SUN Guangyi; MA Kuiqian; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Bohai SZ Oilfield has entered into high water cut stage, how to realize the goal of fine optimization of water injection to enhance oil recovery is an important problem for reservoir engineers. Fine optimization of water injection needs ‘inject enough’, ‘inject well’ and ‘inject effectively’. The paper gets relationship between annual oil production rate and annual water production rate of different water cut stages of SZ Oilfield with the life cycle theory and draws the annual water injectio...

  7. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kova?evi?, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  8. Cooling of oil injected screw compressors by oil atomisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the effect of oil atomisation in an oil-injected screw compressor. A test rig was built to assess the performance of different types of atomisers. Atomisers varying from fine atomisation to coarse atomisation were tested. Experiments on the test rig show that lowering the oil droplet diameter results in a considerably higher heat transfer. Growing oil flow rate, also gives a better cooling effectiveness. In parallel with the experiments, a thermodynamic model is developed by which the compression process can be calculated for every degree of revolution of the male-rotor. This way the influence of cooling oil temperature, cooling oil mass flow rate and injection point can be analysed. Having a better heat transfer effectiveness does not give a considerable gain in specific work. Lowering oil temperature gives better results, while changing the oil flow rate only gives small gains. Furthermore it is shown that cooling oil coming from the bearings has a negative influence on the performance. This paper shows that trying to reach isothermal compression through oil atomisation is not possible. The importance of the cooling effectiveness in the thermodynamic process is too small to have a significant influence

  9. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  10. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (?7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  11. Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

  12. Water injection performance in Libyan carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, M.; Rajab, B. Ben [Libya Univ., Tripoli (Libya). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Aattia, Ali [Veba Oil Operations, Tripoli (Libya)

    1998-07-01

    Formation damage caused by inappropriate drilling, completion, workover, production scheme and water injection operation is a major cost to the oil and gas industry worldwide. The reservoir rocks and resident fluids are essentially in a state of physiochemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. Disruption of this equilibrium due to changes in pressure, temperature and fluid chemistry around the wellbore region can create barriers to flow and yield low production rates. (author)

  13. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery: air injection in a Potiguar basin light oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of air injection, at reservoir temperature and pressure, is studied with a view towards enhanced oil recovery from the Potiguar Basin (Brazil). The aim is to inject air in such a way that almost all oxygen is consumed and the residual gas, basically nitrogen, displaces the oil. In this work, the reactivity of crude oil samples is studied at conditions of Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO). As a first step, the kinetic and equilibrium properties are measured using a variable volume PVT glass equilibrium cell, which enabled to simultaneously observe the sample and measure the reaction rates and phase compositions, needed for estimating oxygen consumption. Different strategies are then studied for enhanced recovery by water and air injection, using a commercial reservoir simulator for thermal processes. The results show that it was possible to delineate an optimum strategy for LTO recovery of light crude oils. (author)

  15. Additive to sea water injected into a stratum. [Sulfate anilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Aliev, D.A.; Kasinov, F.A.; Tairov, N.D.

    1980-01-15

    An additive is proposed which lowers the sedimentation and the seal of the stratum while sea waters interact with the stratal fluid and which increases the oil recovery coefficient. Sulphate anilines are used as admixtures instead of the hydroethylene phenols used earlier. Here, the oil recovery coefficient increases by 83% (instead of 78%) when injecting a volume of water into the stratum that is equal to 3-4 times the volume of the stratal pores (instead of 8-10). One advantage of the invention is that the labor expended in water injection is decreased, and consequently the cost of the extracted oil is also lowered.

  16. Ammonium Concentrations in Produced Waters from a Mesothermic Oil Field Subjected to Nitrate Injection Decrease through Formation of Denitrifying Biomass and Anammox Activity? †

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish Shartau, S. L.; Yurkiw, M.; Lin, S.; Grigoryan, A. A.; Lambo, A.; Park, H*-S; Lomans, B. P.; VAN BIEZEN, E; Jetten, M. S. M.; Voordouw, G

    2010-01-01

    Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Moni...

  17. Aerobic biological treatment of produced water from oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Trine

    2011-01-01

    Produced water is the largest waste stream generated from the oil and gas industry. Water of varying quantities is always produced along with oil and has to be separated from the oil. The amount of produced water generated generally increases as the oil field gets older, because more water has to be injected into the reservoir in order to force the oil out. The produced water can either be injected back into the reservoirs or be treated, typically by floatation units or hydrocyclones, and eve...

  18. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  19. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after wh...

  20. Steam injection for heavy oil recovery: Modeling of wellbore heat efficiency and analysis of steam injection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A comprehensive mathematical model was established to estimate wellbore heat efficiency of steam injection wells. • A simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores was proposed. • High wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality can improve wellbore heat efficiency. • High wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean good performance of heavy oil recovery. • Using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels. - Abstract: The aims of this work are to present a comprehensive mathematical model for estimating wellbore heat efficiency and to analyze performance of steam injection for heavy oil recovery. In this paper, we firstly introduce steam injection process briefly. Secondly, a simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores is presented and a complete expression for steam quality is derived. More importantly, both direct and indirect methods are adopted to determine the wellbore heat efficiency. Then, the mathematical model is solved using an iterative technique. After the model is validated with measured field data, we study the effects of wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality on steam injection performance reflected in wellbores. Next, taking cyclic steam stimulation as an example, we analyze steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs with numerical reservoir simulation method. Finally, the significant role of improving wellbore heat efficiency in saving water and fuels is discussed in detail. The results indicate that we can improve the wellbore heat efficiency by enhancing wellhead injection rate or steam quality. However, high wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean satisfactory steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs or good performance of heavy oil recovery. Moreover, the paper shows that using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels due to enhancement of wellbore heat efficiency

  1. The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; H. M. Tian; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H.W.; Ma, T.

    2014-01-01

    In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated i...

  2. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  3. Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Berea Sandstone Cores

    OpenAIRE

    A.B.B. Merdhah; A.A.M. Yassin

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates in Berea sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton) and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions at various temperatures (60-90°C) and differential pressures (75-100 psig). The solubility of common oil field scales formed and how their solubilities were affected by changes in salini...

  4. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  5. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  6. The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Xuezhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity ch...

  7. Oil and rising water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle Eastern oil producers have an obligation to future generations to tackle the causes of global warming. In the Middle East, we have a special need to pay attention to these warnings. As many of the countries of the region are low-lying and short of water, we are under threat from rising sea levels and desertification. Earlier this year the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that by the end of this century sea levels could rise by as much as 88 centimetres. This could flood not only coastal areas of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), but also much of the heavily populated Nile Delta in Egypt and the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates river system in Iraq

  8. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition with Water Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    The use of water injection in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was experimentally investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it is possible to control the ignition timing and slow down the rate of combustion with the use of water injection. The effects of different water flows, air/fuel ratios and inlet pressures were studied for three different fuels, iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas. It is possible to control the ignition timing in a narr...

  9. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    During core flooding experiments where water is injected in residual oil saturated core plugs, the fluids are often produced in small amounts. Oil and water come out of the core and are collected in glass vials using a fraction collector. Quantification of these fluids is often difficult since the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawat...

  10. Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying controllable radial oil injection to main crankshaft journal bearings. In an actively lubricated bearing, conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with controllable hydrostatic lubrication, where the oil injection pressures can be modified depending on the operational conditions. In this study, the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance of the actively lubricated bearing is compared with the performance of the conventional lubricated bearing, giving some insights into the minimum fluid film thickness, maximum fluid film pressure, friction losses and maximum vibration levels.

  11. Oil production and water management in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of integrated (production) water management in Petroleum Development Oman. In its existing oil fields the water cut is rising rapidly and water production is expected to increase two to three times in the next 15 years. Re-injection of production water will continue to account for less than half of the volume of co-produced water. Current subsurface disposal of production water to shallow Tertiary formations is based on thorough knowledge of the local hydrogeology and does not affect potable water resources. However, in view of the expected increase in production water volume, utilization and disposal options have been re-evaluated. This review has been facilitated by recently acquired data on production water quality and by the results of research in dehydration and de-oiling technologies and of tests with production chemicals. The combined knowledge base is used to arrive at water management strategies for individual oil fields that are sound both in principle and in practice

  12. THAI : Toe to Heel Air Injection : a revolutionary heavy oil and oil sands in-situ recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, C. [Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Orion Oil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of an in-situ recovery method for heavy oil and oil sands called toe-to-heel air injection (THAI). THAI is an integrated horizontal well process for in situ recovery and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen. It uses both a vertical injection well and a horizontal producer well. The process was developed in 1993 at the University of Bath, in the United Kingdom and has been patented in the United States, Canada, Venezuela and the United Kingdom. Successful field scale runs have been conducted and an application has been submitted to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for an experimental pilot test to be performed in 2004 at the Whitesands pilot project site near Fort McMurray. The key pilot experimental parameters will include: oil, water and gas production rates; quality of the produced oil; effectiveness of produced gas lift; production temperatures; quality of the produced water; and, composition of the produced gas. The THAI process has many advantages over the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process, including: minimal quantities of fresh water are needed; minimal quantities of natural gas are consumed; 85 per cent less water is produced; recovered heat can be used for electricity generation; the use of upgraded oil eliminates the need for diluent; 50 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions; and, a higher resource recovery rate. 3 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

  14. Steam injection and enhanced bioremediation of heavy fuel oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam injection has been shown to be successful in remediating sites impacted by heavy fuel oils. Field demonstrations at both pilot and full scale have removed No. 2 diesel fuel and Navy Special Fuel Oil (No. 5 fuel oil) from impacted soils. Removal mechanisms include enhanced volatilization of vapor- and adsorbed-phase contaminants and enhanced mobility due to decreased viscosity and associated residual saturation of separate- and adsorbed-phase contaminants. Laboratory studies have shown that indigenous biologic populations are significantly reduced, but are not eliminated by steam injection operations. Populations were readily reestablished by augmentation with nutrients. This suggests that biodegradation enhanced by warm, moist, oxygenated environments can be expected to further reduce concentrations of contaminants following cessation of steam injection operations

  15. Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchini, A.; Piretti, M.V.; Tubertini, O.; Govoni, S.; Sapigni, R.

    1984-12-01

    The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing (n-1-/sup 14/C) octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs.

  16. Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing [n-1-14C] octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs

  17. Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

    2006-03-15

    In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

  18. Pachometry before and after vitrectomy with silicone oil injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Nielsen, N V

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) before and after vitrectomy with injection of silicone oil as vitreous substitution material in order to determine whether silicone oil causes more frequent and/or pronounced corneal decompensation than other substitution materials. METHODS: CCT was measured by ultrasonic pachometry in 42 eyes. 25 eyes received injection of silicone oil and 17 eyes C3F8, atmospheric air or saline. Measurements were performed 24 hours pre operatively, during anaesthesia pre operatively and 24 hours, 48 hours and five months post operatively. RESULTS: A progressive central corneal thickening could be demonstrated in both groups. Eyes which received silicone oil showed maximum CCT increase of 0.083 mm (14.1%) 48 hours post operatively. At follow-up CCT had decreased to baseline value in both groups. Silicone oil did not induce CCT changes that were significantly different from those induced by other substitution materials. CONCLUSION: Silicone oil injection in detachment surgery induces reversible corneal decompensation to the same degree as other substitution materials within the first five months post operatively.

  19. Heavy-oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs with varying wettability by steam solvent co-injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Bahlani, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam injection may not be an efficient oil recovery process in certain circumstances, such as in deep reservoirs, where steam injection may be ineffective because of hot-water flooding due to excessive heat loss. Steam injection may also be ineffective in oil-wet fractured carbonates, where steam channels through fracture zones without effectively sweeping the matrix oil. Steam flooding is one of the many solutions for heavy oil recovery in unconsolidated sandstones that is in commercial production. However, heavy-oil fractured carbonates are more challenging, where the recovery is generally limited only to matrix oil drainage gravity due to unfavorable wettability or thermal expansion if heat is introduced during the process. This paper proposed a new approach to improve steam/hot-water injection and efficiency for heavy-oil fractured carbonate reservoirs. The paper provided background information on oil recovery from fractured carbonates and provided a statement of the problem. Three phases were described, including steam/hot-waterflooding phase (spontaneous imbibition); miscible flooding phase (diffusion); and steam/hot-waterflooding phase (spontaneous imbibition or solvent retention). The paper also discussed core preparation and saturation procedures. It was concluded that efficient oil recovery is possible using alternate injection of steam/hot water and solvent. 43 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  20. Oil troubles waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea provides a vast array of natural resources for thousands of local communities in the tropics. But the presence of the oil industry has significant social and environmental impacts, both from accidents and from routine activities like seismic exploration, drilling and the generation of polluting wastes. When accidents occur, sessile life (species attached to surface such as rocks or the seabed) is the first to be affected; its mortality increases as oil accumulates, although certain organisms, like gastropods, tolerate it better

  1. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  2. An objective estimation of impurities in oil field stagnant waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Runets, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies and an analysis of published materials are used to establish the predominant role of the mechanical impurities of various origins covered by layers of the heavy components of petroleum products in reducing the injectivity of injection wells for injecting stagnant waters containing concretions. A method is proposed for determining the impurities in the oil field stagnant waters used for flooding; this method makes it possible to obtain more reliable results on the concentration of the concretions responsible in such conditions for the drop in the injectivity of the formation reservoirs. A comparative evaluation of the results from an analysis of the impurities determined by the existing method and the proposed method is given. This method is useful in oil field laboratories in the systematic quality control over injected waters.

  3. Bubble scrub : process aims to reduce oil content and dispose of solids in produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-03-15

    The oil and water separation processes used by the petroleum industry typically leave behind between 5000 and 30,000 parts per million of oil in its produced water. The water is then injected back into the ground or disposed of in tailings ponds. This article described a water-oil remediation technology designed to reduce the hydrocarbon content in injected water to less than 5 parts per million. The process used aeration in a tank configuration that injected gas into the produced water. The aeration process created micron-sized gas bubbles that super-saturated the produced water in order to break the oil-water interfaces. A prototype unit has been designed to process 1000 bbls per day of water-oil mixture and is currently being used by an Alberta producer. It was concluded that the new system will help to reduce the massive amounts of water used in oil sands production. 1 fig.

  4. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites to...... account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx of......The seasonal imbalance between supply and demand of renewable energy requires temporary storage, which can be achieved by hot water injection in warm aquifers. This requires that the permeability and porosity of the aquifer are not reduced significantly by heating. We present an overview of...

  5. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment. PMID:26406569

  6. Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil

    OpenAIRE

    R. Raghu1, G. Ramadoss

    2011-01-01

    In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was ...

  7. Water injection device of cooling water and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A jet pump is disposed to a water injection flow channel below a pressure accumulation vessel incorporating cooling water and pressurized gases. A driving water nozzle in the jet pump is connected to a driving water flow channel having an opening below the liquid surface of cooling water in the pressure accumulation vessel. A sucking channel in communication with the diffuser guide portion of the jet pump is disposed to the bottom of the pressure accumulation vessel. Upon reactor accident, cooling water in the driving water channel is jetted from the driving water nozzle to a throat of the diffuser of the jet pump. With such a procedure, cooling water in the sucking flow channel is sucked into the throat of the diffuser and mixed with the cooling water from the driving water nozzle. As a result, a great amount of cooling water flows to the water injection channel and is injected into a reactor pressure vessel. If the water level in the pressure accumulation vessel is reduced lower than the opening of the driving water flow channel, the operation of the jet pump is stopped. The flow rate of the water injection is changed to small amount only from the sucking flow channel by the stoppage of the jet pump. (I.N.)

  8. Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO2 storage: CO2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO2, CO2-brine, and CO2-oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO2 and crude oil is ?100 kg/m3 and between CO2 and brine is ?350 kg/m3); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m3); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing properties and processes by performing numerical simulations. Results suggest that deep saline CO2 injection immediately below oil formations reduces buoyancy-driven CO2 migration and, at the same time, minimizes the amount of mobile CO2 compared to conventional deep saline CO2 injection (i.e., CO2 injection into brine formations not below oil-bearing strata). Finally, to investigate practical aspects and field applications of this injection paradigm, we characterized oil-bearing formations and their thickness (capacity) as a component of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) field deployments. The field-testing program includes specific sites in Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and western Texas of the United States. (author)

  9. Optimizing geologic CO2 sequestration by injection in deep saline formations below oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to present a best-case paradigm for geologic CO2 storage: CO2 injection and sequestration in saline formations below oil reservoirs. This includes the saline-only section below the oil-water contact (OWC) in oil reservoirs, a storage target neglected in many current storage capacity assessments. This also includes saline aquifers (high porosity and permeability formations) immediately below oil-bearing formations. While this is a very specific injection target, we contend that most, if not all, oil-bearing basins in the US contain a great volume of such strata, and represent a rather large CO2 storage capacity option. We hypothesize that these are the best storage targets in those basins. The purpose of this research is to evaluate this hypothesis. We quantitatively compared CO2 behavior in oil reservoirs and brine formations by examining the thermophysical properties of CO2, CO2-brine, and CO2-oil in various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions. In addition, we compared the distribution of gravity number (N), which characterizes a tendency towards buoyancy-driven CO2 migration, and mobility ratio (M), which characterizes the impeded CO2 migration, in oil reservoirs and brine formations. Our research suggests competing advantages and disadvantages of CO2 injection in oil reservoirs vs. brine formations: (1) CO2 solubility in oil is significantly greater than in brine (over 30 times); (2) the tendency of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration is smaller in oil reservoirs because density contrast between oil and CO2 is smaller than it between brine and oil (the approximate density contrast between CO2 and crude oil is ?100 kg/m3 and between CO2 and brine is ?350 kg/m3); (3) the increased density of oil and brine due to the CO2 dissolution is not significant (about 7-15 kg/m3); (4) the viscosity reduction of oil due to CO2 dissolution is significant (from 5790 to 98 mPa s). We compared these competing properties and processes by performing numerical simulations. Results suggest that deep saline CO2 injection immediately below oil formations reduces buoyancy-driven CO2 migration and, at the same time, minimizes the amount of mobile CO2 compared to conventional deep saline CO2 injection (i.e., CO2 injection into brine formations not below oil-bearing strata). Finally, to investigate practical aspects and field applications of this injection paradigm, we characterized oil-bearing formations and their thickness (capacity) as a component of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) field deployments. The field-testing program includes specific sites in Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming, and western Texas of the United States.

  10. Application of log-inject-log in Granny's Creek oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.M.; Ovies, S.L.

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply principles of the log-inject-log technique through utilization of the thermal neutron decay time log (TDT) to ascertain resevoir parameters necessary for an evaluation of a perspective secondary/tertiary flood. This technique provides in-situ measurements for determination of residual oil saturation and estimates of bulk volume movable oil and gas saturation. To achieve this purpose log-inject-log was employed in conjunction with open hole log data in a heterogeneous, pressure depleted Big Injun Sandstone Reservoir. This study represents the first application of the log-inject-log method in the Appalachian Basin. The log-inject-log process required multiple TDT logging runs following alternate injection of low and high salinity waters. Well site procedures for acquisition of the necessary raw data are presented with a description of the interpretation model. A computer analysis of the data used open hole log measurements as a data base for reservoir characteristics needed to obtain residual oil saturation from the log-inject-log data.

  11. Analysis of oil-water replacement in limestone by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of experiment were performed: a) oil was injected into a water-saturated limestone sample, b) water was injected into an oil-saturated sample, and c) D2O was injected into a water-saturated sample. The measuring protocol comprised the acquisition of a 1D spectrum, a CPMG experiment to estimate the T2 relaxation time, and the acquisition of spin-echo images. (orig.)

  12. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny; Plambech, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Resu...

  13. Acute glaucoma following vitrectomy and silicone oil injection.

    OpenAIRE

    Zborowski-Gutman, L; TREISTER, G.; Naveh, N; Chen, V.; Blumenthal, M.

    1987-01-01

    Three cases are described of acute glaucoma following vitrectomy and silicone oil injection in proliferative vitreous retinopathy. The first case developed silicone-induced pupillary block in a phakic eye. Cases 2 and 3 developed elevated pressure in aphakic eyes with deep anterior chambers. Cases 1 and 3 were treated by laser iridectomy. Case 2 was treated by removal of silicone. The pathogenesis and treatment of these problems are discussed.

  14. Water injection system for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present invention, water is injected rapidly to a reactor container disposed in a nuclear power plant. Namely, a residual-heat removing system (RHR system) removes residue-heat from the reactor container. A reactor equipment cooling sea water system (RCWS system) transfers the heat in the RHR system to sea water. In a water injection system for the reactor container, the RHR system and the RCWS system are connected by a tie line. In the present invention, an electromotive isolation valve and a booster pump are disposed to the tie line. With such a constitution, opening/closing operation for the electromotive isolation valve can be performed by remote operation from a central operation chamber. Accordingly, after occurrence of some or other phenomenon, it is not necessary for an operator to perform manual opening/closing operation in the field. In addition, operation of removing a closing plate is also unnecessary. Further, since the pump is disposed to the tie line to a lifting stroke of the tie line pump is added to the lift stroke of the RCWS pump, so that water can be injected even if pressure in the reactor container is elevated. (I.S.)

  15. Interpreting Reservoir Microseismicity Detected During CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring is expected to be a useful tool in CO2 sequestration projects for mapping pressure fronts and detecting fault activation and potential leakage paths. Downhole microseismic monitoring and several other techniques are being tested for their efficacy in tracking movement and containment of CO2 injected at the Aneth oil field located in San Juan County, Utah. The Southwest Regional Partnership on CO2 Sequestration is conducting the monitoring activities in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources Company, under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. The CO2 injection at Aneth is associated with a field-wide enhanced oil recovery operation following decades of pressure maintenance and oil recovery by water-flood injection. A 60-level geophone string was cemented into a monitoring well equipped with both 3-component and vertical component geophones spanning from 800 to 1700 m depth. The top of the oil reservoir in the study area is at approximately 1730 m depth. Over the first year of monitoring, approximately 3800 microearthquakes have been detected within about 3 km of the geophone string. The Aneth reservoir events are relatively large with magnitudes ranging from approximately -1 to 1. For comparison, reservoir seismicity induced during hydraulic fracturing treatments typically result in events with magnitudes fracture zones located on opposite flanks of the reservoir. Injection activity is fairly uniform over the entire field area, and the microseismicity does not correlate either temporally or spatially with any anomalous changes in injection or production activities near the source locations. Because the activity is fairly isolated and relatively energetic, I speculate that the seismicity may be due to critically stressed structures driven by longer-term production- and/or injection-induced stress changes. Ongoing analysis includes extracting precise arrival time to improve relative source locations and looking for correlations of event occurrence and moment release with field-wide rates of injection and production.

  16. STUDYING OF THE EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON ENHANCED HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY STEAM INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.Mohamadbeigy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available High viscosity of some crude oil makes difficult to recover with primary or secondary production methods. Therefore, thermal oil recovery techniques are recommended for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR of heavy oil. In this experimental study, steam injection was used to investigate the effectiveness parameters on heavy oil production rate. The result is shown that, by increasing pressure, steam reaches the breakthrough point sooner, but recovery decreases. If the oils are a little different in viscosity, recovery in the light oil is more than that in heavy oil. Also in the highly viscous oils and light oils, recovery in the heavy oil is much higher than in light oil.

  17. Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying controllable radial oil injection to main crankshaft journal bearings. In an actively lubricated bearing, conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with controllable hydrostatic lubrication, where the oi...

  18. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  19. Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raghu1, G. Ramadoss

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester, raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21° CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

  20. Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayam College of Engineering and Technology, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramadoss, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Peter' s University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-07-01

    In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21{sup o} CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

  1. Boric-acid water solution injecting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to rapidly lower the reactor power upon occurrence of scram-operation inability accidents in BWR type reactos. Constitution: The boric-acid water solution injecting device comprises pipeways connected at one end to the inside of a lower tube body of pressure vessel in a BWR type reactor and connected at the other end with a boric acid storage tank. A turbine driven pump driven by the steams from the pressure vessel is disposed at the midway of the pipeways. Since a great flow rate of boric-acid water solution can be supplied from the pump, the reactor power can be lowered rapidly. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Microseismic monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection at the Weyburn oil field, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabriol, H.; Jousset, P. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France); White, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Maxwell, S. [Engineering Seismology Group Canada Inc., Kingston, ON (Canada); Deflandre, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2005-07-01

    Microseismic monitoring has been conducted as part of the International Energy Agency Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project where carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been injected into an oil depleted reservoir in southern Saskatchewan since 2000. CO{sub 2} flood has been supplied by pipeline from North Dakota. As a result of this CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operation, it is expected that 20 million tonnes of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere will be permanently sequestered within the Mississippian strata at a depth of 1.4 km. Passive seismic monitoring has been used around the world to map fracturing induced by fluid injection for EOR, by hydraulic stimulation, or by reservoir compaction phenomena linked to hydrocarbon production. There are few examples of microseismicity recorded during underground gas storage or CO{sub 2} EOR projects. The purpose of applying microseismic monitoring at Weyburn was to assess the seismic hazard due to injection, and to determine the feasibility of using passive monitoring as a mapping tool for the spread of injected CO{sub 2}, via fracturing or fracture reactivation induced by local overpressure within the reservoir. Results to date show that recording microseismicity in a CO{sub 2}-injection field is technically feasible. Since injection of CO{sub 2} has only recently started, no microseismicity linked directly to the spread of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir has been identified. However, different kinds of events have been recorded related to production or completion activities. Analysis of waveforms, event locations and production data will be required in order to identify the events induced by the CO{sub 2} injection. In terms of seismic hazard due to injection, microseismicity observed to date does not exceed magnitudes associated with water flood or gas injection in other monitored fields. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

  4. Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

    2013-01-01

    Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

  5. Experimental investigation of the effect of steam injection rate on recovery of an Iranian heavy oil reservoir using sand packed and core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei-Nejad, S.A.R. [Sahand University of Technology and Sahand Petroleum Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Heavy oils and tar sands reserves worldwide account for more than half of Earth's oil resources and, world-wide, these are primarily located in north and south America, Asia and the Middle East. Enhanced oil recovery techniques are a crucial aspect for these heavy oil reservoirs, the predominant one being the steam injection method. This presentation reports the results of an experimental investigation into the effect of the steam injection rate on oil efficiency recovery at an Iranian heavy oil reservoir. The steam injection method is briefly presented and an efficiency up to 50-60% in oil recovery is mentioned, depending on the operating temperature. Eleven tests were then conducted, with different steam injection rates, oil samples, and saturation pressures. Results show that an increased steam injection rate leads to a reduction of the steam-to-oil ratio and of the overall oil recovery time; it also requires a smaller volume of water for equivalent operation. In short, increase in the steam injection rate leads to better oil recovery efficiency in heavy oil reservoirs.

  6. The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

  7. The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2014-12-01

    In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

  8. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; FosbØl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42-, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation. During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers

  9. Hot-fluid injection into heavy oil reservoirs intercepted by a stationary vertical fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agena, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical and a numerical model for the injection of hot fluid into stationary vertical fractures are developed. For both models, the fracture is assumed to have infinite conductivity and fully penetrate the reservoir thickness. The conductive heat flux in the overburden and underburden is considered one dimensional and symmetric with respect to the reservoir. The analytical model solves the energy equation in an infinite system with constant properties of the system and zero thermal conductivity in the reservoir. Fluid flow in the reservoir is considered elliptical which is physically more sound than the linear models described in the literature. The obtained solution for the temperature distribution is used to develop expressions for the thermal efficiency and oil rate and recovery. The numerical model involves the simultaneous solution of mass and energy balances for an oil-water system in two dimensions. The model utilizes the IMPES method of solution and suggests a new procedure for eliminating the saturations from the mass and energy balance equations. The relative permeabilities and enthalpies at the grid boundaries are shifted upstream in order to avoid possible oscillations in the solutions. The primary objective of this study is to (i) present a detailed description in the numerical and analytical models, (ii) analyze pressure response in the fracture and temperature distribution in the reservoir, (iii) study effects of injection conditions and fluid and reservoir characteristics on the performance of hot water injection, including oil recovery and thermal efficiency, and (iv) examine the analytical solution for a practical range of injection temperature, oil viscosity and reservoir permeability.

  10. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita

    2015-01-01

    During core flooding experiments where water is injected in residual oil saturated core plugs, the fluids are often produced in small amounts. Oil and water come out of the core and are collected in glass vials using a fraction collector. Quantification of these fluids is often difficult since the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawater. The UV/visible spectroscopy method and low-field NMR spectrometry are compared for this determination, and an account of advantages and disadvantages of each method is given. Both methods are reproducible with high accuracy. The NMR method was capable of direct quantification of both oil and water fractions, while the UV/visible spectroscopy quantifies only the oil fraction using a standard curve.

  11. Fast water oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the many manuals currently available for oil spill response, few have any information on fast-water conditions even though just more than half of all oil spilled by volume in the United States between 1992 and 1997 happened in waterways with currents exceeding one knot. The Coast Guard recognized the absence of standard terminology that could be used for fast-water responses. For that reason, an initiative was undertaken to create a document that addresses only fast-water issues. Two major parts of the project were to provide information on deployment strategies and techniques to identify equipment that could improve recovery capabilities where existing systems do not work well. This paper described field demonstrations where boom deflectors and boom vanes were used. Efforts to increase the capability of booms and skimmers were also described. A field guide was developed for training and response purposes for spills in fast-water which makes it possible for on-scene commanders and area supervisors to define techniques and terminology for responders in the field. It is particularly useful for Coast Guard Marine Safety Units when working with Coast Guard operational units during an emergency response. 20 refs., 4 figs

  12. Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

  13. VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Denli, H.; Cheng, A.; Zhao, M.; Peron, J.

    2008-12-01

    Remotely tracking the movement of injected CO2 within a geological formation is critically important for ensuring safe and long-term geologic carbon sequestration. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for remote monitoring of CO2 injection, a geophone string with 60 levels and 96 channels was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah operated by Resolute Natural Resources and Navajo National Oil and Gas Company. The oil field is located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, and was selected by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. The geophones are placed at depths from 805 m to 1704 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1731 m to 1786 m in depth. A baseline VSP dataset with one zero-offset and seven offset source locations was acquired in October, 2007 before CO2 injection. The offsets/source locations are approximately 1 km away from the monitoring well with buried geophone string. A time-lapse VSP dataset with the same source locations was collected in July, 2008 after five months of CO2/water injection into a horizontal well adjacent to the monitoring well. The total amount of CO2 injected during the time interval between the two VSP surveys was 181,000 MCF (million cubic feet), or 10,500 tons. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct wave-equation migration imaging and interferometry analysis using the pre-processed time-lapse VSP data. The results demonstrate that time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution migration imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information about CO2 migration. Both the repeatability of VSP surveys and sophisticated time-lapse data pre-processing are essential to make VSP as an effective tool for monitoring CO2 injection.

  14. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  15. STUDYING OF THE EFFECTIVE PARAMETERS ON ENHANCED HEAVY OIL RECOVERY BY STEAM INJECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kh. Mohamadbeigy; M. Monavarian

    2006-01-01

    High viscosity of some crude oil makes difficult to recover with primary or secondary production methods. Therefore, thermal oil recovery techniques are recommended for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) of heavy oil. In this experimental study, steam injection was used to investigate the effectiveness parameters on heavy oil production rate. The result is shown that, by increasing pressure, steam reaches the breakthrough point sooner, but recovery decreases. If the oils are a little different i...

  16. Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Berea Sandstone Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.B. Merdhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates in Berea sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions at various temperatures (60-90°C and differential pressures (75-100 psig. The solubility of common oil field scales formed and how their solubilities were affected by changes in salinity and temperatures (40-90°C were also studied. The morphology and particle size of scaling crystals formed as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were also presented. The results showed that a large extent of permeability damage caused by calcium, strontium and barium sulfates that deposited on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions. At higher temperatures, the deposition of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales increases and the deposition of BaSO4 scale decreases, since the solubilities of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales decreases and the solubility of BaSO4 increases with increasing temperature. The deposition of CaSO4, SrSO4 and BaSO4 scales during flow of injection waters into porous media was shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM micrographs.

  17. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NOx emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

  18. Did CO2 injection induce 2006-2011 earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAN, W.; Frohlich, C.

    2013-12-01

    Induced seismicity related to underground injection of liquids has been widely reported. However, earthquakes triggered by gas injection, particularly having magnitudes M3 and larger, haven't been observed. Davis and Pennington (1) concluded that earthquakes occurring 1974-1982 in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX were induced by water flooding for secondary recovery that took place between 1956 and 1982. Subsequently the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) reported no further seismicity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. In the present study we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program. We identified and carefully relocated 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocated epicenters occur within several NE-SW-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified subsurface faults. Moreover, both the rate and b value for the 2009-2011 activity differs from the values for earlier activity, possibly suggesting a different physical origin. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Fluid injection doesn't explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period, and don't appear to have undergone significant recent changes. However, since 2004 significant volumes of CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell fields. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have triggered the recent seismic activity. If so, this is the first reported instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes M3 and larger. Further analysis may help to evaluate recent concerns about possible risks associated with large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change. 1. Davis SD, Pennington WD (1989) Induced seismic deformation in the Cogdell oil field of west Texas. Bull Seismol Soc Amer 79:1477-1495.

  19. Displacement of light oil by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Dadash-zade, K.I.; Orudzhaliev, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    The research results provided clearly show that the process of displacement of light oil by water has its own specific features which make it significantly different from the process of displacing gasified oil with water. Predicting the indices of developing formations of light oils using the water-pressure method must be done only based on a model of the flow in a porous medium of substantially mutually soluble hydrocarbon fluids.

  20. Geomechanics of subsurface water withdrawal and injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.

  1. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions in...... enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...

  2. Separation of oil and water in oil spill recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of water from oil that is collected in any oil spill recovery operation is a continuing and necessary requirement during every stage of the effort. Its importance is reflected in the cost of transport and storage of large volumes of oily water, the salvage value of separated oil and the added labor costs associated with long-term recovery operations. This paper addresses the effects of weathering and emulsion generation which increase the problems normally associated with water extraction. Separation theory, practical separation technology and recommendations for the future direction of research and development are presented. (author)

  3. Use of chemical additives with steam injection to increase oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handy, L.L.

    1984-09-01

    Surfactants and certain inorganic bases have been evaluated as possible chemical additives to improve performance of steamfloods. Special emphasis was given to chemicals which would reduce the residual oil saturation in regions flooded by hot water below the steam zone. Problems considered were the effect of prolonged exposure to steam temperature on the stability of petroleum sulfonates, the effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption and the effect of temperature on interfacial tensions. Methods were developed for measuring quantitatively the thermal stability of the aryl sulfonate class of surfactant. This class includes the petroleum sulfonates. The best of the surfactants evaluated in this study had marginal stability for use with steamfloods. The surfactants in combination with elevated temperatures do reduce residual oil saturations. Data are presented on the temperature effects on interfacial tensions and on adsorption. Certain inorganic chemicals which give high pH are effective and inexpensive but hydroxyl ions react with silica in the reservoir. This reaction is accentuated at higher temperatures. Data show that the pH of the injected hot water with caustic decreases with contact time. The experiments did not permit determining if an equilibrium pH would be obtained which would be high enough to be effective in recovering oil. Core floods showed that pH's in excess of 12 would be required to reduce residual oil saturations if sodium hydroxide was the injected chemical. The addition of surfactants with caustic or the use of sodium carbonate may permit recovery of oil at lower pH's. A reservoir simulator is being developed to predict performance of steamfloods with chemical additives. This has been completed for simple linear floods but is being extended to three dimensions and to more complicated flooding operations. 31 references, 43 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Oil-water separator for pretreating petroleum-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil-water separator with inclined corrugated-plate packing was developed. Because of the special passageway formed by the corrugated plates, more opportunities are provided for collisions and coagulation among the oil droplets and for adhesion and coalescence between the oil droplets and the corrugated plates. This separator has, therefore, greatly increased the efficiency of oil removal. Based on the results of the experiments, a mathematical model has been developed for predicting the oil removal efficiency

  5. PCA: uma ferramenta para identificação de traçadores químicos para água de formação e água de injeção associadas à produção de petróleo / PCA: a tool for identification of chemical tracers for formation and injection waters associated with oil production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiana Alves de Lima, Ribeiro; Guilherme Alvarenga, Mantovani; Ronei Jesus, Poppi; Francisca Ferreira do, Rosário; Maria Carmen Moreira, Bezerra; Andre Luis Mathias, Bastos; Vera Lúcia Alves de, Melo.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This study describes the use of Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the chemical composition of water produced from eight oil wells in three different production areas. A total of 609 samples of produced water, and a reference sample of seawater, were characterized according to their levels of [...] salinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, barium and sulphate (mg L-1) contents, and analyzed by using PCA with autoscaled data. The method allowed the identification of variables salinity, calcium and strontium as tracers for formation water, and variables magnesium and sulphate as tracers for seawater.

  6. Miscibility study of carbon dioxide injection to enhance oil recovery from Abu-Dhabi oil field Thani reservoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarwan, Abdulla Humaid Saif Saeed

    The subject field in this study has been recognized among the largest offshore oil fields in the world, located in the Arabian Gulf 63 kilometers to the Northwest of Abu Dhabi, producing large quantities of crude oil and associated gas from three different carbonate reservoirs, Thani-I, II and IIII since 1963. In the early 1970's peripheral water injection scheme was adopted to maintain the reservoir pressure and sustain production. Simultaneously, partial waterflooding was applied to one sector of the field, but stopped soon after implementation shadowed by poor sweep efficiency and dramatic escalation of water-cut. Furthermore, hydrocarbon miscible gas injection was implemented in the year 2000 but stopped seven years later, due to high gas oil ratio and aspheltene deposition. In light of such recovery complications, management is considering serious recovery measures to extend plateau production and meet long-term production from this field. Post initial screening phase, it became evident that CO 2 miscible injection is the most suitable way forward. Characteristics of the Thani-III reservoir are within the favorable range for both immiscible and miscible CO2 injection criteria set by Taber, Martine and Serigh. Thani-III reservoir is considered more homogenous, less fractured and with higher production potential than Thani-I and II, hence promoted to be the target of CO2 miscible gas injection. This thesis aims to study the miscibility features of CO2 miscible injecton to enhanced oil recovery from Thani-III reservoir. Comprehensive simulation model is used to determine multi contact miscibility and suitable equation of state with CO2 as a separate pseudo component using one of the industry standard simulation software. Experimental PVT data for bottom hole and separator samples including compositional analysis, differential liberation test, separator tests, constant composition expansion, viscosity measurements and swelling tests for pure CO2 were used to generate and validate the model. In addition to that, simulation studies were conducted to produce coreflooding and slimtube experimental models, which are compared with the conclusions drawn from experimental results. Results of this study have shown comparable results with the lab experimental data in regards to minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) calculation and recovery factor estimation, where the marginal errors between both data sets were no more than 7% at its worst. For example, slimtube experimental results suggested 4230 psig as minimum miscibility pressure, where the simulation study EoS figure is 4130 psig and the slimtube simulation model results is 4180 psig. Similarly, coreflooding experimental data recovery factor at 1.2 PV injected solvent was 75% and a value of 72% recovery factor was obtained from the software single core model at same conditions of pressure and saturations. Results from this study are expected to assist the operator of this field to plan and implement a very attractive enhanced oil recovery program, giving that other factors are well accounted for such as asphaltene deposition, reservoir pressure maintenance, oil saturation, CO2 sequestering and choosing the most appropriate time to maximize the net positive value (NPV) and expected project gain.

  7. Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zhang; Yue-Hui She; Lu-Jun Chai; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Xiao-Tao Zhang; Fu-Chang Shu; Zheng-Liang Wang; Long-Jiang Yu; Du-Jie Hou

    2012-01-01

    Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effec...

  8. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is ar...

  9. Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Bruining; D., Marchesin; C.J., Van Duijn.

    Full Text Available We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturate [...] d porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

  10. Diffusion as an Oil Recovery Mechanism During CO2 Injection in Fractured Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Stig Holme

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing study of enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in the Reservoir Physics research group at the Department of Physics and Technology (IFT) at the University of Bergen. This work investigates the feasibility of oil recovery from diffusion during miscible CO2 injection in fractured core plugs by conducting appropriate laboratory tests and numerical simulations. A total of 10 miscible CO2 injection tests were conducted in the laboratory using artificially fractur...

  11. Detecting oil on water using polarimetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, Amber L.; Hamilton, Patrick D.

    2015-05-01

    Integrity Applications Incorporated (IAI) collected electro-optical polarimetric imagery (PI) to evaluate its effectiveness for detecting oil on water. Data was gathered at multiple sun angles for vegetable oil and crude oil to demonstrate PI sensitivity to different liquids and collection geometries. Unique signatures for oil relative to water were observed. Both oils consistently displayed higher degree of linear polarization (DOLP) values than water, which was expected based on the lower index of refraction of water (1.33) relative to vegetable oil and crude oil (1.47 and 1.47-1.57, respectively). The strength of the polarimetric signatures was found to vary as a function of collection angle relative to the sun, with peak linear polarizations ranging from 40-70% for crude oil and 20-50% for vegetable oil. IAI found that independently scaled DOLP was particularly useful for discriminating these liquids, because it demonstrated the least sensitivity to collection angle, compared to other PI products. Specifically, the DOLP signature of vegetable oil was approximately 20% lower than for crude oil, regardless of collection angle. This finding is consistent with the lower index of refraction values for vegetable oil compared to crude. Based on the promising results presented here, IAI recommends further testing and development of PI for oceanic remote sensing applications such as oil spill/leak detection and for supporting oil cleanup efforts. With additional work, PI may also be applicable to other oceanic environmental issues such as detection of agricultural runoff or effluent from industrial facilities or watercraft.

  12. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoraba HH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hammouda H Ghoraba,1,2 Ali Ahmed Ghali,3 Hosam Othman Mansour2,3 1Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 2Magrabi Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt; 3Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO injection.Materials and methods: Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP.Results: This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional. After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy.Conclusion: Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. Keywords: malignant glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy, silicone oil

  13. Characterization of crude oil-water and solid -water interfaces and adsorption / desorption properties of crude oil fractions: The effect of low salinity water and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Umer

    2010-09-15

    The reservoirs of conventional oil are rapidly depleting because of increased production and consumption of crude oil in the world. Mature and mostly depleted oil reservoirs require advanced recovery techniques to sustain the production rates. During the past years, a variety of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have been developed and implemented to increase the oil recovery from mature reservoirs. Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an emerging EOR process of injecting water containing low concentrations (<4000 ppm) of total dissolved solids into the reservoir. This moderate cost process yields relatively higher incremental recoveries than other water based recovery methods. Investigation of mechanisms for increased recovery is quite challenging because this process depends upon complex crude oil/water/rock properties. This work was done to study the surface chemistry of typical reservoir surfaces where LSW can be used for EOR. The oil water and solid-water interfaces were characterised in low salinity aqueous solutions and investigated how the electrolytes and pH of solutions affect the interfacial and surface properties. The influence of low saline aqueous solution on the desorption behaviour of different fractions (acid-free oil and base-free oil) of crude oils was also explored. Reservoir minerals are sensitive to small changes in solution properties and therefore model, outcrop and reservoir particles were characterized in low salinity aqueous solutions. The extent of ionic adsorption on the mineral surfaces was found by various techniques. Particles were also characterized with respect to their elemental compositions. Asphaltene adsorption/desorption on reservoir rock surfaces play an important role in EOR processes. Various injection sequences of low saline aqueous solution of Na +, Ca2+ and sea water were considered to study the desorption of asphaltenes from silica surfaces. Composition of the aqueous phase influenced the interfacial properties of crude oil. Acids, bases and asphaltenes were selectively removed from crude oils and demonstrated the significance of each component on the interfacial behaviour in the aqueous phase under various electrolyte concentrations, type of electrolytes and pH ranges. It was determined that the crude oil acids and electrolyte type played an important role for interfacial properties at high pH conditions. Adsorption/desorption properties of various crude oil fractions on silica coated quartz surfaces were also studied. The influence of electrolyte types and pH conditions of low salinity aqueous solutions on desorption behaviour of different oil fractions was considered. Finally, the dynamic interfacial behaviour of two different crude oils and their fractions were evaluated in different aqueous solutions. The effects of mono and divalent ionic concentrations on interfacial properties were compared. (Author)

  14. Oil, Gas, and Injection Wells in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_wells_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset containing the location of over 230,000 oil and gas and injection wells in the state of Louisiana. It was developed from the DNR Office of...

  15. Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, B.A.; Virkus, A.; Mukherjee, B. [Department of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Venosa, A.D., E-mail: venosa.albert@epa.go [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum. - This study was conducted to advance our understanding of dispersion chemistry in fresh waters.

  16. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir simulations also indicate that original rock properties are the dominant factor for the ultimate oil recovery for both primary recovery and gas injection EOR. Because reservoir simulations provide critical inputs for project planning and management, more effort needs to be invested into reservoir modeling and simulation, including building enhanced geologic models, fracture characterization and modeling, and history matching with field data. Gas injection EOR projects are integrated projects, and the viability of a project also depends on different economic conditions.

  17. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  18. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  19. Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, Kjell Erik

    1998-12-31

    This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Factors influencing time course of pain after depot oil intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorius, Gideon; Fennell, Carolyn; Spasevska, Sasa; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J.; Handelsman, David J

    2010-01-01

    Pain following depot intramuscular (IM) injection of oil vehicle-based drugs has been little studied. This study aimed to determine prospectively the prevalence, determinants, severity and functional consequences of pain during the week after IM injection of 1 000 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a 4-mL castor oil vehicle. Androgen-deficient men receiving regular T replacement therapy at an academic andrology clinic were recruited to report pain scores using a coloured visual linear analog...

  1. Measurement of electrical impedance of a Berea sandstone core during the displacement of saturated brine by oil and CO2 injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xue, Ziqiu; Park, Hyuck; Kiyama, Tamotsu; Zhang, Yi; Nishizawa, Osamu; Chae, Kwang-seok

    2015-12-01

    Complex electrical impedance measurements were performed on a brine-saturated Berea sandstone core while oil and CO2 were injected at different pressures and temperatures. The saturations of brine, oil, and CO2 in the core were simultaneously estimated using an X-ray computed tomography scanner. The formation factor of this Berea core and the resistivity indexes versus the brine saturations were calculated using Archie's law. The experimental results found different flow patterns of oil under different pressures and temperatures. Fingers were observed for the first experiment at 10 MPa and 40 °C. The fingers were restrained as the viscosity ratio of oil and water changed in the second (10 MPa and 25 °C) and third (5 MPa and 25 °C) experiments. The resistivity index showed an exponential increase with a decrease in brine saturation. The saturation exponent varied from 1.4 to 4.0 at different pressure and temperature conditions. During the oil injection procedure, the electrical impedance increased with oil saturation and was significantly affected by different oil distributions; therefore, the impedance varied whether the finger was remarkable or not, even if the oil saturation remained constant. During the CO2 injection steps, the impedance showed almost no change with CO2 saturation because the brine in the pores became immobile after the oil injection.

  2. Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, T.

    1995-12-31

    When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Chukwudeme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

  4. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more

  5. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.

    1999-01-31

    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely transferred to operators, particularly to small or medium-sized independent U.S. companies. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is to assess the feasibility of promising oil and gas technologies that offer improved operating performance, reduced operating costs, or greater environmental protection. To further this mission, the NPTO provided funding to a partnership of three organizations a DOE national laboratory (Argonne National Laboratory), a private-sector consulting firm (CH2M-Hill), and a state government agency (Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission) to assess the feasibility of DOWS. The purpose of this report is to provide general information to the industry on DOWS by describing the existing uses of simultaneous injection, summarizing the regulatory implications of simultaneous injection, and assessing the potential future uses of the technology. Chapter 2 provides a more detailed description of the two major types of DOWS. Chapter 3 summarizes the existing U.S. and Canadian installations of DOWS equipment, to the extent that operators have been willing to share their data. Data are provided on the location and geology of existing installations, production information before and after installation of the DOWS, and costs. Chapter 4 provides an overview of DOWS-specific regulatory requirements imposed by some state agencies and discusses the regulatory implications of handling produced water downhole, rather than pumping it to the surface and reinjecting it. Findings and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5 and a list of the references cited in the report is provided in Chapter 6. Appendix A presents detailed data on DOWS installations. This report presents the findings of Phase 1 of the simultaneous injection project, the feasibility assessment. Another activity of the Phase 1 investigation is to design a study plan for Phase 2 of the project, field pilot studies. The Phase 2 study plan is being developed separately and is not included in this report.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

  7. A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    D. TAMILVENDHAN; ILANGOVAN.V

    2011-01-01

    A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that...

  8. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG's and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline

  9. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil reservoir management methodology to maximize both fluid recovery and free up currently injected HC gases for domestic consumption. Moreover, this study identified the main uncertainty parameters impacting the gas and oil production performance with all proposed alternatives. Maximizing both fluids oil and gas in oil rim reservoir are challenging. The reservoir heterogeneity will have a major impact on the performance of non hydrocarbon gas flooding. Therefore, good reservoir description is a key to achieve acceptable development process and make reliable prediction. The lab study data were used successfully to as a tool to identify the range of uncertainty parameters that are impacting the hydrocarbon recovery.

  10. Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

    1999-07-01

    This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

  11. Explosive water-in-oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, K.; Fukatsu, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1980-06-04

    Explosive water-in-oil emulsions are described consisting of 50-90% weight ammonium nitrate (or mixtures with added inorganic salts), 5-20% weight H/sub 2/O, 2-7% weight oil or wax, 1-5% weight emulsion, hollow microspheres (eg glass, quartz) and an effervescent substance. The use of 1-hydroxy-ethyl-2-inidazoline derivatives as emulsion was essential for good stability on storage. The advantages of this invention are illustrated using 7 examples.

  12. Geothermal water temperature distribution trough a injection-production well system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzynski, R.; Nowak, W.; Sobanski, R. [Politechnika Szczecinska, Szczecin (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    In the paper is considered problem of mineralized geothermal water utilisation through a one-well injection-production system. This kind of system is especially suitable for utilisation of existing former oil production`s wells, and for supplying the nearest receivers of produced heat. For concentric assembled pipes there are presented equations for geothermal water temperature distribution depending on system geometry, heat transfer resistance, temperature profile in the depth of the earth as well as rate of geothermal water flow. (Authors). 1 ref., 2 figs.

  13. Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

    2006-03-15

    Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

  14. The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecheru M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test, SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test, TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test, information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

  15. The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Inter-well tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Campina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results. (authors)

  16. Injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil for Long-Term Bioreduction of Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Watson, D. B.; Schadt, C. W.; Jardine, P. M.; Gihring, T. M.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Earles, J.; Wu, W.; Criddle, C. S.; Kemner, K. M.; Boyanov, M.

    2011-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a uranium and nitrate-contaminated aquifer with the slow-release electron donor, emulsified vegetable oil (EVO), was tested at the US DOE Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program (SBR) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. The EVO injection took place in Area 2 of the IFRC located about 300 m downgradient of the former S-3 disposal ponds. Liquid wastes, disposed in the ponds from 1951 to 1983, were primarily composed of nitric acid, plating wastes containing various metals (Cr, Ni) radionuclides (U, Tc), inorganics (nitrate, sulfate) and organic contaminants (tetrachloroethylene, acetone). Prior pond closure in 1987, large volumes of waste fluids migrated into the subsurface, down Bear Creek Valley and into Bear Creek. Contaminants detected at Area 2 were transported through a high permeability gravelly fill that is considered a preferred transport pathway for U to Bear Creek. Groundwater in the gravelly fill is contaminated with U (1-3 mg/L), sulfate (95-130 mg/L), and nitrate (20-40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg or higher U has been detected on the solid phase of the fill material. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and long-term sustainability of U(VI) reduction and immobilization, and nitrate degradation in the high permeability, high flow gravel fill using EVO as the electron donor. A one-time EVO injection was conducted over a 2 hour period in the highly permeable gravel (hydraulic conductivity 0.08 cm/sec) in the well instrumented IFRC Area 2 field plot. Extensive monitoring of geochemical parameters, dissolved gases and microbial populations were conducted during the test. A bromide tracer test was conducted prior to the injection of the EVO to assess transport pathways and rates. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential bioreduction of oxygen, nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of U and nitrate from groundwater was observed in all wells in hydraulic connection to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. U concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 30 ppb (US EPA drinking water standard) at some well locations and nitrate was reduced to below detectable levels. Rebound of U in groundwater was observed together with the rebound of sulfate concentrations as the EVO was consumed. The flux of U and nitrate contamination from groundwater to the surface water receptor (Bear Creek) was significantly reduced by the EVO injection over a one year period. Uranium (VI) reduction to U(IV) in the field tests was confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. The reduced U(IV) was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) to be in an Fe-U complex, not uraninite. The activities of major Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria with U(VI)-reducing capability as well as methanogens was stimulated after injection of the oil.

  17. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  18. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  19. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive. PMID:26420092

  20. Determination of oil and water compositions of oil/water emulsions using low field NMR relaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirotchnik, K; Allsopp, K.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry techniques were developed in the laboratory to enhance and support comparable NMR logging tools now in use downhole. In heavy oil and bitumen formations where thermal recovery methods are utilized, the fluids produced during the production operations are often in the form of emulsions. Although to a lesser degree, it is also the case in non-thermal recovery methods whenever oil and water are co-produced. Conventional flow measuring methods are adequate for the measurement of segregated oil and water streams, but are not capable of producing appropriate results when oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions are present. The same is true in the case of solids flowing in the stream. The accurate measurement of oil and water content of streams with and without emulsions in the samples were successfully tested using low field NMR relaxometry. The results obtained were at least as good as conventional extraction methods. The validation was carried out with artificially and naturally occurring emulsified streams. The accuracy of the results was 96 per cent or better. These favorable results favorably influenced the design of an on-line NMR relaxometer for oil/water stream measurements under the same conditions present during the production of heavy oil and bitumen. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

  2. Adsorption of diatoms at the oil-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahi, Niloofar; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Statistically robust experimental observations on 3D trajectory of diatoms approaching an oil-water interface is crucial for understanding sorption mechanisms of active particles, and interfacial rheology with over-arching implications in interfacial dynamics, droplet break and coalescence. Digital Holographic Cinematography is utilized to measure 3-D trajectories of diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudomona and T. weissflogii and simultaneously track the interface. Experiments are conducted in a 300 × 100 × 100 mm chamber containing 32 ppt artificial seawater. A stationary pendant drop is created on the tip of a needle located at the center of the chamber. Three oil samples, Louisiana crude, hexadecane, and mineral oil, are used. Diatoms are injected at a height above the drop with a negligible velocity, where Diatom precipitates freely on its excess weight. Holograms of diatom and drop are recorded at 5 fps with a magnification of 1.3X and are streamed in real time allowing for long-term study of sorption onto a slowly aging interface. A novel autofocus algorithm enables us to determine 3D locations within an uncertainty of 0.05 particle diameter. This allows us to perform super-resolution measurement to determine the effects of location and orientation of diatoms on the adsorption rate at the oil-water interface. Funded by GoMRI.

  3. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  4. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

  5. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  6. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  7. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  8. Treatment of oil pollution on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil or other polluting material on or near the surface of a body of water is treated by a device comprising a tube having a slot through which fluid within the tube emerges. A cover directs the emerging fluid over the curved outer surface of the tube. The fluid may be water or a mixture of water and a dispersant. The device may be provided with fins. Some or all of the treated water may be collected in a tank and some or all may be returned to the sea. The device may be rendered buoyant by a pair of floats or may be part of a larger sea-going vessel. (Author)

  9. Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) present promising ''greener'' substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported in the literature, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. Experiments were also conducted using various blends of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), smoke opacity, CO2, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on Jatropha oil (preheated and blends), performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior. (author)

  10. Intercomparison of oil spill prediction models for accidental blowout scenarios with and without subsea chemical dispersant injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolofsky, Scott A; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C; Aman, Zachary M; Johansen, Øistein; Konkel, Wolfgang J; Lindo, David; Madsen, Mads N; North, Elizabeth W; Paris, Claire B; Rasmussen, Dorte; Reed, Mark; Rønningen, Petter; Sim, Lawrence H; Uhrenholdt, Thomas; Anderson, Karl G; Cooper, Cortis; Nedwed, Tim J

    2015-07-15

    We compare oil spill model predictions for a prototype subsea blowout with and without subsea injection of chemical dispersants in deep and shallow water, for high and low gas-oil ratio, and in weak to strong crossflows. Model results are compared for initial oil droplet size distribution, the nearfield plume, and the farfield Lagrangian particle tracking stage of hydrocarbon transport. For the conditions tested (a blowout with oil flow rate of 20,000 bbl/d, about 1/3 of the Deepwater Horizon), the models predict the volume median droplet diameter at the source to range from 0.3 to 6mm without dispersant and 0.01 to 0.8 mm with dispersant. This reduced droplet size owing to reduced interfacial tension results in a one to two order of magnitude increase in the downstream displacement of the initial oil surfacing zone and may lead to a significant fraction of the spilled oil not reaching the sea surface. PMID:26021288

  11. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. PMID:22592548

  12. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  13. Comparison of asymmetric with symmetric feed oil injection parameters in a riser reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B. J.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    1999-04-20

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code was used to determine the effects of product yields of three feed injection parameters in a fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) riser reactor. This study includes the effects of both symmetrical and non-symmetrical injection parameters. All these parameters have significant effects on the feed oil spray distribution, vaporization rates and the resulting product yields. This study also indicates that optimum parameter ranges exist for the investigated parameters.

  14. Keratopathy and pachymetric changes after photorefractive keratectomy and vitrectomy with silicone oil injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, H; Vesti Nielsen, N

    2000-01-01

    We present a man who, after bilateral excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for high myopia in the right eye, had repeated retinal detachment surgery with lensectomy and injection of silicone oil. Visual acuity fluctuated in accordance with significant central corneal thickness diurnal variation. The case illustrates the possibility of PRK as a predisposing factor for keratopathy after retinal detachment surgery with silicone injection in an aphakic eye.

  15. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch; Kjøller, Claus; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeabil......Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  16. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny; Plambech, M

    2012-01-01

    MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Results: One review and seven case reports were identified. Eight case reports describe oleomas caused...... by repeated intramuscular injections of anabolic steroids. Conclusions: SEOs cause sclerosing lipogranulomatosis and its progression may lead to lifelong complications. Thorough radiologic evaluation is important to plan surgical revisions in active phases. Also antibiotics, steroids, and compression...

  17. Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents an introduction to beam injection. Especially considered are single-turn injection, multi-turn injection, H- charge-exchange injection, and injection from a cyclotron into a synchrotron. Finally some novel injection schemes are briefly mentioned. (HSI)

  18. Nuclear-energy application studied as source of injection steam for heavy-oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study into the feasibility of adapting a well-proven nuclear reactor as a centralized source of injection steam for the recovery of heavy oil has shown that the reactor modifications are practicable and well within the bounds of current technology. The gas-cooled reactor is capable of meeting the highest steam supply pressure requirement and it possesses a high degree of inherent safety. The injection of steam for the recovery of heavy oil is the most well developed of the available options. At current price levels of oil and uranium, nuclear heat can be generated at a fraction of the running costs of oil fired thermal plant. Taken over a project lifetime of 25 years for the field model used for this assessment, the improved earnings for the nuclear option could amount to as much as /10 billion. The program requirements for a typical development have been examined and the construction times for the gas reactor steam plant, the oil-field development and the upgrading plant are compatible at between five and six years. The economic advantage of steam generation by nuclear energy gives a further recovery breakthrough. It becomes possible to continue the steam drive process up to much more adverse recovery ratios of steam quantity injected for unit oil produced if nuclear energy is employed

  19. Destruction of secondary water-oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.; Isayev, M.G.; Nikolayeva, T.M.; Zheryakova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The article advances a number of requirements for the object, methods and means of destroying secondary water-oil emulsions (WOE) which currently cannot be recovered. By using the latest advances in science: chemistry of oil and surfactants, physicochemical surface phenomena, physical mechanics of dispersed systems, hydrodynamics and engineering chemistry jointly with the fundamentals of economics, efficient solutions are indicated for stabilization of the composition and property of WOE, and their destruction in a stationary technological process. A flowsheet is established for the recommended technology.

  20. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

  1. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation of continuous CO2 flooding with uniform initial water saturation. As a follow-up of the previous study, this study extends theinvestigation to two more realistic scenarios (1) CO2 injection into water flooded reservoir and (2) water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection with CO2 as the injection gas. A series of 1-D simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different factors, including temperature, pressure, salinity, water injection pore volume, WAG ratio and CO2 slug size, on the simulation results was also discussed. In addition, the results for CO2 injection into water flooded reservoirs were also compared with those from the previous study.

  2. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  3. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. In order to meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling and foaming the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years. In order to inhibit gas hydrate formation in subsea pipelines monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and to evaluate their impact on marine life. Furthermore distribution of chemicals is important information for downstream processing of oil and gas. The purpose of this project is the experimental measurement and the thermodynamic modeling of distribution of these complex chemicals in oil-water systems. Traditionally distribution of chemicals in oil-water system is calculated using octanol-water partition coefficients. But experiments carried out by StatoilR & D have shown that octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) do not always mimic oil-water partition coefficients (Koil-water) and therefore calculations may not be always correct. In the first phase of this project experimental data on Kow, Koil-water and Khw (hexane-water partition coefficients) are collected and investigations were carried out to develop correlations so that Koil-water can be predicted using Kow and Khw. However, due to scarcity of experimental data and limited information about the molecular structure of production chemicals the correlation could only be obtained for few families like alcohols, glycols and alkanolamines with varying degree of reliability. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. When methanol and MEG are used as gas hydrate inhibitors, the most significant disadvantage, especially for methanol, is their loss in hydrocarbon phase(s). The successful estimation of inhibitor loss would enable the inhibitors injection optimization as a function of the system parameters such as temperature and water cut. In this project the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol, MEG) in various phases is modeled using the CPA EoS. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems containing mixture-1 over a range of temperature and pressure. Similarly the methanol content in gas phase of mixture-1 + water + methanol systems is predicted satisfactorily with accuracy in the range of experimental uncertainty. For VLLE of mixture-2 + water, mixture-2 + MEG + water and mixture-2 + methano

  4. Co2 injection into oil reservoir associated with structural deformation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the problem of structural deformation with two-phase flow of carbon sequestration is presented. A model to simulate miscible CO2 injection with structural deformation in the aqueous phase is established. In the first part of this paper, we developed analytical solution for the problem under consideration with certain types of boundary conditions, namely, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The second part concerns to numerical simulation using IMPDES scheme. A simulator based on cell-centered finite difference method is used to solve this equations system. Distributions of CO2 saturation, and horizontal and vertical displacements have been introduced.

  5. Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Moradi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

  6. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  8. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the strategic petroleum reserve : hydrodynamics experiments with simulant liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Shollenberger, Kim Ann (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA); Torczynski, John Robert; Cote, Raymond O.; Barney, Jeremy; O' Hern, Timothy John

    2003-10-01

    An experimental program is being conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal is to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. This report documents the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids are used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward from a tube into brine. The experiment consists of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil injection process at the SPR. An oil layer is floated on top of a brine layer. Silicon oil (Dow Corning 200{reg_sign} Fluid, 5 cSt) is used as the simulant for crude oil to allow visualization of the flow and to avoid flammability and related concerns. Sodium nitrate solution is used as the simulant for brine because it is not corrosive and it can match the density ratio between brine and crude oil. The oil is injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine interface. Flow rates are determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface is deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Two different diameter injection tubes were used (1/2-inch and 1-inch OD) to vary the scaling. Use of the 1-inch injection tube also assured that turbulent pipe flow was achieved, which was questionable for lower flow rates in the 1/2-inch tube. In addition, a 1/2-inch J-tube was used to direct the buoyant jet upwards rather than downwards to determine whether flow redirection could substantially reduce the oil-plume size and the oil-droplet residence time in the brine. Reductions of these quantities would inhibit emulsion formation by limiting the contact between the oil and the brine. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth of the oil jet, the width of the jet, and the deflection of the interface. The measured penetration depths are shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model provided a good estimate of the measured values for the 1-inch injection tube but overpredicted the penetration depth for the 1/2-inch injection tube. Adding a virtual origin term would improve the prediction for the 1/2-inch tube for low to nominal injection flow rates but could not capture the rollover seen at high injection flow rates. As expected, the J-tube yielded a much narrower plume because the flow was directed upward, unlike the downward-oriented straight-tube cases where the plume had to reverse direction, leading to a much wider effective plume area. Larger surface deflections were caused by the narrower plume emitted from the J-tube. Although velocity was not measured in these experiments, the video data showed that the J-tube plume was clearly faster than those emitted from the downward-oriented tubes. These results indicate that oil injection tube modifications could inhibit emulsion formation by reducing the amount of contact (both time and area) between the oil and the brine. Future studies will employ crude oil, saturated brine, and interfacial solids (sludge) from actual SPR caverns.

  9. Study of the effect of Illite and Kaolinite on low salinity water injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rezaei-Gomari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Low salinity water flooding as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR Technique refers to the injection of brine with a lower salt content or ionic strength into an oil reservoir. Although the mechanisms have not yet been verified, the solution and surface chemistry as well as rock/fluid interactions have important roles that can be attributed to reservoir minerals being sensitive to small changes in solution properties. Among the proposed mechanisms, the clay content of rock and type of clay has been of significant interest in shedding light on the low salinity water flooding process. In this paper, two clay types (illite and kaolinite have been selected to investigate the individual contribution of each on the rock surface characterization andlow salinity water flooding performance. The results from contact angle measurement on the oil-wet calcite by low salinity water at room temperature show that the presence of low content of illite in the rock materials, in contrast to the kaolinite, reduces the contact angle significantly. This observation demonstrates that the low salinity water flooding performance depends strongly on the type of clay not on the amount of clay.

  10. Water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, F.; Takahashi, M.

    1983-07-19

    A water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition which has enhanced storage stability is described. The explosive composition comprises a disperse phase formed of an aqueous oxidizer solution consisting of (1) ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and another oxidizer salt, (2) water and (3) a specifically limited weak acid salt or condensed phosphate, (4) a continuous phase consisting of fuel oil and/or wax, (5) an emulsifier, and (6) hollow microspheres or microbubbles. The weak acid salts consist of lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium salts of carbonic acid, boric acid, acetic acid, silicic acid, and citric acid. As the condensed phosphates, use is made of orthophosphates, polyphosphates, metaphosphates, and ultraphosphates. 6 claims.

  11. Study of processes involved in oil spill gathering in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate flow of an oil/water mixture along a tray has been found possible only at very low rates. Higher flowrates cause surges where some oil globules begin running away from the bulk of blocked oil, skipping under the boom used in experiments. It has been found that booms used for gathering oil spills on the water surface will be efficient of water flows below 0.16 m/sec. 2 figs

  12. Coherence of accelerated water bulk induced by rapid air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment of pressurized air injection into water-filled vessel with inner diameter 2 m was examined, to evaluate magnitude of water hammer induced by strike of accelerated water bulk due to steam explosion in ex-vessel coolant pool. And correlation of the bulk movement observed in past and this experiment, predicted water hammer pressure in the vessel. And, index to investigate degree of coherence, which affects the magnitude, was suggested and applied to two-dimensional analysis with two components. Two conclusions are highlighted. (1) Experiment of pressurized air injection into water filled vessel with inner diameter, 2 m, declared scale independent factor and scale effect of water bulk acceleration, compared with past experiments by smaller vessel. And expected water hammer pressure in the vessel was estimated based on the experiments. (2) Relative difference between velocity of bulk and that of bulk unit as vector was suggested as index to evaluate coherence of water bulk movement quantitatively. And application of the index to result of analysis with RELAP5-3D indicated this index was available and influence of growing bubble shape to the coherence was evidenced. (authors)

  13. Mathematical modeling of chemical oil-soluble transport for water control in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiollahi, H.; Ziabakhsh, Z.; Zitha, P. L. J.

    2012-08-01

    High water-cut is a long-standing problem in the upstream petroleum industry. Typically one-fourth of the produced fluids from oil wells worldwide are hydrocarbons and the remaining is water. Self-selective in-situ gel formation is a new potential technology to decrease the production of water from oil reservoirs. In this method an oil-soluble chemical is being injected in the reservoir. The chemical, which in this case is tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate or tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) reacts with water and ultimately results in the formation of a semi-rigid gel in the water phase. Due to this gelation, the relative permeabilities of the formation to water and oil change in favor of the oil phase; therefore the ultimate effect of this gelation is a reduction of the water production rate from the reservoir. The subject of this paper was to model the flow of TMOS in a core, including the mass transfer of TMOS from oil phase to the water phase, and the occurring chemical reaction in the water phase.

  14. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  15. Modeling and detection of oil in sea water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covaria...

  16. EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahalingam; B. R. RameshBapu

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cyl...

  17. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  18. Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

  19. Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University via test and analyses. In this paper, experiments on melt quenching by the injection of water from below are addressed. The test section represented one-dimensional flow-channel simulation of the bottom injection of water into a core melt in the reactor cavity. The melt simulant was molten lead or a lead alloy (Pb-Bi). For the experimental conditions employed (i.e., melt depth and water flow rates), it was found that: (1) the volumetric heat removal rate increased with increasing water mass flow rate and (2) the non-condensable gas mixed with the injected water had no impairing effect on the overall heat removal rate. Implications of these current experimental findings for ALWR ex-vessel coolability are discussed

  20. Preparation and characterization of water/oil and water/oil/water emulsions containing biopolymer-gelled water droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Jeonghee; Vladisavljevi Cacute, Goran T; Mun, Saehun; McClements, D Julian

    2007-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to create water-in-oil (W/O) and water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions containing gelled internal water droplets. Twenty weight percent W/O emulsions stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (6.4 wt % polyglycerol polyricinoleate, PGPR) were prepared that contained either 0 or 15 wt % whey protein isolate (WPI) in the aqueous phase, with the WPI-containing emulsions being either unheated or heated (80 degrees C for 20 min) to gel the protein. Optical microscopy and sedimentation tests did not indicate any significant changes in droplet characteristics of the W/O emulsions depending on WPI content (0 or 15%), shearing (0-7 min at constant shear), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C for 30 min), or storage at room temperature (up to 3 weeks). W/O/W emulsions were produced by homogenizing the W/O emulsions with an aqueous Tween 20 solution using either a membrane homogenizer (MH) or a high-pressure valve homogenizer (HPVH). For the MH the mean oil droplet size decreased with increasing number of passes, whereas for the HPVH it decreased with increasing number of passes and increasing homogenization pressure. The HPVH produced smaller droplets than the MH, but the MH produced a narrower particle size distribution. All W/O/W emulsions had a high retention of water droplets (>95%) within the larger oil droplets after homogenization. This study shows that W/O/W emulsions containing oil droplets with gelled water droplets inside can be produced by using MH or HPVH. PMID:17199330

  1. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  2. Underground upgrading of heavy oil using THAI : toe-to-heel air injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, M.; Xia, T.X. [Bath Univ., Bath, England (United Kingdom); Ayasse, C. [Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd. is building its first field test of the Toe-to-Heel Air Injection (THAI) process through its subsidiary, Whitesands Insitu Ltd. THAI is a thermal recovery method that achieves very stable combustion performance in heavy oil wells by controlling gas override. It also captures the underground upgrading because the horizontal producer well process operates through by a short-distance displacement mechanism, similar to that of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. In the THAI process, injected air migrates preferentially to the combustion front into a horizontal producer well. This paper described the reservoir and site features, processing plant design, pilot objectives and the expected economics and environmental benefits of the pilot project at Christina Lake, Alberta. There is a stable combustion front propagation in all THAI direct line-drive well configurations, which include a parallel pair arrangement. Very high sweep efficiencies are achieved, according to the movement of the high temperature front through the sandpack. A well-controlled, narrow mobile oil zone (MOZ) lies just ahead ahead of the combustion front, creating a pathway for the injected air to reach the combustion front and for combustion gases and mobilized fluids to be produced via the open section of the horizontal producer well. A cold heavy oil layer exists downstream of the combustion front-MOZ region. Results indicate that excellent upgrading can be achieved and there were several positive indicators regarding the quality of the produced oil. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. Modelling the effect of gas injections on the stability of asphaltene-containing crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Moorwood, T. [Infochem, Munich (Germany); Merino Garcia, D.; Pena Diez, J.L. [Repsol YPF, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    In oil fields where asphaltene deposits occur, they present major remediation problems and can halt production due to flow blockage. Crude oils which precipitate asphaltenes generally contain both asphaltene molecules and lighter resin molecules. Resins are thought to solvate the asphaltene molecules, thus stabilizing the solution, while light gases have the opposite effect. In order to model asphaltene phase behaviour, it is important to understand the impact of adding gas to asphaltene-containing crudes. This study presented several experimental investigations of gas injection into asphaltene-containing crudes. The trends of asphaltene destabilization were discussed. The injection gases ranged from pure gases to a gas condensate. The data were modelled using a conventional equation of state together with an extra term that considered the association between asphaltene molecules and their solvation by resins. Since the model could simultaneously described the gas, oil and asphaltene phases, it was possible to calculate phase stability and phase equilibria. However, a different model had to be used to obtain the gas-oil equilibrium because the use of solubility parameters only allows the stability of the asphaltene phase to be calculated. The model correctly predicted that the gases will promote asphaltene precipitation. In its original form, the model tended to over-predict the trend. The optimal parameter values needed to represent all the available experimental data were determined. The extent to which the effect of gas injection on asphaltenes can be predicted was then discussed.

  4. Bio-physicochemical treatment of oil contaminated sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces a combined physicochemical and biological process for treatment of oil contaminated sea water. In this process, a new polymeric surfactant is successfully applied with a dosage of 0.0015 g/g of crude oil to accumulate oil spots on the sea water in a microcosm. In the next step, microbial degradation of accumulated oil spots using isolated bacteria from oil contaminated Caspian Sea water was studied. The results of a proposed process for treatment of contaminated sea water in a pilot scale, using a 1500-l microcosm with several basins at different conditions are presented

  5. Experimental study of low flow steam injection into subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experimental study of low-flow vapor injection, three different modes of steam chugging were observed. For one of these modes, the encapsulating bubble chug, photos are presented from detailed motion pictures of the steam/water interface; and the pressure oscillations at the pool solid boundaries are plotted. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic motion is not severely affected by the heat transfer except when turbulence is generated at the interface. 9 refs

  6. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch; Kjøller, Claus; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeability when sandstones are heated from 20°C to 70–200°C. The pore surface area per unit pore volume was used to normalise permeability data, so that the temperature effect on samples with different pore siz...

  7. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  8. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  9. Intérêt de l'injection d'eau alcaline en récupération assistée Significance of Allkaline Water Injection for Enhanced Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minssieux L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude présentée ici s'insère dans un programme de recherche destiné à déterminer les conditions d'emploi de l'injection de soude, à partir d'une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes physico-chimiques mis en jeu dans le processus de récupération de l'huile. L'activité interfaciale de la soude est liée essentiellement à la composition chimique des huiles brutes à déplacer, en particulier à leur teneur en acides. Suivant cette teneur, l'abaissement de tension interfaciale en présence de soude peut être permanent ou juste transitoire, il dépend aussi de la concentration en soude utilisée et de la salinité de l'eau d'injection. Les tests de récupération réalisés en milieux gréseux et calcaires avec différentes huiles brutes, montrent que l'amélioration de récupération obtenue par la soude, résulte de l'action combinée de deux mécanismes - importante réduction de la tension interfaciale eau-huile ; - augmentation de la mouillabilité à l'eau de la roche. Ce dernier effet a été mis en évidence par des tests complémentaires d'imbibition ou par la comparaison des perméabilités relatives déterminées avec et sans additif dans la phase aqueuse. This article reports on a research project aimed at determining the conditions for using sodium-hydroxide injection on the basis of a better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the cil recovery process. The interfacial activity of sodium hydroxide is mainly linked to the chemical composition of the crude cils to be displaced, in particular to their acid content. Depending on this content, the lowering of interfacial tension in the presence of sodium hydroxide may be permanent or merely transitory. It also depends on the sodium-hydroxide concentration utilized and on the salinity of the injection water. Recovery tests mode in sandstone and limestone media with different crude oils show that the improvement in recovery obtained with sodium hydroxide is the result of the combined action of two mechanisms, i. e. a considerable reduction in the water/cil interfacial tension and an increase in the wafer wettability of the rock. The latter effect has been revealed by supplementary imbibition tests or by comparing relative permeabilities determined with and without thé additive in the aqueous phase.

  10. Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman H. Nour; Suliman, A.; Mahmmoud M. Hadow

    2008-01-01

    During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, ...

  11. Flow oscillations induced by subcooled water injection into steam flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condensation of steam occurs when subcooled water is injected into steam flow in pipe, and steam-water condensing flow oscillates under a certain condition. The mechanisms of the oscillations and also the predominant parameters to them were made clear through both small scale simulation experiments and simplified analyses. Oscillation threshold was analyzed using the linear stability criterion. Frequencies of both plug oscillation and ON-OFF oscillation were analyzed basing on the linear oscillation theory and on a simplified analytical model, respectively. The analyses were also applied to explain the experiments by Akimoto et al. and CREARE. Heat transfer coefficients at direct contact condensation during oscillation were also discussed

  12. Combination of low salinity water flooding with surfactant injection : a new hybrid EOR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alagic, Edin

    2010-03-15

    This work addresses different aspects related to the hybrid EOR process, low salinity surfactant injection including closely connected topics such as low salinity water injection and physicochemical properties of micro emulsions. In the first part, measurements of self-diffusion, ultrasonic speed, density and viscosity (i.e., shear dependency) are evaluated as methods to detect the structural changes in the micro emulsions imposed with a variation of the brine salinity. The viscosity measurements on Winsor type micro emulsions and adjacent excess phases all show Newtonian behaviour for shear controlled measurements in the interval 1- 1 000 s-1. The microemulsion viscosity reaches a maximum at the phase transition between Winsor I and Winsor III, which is likely to be coupled to structural changes (i.e., clustering of the oil-in-water droplets where attractive interactions between separate aggregates lead to the formation of increasing number of transient clusters) or existence of a percolation threshold. Microemulsion densities seem to be a good indicator for the phase transitions. The results obtained from speed of sound and self-diffusion measurements indicate, however, structural changes of the surfactant aggregates within the Winsor I region. The diffusion coefficient of the surfactant reaches a maximum in the middle of the Winsor III phase, which coincide well with the optimal salinity, SP found in static phase behaviour studies. All investigated parameters indicate changes at the phase transition boundary from Winsor III to Winsor II. In the second part, we sought a better understanding of low salinity water injection method by conducting core displacement experiments using the same COBR ensemble. The results from both secondary and tertiary injections proves that injection of low salinity water (LS) into aged Berea core samples give a moderate increase in oil recovery compared to the results obtained with sea water (SW) as the displacing fluid. This is attributed to destabilisation of adsorbed oil layers by the injection of brine lower in salinity than the connate water. A comparison of the performance of tertiary LS floods versus secondary LS floods indicates that in both cases the total oil recovery falls roughly into the same range. It has also been shown that secondary LS floods performed on the aged core samples affect output parameters (i.e., oil recovery profile, water breakthrough (WBT), endpoint permeability to water k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) and differential pressure) in another fashion than secondary SW floods. Further, the results from secondary SW floods conducted on the aged cores were used to confirm that aging process with crude oil at elevated temperature for extended time period has indeed managed to decrease the water-wetness of the core samples. By establishing this reference and exploiting the close relationship between the aforementioned parameters and wettability, a qualitative differentiation of wettability regimes is thus used to elucidate the observed difference in behaviour of water floods. Features accompanied with secondary LS floods such as delayed WBT, reduced two-phase production period after WBT, lower k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) after LS floods at lower S{sub 0r}compared to k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) after SW floods at higher S{sub 0r}, indicate a wettability change toward more water-wet state during LS injections. An attempt to relate low k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) after LS floods to possible fines migration and subsequent blocking in pore constrictions, revealed that turbidity of the effluent from a more water-wet core (i.e., used in its natural state) was significantly higher than from the aged core. Increased turbidity of effluent indicates a larger quantity of eluted fine particles from the core matrix in the former case. Partially, these results infer that fines migration is not the predominant mechanism explaining increased oil recovery by LS injection in our experiments. The effluent ion analysis from secondary LS floods showed that Mg2+ were strongly retained in the aged cores while Ca2+ were being

  13. Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented

  14. Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, D. L.

    1985-08-13

    The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

  15. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  16. Numerical and experimental study of water/oil emulsified fuel combustion in a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Samec, Niko; Kegl, Breda; Dibble, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were made on some of the chemical and physical properties of wateržoil emulsified fuel (W/OEF) combustion characteristics. Numerical investigations of W/OEF combustion's chemical kinetic aspects have been performed by simulation of water/n-heptane mixture combustion, assuming a model of a homogenous reactor's concentric shells. The injection and fuel spray characteristics are analyzed numerically also in order to study indirectly the physical effects of wate...

  17. Hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in a heavy oil well, Pilon field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfissi, S.; Lujan, A. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Pilon Field in the Morichal District, Venezuela is producing heavy oil with numerous gas lift wells. Some of these wells are now inactive due to casing damage. The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of using hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in such wells. A pilot test was conducted on a well presenting a low water cut and 12 degree API, an indirect fire heater was installed near the wells. Results showed that heat losses were minimized thanks to the concentric pipe completion. In addition hot gas injection resulted in an oil production increase of 57%. The hot gas injection method used with a concentric tubing completion was proved to be a good alternative to the use of diluent but an economic analysis is nevertheless recommended to determine the costs of installing heating equipment.

  18. Optimal design of a novel oil-water separator for raw oil produced from ASP flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu-hong; Zhang, Dan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Xiao, Hong; Zhang, Hai-tao; Xu, Li-juan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology of Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Distillation Technology, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Oil recovery can be greatly enhanced with the ASP (Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer) flooding technology by increasing sweeping efficiency and displacing efficiency. But the emulsification of the residual chemical in the recovered oil from ASP flooding makes it very difficult to separate water from oil. To make the oil-water separation of ASP products more efficient to meet the discharge standards, some improvements need to be made on regular oil-water separators. Based on the physical properties of ASP products in Daqing Oilfield, novel packing and newly designed Crude oil-water separator are studied in this paper. Orthogonal test is used to optimize the design of the novel separator, including the structure and material of coalescent packing, as well as the operating conditions. Experiment results suggest that the separation efficiency of the new type separator is higher than 98%. Both the outlet oil phase and the water phase have met the corresponding standards. Oil concentration in the discharge water is reduced to 600 mg L{sup -} {sup 1} and average drop size is about 6 {mu}m. It can be easily concluded that the new type separator has a better performance on the oil-water separation of ASP products. At the end of this paper, the drop size distribution (DSD) in the outlet water is analyzed to provide data for the wastewater treatment process following the crude oil-water separation. (author)

  19. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  20. Wrestling challenges : CO{sub 2} cyclic injection shows promise of additional heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) cyclic injection is now being used to recovery additional heavy oil at a project in Saskatchewan. The province has an estimated 18 billion barrels of heavy oil, and only 9 per cent of it is currently recoverable using cyclic steam injection (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) techniques. The use of CO{sub 2} huff and puff technology may result in recovery rates of between 13 and 14 per cent. The technique will be field tested in the next 3 years. Miscible flooding with CO{sub 2} can be accomplished at lower temperatures and pressures than other enhanced recovery fluids. The research is being conducted by a 50-person research team that is using a full core analysis laboratory to examine rock and fluid interactions. Laboratory models are being injected with CO{sub 2} in order to reduce its viscosity. The team has now designed experiments that closely simulate heavy oil reservoirs. 3 figs.

  1. Alternative water injection device to reactor equipment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention injects water to the reactor and the reactor container continuously for a long period of time for preventing occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type reactor and maintaining the integrity of the reactor container even if the accident should occur. Namely, diesel-driven pumps disposed near heat exchangers of a reactor after-heat removing system (RHR) are operated before the reactor is damaged by the after heat to cause reactor melting. A sucking valve disposed to a pump sucking pipeline connecting a secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. A discharge valve disposed to a pump discharge pipeline connecting a primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and the diesel driving pump is opened. With such procedures, sea water is introduced from a sea water taking port through the top end of the secondary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger and water is injected into the inside of the pressure vessel or the reactor container by way of the primary pipeline of the RHR heat exchanger. As a result, the reactor core is prevented from melting even upon occurrence of a severe accident. (I.S.)

  2. A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

  3. Spontaneous Formation of Water Droplets at Oil-Solid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhongqiang; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    We report observations of spontaneous formation of micrometer-sized water droplets within micrometer-thick films of a range of different oils (isotropic and nematic 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), and silicone, olive and corn oil) that are supported on glass substrates treated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and immersed under water. Confocal imaging was used to determine that the water droplets nucleate and grow at the interface between the oils and OTS-treated glass with a contact angl...

  4. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  5. Alternating Injection of Steam and CO2 For Thermal Recovery of Heavy Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal, Kazeem Akintayo

    2011-01-01

    A combination of rising oil demand and declining supply from the conventional sources is drawing global attention to the vast heavy-oil resources. These are commonly developed with steam-based processes which, in most cases, burn fossil fuel to generate the required steam. However, tightening constraints on fuel, water, and the environment are some of the factors currently fuelling the interests in enhancements to the traditional steaming operations. To mitigate some of the ste...

  6. Dynamic graphene filters for selective gas-water-oil separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Seo, Keumyoung; Kwon, Cho-Ah; Park, Ju Hyun; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Ju, Sanghyun

    2015-09-01

    Selective filtration of gas, water, and liquid or gaseous oil is essential to prevent possible environmental pollution and machine/facility malfunction in oil-based industries. Novel materials and structures able to selectively and efficiently filter liquid and vapor in various types of solutions are therefore in continuous demand. Here, we investigate selective gas-water-oil filtration using three-dimensional graphene structures. The proposed approach is based on the adjustable wettability of three-dimensional graphene foams. Three such structures are developed in this study; the first allows gas, oil, and water to pass, the second blocks water only, and the third is exclusively permeable to gas. In addition, the ability of three-dimensional graphene structures with a self-assembled monolayer to selectively filter oil is demonstrated. This methodology has numerous potential practical applications as gas, water, and/or oil filtration is an essential component of many industries.

  7. Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation

  8. The water footprint of olives and olive oil in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Salmoral Portillo, Gloria; Aldaya, Maite M.; Chico Zamanillo, Daniel; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto; Llamas Madurga, Manuel Ramón

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the water footprint of Spanish olives and olive oil over the period 1997-2008. In particular, it analyses the three colour components of the water footprint: green (rainwater stored in the soil), blue (surface and groundwater) and grey (freshwater required to assimilate load of pollutants). Apparent water productivity and virtual water embedded in olive oil exports have also been studied. Results show more than 99.5% of the water footprint of one liter of bottled olive oi...

  9. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter permeability when sandstones are heated from 20°C to 70–200°C. The pore surface area per unit pore volume was used to normalise permeability data, so that the temperature effect on samples with different pore size could be compared. In sandstones containing the clay mineral kaolinite, heating reduced permeability, suggesting that the observed permeability reduction was due to kaolinite mobilisation. The effect was partly reversible.

  10. Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK Bayram; Güven, Kasim C.; Nesimigil, Filiz; Cumali, Selin; Dede, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea was investigated from the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) to the Marmaris Harbour, during 17-25 April in 2005. The oil pollution of samples was determined by UVF, through various crude oils and also chrysene as references materials. The oil pollution in water was ranged from 6.17 ?g/L at Datca to 59.58 ?g/L at Kusadasi through Russian crude oil equivalent. The highest polluted areas were Babakale-Kusadasi Bay, West of Giadoros Islan...

  11. Synthesis of radiolabelled organic compounds for use as water tracers in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injection of water into oil containing strata to maintain field pressure and to replace oil is usually the primary choice to enhance oil-recovery. Use of tracer methods is becoming an important part of the oil companies' basis for making economical decisions. Such water tracing requires passive tracers, i.e. compounds that behave exactly like the substance studied under the conditions of interest. This implies that a water-tracer in a water-flooded oil-field must fulfil requirements like no absorption to reservoir rock, no partitioning (or distribution) with respect to the other fluids present, long time thermal stability, microbial resistance and high detectability. In addition, the tracer compound has to be environmentally acceptable and available at a reasonable cost. Among the extensive number of compounds tested according to these criteria in the laboratory we have qualified four compounds as tracers for water in oil reservoirs. For three of them we propose radiolabelling syntheses with 14C as radioactive label to lower detection limits. The compounds are benzene 1,2- and 1,3-dicarboxylic acids and benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. (author)

  12. A study of water chemistry extends the benefits of using silica-based nanoparticles on enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry of the injected water has been investigated as an important parameter to improve/enhance oil recovery (IOR/EOR). Numerous extensive experiments have observed that water chemistry, such as ionic composition and salinity, can be modified for IOR/EOR purposes. However, the possible oil displacement mechanism remains debatable. Nanoparticle recently becomes more popular that have shown a great potential for IOR/EOR purposes in lab-scale, where in most experiments, water-based fluid were used as dispersed fluid. As yet, there has been no discussion in the literature on the study of water chemistry on enhanced oil recovery using silica-based nanoparticles. A broad range of laboratory studies involving rock, nanoparticles and fluid characterization; fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions; surface conductivity measurement; coreflood experiment; injection strategy formulation; filtration mechanism and contact angle measurement are conducted to investigate the impact of water chemistry, such as water salinity and ionic composition including hardness cations, on the performance of silica-based nanoparticles in IOR/EOR process and reveal possible displacement mechanism. The experimental results demonstrated that water salinity and ionic composition significantly impacted oil recovery using hydrophilic silica-based nanoparticles and that the oil recovery increased with the salinity. The primary findings from this study are that the water salinity, the ionic composition and the injection strategy are important parameters to be considered in Nano-EOR.

  13. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  14. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  15. Crack Extension in Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale Cores Using Viscous Oil, Water, and Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennour, Ziad; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Nagaya, Yuya; Chen, Youqing; Nara, Yoshitaka; Chen, Qu; Sekine, Kotaro; Nagano, Yu

    2015-07-01

    We performed hydraulic fracturing experiments on cylindrical cores of anisotropic shale obtained by drilling normal to the sedimentary plane. Experiments were conducted under ambient condition and uniaxial stresses, using three types of fracturing fluid: viscous oil, water, and liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2). In the experiments using water and oil, cracks extended along the loading direction normal to the sedimentary plane under the uniaxial loading and extended along the sedimentary plane without loading. These results suggest that the direction of crack extension is strongly affected by in situ stress conditions. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that hydraulic fracturing with viscous oil produced linear cracks with few branches, whereas that with water produced cracks with many branches inclining from the loading axis. Statistical analysis of P wave polarity of acoustic emission waveforms showed that viscous oil tended to induce Mode I fracture, whereas both water and L-CO2 tended to induce Mode II fracture. Crack extension upon injection of L-CO2 was independent of loading condition unlike extension for the other two fluids. This result seemed attributable to the low viscosity of L-CO2 and was consistent with previous observations for granite specimens that low-viscosity fluids like CO2 tend to induce widely extending cracks with many branches, with Mode II fractures being dominant. These features are more advantageous for shale gas production than those induced by injection of conventional slick water.

  16. EMISSION ANALYSIS OF DI-DIESEL ENGINE AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES USING JATROPHA AND RUBBER SEED OIL BLENDED WITH DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahalingam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a renewable fuel has been considered as the best alternate for diesel fuel now a days.This fossil fuel can be used in diesel engine with or without any modi?cation.The injection pressure and injection timing are the major influencing parameters forthe performance and emission of diesel engine.In thispresentstudy,the emission analysis of vegetable oil, Jatropha oil and rubber seed oil crushed from the seed, esterified and blended with pure diesel fuel. A single cylinder constant speed direct injection (DI diesel engine has been used to analyze the emission characteristics of biodiesel.The diesel engine for various fuel injection pressures (210,220 and 240 bar at no load to full load wasinvestigated. The injection pressure was changed in the engine head by adjusting the fuel injector spring tension. The two proportions of biodiesel were used in diesel engine such as 20% of biodiesel (Jatropha oil and Rubber seed oil with 80% of pure diesel fuel named as B20 and 40% of biodiesel with 60% of pure diesel fuel named as B40.From the test result,the nitric oxide (NOx was analyzed for different injection pressures. In emission characteristicsanalysis, it was found that the increase in injector opening pressure increases the NOxemission. The injection pressure of 240 bar and B20 proportion gives better emission reduction compared to other blended fuels.

  17. Oxidative Stability and Rheological Properties of Oil-In-Water Emulsions with Walnut Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kremena Nikovska

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative stability of walnut oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with walnut oil stabilized bysoy protein isolate (SI) and Whey Protein Isolate (W PI) was evaluated. The food emulsions w ere more stablethan walnut oil, as indicated by measuring the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. It wasshown that the emulsions with WPI had a better oxidative stability than the emulsions with SI, probably dueto the ability of whey proteins to inactivate peroxil radicals. In additio...

  18. Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski Branislava G.; Ili? Jelena D.; Sovilj Milan N.; Nikoli? Milan P.; Milanovi? Jadranka L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly ...

  19. Geochemical monitoring of fluid-rock interaction and CO2 storage at the Weyburn CO2-injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weyburn Oil Field, Saskatchewan is the site of a large (5000 tonnes/day of CO2) CO2-EOR injection project By EnCana Corporation. Pre- and post-injection samples (Baseline and Monitor-1, respectively) of produced fluids from approximately 45 vertical wells were taken and chemically analyzed to determine changes in the fluid chemistry and isotope composition between August 2000 and March 2001. After 6 months of CO2 injection, geochemical parameters including pH, [HCO3], [Ca], [Mg], and ?13CO2(g) point to areas in which injected CO2 dissolution and reservoir carbonate mineral dissolution have occurred. Pre-injection fluid compositions suggest that the reservoir brine in the injection area may be capable of storing as much as 100 million tonnes of dissolved CO2. Modeling of water-rock reactions show that clay minerals and feldspar, although volumetrically insignificant, may be capable of acting as pH buffers, allowing injected CO2 to be stored as bicarbonate in the formation water or as newly precipitated carbonate minerals, given favorable reaction kinetics

  20. Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Behavior of water spray injected into air/steam environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of a water spray injected into both an air and a steam environment was studied. The water spray was divided into two parts - sheet portion and droplet portion. An analytical model is proposed for explaining the spray behavior. Experiments were performed to substantiate the analytical results. Holographic pictures were used to obtain the droplet size distribution. These size distributions were used for computing the motion of spray droplets in the analytical model. For the sprays used in this study, the sheet portion plays a very important role in the heat transfer phenomenon. The spray angle is primarily governed by the sheet portion. In addition, the axial extent (length) of sheet is a very important parameter in determining the spray angle. A correlation is obtained experimentally for breakup length in terms of the Weber number and the Jakob number

  2. Multisyringe flow injection spectrophotometric determination of uranium in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis method for the determination of uranium in water samples was developed. The methodology was based on the complexation reaction of uranium with arsenazo (III) at pH 2.0. Uranium concentrations were spectrophotometrically detected at 649 nm using a light emitting diode. Under the optimized conditions, a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 4.0 ?g mL-1, a 3? detection limit of 0.04 ?g mL-1, and a 10? quantification limit of 0.10 ?g mL-1 were obtained. The reproducibility (%) at 0.5, 2.5, and 4.0 ?g mL-1 was 2.5, 0.9, and 0.6%, respectively (n = 10). The interference effect of some ions was tested. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of uranium in water samples. (author)

  3. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  4. An oil removal system for an oil-injected screw compressor on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent emergence of small capacity closed cycle helium refrigeration used in conjunction with industrial superconducting devices has placed great emphasis on the long term reliability of the refrigerator. Formerly the limitations of the refrigeration plant were in the reciprocating expansion machines. With the advent of the gas-lubricated expansion turbine, which, when operated with a reasonably clean gas supply, has a virtually infinite life, the limitations of the compressor have become dominant. Developments are discussed in the improvement of oil removal equipment used in conjunction with a rotary screw compressor having an overall potential reliability of that presently being achieved by the refrigerator turboexpanders. (author)

  5. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  6. Simultaneous injection of polymer and surfactant for improving oil recovery; Injecao simultanea de polimero e surfactante para aumento da recuperacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Ana C.R.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Fagundes, Fabio P.; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

    2004-07-01

    The injection of polymeric solutions in petroleum reservoirs is a supplemental method of petroleum recovery, that seeks to increase the volumetric efficiency of swept of the oil with the decrease of the mobility of the injection water. In the contact between two non miscible fluids, superficial tensions are established, that can influence the relations between the rock and the fluids, depending on the nature of both. Therefore, the combined injection of a surfactant and a polymer can promote improvements in the injectivity and in the global recovery efficiency. In this work it was used samples of commercial polyacrylamide, which were characterized through hydrolysis degree, molecular weight and rheological behavior. From these results it was chosen one sample to be used associated to a polymeric surfactant. Through a core flood system, the following tests were done: injection of polymer solution; injection of surfactant solution followed by polymer solution and injection of surfactant / polymer mixture. The results showed that the injection of surfactant / polymer mixture promoted a significant increase in the residual resistance factor, in relation to the other situations. (author)

  7. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  8. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  9. Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

  10. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  11. Isotopic composition of uranium, water and oils of some oil-gas bearing provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study into the pattern of distribution of uranium isotopes and 234U/238U ratio in the stratal waters, oils and water-bearing rocks of active water-exchange zones and oil fields in Central Asia, the Terek-Sunzha region, and the Volga region has been made. The radioactive ratios for stratal waters in the water-oil contact area are suggestive of an active isotopic exchange which leads to an isotopic equilibrium at the water-oil interface. The less intensive interphase isotopic exchange of uranium in the ''oil-rock'' system, as compared to the ''water-rock'' system, is indicative of a stronger link between uranium and oil, than between uranium and water. The deficit of the 234U isotope in the hypergenesis zone attests to the fact that, in the active water-exchange zone, depletion of rocks in 234U is currently taking place, while the values of 234U/238U ratios close to equilibrium, in water-bearing rocks indicate the absence of processes of intensive uranium migration in the rocks of the oil-gas provinces studied

  12. Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

  13. Injector-internal thermal desorption from edible oils performed by programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Grob, Koni

    2006-10-01

    Injector-internal thermal desorption is a promising technique for the analysis of a wide range of food components (e.g., flavors) or food contaminants (e.g., solvent residues, pesticides, or migrants from packaging materials) in edible oils and fats or fatty food extracts. Separation from the fatty matrix occurs during injection. Using programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injection, the oily sample or sample extract was deposited on a small pack of glass wool from which the components of interest were evaporated and transferred into the column in splitless mode, leaving behind the bulk of the matrix. Towards the end of the analysis, the oil was removed by heating out the injector and backflushing the precolumn. The optimization dealt with the gas supply configuration enabling backflush, the injector temperature program (sample deposition, desorption, and heating out), separation of the sample liquid from the syringe needle and positioning it on a support, deactivation of the support surface, holding the plug of fused silica wool by a steel wire, and the analytical sequence maintaining adsorptivity at the desorption site low. It was performed for a mixture of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticizers in oil or fatty food. Using MS in SIM, the detection limit was below 0.1 mg/kg for plasticizers forming single peaks and 1 mg/kg for mixtures like diisodecyl phthalate. For plasticizers, RSDs of the concentrations were below 10%; for the slip agents, oleamide and erucamide, it was 12%. The method of incorporating PTV injection was used for about one year for determining the migration from the gaskets of lids for glass jars into oily foods. PMID:17120821

  14. Technique for locating injected gas in oil bearing formations behind casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for determining the location of injected gas in an oil well comprising the steps of: obtaining data representing a near count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; obtaining data representing a far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool; scaling the near count rate and the far count rate; plotting the scaled near count rate and the scaled far rate; comparing the scaled near count rate plot and the scaled far count rate plot and; determining the location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled near count rate and the plot of the scaled far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; obtaining data representing a second near count rate for a compensated neutron logging tool at a second time; obtaining data representing a second far count rate from a compensated neutron logging tool at the second time; scaling the second near count rate and the second far count rate; plotting the scaled second near count rate and the scaled second far count rate; comparing the scaled second near count rate plot and the scaled second far count rate plot; determining a second location of injected gas whenever the plot of the scaled second near count rate and the plot of the scaled second far count rate differ by a predetermined factor; and determining the migration of the injected gas by comparing the location with the second location

  15. The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Nano-and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable thickness oil films, using polyisobutylen based (PIB) surfactants co-spread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to - 100A thick above the water surface as determined using x-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a non-ionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil, nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10?m at the interface. At low surface pressure (? mNm-1) large, -10?m inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at ? 24mNm-1 a structure with a spongy appearance and a micron-scale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions.

  17. Experimental Studies on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Methyl Ester and its blends at different injection opening pressures in a direct injection CI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar A.M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of the most versatile alternative fuel options for direct injection CI engine applications. In the recent research of biodiesel in India receives its attention towards fish oil based biodiesel. The present work aimed at production of biodiesel from the fish oil extracted from marine fish species by transesterification process which is used as fuel in direct injection CI engine to evaluate its performance, and emission characteristics at different injection opening pressures of 190bar, 200bar, 210bar. The different blends of fish oil biodiesel with diesel, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 and B100 were used in the experiments and the results indicate that brake thermal efficiency were higher with B30 blend fuel than that of diesel at 210bar as compared at 190bar and 200bar. The brake specific energy consumption for B30 blend at 210bar shows better results than that of diesel. By considering these two performance parameters B30 blend at 210 bar injection opening pressure is taken as optimum. At full load for B30 fuel at 210bar injection opening pressure the emission results shows that there is increase in NOx and CO2 emission but reduction in CO and HC emissions by 20% and 15.55% respectively with reference to diesel fuel.

  18. Land and water impacts of oil sands production in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Sarah M

    2012-04-01

    Expansion of oil sands development results not only in the release of greenhouse gas emissions, but also impacts land and water resources. Though less discussed internationally due to to their inherently local nature, land and water impacts can be severe. Research in key areas is needed to manage oil sands operations effectively; including improved monitoring of ground and surface water quality. The resulting information gap means that such impacts are not well understood. Improved analyses of oil sands products are required that compare land and water use with other transportation fuel pathways and use a regional perspective so local effects can be considered and mitigated. PMID:22364164

  19. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

  20. A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water : Results for Crude and Pure Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Nicholas L.; SØrensen, Martin X.

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil (Grane) and two pure oils (n-Octane and dodecane) with different initial oil layer thicknesses include burning efficiency, burning rate, regression rate, flame height and boilover. Pyrex glass cylinders (157 and 260 mm ID) placed on top of a steel foot in a water basin (1m x 1m x 0.5m) enabled free circulation of the water, which, along with the large water-to-oil ratios (up to 10,000) ensured that the oil burning barely increased the temperature of the surrounding water environment, which created more realistic offshore conditions than seen in many other laboratory studies. The burning efficiency was found to be nearly 100% for n-Octane and of dodecane, whereas the crude oil burning efficiency ranged between 35% and 65%. The main reason for this variation proved to be the onset of an extremely violent boilover, which occurs for oils with relatively high boiling temperatures when the water sub layer is superheated. When the initial crude oil layer thickness exceeded 20 mm the oil became solid and no boilover occurred. The heat-loss to the water sub-layer also had an effect on the burning efficiency and the regression rate was found to reach a constant value after increasing continuously as the oil was heated. Similar results were found regarding the flame height which reached a steady flame height. The pure fuels, n-Octane and dodecane, produced a much higher steady flame height than the crude oil, however they did not reach boilover, though dodecane showed boilover tendencies. Theoretical predictions with existing correlations and input data specific for the current oils generally compared well with the experimental data for both the time to boilover and the regression rates. As such, the COFA is envisioned to produce high-fidelity results in the future and thereby contribute to the further development of in-situ burning as an alternative response technique for oil spills on water.

  1. A fast alternative to core plug tests for optimising injection water salinity for EOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2014-01-01

    Core tests have demonstrated that decreasing the salinity of injection water can increase oil recovery. Although recovery is enhanced by simply decreasing salt content, optimising injection water salinty would offer a clear economic advantage for several reasons. Too low salinity risks swelling of the clays which would lead to permanent reservoir damage but evidence of effectiveness at moderate salinity would offer the opportunity to dispose of produced water. The goal is to define boundary conditions so injection water salinity is high enough to prevent reservoir damage and low enough to induce the low salinity effect while keeping costs and operational requirements at a minimum. Traditional core plug testing for optimising conditions has some limitations. Each test requires a fresh sample, core testing requires sophisticated and expensive equipment, and reliable core test data requires several months because cores must be cleaned, restored and aged before the tests can begin. It is also difficult to compare data from one core with results from another because no two cores are identical, making it difficult to distinguish between effects resulting from different conditions and effects resulting from different cores. Gathering statistics is limited by the time required for each test and the fact that core material is in short supply. Thus, our aim was to explore the possibility of a cheaper, faster alternative. We developed a method that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the relationship between the wettability of pore surfaces and water salinity. We functionalise AFM tips with organic molecules and use them to represent tiny oil droplets of nonpolar or polar molecules and we use sand grains removed from core plugs to represent the pore walls in sandstone. We bring our "oil" close to the sand grain surface and measure the work of adhesion between the tip and the surface. Repeated "feeling" the surface with the tip produces data that can be converted to maps of adhesion and contact angle. Adhesion work is proportional to wettability and is directly correlated with the salinity of the fluid in contact with the tip and the particle surface. From our measurements, the threshold values for the onset of the low salinity response is 5,000 to 8,000 ppm, which benchmarks remarkably well with observations from core plug tests. Changing either the type of "oil" on our probe or the character of the grain surface both affect the adhesion response. From a mechanistic perspective, the correlation between salinity and adhesion provides evidence for the role of electrical double layer expansion in the low salinity response; expansion of the double layer decreases oil wettability. Because AFM experiments can be done relatively quickly on very little material, it gives the possibility of testing salinity response on samples from throughout a reservoir and for gathering statistics. Our approach provides a range of data that can be used to screen core plug testing conditions and to provide extra data that would be too time consuming or too expensive using traditional methods alone. © 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  2. Influence of fuel additives on performance of direct-injection Diesel engine and exhaust emissions when operating on shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on shale oil that has been treated with multi-functional fuel additives. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the fuel additives Marisol FT (Sweden) and SO-2E (Estonia) as well as to verify their ability to increase energy conversion and reduce brake specific fuel consumption, contamination and smoke opacity of the exhausts when fuelling the Diesel engine with shale oil. Test results show that application of these additives could be a very efficient means to improve Diesel engine performance on shale oil, especially when operating at the light load range. The brake specific fuel consumption at light loads and speeds of 1400-2000 min-1 reduces by 18.3-11.0% due to the application of the Marisol FT. The additive SO-2E proves to produce nearly the same effect. The total NO x emission from the fully loaded Diesel engine fuelled with the treated shale oil reduces by 29.1% (SO-2E) and 23.0% (Marisol FT). It is important that the lower NO x is obtained due to reducing both harmful pollutants, NO and NO2. The CO emission at rated power increases by 16.3% (SO-2E) and 48.0% (Marisol FT), whereas the smoke opacity of the exhausts increases by 35% and over 2 times, respectively. The effect of the fuel additives on the HC emission seems to be complicated and ambiguous

  3. Strategies for Efficient Microfiltration of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai

    2011-11-01

    This study addresses the issue of the separation of oil droplets from water for oil spill mitigation and produced water treatment. The effective separation of oil-in-water dispersions involves high flux of water through a membrane and, at the same time, high rejection rate of oil droplets, while avoiding membrane fouling. In this study, the effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity on rejection of oil droplets by pores of different cross-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure, which is required for the oil droplet entry into a circular pore of given surface hydrophobicity, agrees well with analytical predictions based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing crossflow velocity, the shape of the oil droplet residing at the pore entrance is elongated along the flow and the critical pressure increases. In the case of pores with an elliptical cross-section, the water flux through the membrane is enhanced, in agreement with simple analytical considerations. The results of the numerical simulations are used to outline strategies for the experimental design of porous filters for oil spill remediation and produced water treatment applications.

  4. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpechín filtrado «defenolado» con ácido de Caro (H2SO5 (tipo B, con DCX igual a 30 g/l; los complexos LLMO y PSBIO se utilizan en alpechines provenientes de la elaboración de otras variedades de aceitunas, filtradas y diluidas en la relación 1:0,5 (tipo C con DQO inicial igual a 44 g/l, y también en alpechín filtrado y sometido previamente a criotratamiento (tipo D, con DQO inicial de 22 g/l aproximadamente. La DQO residual, con la formulación microbiana SNKD, ha resultado igual a 15 g/l (Tipo A y a 5 g/l (tipo B, con el PSBIO a 7 g/l (tipo C y a 1,5 g/l (tipo D; con la formulación microbiana LLMO a 6 g/l (tipo C y a 1,3 g/l (tipo D.

  5. Resolution of oil-in-water emulsions containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of resolving oil-in-water emulsions resulting from the organic solvent extraction of uranium from aqueous acidic leach liquors which comprises treating the emulsions in accordance with the following steps: (a) adding to the emulsions a water-in-oil emulsion which contains from 2 to 50% by weight of a water-soluble acrylamide copolymer which contains from 5 to 50% by weight of a lower alkyl substituted tertiary aminoethyl methacrylate and quaternary ammonium salts thereof in an amount to provide at least 20 parts per million of the acrylamide copolymer; (b) adjusting the pH of the emulsion being treated with ammonia to at least 9; (c) adding to the ammonia treated emulsion a water-soluble surfactant which is capable of inverting the water-in-oil emulsion which contains the polymer; and then (d) slowly mixing the treated oil-in-water emulsion for at least one-half hour to obtain good resolution thereof

  6. Imaging of CO{sub 2} injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

    2003-04-29

    A series of time-lapse seismic cross well and single well experiments were conducted in a diatomite reservoir to monitor the injection of CO{sub 2} into a hydrofracture zone, using P- and S-wave data. During the first phase the set of seismic experiments were conducted after the injection of water into the hydrofrac-zone. The set of seismic experiments was repeated after a time period of 7 months during which CO{sub 2} was injected into the hydrofractured zone. The issues to be addressed ranged from the detectability of the geologic structure in the diatomic reservoir to the detectability of CO{sub 2} within the hydrofracture. During the pre-injection experiment, the P-wave velocities exhibited relatively low values between 1700-1900 m/s, which decreased to 1600-1800 m/s during the post-injection phase (-5 percent). The analysis of the pre-injection S-wave data revealed slow S-wave velocities between 600-800 m/s, while the post-injection data revealed velocities between 500-700 m/s (-6 percent). These velocity estimates produced high Poisson ratios between 0.36 and 0.46 for this highly porous ({approx} 50 percent) material. Differencing post- and pre-injection data revealed an increase in Poisson ratio of up to 5 percent. Both, velocity and Poisson estimates indicate the dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the liquid phase of the reservoir accompanied by a pore-pressure increase. The results of the cross well experiments were corroborated by single well data and laboratory measurements on core data.

  7. Three-phase pressure drop in heavy oil, water and gas flow in a horizontal pipe for application in heavy oil transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, Francisco E.; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A significant extent of the Brazilian oil reserves consists of heavy oil, and its importance and economic value have been increasing in the last years. However, these oils, besides their elevated densities (API degree lower than 20), have viscosities higher than 100 mPa.s , which makes it more difficult to transport them through pipelines. A solution for this problem is the injection of water in the pipe, in such a way to reduce friction and, consequently, the energy expend for a given oil flow rate. The two-phase flow of heavy oil and water has been the object of a number of recent studies, and concepts such as the core-flow technology can be useful for heavy oil transportation. But in production operations, gas is also present, initially dissolved in the oil phase then leaving the solution to form a free gas phase if the pressure is below the bubble point pressure. Thus the study of three-phase flow of heavy oil, water and gas is in order. The present paper presents the three-phase flow pressure drop measured in a horizontal glass tube of 2.84 cm i.d. at several combinations of the individual flow rates. Initially, for the development of the experiment, two-phase flow of heavy oil-water and gas-water were studied to establish the flow rate ranges that cover the main patterns already known. The superficial velocities used varied from 0.04 to 0.5 m/s for water, 0.04 to 9.0 m/s for gas and 0.02 to 1.2 m/s for oil. For each test run, the three-phase flow pressure drop was determined with the help of absolute and differential pressure transducers. The results are shown in the form of maps in terms of superficial velocities. (author)

  8. Freeze-thaw stability of water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Rousseau, D

    2009-11-01

    Factors influencing water-in-oil emulsion stability during freeze/thaw-cycling, namely interfacial crystallization vs. network crystallization and the sequence of crystallization events (i.e., dispersed vs. continuous phase or vice versa), are assessed. We show that destabilization is most apparent with a liquid-state emulsifier and a continuous oil phase that solidifies prior to the dispersed phase. Emulsions stable to F/T-cycling are obtained when the emulsifier crystallizes at the oil-water interface or in emulsions where the continuous phase crystallizes after the dispersed aqueous phase. The materials used are two food-grade oil-soluble emulsifiers - polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) and glycerol monostearin (GMS) and two continuous oil phases with differing crystallization temperatures - canola oil and coconut oil. Emulsion stability is assessed with pulsed field gradient NMR droplet size analysis, sedimentation, microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. This study demonstrates the sequence of crystallization events and the physical state of the surfactant at the oil-water interface strongly impact the freeze-thaw stability of water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:19683718

  9. Application of tritiated water as a tracer for quantitative determination of water flow distribution in an oil-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the flow of water in an underground oil reservoir, tritiated water was injected in a well and, subsequently, tritium was determined in the water produced by the surrounding wells. Since the specific radioactivity of the water produced by the more remote wells appeared to be rather low, partly owing to dilution of the tritium water by the water present in the formation, enrichment methods were used, in order to increase counting sensitivity. Three methods of enrichment were examined: exchange with ethanol, conversion to toluene, and electrolysis. The latter method proved to be the most useful. The tritium was determined with a liquid scintillation counter; the scintillator consisted of a toluene-ethanol (2:1) mixture with DPO and POPOP, the water sample being dissolved in this liquid. Some statistical problems in connexion with the minimum detectable specific activity and the reduction of background are discussed briefly. (author)

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil

    OpenAIRE

    PANKAJSHUKLA; Y.R Sood; R.K.JARIAL

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement) and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method) were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determinat...

  11. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Experimental and Analytical Determination of the Motion of Hydraulically Operated Valve Stems in Oil Engine Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

  13. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchi, Nesrine; ?nceo?lu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

  14. Poroelastic modeling to assess the effect of water injection for land subsidence mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of water injection to mitigate land subsidence was studied through numerical simulations based on the theory of poroelasticity. The Kujukuri Plain, Japan, was chosen as a study area. The effect of past injection was evaluated by comparing a model with injection and the one without injection. The calculated results suggested that the past injection played a significant role to reduce land subsidence. For achieving more effective mitigation practices in the future, we proposed to install injection wells in shallower formations. The effect of proposed injection method to mitigate land subsidence from 2014 to 2030 was also investigated. The calculated results show that the proposed method can work similarly by lesser water injection than the past method. The results also indicate that the upper limit of injection rate should be carefully determined to control the pore pressure build-up in the formation to be small enough to avoid formation failure.

  15. Heating of Oil Well by Hot Water Circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jurak, M; Jurak, Mladen; Prnic, Zarko

    2005-01-01

    When highly viscous oil is produced at low temperatures, large pressure drops will significantly decrease production rate. One of possible solutions to this problem is heating of oil well by hot water recycling. We construct and analyze a mathematical model of oil-well heating composed of three linear parabolic PDE coupled with one Volterra integral equation. Further on we construct numerical method for the model and present some simulation results.

  16. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

  17. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

  18. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of oil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ongoing chemical and ecotoxicological study of Water Accommodated Fraction of oils is presented and the preliminary findings are discussed. The study aims at obtaining improved and realistic data on potential environmental effects of various oils released and weathered at sea. Such data will be used for improving algorithms in present fate and effect models for damage assessment studies and 'Net Environmental Benefit Analysis' of response alternatives in various spill scenarios. Preliminary results show that models used to assess effects in the water column will need to resolve the water soluble fraction of oils into more than one single bulk parameter to produce realistic estimates of effects. (Author)

  19. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of oil-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokstad, Jorunn Nerboe; Daling, Per S. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Trondheim (Norway); Buffagni, Melania [Agip Lapo Environmental Labs., Milan (Italy); Johnsen, Staale [Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    An ongoing chemical and ecotoxicological study of Water Accommodated Fraction of oils is presented and the preliminary findings are discussed. The study aims at obtaining improved and realistic data on potential environmental effects of various oils released and weathered at sea. Such data will be used for improving algorithms in present fate and effect models for damage assessment studies and 'Net Environmental Benefit Analysis' of response alternatives in various spill scenarios. Preliminary results show that models used to assess effects in the water column will need to resolve the water soluble fraction of oils into more than one single bulk parameter to produce realistic estimates of effects. (Author)

  20. BP philosophy to PWRI and field experiences. Benefits and risks of produced water re-injection[Produced water re-injection (PWRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Frank

    2005-07-01

    The presentation discusses that water injection performance can be successfully modeled with a high degree of confidence. This applies to PW as well as SW and there is needs to understand the parameters that impact injection performance, how changing fluid type influences this. The key factors which influence PWRI are injection pressure, temperature and water quality (in particular solids). Furthermore the PWRI should be considered as part of an overall water management strategy, rather than as a retrofit option and as such there are needs to design surface facilities for PWRI operation (s and management) (tk)

  1. Breaking of Oil -Water Emulsion for the Improvement of Oil Recovery Operations in the Niger Delta Oilfields

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ijogbemeye Oseghale; Akpabio E. J; Udottong, G

    2012-01-01

    Emulsified water is generally present in crude oil as a result of mixing occurring during production operations. The formation of emulsion leads to problems in production and also transportation. Therefore the need to break oil/water emulsions system through demulsification process using chemical surfactants for improved oil recovery operations. Selected cationic surfactants were effective in separating oil-water emulsions expected during a surfactant/polymer (SP) process for improved oil rec...

  2. Performance and exhaust emission of turpentine oil powered direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, B. Prem; Saravanan, C.G.; Srinivasan, C. Ananda [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the results of experimental work carried out to evaluate the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of turpentine oil fuel (TPOF) blended with conventional diesel fuel (DF) fueled in a diesel engine. Turpentine oil derived from pyrolysis mechanism or resin obtained from pine tree dissolved in a volatile liquid can be used as a bio-fuel due to its properties. The test engine was fully instrumented to provide all the required measurements for determination of the needed combustion, performance and exhaust emission variables. The physical and chemical properties of the test fuels were earlier determined in accordance to the ASTM standards. Indicated that the engine operating on turpentine oil fuel at manufacture's injection pressure - time setting (20.5 MPa and 23 BTDC) had lower carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), smoke level and particulate matter. Further the results showed that the addition of 30% TPOF with DF produced higher brake power and net heat release rate with a net reduction in exhaust emissions such as CO, HC, NO{sub x}, smoke and particulate matter. Above 30% TPOF blends, such as 40% and 50% TPOF blends, developed lower brake power and net heat release rate were noted due to the fuels lower calorific value; nevertheless, reduced emissions were still noted. (author)

  3. Successful water management for the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is a key requirement to produce oil from thermal oil sands projects. Historically, water was considered as a renewable resource that could be used when necessary. Water use is currently examined in a wider context. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has used fresh water for thermal projects in the past, including its thermal operations at Primrose and Wolf Lake. However, technical advancements have made it possible to use recycled water. This allows companies to survive within their licenses while increasing production. Other advances include the use of brackish water, and innovations such as using depleted reservoir sections to store water to increase the use of recycled water. It was noted that brackish water resources need to be mapped and understood in greater detail. The objective is to use brackish water at a cost equal to, or less, than fresh water

  4. Modeling and detection of oil in sea water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of a deep-water oil leak is that a significant quantity of oil remains in the water column and possibly changes properties. There is a need to quantify the oil settled within the water column and determine its physical properties to assist in the oil recovery. There are currently no methods to map acoustically submerged oil in the sea. In this paper, high-frequency acoustic methods are proposed to localize the oil polluted area and characterize the parameters of its spatial covariance, i.e., variance and correlation. A model is implemented to study the underlying mechanisms of backscattering due to spatial heterogeneity of the medium and predict backscattering returns. An algorithm for synthetically generating stationary, Gaussian random fields is introduced which provides great flexibility in implementing the physical model of an inhomogeneous field with spatial covariance. A method for inference of spatial covariance parameters is proposed to describe the scattering field in terms of its second-order statistics from the backscattered returns. The results indicate that high-frequency acoustic methods not only are suitable for large-scale detection of oil contamination in the water column but also allow inference of the spatial covariance parameters resulting in a statistical description of the oil field.

  5. Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises studies of water-in-oil emulsions, their stability, and modelling of their formation. Studies show that water-in-oil emulsions might be characterised into three categories (stable, mesostable and unstable). These categories were established by visual appearance, elasticity and viscosity difference. It was also shown that water content was not an important factor. A fourth category of water-in-oil exists, that of water entrainment, which is not an emulsion. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stabilities as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents. The differences in the emulsion types are readily distinguished both by their rheological properties, and simply by appearance. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second, is at least three orders-of-magnitude greater than the starting oil. An unstable emulsion usually has a viscosity no more than one order-of-magnitude greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion has a significant elasticity, whereas an unstable emulsion does not. Stable emulsions have sufficient asphaltenes (>∼7%) to establish films of these compounds around water droplets. Mesostable emulsions have insufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Stability is achieved by visco-elastic retention of water and secondarily by the presence of asphaltene or resin films. Mesostable emulsions display apparent viscosities of about 80-600 times that of the starting oil and true viscosities of 20-200 times that of the starting oil. Mesostable emulsions have an asphaltene and resin content greater than 3%. Entrained water occurs when a viscous oil retains larger water droplets, but conditions are not suitable for the formation of an emulsion. Entrained water may have a viscosity that is similar or slightly greater (∼ 2-10 times) than the starting oil. It was found that emulsion formation occurs at a threshold energy, however this energy has not been accurately defined. Emulsions from many oils have been characterised. This information is used to describe how this process can be accurately modelled and what information gaps exist for complete description of the physical process. The modelling of emulsions is reviewed. A new modelling scheme based on the new physical findings, is suggested. (Author)

  6. Prokaryotic community structure and activity of sulfate reducers in production water from high-temperature oil reservoirs with and without nitrate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil; Skovhus, Torben L.; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. One strategy to control SRP activity is the addition of nitrate to the injection water. Production waters from two adjacent, hot (80°C) oil reservoirs...... SRP activity. These results indicate that (i) Archaeoglobus can be a major player in hot oil reservoirs, and (ii) nitrate may act in souring control—not only by inhibiting SRP, but also by changing the overall community structure, including the stimulation of competitive nitrate reducers....

  7. Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ramli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE. The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased from 60 to 90 bars while the injection temperature was varied from 150 to 210°C. The highest tensile strength of the composites was achieved at 70 bar holding pressure and 150°C injection temperature. However, the highest fracture strength was achieved at 80 bars whilst maintaining the injection temperature at 150°C. Flexural strength was shown to be unaffected by the varying pressure. The optimal processing parameters for highest mechanical performance were found to be at holding pressure of 80 bars and injection tempera

  8. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the States Department of Environmental Qualitys WDEQ National Pollutant Discharge...

  9. The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytic instrument for surface water of oil field is an intelligent measuring instrument, integrating light, machine and electricity. It bases on 8031 SCP and makes full use of CASIO printing calculate's functions of calculation, keyboard and printing

  10. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. PMID:26520275

  11. Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

  12. Effect of mixed gas solvent injection on performance of the Vapex process in an Iranian heavy oil sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derakhshanfar, M.; Kharrat, R.; Rostami, B. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etminan, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The vapor extraction (VAPEX) process involves the injection of vaporized hydrocarbon solvents into oil reservoirs in order to decrease in-situ oil viscosity. The solvents are often used with non-condensable gases in high pressure reservoirs to lower the dew point of the gas mixture and prevent condensation. This study investigated the effects of mixed gas solvent injection on the VAPEX process with an Iranian heavy oil sample. A set of experiments were conducted at low, medium, and high pressure rates on a 2-D visual model. A transparent face was used in the model in order to monitor the size of the vapor chamber and the position of the gas-oil interface. Production and injection wells were placed above each other and at the center of the model. The effects of solvent concentration, and carrier gas type on production parameters and produced oil properties were also investigated. Propane was used as a solvent, and methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were used as carrier gases. Results of the study showed that high injection pressures caused fluctuations in system behaviour. The solvent chamber grew in a lateral direction, and less asphaltene precipitation was observed. It was concluded that the VAPEX process can be used in high pressure reservoirs when combined with non-condensable carrier gases. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. Spontaneous Formation of Water Droplets at Oil-Solid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongqiang; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    We report observations of spontaneous formation of micrometer-sized water droplets within micrometer-thick films of a range of different oils (isotropic and nematic 4-cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), and silicone, olive and corn oil) that are supported on glass substrates treated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) and immersed under water. Confocal imaging was used to determine that the water droplets nucleate and grow at the interface between the oils and OTS-treated glass with a contact angle of ~130°. A simple thermodynamic model based on macroscopic interfacial energetic arguments consistent with the contact angle of 130°, however, fails to account for the spontaneous formation of the water droplets. ?-potential measurements performed with OTS-treated glass (? 59.0 ± 16.4 mV) and hydrophobic monolayers formed on gold films (2.0 ± 0.7 mV), when combined with the observed absence of droplet formation under films of oil supported on the latter surfaces, suggest that the charge of the oil-solid interface promotes partitioning of water to the interfacial region. The hydrophobic nature of the OTS-treated glass promotes dewetting of water accumulated in the interfacial region into droplets (a thin film of water is seen to form on bare glass). The inhibitory effect on droplet formation of both salt (NaCl) and sucrose (0.1mM to 500mM) added to the aqueous phase was similar, indicating that both solutes lower the chemical potential of the bulk water (osmotic effect) sufficiently to prevent partitioning of the water to the interface between the oil and supporting substrates. These results suggest that charged, hydrophobic surfaces can provide routes to spontaneous formation of surface-supported, water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:20712383

  14. Hydrodynamic characteristics of water-jet pump for removing oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a bend-type of water-jet pump for removing oils and solid materials with water are discussed theoretically and experimentally. This type of water-jet pump is composed of a bend and a water-jet nozzle. The water-jet nozzle is connected directly to the bend at the outside of bend. The transportation characteristics are derived theoretically using the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The experiments for 45o bend-type of water-jet pump are carried out. The solid spheres with the specific gravity about 1.00 were used. The theoretically-predicted characteristics for removing solid materials agree well with the experimental results. The experimental results for transporting various heavy oils are discussed comparing with the theoretical results. The flows for transporting various heavy oils are visualized. (author)

  15. The containment of heavy oil in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscous bitumen from Alberta oil sand deposits is diluted with a gas condensate before pipeline transport. Because of its unique properties, the diluent/bitumen mix (dilbit) may require novel containment and recovery techniques in the case of an accidental spill. Preliminary experiments were conducted in a large flowing water channel to determine whether several conventional containment devices could be utilized to trap weathered and emulsified dilbit and bitumen. These devices included a conventional river boom, a nylon fine-weave net, and a low-pressure bubble barrier. The behavior of the oil samples during boom failure was noted in order to understand more completely the mechanisms of failure. The river boom failed to hold viscous floating oil by vortex shedding at flows of under 0.25 m/s. A fine mesh net successfully trapped both floating and mid-channel neutrally buoyant oil but the retention time depends on the oil viscosity. The bubble barrier was not successful in trapping either floating viscous oil or neutrally buoyant oil. At low water velocities, the barrier was able to divert some oils but in an inconsistent manner. The results indicate that conventional barriers need improvement to be effective at higher water velocities and suggest that new concepts in containment should be considered. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Optimizing Injection Molding Processing Parameters for Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch High Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Ramli; M.R. Abdul Latif; P.S.M. Megat-Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the influence of injection molding processing parameters on mechanical properties of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) filled High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE). The biocomposite pellets were first prepared using an extruder with 20 wt% EFB content before being processed in an injection-molding machine for specimen fabrication. Two processing parameters were varied systematically and independently during the composite sample fabrication. The holding pressure was increased ...

  17. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Kamil; Onjia, Antonije; Mikuska, Pavel; Vecera, Zbynek

    2007-02-15

    A modification of the Trautz-Schorigin reaction into a flow-injection analysis configuration is described. Different approaches were used at the optimization of chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in water based on the reaction of formaldehyde, gallic acid and hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline solution. Detection system with a 218microl chemiluminescence cell was optimized by both a one-variable-at-a-time method, and a modified simplex method. A calibration graph is linear in the concentration range 4x10(-8) to 1x10(-5)M HCHO. The detection limit of formaldehyde for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 is 4x10(-8)M. The relative standard deviations for 15 repeated measurements of 1x10(-6) and 5x10(-6)mol l(-1) HCHO are 4.32 and 3.33%, respectively. The analysis time is 1.5min. The method was applied to the determination of formaldehyde in urban rainwater. A comparison of results found by proposed method with those obtained by fluorimetric reference method provided a good agreement. PMID:19071392

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of Moroccan (Timahdit) oil shale with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Harfi, K.; Mokhlisse, A.; Ben Chanaa, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Universite Caddi Ayyad, Faculte des Sciences de Marrakech, Semlalia (Morocco); Bennouna, C. [Labratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee, Universite Caddi Ayyad, Faculte des Sciences de Marrakech, Semlalia (Morocco); Lemee, L.; Joffre, J.; Ambles, A. [Laboratoire Chimie XII, URA CNRS 1468, 40 Avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    1999-06-01

    Timahdit oil shale was subjected to supercritical water extraction. The results reveal significant difference in oil yields and composition when compared with those obtained from conventional pyrolysis. In addition, the effect of temperature and residence time on the supercritical water extraction of oil was investigated in a set of three experiments. The results revealed that the yield and the fraction of paraffins and aromatics increase while the percentage of asphaltenes decreases as the temperature is increased from 380 to 400C. The residence time was found to affect the yield and the fraction of asphaltenes and polar compounds

  19. Study of enhanced oil field recovery through polymer injection in field scales; Estudo da recuperacao avancada de petroleo via injecao de polimeros em escala de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manichand, Renuka N.; Garcia, Rosangela B.; Mata, Ana L.M.L.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Polymer flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method consists in increasing the aqueous phase viscosity by addition of polymer, reducing in this way its mobility compared with the oleic phase, leading to an increase in reservoir's sweep efficiency. However, polymer flooding still requires more research to develop polymers that are more resistant to the injection and reservoir conditions, e.g. high temperature, high salinity, biological and mechanical degradation. Computational simulations are executed to validate the results. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of polymer flooding in enhancing the reservoir's recovery factor. Computational simulations were done for polymer flooding in filed scale using the STARS simulator (CMG). Simulations for water flooding also were done for the same reservoir. In this way, it was possible to compare, for the same reservoir, the performance of water injection and polymer flooding. The economical analysis of these recovery methods was done to evaluate their viability. (author)

  20. Rotor clearance design and evaluation for an oil injected twin screw compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckney, D.; Kovacevic, A.; Stosic, N.

    2015-08-01

    Designing twin screw compressors to safely operate at higher than normal temperatures poses a challenge as the compressor must accommodate larger peak thermal distortions while ideally maintaining efficiency at nominal operating conditions. This paper will present a case study of an oil injected compressor tested at elevated discharge temperatures with original and revised clearances. The local thermal distortions occurring within the compressor during operation were estimated using a procedure developed by the authors - thermodynamic results from a chamber model were used to approximate component temperature distributions that are then used to predict possible thermal distortions and the resulting affect on clearance gaps. The original and revised clearance designs are evaluated and performance penalties incurred due to the modifications are discussed.

  1. Stable highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes for oil water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjun; Cui, Zhe; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Qingmin

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a simple method for fabricating both highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes by coating thin fluoro-containing films. The static contact angle of such meshes is greater than 150° for water, and close to 0° for kerosene, xylene and toluene. These meshes can separate water from oil effectively without resorting to any extra power or chemical agent. Moreover, they exhibited stable water resisting, anti-chemical erosion and anti-hot aging properties. It promises as a candidate for the separation of oil and water.

  2. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface caus...

  3. Surfactant controlled switching of water-in-oil wetting behaviour of porous silica films grown at oil-water interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish M Kulkarni; Rajdip Bandyopadhyaya; Ashutosh Sharma

    2008-11-01

    Selective permeation of oil and water across a porous medium, as in oil recovery operations, depends on the preferential wetting properties of the porous medium. We show a profound influence of surfactants in wetting of porous media and thus demonstrate a new route for the control of water-in-oil wetting of porous substrates by changing the concentration of surfactants in an aqueous sub-phase below the substrate. This strategy is employed to engineer partial reversible wetting transitions on a porous silica film. The film itself is grown and stabilized on a flat, macroscopic interface between an oil phase and an aqueous sub-phase. On increasing the surfactant (CTAB) concentration in the sub-phase, contact angle of a water drop (placed on the oil side of the film) changes from 140° to 16° in 25 min by diffusion of the surfactant across the porous film. On further replacement of the sub-phase with pure water, diffusion of the surfactant from the water drop back to the sub-phase was slower, increasing the contact angle in the process from 16° to 90° in 2 h. Wettability control by a cationic surfactant (CTAB) was found to be much faster (6 deg/min) than that offered by an anionic surfactant, SDS (0.05 deg/min). Switching of the surface wettability due to the surfactant diffusion may have implications in oil-water separation, chemical bed reactors and microfluidic devices.

  4. Behavior of a fuel oil during the combustion cycle of a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbella, R.; Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D' Anna, A. (CNR, Istituto Ricerche Combustione, Istituto Motori, 80125 Napoli (IT))

    1990-11-01

    In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons, and gaseous inorganic species has been performed at two positions of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve, in order to follow the behavior of a diesel oil during the engine cycle. It has been shown that the combustion process in a diesel engine proceeds through a preignition phase of heating and vaporization of the injected fuel, which causes the transformation of the fuel components in light gaseous products and oxygenated compounds that rapidly disappear at the ignition. After ignition, the formation of soot has been found, particularly in the high-temperature position, but the formation of soot precursors, i.e., acetylene and combustion-formed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was not in evidence. In whichever phase of the combustion cycle the PAHs are composed of unburned fuel PAHs but in the low-temperature position the PAH percentage increases, as opposed to the high-temperature position, and this can be due to the high resistance of the fuel PAHs to complete oxidation in this temperature condition. At the same time the appearance of high-molecular-weight material of oxygenated character has been found at the low-temperature position.

  5. Factors in the Design of Centrifugal Type Injection Valves for Oil Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

  6. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  7. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  8. An Oil Fate Model for Shallow-Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Restrepo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the dynamics of oil in suspension, appropriate for shallow waters, including the nearshore environment. This model is capable of oil mass conservation and does so by evolving the oil on the sea surface as well as the oil in the subsurface. The shallower portion of the continental shelf poses compounding unique modeling challenges. Many of these relate to the complex nature of advection and dispersion of oil in an environment in which wind, waves, as well as currents all play a role, as does the complex bathymetry and the nearshore geography. In this study we present an overview of the model as well as derive the most fundamental of processes, namely, the shallow water advectiion and dispersion processes. With regard to this basic transport, we superate several fundamental challenges associated with creating a transport model for oil and other buoyant pollutants, capable of capturing the dynamics at the large spatio-temporal scales demanded by environmental and hazard mitigation studies. Some of the strategies are related to dimension reduction and upscaling, and leave discussion of these to companion papers. Here we focus on wave-filtering, ensemble and depth-averaging. Integral to the model is the proposal of an ocean dynamics model that is consistent with the transport. This ocean dynamics model is detailed here. The ocean/oil transport model is applied to a couple of physically-inspired oil-spill problems in demonstrate its specialized capabilities.

  9. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  10. The Use of Demulsifiers for Separating Water from Anthracene Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The main feedstocks for the production of oil-furnace carbon black are different kinds of liquid hydrocarbons. The quality and utilization of oil-furnace carbon black mainly depends on the type of liquid hydrocarbons contained in the oil feedstocks.In practice, both carbochemical and petrochemical oils are used as feedstock sources. Carbochemical oils are fractions obtained during coal tar distillation. Anthracene oil is one of these oils. Depending on the conditions of distillation, coal tars contain up to w = 18·10 –2 highly aromatic fractions, which can be used as carbon black feedstock. The sulphur fraction of these oils can vary between w = 0.5 and 0.7·10 –2, depending on the origin of the coal. The availability of carbochemical oils obtained from coal tar is largely dependent on the production of coke used in the manufacture of steel. The quantities available today are insufficient to satisfy the demand for carbon black feedstock. In addition, in highly industrialized countries, production of carbochemicaloils is declining.Although, carbochemical oils are preferred in terms of efficiency, petrochemical oils are more important in terms of quantities available, particularly in the production of furnace blacks. These are residual oils resulting either from catalytic cracking processes or from the production of olefins in steam crackers using naphtha or gas oil as raw material. Nevertheless, the choice of carbon black feedstock is not determined merely by price and efficiency, but also by specific quality criteria. However, due to their origin, the feedstocks are mixtures of a large number of individual substances and are, therefore, not easy to characterize. More than 200 different components have been recorded in the range detectable by gas chromatography.Some important components of carbon black feedstock are listed in table 1.1 An important parameter for the evaluation of carbon black feedstock is density, since it increases with increasing aromaticity. It is also used for determination of the Bureau of Mines Correlation Index (BMCI,2 which is obtained either from density and midboiling point, or from density andviscosity for those feedstocks which cannot be distilled completely. This index is used by the carbon black industry as an important criteria for feedstock evaluation.The sulphur fraction in feedstocks should not exceed w = 2.5 ·10–2, because a higher content greatly affects the quality of carbon black, pollutes the atmosphere, and accelerates corrosion of the facility. The maximum sulphur content in the typical hydrocarbon feedstock is w = 1.2 · 10–2.3. A very important factor of hydrocarbon feedstock is the fraction of alkaline earth metals, especially sodium and potassium. The maximum sodium fraction may be w = 20·10–6, while the maximum potassium fraction is w = 2·10 –6.The maximum fraction of asphalthenes is w = 15 ·10–2. Asphalthenes, determined as pentane-insoluble matter, provide indications concerning the possibility of grit formation. Another very important factor is the temperature range of distillation, which should be low enough, because the hydrocarbon feedstock must evaporize before entering the hot region of the reactor. The viscosity, the pour point, and for safety reasons, the flash point determines the handling properties and storage conditions of the feedstock.In addition, the water fraction in the hydrocarbon feedstock is one of the most important factors. The water fraction in hydrocarbon feedstock influences the handling properties of the same. The maximum water fraction in hydrocarbon feedstock may be w = 2.0·10–2, and desirably below w = 1.0·10–2. A higher water fraction represent a considerable impact on the financial construction. Also, it is very difficult to manipulate such feedstock, especially unloading, and in the production of oil-furnace carbon black. Namely, every water fraction higher than w = 2.0·10–2 in the hydrocarbon feedstock, causes the phenomenon of cavitations.In the oil-furnace carbon black plant of Petrokemija d. d. Kutina, the storage tank TK48003, was filled with 800 tons of anthracene oil. The average water fraction in the tank was w = 10·10 –2. It was impossible to manipulate in the process of production, because the mentioned water fraction caused the cavitations effect. Therefore, it was necessary to decrease the water fraction to below w = 2.0·10 –2, which will be satisfactory for production.As the water and anthracene oil formed a homogeneous emulsion (similar density at all temperatures, it was impossible to manage decanting the water from the anthracene oil. Additionally, it was impossible to manage evaporation of the water from the oil by heating the whole emulsion,because the flash point of anthracene oil is in the temperature range of T = 100 to 105 °C. Distillation of the whole emulsion of 800 tons was also impossible, because there was no distillation column adequate for separating the water from the anthracene oil. Thus, the use of different demulsifiers proved as a potential solution for separating the homogeneous mixture of anthracene oil and water. Namely, demulsifiers are a special type of high molecular tensides and organic solvents, which serve for separation the water from different hydrocarbons.The most common use is in emulsions with “lighter” hydrocarbons, especially when the density is not above r=0.850 g cm–3. Since the density of anthracene oil ranges from r=1.05 to 1.09 g cm–3, it was necessary to customise the conditions of application, and to choose the mostadequate demulsifier for the separation of water from anthracene oil. Therefore, we experimented with different kinds of demulsifiers in cooperation with the companies TEH PROJEKT KEMO d. o. o. and KEM PROJEKT d. o. o. In laboratory conditions, we tested five different demulsifiers with different concentrations, and their efficiency in separating the water from anthracene oil. We then chose the most adequate demulsifier, which was applied on an industrial level.

  11. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

  12. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

  13. Study and application of gelled foam for in-depth water shutoff in a fractured oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing, Y.; Yefei, W.; Wei, Z.; Ziyuan, Q.; Fulin, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    Most oil fields in China are in a high water cut period whereby injection water and edge water breaks through into the oil wells along high permeability zones causing a decrease in well productivity. Since high permeability zones cannot be plugged effectively with foam agents, this study focused on the feasibility of using gelled foam for in-depth water shutoff. A gelled foam consists of water, a foaming agent, a foaming stabilizer and a cross-linking agent. A gelled foam is more stable than conventional foam and therefore prolongs the effective period of water shutoff. The Ross Foamer Device was used in this study to determine the foaming and stability characteristics of a gelled foam. The best foaming agent was 0.3 per cent YG240. The stable foam agent was 0.2 to 0.4 per cent HPAM. The cross-linking agent was 0.09 per cent sodium dichromate and 0.16 per cent sodium sulphite and nitrogen. A pilot test was conducted on a well in the Huoshaoshan fractured reservoir. The workover program involved washing large fissures with a high efficiency oil displacement agent and injecting the gelled foam. Good blocking efficiency was obtained in the well, resulting in a decrease in water cut of 20 to 50 per cent. Oil production increased by 3.7 to 11.0 cubic metres per day after gelled foam treatment. 5 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Water-in-Oil Microemulsion System for Enhanced Peptide Intestinal Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, DONGYUN; Kobayashi, Taku; Russo, Steven; Li, Fengling; Plevy, Scott E.; Gambling, Todd M.; Carson, Johnny L.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide and protein drugs have become the new generation of therapeutics, yet most of them are only available as injections, and reports on oral local intestinal delivery of peptides and proteins are quite limited. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion system in vitro and in vivo for local intestinal delivery of water-soluble peptides after oral administration. A fluorescent labeled peptide, 5-(and-6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine labeled HIV transa...

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety......, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in...

  16. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SHALE MINE WATERS, CENTRAL PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to characterize the oil shale mine waters in the Piceance Basin. The study sites were Federal Prototype Lease Tracts C-a and C-b, located in the central portion of the basin. The objective was to collect water quality data in order to characterize the mine w...

  18. Cleaning of Oil Fouling with Water Enabled by Zwitterionic Polyelectrolyte Coatings: Overcoming the Imperative Challenge of Oil-Water Separation Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Duan, Haoran; Chen, George Y; Liu, Xiaokong; Yang, Wensheng; Wang, Dayang

    2015-09-22

    Herein we report a self-cleaning coating derived from zwitterionic poly(2-methacryloyloxylethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) brushes grafted on a solid substrate. The PMPC surface not only exhibits complete oil repellency in a water-wetted state (i.e., underwater superoleophobicity), but also allows effective cleaning of oil fouled on dry surfaces by water alone. The PMPC surface was compared with typical underwater superoleophobic surfaces realized with the aid of surface roughening by applying hydrophilic nanostructures and those realized by applying smooth hydrophilic polyelectrolyte multilayers. We show that underwater superoleophobicity of a surface is not sufficient to enable water to clean up oil fouling on a dry surface, because the latter circumstance demands the surface to be able to strongly bond water not only in its pristine state but also in an oil-wetted state. The PMPC surface is unique with its described self-cleaning performance because the zwitterionic phosphorylcholine groups exhibit exceptional binding affinity to water even when they are already wetted by oil. Further, we show that applying this PMPC coating onto steel meshes produces oil-water separation membranes that are resilient to oil contamination with simply water rinsing. Consequently, we provide an effective solution to the oil contamination issue on the oil-water separation membranes, which is an imperative challenge in this field. Thanks to the self-cleaning effect of the PMPC surface, PMPC-coated steel meshes can not only separate oil from oil-water mixtures in a water-wetted state, but also can lift oil out from oil-water mixtures even in a dry state, which is a very promising technology for practical oil-spill remediation. In contrast, we show that oil contamination on conventional hydrophilic oil-water separation membranes would permanently induce the loss of oil-water separation function, and thus they have to be always used in a completely water-wetted state, which significantly restricts their application in practice. PMID:26260326

  19. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  20. Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, C.M.; Legare, B.; St-Pierre, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2003-07-01

    The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish.

  1. Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish

  2. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    issue we studied two types of chalk from South Arne field, North Sea: (1) Ekofisk Formation having >12% non-carbonate and (2) Tor Formation, which has less than 5% non-carbonate. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties due to...... petrophysical and mechanical properties of chalk depends on carbonate content. Pure chalk with high carbonate content was found to be vulnerable to mechanical weakening due to CO2 injection, whereas, no significant mechanical effect was observed in the impure chalk of Ekofisk Formation. It should in this......Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.692-3 - Standards: Oil-water separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-3 Standards: Oil-water separators. (a) Each oil-water separator tank, slop oil tank, storage vessel, or other auxiliary equipment subject to the... identified, except as provided in § 60.692-6. (b) Each oil-water separator tank or auxiliary equipment with...

  5. [Monitoring Water in Lubricating Oil with Min-Infrared LED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-wu; Tian, Hong-xiang; Ming, Ting-feng; Yang, Kun

    2015-06-01

    A method that could be used to quantify the water concentration in ship machinery lubricating oil based on Mid-infrared LED is discussed. A Mid-infrared LED with peak emission wavelength of 2 840 nm and FWHM of 400 nm is used as the light source, the emitting light is partly absorbed by the oil sample, the remaining is received by the infrared detector. The percentage of water is determined according to the absorbance. In the experiment, a optical configuration including the transmission, absorbing and receiving of infrared light is designed, calcium fluoride wafer is used as the window, a hard metal coil with circular section is selected as the washer to get the fixed thickness of oil film accurately, a photoelectric diode with detection wavelength of 2 500-4 800 nm and response time of 10-20 ns is used as the detector of light intensity. Matching with this, a system of signal preamplifier, microcontroller-based data acquisition, storage and communication is developed. Absorbance data of six oil samples with different water mass concentration: 0, 0.062 5%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375% and 0.5% is acquired through experiment. Fitting the data by the method of least squares, a linear equation in terms of absorbance and water concentration is obtained, and the determination coefficient is 0.996. Finally, in order to test the accuracy of this measurement method, using oil sample with water concentration of 0.317 5% to validate the equation, measuring the absorbance by the experimental device, the water content is calculated through the linear equation, the results show that the relative error is 2.7% between the percentage calculated and the real sample, indicating that this method can accurately measure the water concentration in the oil. PMID:26601352

  6. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pignalosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w. The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r2 = 0.996. Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD% was better than 5% (2% typical for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

  7. Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amieibibama JOSEPH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CDR downstream the turbine pumps that supply water to the injector wells. Velocity and the injection rate of water to the injector wells (with no CDR added were measured. From the field results, 20ppm of CDR injection gave optimum injection increase of 13% and adding a third side outlet 3? pipeline into the wellheads gives independent 16% increase in injectivity. The test had no negative impact on the environment. The result could be applied as an aid and quick means of predicting water-flooding operation in similar operating condition as Ukpokiti field.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the effect of water and ethanol injection on axial compressor instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of instabilities that occur in compression systems rotating stall and surge have an adverse effect on the compressor performance. Several techniques have been explored to minimize the effect of these instabilities. It has been observed that injection of a liquid into the compressor not only improves thermodynamic efficiencies but also results in stabilizing the system. Therefore, water and ethanol injection has been investigated as an effective tool for controlling these compressor instabilities. In the present paper a modified Moore-Greitzer model has been proposed for wet compression-based system using water and ethanol. Under this work the effect of injection of water (1) at various stages of compressor, (2) at different altitudes and (3) by varying amounts has also been presented. The effect of various parameters on wet compression such as (a) Optimum stage for liquid injection (b) Optimum amount of liquid injection and (c) Effect of altitude on liquid injection is also examined in the present work which shows that the liquid injection helps in improving the performance of compression systems in terms of increase in the stall margin and pressure rise coefficient. - Highlights: → We model the effect of liquid injection on the performance of axial flow compressors. → The basic Moore-Grietzer's model has been appropriately modified. → Injection of liquid in the later stages of the compressor resulted in improved stall margin and pressure rise. → Use of ethanol was found to give better performance than water.

  9. Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-10-01

    The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02867d

  10. Optimal waste heat recovery in micro gas turbine cycles through liquid water injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water injection in the compressor exhaust, to recuperate waste heat, is considered a possible route to improve the electric efficiency and overall performance of the micro Gas Turbine turbine (mGT). Many research exists on water injection in mGTs, however a generic study to determine the optimal route for waste heat recovery is still missing. To determine the optimal cycle settings for waste heat recovery through water injection, we have performed simulations using a two-step method. In a first step, the thermodynamic limit for water injection is sought using a black box method. In a second step, the cycle layout is designed by means of composite curve theory. This paper summarizes the results of two scenarios. In the first scenario, the black box is considered as adiabatic and no fixed stack temperature is imposed (thus allowing condensation of the exhaust gasses). One of the major concerns when injecting water is the water consumption, which can be compensated in some cases through condensation and recycling the condensate. Therefore, in the second scenario, the cycle is made self-sufficient with water. In this case, the black box is no longer considered adiabatic and heat exchange with the environment is allowed for condensation of the flue gasses. Black box simulations showed that lowering the stack temperature to 53 °C results in an injection of 17 %wt of water and an increase in electric efficiency of 9% absolute. To keep the mGT cycle layout simple, low cost and not too complex, a maximum of two heat exchangers was imposed for the heat exchanger network design. Although black box analysis indicated a large potential for water introduction, this potential could not be achieved with the considered networks in this paper. Finally, injection of preheated water was identified as the optimal water injection scheme for waste heat recovery resulting in 4.6% absolute electric efficiency increase and a final stack temperature of 62 °C. Results of simulations of the second case indicate that the stack temperature needs to be lowered under 26 °C in order to make the cycle self-sufficient with water. - Highlights: • Adiabatic black box method was used to find the optimal route for waste heat recovery through water injection. • Full water recovery was added as a constraint for the black box analysis. • Composite curve theory was used to design the heat exchange and injection network. • Direct injection of water results in an absolute efficiency increase of 4.6%. • Stack temperature needs to be below 26 °C to have full recovery of water

  11. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  12. Retention of polar oil components in low salinity water flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Sokama-Neuyam, Yen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The influence of brine chemistry, salinity and composition on the retention of polar oil components onto reservoir rock mineral surface in relation to low salinity water flooding (LSWF) was studied and evaluated in this piece of work using ultra-violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Five different brine compositions; sea water (SW), formation water (FW), LSW1 (FW diluted 100 times), LSW2 (FW diluted 1000 times) and KCl low salinity brine were studied and their effect on the retention of polar...

  13. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

  14. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald; Gröschl, Martin

    1999-01-01

    up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil-in-water......Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the...... emulsion samples have been investigated. The quality of the ultrasonic-induced particle separation/coagulation process is characterized by physical–chemical analysis of the separated oil- and water phase and by determining the change of the particle size distribution of the initial emulsion due to the...

  15. [Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medverec Kneževi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

    2011-12-01

    On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

  16. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LisaGieg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 ?mol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  17. Mechanics and upscaling of heavy oil bitumen recovery by steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoirs method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This paper discussed a numerical modelling scheme applied to the steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoirs (SOS-FR) method for a single-matrix block. After modelling the process at the core scale, sensitivity tests were performed to determine the optimal injection conditions for efficient oil recovery and solvent retrieval. The basic mechanisms and physics of the process were described along with the amount of injectant and the time required for recovering target oil for field-scale application. In the physics of the recovery mechanism, gravity was found to have a substantial effect on oil recovery when the matrix was exposed to solvent. Special attention was paid to the solvent retrieval rate and amount in the third cycle and the permeability reduction caused by asphaltene precipitation in the solvent injection phase; the latter factor was observed to be substantially critical for the process. An upscaling analysis yielded an encouraging straight-line relationship between the time value to reach ultimate recovery and the matrix size with a non-integer exponent less than 2. 21 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  18. Effect of water injection on sustained combustion in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, H.L.; Harmsen, G.J.

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical description is presented of the various semisteady states that may develop in an in situ combustion process if water is injected together with the air. The investigation has been restricted to cases of one- dimensional flow without heat losses, such as would occur in a narrow, perfectly insulated tube. Different types of behavior can be distinguished for specific ranges of the water/air injection ratio. At low values of this ratio, the injected water evaporates before it reaches the combustion zone, while at high values it passes through the combustion zone without being completely evaporated, but without extinguishing combustion. At intermediate values and at sufficiently high fuel concentrations, intermediate situations are possible, in which all water entering the combustion zone evaporates before leaving it. Formulas are presented that give the combustion zone velocity as a function of water/air injection ratio for each of the possible situations. (17 refs.)

  19. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  20. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  1. Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman, H. Nour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Demulsification (emulsion breaking is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation between good performance (fast coalescence and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

  2. Oil spill trajectory analysis for US coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Section 4111(b)(7) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), the US Coast Guard must evaluate whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be designated as zones where the movement of tankers should be limited or prohibited. The legislative history of OPA 90 specifies that the open-quotes tanker-free zoneclose quotes evaluation should particularly include areas where oil and gas leasing, exploration, or development are presently prohibited by legislative action. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the Coast Guard have combined efforts to provide offshore oil spill trajectory estimates in support of that evaluation. Multiple runs of the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model were used to characterize potential movements of tanker oil spills in US coastal waters off the east and west coasts and in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The mapped locations of 220 sensitive environmental resources were provided for the analysis by coastal academic institutions under subcontract to the Coast Guard. More than 3 million oil-spill trajectories were simulated in a stochastic analysis over all seasons. The modeled spills were moved in increments of 3 hours for up to 30 days at sea, based on a suite of wind and oceanographic data and models. Trajectory results from multiple spill sites offshore are expressed as mapped open-quotes risk contoursclose quotes showing the chance of seasonal contacts with coastal resources, assuming spill occurrence. Examples of the information used and the results of the simulations are shown

  3. Persistence of crude oil spills on open water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of reports on oil spill incidents around the world was conducted. A Microsoft access database was then compiled in which spill information parameters were identified. These include general information about when and where the spill occurred, weather, sea conditions, oil properties and cleanup methods. The available information was assessed to determine statistically significant relationships between spill persistence, spill size and spill persistence factors. The objective was to identify links between dissipation times for spills and spill size. Another objective was to determine quantitative relationships between on-water spill persistence and associated environmental factors; physical and chemical properties of the spilled oil; and, response effort parameters. A mathematical description of the persistence of crude oil spills at sea was developed using historical spill data. The results are used by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) to estimate probable durations for spill trajectories in the MMS Oil Spill Risk Analysis for Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. This study also refined the spill-size/spill-persistence correlation in terms of other variables such as oil type, weather and sea conditions and spill type. Correlation analyses were conducted on 3 data sets, indicating the importance of different variables and their dependencies. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressurefor the Omani Oils for CO2 Injection EOR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Hinai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Oman there are still large remaining oil reserves that require implementation of Enhanced Oil Recovery processes such as CO2 injection, for light oil. CO2-Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP is the key parameter for the design and operations of successful CO2 flood. This study is based on developing a method of calculating the MMP for Omani oil reservoirs. Part-1 of the studyis the experimental work based on the Rising Bubble Apparatus (RBA measurement of MMP and part-2 is the examination of the existing models for MMP predictions and the adjustment of parameters for obtaining the most accurate predictions by the equation of state fluid PVT modeling simulator PVTPro5.2.1software. The RBA system set-up was successfully developed for the first time at Sultan Qaboos University. CO2 MMP measurements were carried out for three different oil samples using the RBA. For the RBA experiments, the PVTPro5.2.1 simulator was used to adjust the best setting parameters for CO2 MMP predictions. Very good agreement between the experimental MMP and the software predictions were achieved within the range of 2.27% error maximum. Moreover, some existing well-known models have been examined for CO2–Oil MMP predictions with the observed errors of up to 43.55%.

  5. Stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions with regenerated chitin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Zhigang; Bian, Wenyang; Feng, Li; Wu, Zongwei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Tao

    2015-09-15

    Natural chitin is a highly crystalline biopolymer with poor aqueous solubility. Thus direct application of chitin is rather limited unless chemical modifications are made to improve its solubility in aqueous media. Through a simple dissolution and regeneration process, we have successfully prepared chitin nanofibers with diameters around 50nm, which form a stable suspension at concentrations higher than 0.50% and a self-supporting gel at concentrations higher than 1.00%. Additionally, these nanofibers can stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with oil fraction more than 0.50 at chitin usage level of 0.01g/g oil. The droplet sizes of the resulting emulsions decrease with increasing chitin concentrations and decreasing oil fraction. Confocal laser scanning micrographs demonstrate the adsorption of chitin nanofibers on the emulsion droplet surface, which indicates the emulsion stabilization is through a Pickering mechanism. Our findings allow the direct application of chitin in the food industry without chemical modifications. PMID:25863618

  6. TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS: OIL TANKER BALLAST WATER FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study dealing with the effectiveness of large-scale treatment of ballast water was conducted at the terminal facility of the TransAlaska Pipeline in Valdez, Alaska. The plant was found to be generally effective in reducing the petroleum content of the ballast water. On the aver...

  7. Downhole oil-water separation technology : present scenario and future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anchliya, A.; Goel, P. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2006-07-01

    Technologies that can bring oil to the surface at a lower cost or with less impact on the environment are increasingly being considered by the oil and gas industry. Downhole oil water separators (DOWS) can provide a greater degree of environmental protection while reducing operating costs. The quantity of produced water that is handled at the surface is separated from the oil downhole and simultaneously injected underground with DOWS technology. DOWS technology and the benefits of DOWS are presented. The paper also addressed how DOWS has been used in the past as well as what current types of DOWS and related technology are being used by the industry. It also explained why DOWS have not been more widely used, the future outlook for DOWS technology, and the steps that DOWS developers, producers, and government must follow to expand the usage of DOWS systems. The paper concluded that failures in the past with the technology were mainly due to poor choice of candidate wells or inexperienced field staff. It was suggested that the technical staff involved in handling and installation of DOWS system should be properly trained or experienced for successful implementation of this technology. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome following high-volume intramuscular and accidental intravascular injection of mineral oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mathias; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We present a rare case of subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome (FES-like) following intravascular injection of mineral oil-steroid solution with delayed diagnosis, acute onset of pulmonary distress, and transient clinical deterioration. Case report. A 40-year-old man was admitted following as a pedestrian being hit by a car. Examinations revealed sternum fracture and lung contusion. The patient was discharged with oral analgesics. Seven days later he returned presenting with coughing, hemoptysis, elevated leucocytes, and increased C-reactive protein. Chest radiograph revealed basal infiltrations. Suspecting pneumonia, the patient was discharged with antibiotics. Unkown to the clinicians, the patient had self-administered a mineral oil with added anabolic steroids by intramuscular injections for cosmetic purposes. The patient had observed blood on aspiration, and then relocated the needle before injecting 140 ml in his biceps muscle. Shortly after, the patient described near fainting and hemoptysis suggesting an accidental intravascular injection. Over the next 3 days the patient experienced increasing shortness of breath and hemoptysis. Examinations confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated with organ-specific supportive measures, tranexamic acid, and prednisolone and discharged after 11 days in the hospital. Conclusion. Subacute FES-like was associated with injection of body filler in muscle tissue. FES-like can mimic pneumonia, posttraumatic lung injury, and other more frequent causes to respiratory failure.

  9. Efficiency of pulsed neutron method in determining of flowing gas-oil and oil-water surfaces in oil margin of 13. horizon in Gazly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are physical bases of pulsed neutron-neutron logging method as well as the technique of its realization and interpretation of the data obtained using the above method to determine flowing gas-oil and oil-water surfaces in oil margin of the 13 horizon of Gasly oil field. To define the character of stratum-reservoir saturation in the process of oil margin development, mean neutron lifetime is determined by layers, and obtained data are compared with data for key horizons. According to the degree of deviation of these values, determined are flowing values of horizon-reservoir saturation with oil, gas or water or values for gas-oil, oil-water, gas-water surfaces

  10. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  11. Anxiogenic Effects of Acute Injection of Sesame oil May be Mediated by ?-1 Adrenoceptors in the Basolateral Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz Kesmati; Maysam Mard-Soltani; Lotfolah Khajehpour

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A few studies have indicates that the sesame oil influences anxiety, but many reports show that ?-1 adrenoceptors (ARs) of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a pivotal role in this regard. Therefore, in this study the effect of acute injection of sesame oil on anxiety-like behavior in the presence and absence of the BLA ?-1 ARs in the male Wistar rats were investigated. Methods: Guide cannulas, for seven groups of rats, were implanted bilaterally into the BLA. Two weeks after th...

  12. Subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome following high-volume intramuscular and accidental intravascular injection of mineral oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mathias; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Jansen, Tejs; Almind, Merete

    infiltrations. Suspecting pneumonia, the patient was discharged with antibiotics. Unkown to the clinicians, the patient had self-administered a mineral oil with added anabolic steroids by intramuscular injections for cosmetic purposes. The patient had observed blood on aspiration, and then relocated the needle...... patient was treated with organ-specific supportive measures, tranexamic acid, and prednisolone and discharged after 11 days in the hospital. Conclusion. Subacute FES-like was associated with injection of body filler in muscle tissue. FES-like can mimic pneumonia, posttraumatic lung injury, and other more...

  13. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Izabel Cristina da Silva, Grem; Bianca Natividade Barreto, Lima; Wiliam Ferreira, Carneiro; Yure Gomes de Carvalho, Queirós; Claudia Regina Elias, Mansur.

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers [...] for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP) and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  14. Water quality changes at three reclaimed mine sites related to the injection of coal combustion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface and groundwater pollution is a common problem associated with post-surface mining operations. The US Bureau of Mines (BOM) participated in the testing of subsurface injections of coal combustion residues (CCR) at three reclaimed surface mine sites. The addition of alkaline CCR to the subsurface environment can raise the pH, limit propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reduce the rate of acid generation. Many CCR's can also form cement-like grout, which when injected into buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. The objective of this work was to develop an effective, economical and permanent method to abate or reduce post-mining water pollution. The effectiveness of CCR injection as an acid mine drainage abatement technique was evaluated by the BOM by monitoring water quality at three sites in: Upshur County, WV, Clinton County, PA and Greene County, PA. Geophysical techniques were used at all sites to locate monitoring and injection wells that were subsequently drilled into the spoil. Grout injection work was completed between 1990 and 1994 at the three sites. Baseline water quality data were collected at all three sites for a minimum of one year. Post-grouting water quality at the discharge of the three sites showed a slight, long-term improvement and no apparent degradation in water quality resulting from the injection of the coal combustion residues. Notable and long-term improvements in water quality at various monitoring wells (on all sites) were also observed

  15. Generation of water-in-oil and oil-in-water microdroplets in polyester-toner microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Piccin, Evandro; Ferraro, Davide; Sartori, Paolo; Chiarello, Enrico; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that disposable polyester-toner microfluidic devices are suitable to produce either water-in-oil (W/O) or oil-in-water (O/W) droplets without using any surface treatment of the microchannels walls. Highly monodisperse W/O and O/W emulsions were generated in T-junction microdevices by simply adding appropriate surfactants to the continuous phase. The dispersion in size of droplets generated at frequencies up to 500 Hz was always less than about 2% over...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions,...

  17. Exploring methods improving oil removal from waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetzkaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates experiments carried out at the Zhdanov coking by-product plant involving adding synthetic aliphatic acid to waste water and using fiberglass in the filtration process. Later fiberglass is regenerated with contaminated or raw benzene. Experiment results are given in a table showing that oil removal reaches 69.3-95.8%. Residual oil content is described as a function of filtration speed and initial oil concentration. Waste water purification using fiberglass rinsed in benzene is 14.6% more effective than that using fresh fiberglass, with filtration speed increased by 45 ml/min. Fiberglass adsorption capacity remains the same whether it is regenerated with uncontaminated or already used benzene. It is concluded that using fiberglass is profitable from both financial and qualitative points of view.

  18. The estimation of oil water displacement functions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. B., Savioli; E. M., Fernández-Berdaguer.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of t [...] he equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefore, the estimation problem is carried out over a set of parameters which are functions. The parameter is inferred from measurements of saturation at different spatial points as a function of time. The estimation procedure is carried out linearizing the solution of the direct model with respect to the parameter and then computing the least-squares solution in functional spaces. The sensitivity equations are derived. We test the algorithm with several numerical experiments.

  19. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches of the...

  20. Air-water mixing experiments for direct vessel injection of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two air-water mixing experiments are conducted to understand the flow behavior in the downcomer for Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In the first experiment which is an air-water experiment in the rectangular channel with the gap size of 1cm, the width of water film is proportional to the water and air velocities and the inclined angle is proportional to the water velocity only, regardless of the water velocity injected in the rectangular channel. It is observed that the amount of entrained water is negligible. In the second experiment which is a full-scaled water jetting experiment without air flow, the width of water film is proportional to the flow rate injected from the pipe exit and the film thickness of water varies from 1.0mm to 5.0mm, and the maximum thickness does not exceed 5.0mm. The amount of water separated from the liquid film after striking of water jetting on the wall is measured. The amount of separation water is proportional to the flow rate, but the separation ratio in the full-scaled water jetting is not over 15%. A simplified physical model, which is designed to predict the trajectories of the width of water film, is validated through the comparison with experiment results. The 13 .deg. upward water droplet of the water injected from the pipe constitutes the outermost boundary at 1.7m below from pipe level, after the water impinges against the wall. In the model, the parameter, ? which represents the relationship between the jetting velocity and the initial spreading velocity, is inversely proportional to the water velocity when it impinges against the wall. The error of the predictions by the model is decreased within 14% to the experimental data through use of exponential fitting of ? for the jetting water velocity

  1. Mechanics and upscaling of heavy oil bitumen recovery by steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoir method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.; Badadagli, T. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    In fractured reservoirs, heavy matrix oil recovery is a big challenge; the steam over solvent injection method was developed to enhance recovery. This method consists in three phases: steam is injected, then the solvent and finally steam again to recover more oil and retrieve the solvent. Previous studies have proved this method to be both technically feasible and economical but have not been able to determine the recovery mechanisms involved. Thus this study focused on identifying these mechanisms and efficient application conditions, using a numerical model and then performing an upscaling analysis. The results determined the asphaltene precipitation to be important to the process and showed that solvent mostly escape from the core in its gas form. In addition gravity was identified as controlling the process in the matrix and that it is enhanced by solvent diffusion. This research showed encouraging results and further studies should be undertaken to obtain a universal scaling relationship.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

    2008-07-01

    During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

  3. Massive dominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in formation waters from a Canadian oil sands reservoir containing severely biodegraded oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Casey R. J.; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Fustic, Milovan; Gray, Neil D; Larter, Stephen R; Penn, Kevin; Rowan, Arlene K.; Seshadri, Rekha; Sherry, Angela; Swainsbury, Richard; Voordouw, Gerrit; Voordouw, Johanna K.; Head, Ian M

    2012-01-01

    The subsurface microbiology of an Athabasca oil sands reservoir in western Canada containing severely biodegraded oil was investigated by combining 16S rRNA gene- and polar lipid-based analyses of reservoir formation water with geochemical analyses of the crude oil and formation water. Biomass was filtered from formation water, DNA was extracted using two different methods, and 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified with several different primer pairs prior to cloning and sequencing or commun...

  4. Mannans as stabilizers of oil-in-water beverage emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant polysaccharides and gums such as gum arabic (GA) are commonly used as stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan (GGM), a by-product from mechanical pulping of spruce wood, is able to stabilize colloidal wood resin emulsions (Hannuksela and Holmbom, 2004), but its use a...

  5. Device for separating oil from water and solid particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, M.S.; Copeland, S.B.

    1979-08-02

    In separating oil from water and solid particles, one can achieve a considerable improvement of the well known process and devices by providing a first separation, a coalescing effect and filtration. An example of the invention is explained using several detailed drawings. The device has a hollow chamber with a sediment bowl in the bottom and a replaceable filter element.

  6. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Espartero Sánchez, José Luis; Madrona, Andrés; Pereira Cano, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández Bolaños, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  7. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol. PMID:19471196

  8. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  9. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  10. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cindy Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power, PEO (polyethylene oxide, Xanthan (xanthan gum, SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt, and PAA (polyacrylic acid, including the measurements of contact angles, interfacial tension, and viscosity. Furthermore, a micromodel study was conducted to explore pore-scale displacement phenomena during biopolymer injection into the pores. The contact angles of biopolymer solutions are higher on silica surfaces submerged in decane than at atmospheric conditions. While interfacial tensions of the biopolymer solutions have a relatively small range of 25 to 39 mN/m, the viscosities of biopolymer solutions have a wide range, 0.002 to 0.4 Pa·s, that dramatically affect both the capillary number and viscosity number. Both contact angles and interfacial tension have effects on the capillary entry pressure that increases along with an applied effective stress by overburden pressure in sediments. Additionally, a high injection rate of biopolymer solutions into the pores illustrates a high level of displacement ratio. Thus, oil-contaminated soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery should be operated in cost-efficient ways considering the injection rates and capillary entry pressure.

  11. Influence of ethanol-amine injection on flow accelerated corrosion rate in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have introduced ethanol-amine (ETA) injection for the purpose of decreasing iron transfer in steam generator (SG). The ETA injection is supposed to decrease flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) rate, because of secondary system pH increase. But the water chemistry in the secondary system is very complicated. So water chemistry following ETA injection and the effect of ETA injection on FAC rate have not been studied systematically. To assess the influence of ETA injection on FAC rate, it is assumed that the model of FAC rate is proportional to the concentration gradient of magnetite. Then chemical concentration and magnetite solubility of the secondary system are calculated and the change of FAC rate is evaluated in the outline. It has been clarified that the effect of ETA injection reduces the FAC rate to about 1/3-1/22 of that of ammonia. In some portions of the secondary system, the effects of ETA injection have been measured experimentally by rotary disk test. The FAC rate of ETA injection is larger than that of ammonia at high temperature. And the FAC rate peaks at about 180degC in the case of ammonia, but the peak seems to shift to higher temperatures in the case of ETA. (author)

  12. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1993-01-01

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  13. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  14. Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

  15. Permeability of fissured rock - an experimental study with special regard to the water injection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability to water of fissured rock is one of the most important design parameters for many underground projects, such as, e.g. the final deposition of radioactive waste. Because the conventional water injection test according to LUGEON for the calculation of permeability to water is associated with a high degree of uncertainty, new test equipment was developed. This equipment works on the principle of the water injection tracer test and multi-level measurements, enabling detailed measurement of the flow process at injection site and in the rock. The tests were carried out in Bunter sandstone and granite. The LUGEON test concept was varied in short-term and long-term tests at identical geological boundary conditions, and with test control at constant pressure on the one hand and at constant injection volume on the other. The test results show that non-steady-state flow occurs with short injection times, whereby the range is limited to the local rock at injection site. An increasing in injection time can lead to an increase in range by a number of factors as well as to steady-state flow conditions. The permeability of the rock types investigated is inhomgeneous and anistropic as a result of the fissured structure. (orig./HP) With 114 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Oil spill clean-up system using hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of hot water extraction of tar sand was modified and adapted for removal of heavy oil from bottom tank petroleum sludges, and was submitted to a laboratory feasibility study. This process can also be utilized to clean beach sands contaminated by accidental heavy oil spills. The process mainly consists of a hot-water extraction (digestion), extruding the oil particles from their support of sand or clay. In the case of oil contaminated sands, a single stage extraction yielded a total recovery of hydrocarbons of 99% and a clean sand (hardly containing 0.1% of hydrocarbons), thus safe to be returned to the environment. In the case of heavy oil from bottom tank petroleum sludges, it was necessary to proceed with a double stage extraction with the addition of wetting agents: the utilization of Na2SiO3 aqueous solution of 1% in weight was proven efficient, allowing a 82% recovery of hydrocarbons, with only 0.5% hydrocarbons in the solid residues. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  17. A study of water-in-oil emulsification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic mechanisms by which asphaltenes, resins, and waxes stabilize water-in-oil emulsions are examined. Experiments were conducted on the emulsification behavior of model oils which consisted of an alkane component, an aromatic component, and the emulsifying agents. Results from this study clearly demonstrate the importance that the physical state of an emulsifying agent has upon its ability to stabilize emulsions. It was found that to be effective emulsifiers, asphaltenes, resins, and waxes must be in the form of sub-micron particles. In addition, it was shown that the solvency strength of an oil, which is determined by its alkane and aromatic components, controls the solubility/precipitation behavior of these emulsifiers. The chemical composition of the oil determines not only the amount and size of precipitated particles, but also the composition and wetting properties of the particles. All these factors were found to have an influence upon emulsification. The potential application of a solubility model, using the Hildebrand-Scatchard equation, to predict the physicochemical conditions which favor water-in-oil emulsification, is discussed. Theories on various emulsification processes are also discussed in terms of mousse formation at sea. 52 refs., 46 figs., 1 tab

  18. The visibility and detectability of oil slicks and oil discharges on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature on the visibility of oil slicks and oil discharges on water are reviewed. Except for some work done recently, the literature on oil slick visibility is very old, dating back to the early part of this century. Considerable differences were found between recent experiments and some of the older thickness-visibility relationship tables. This finding was attributed to the the fact that evaporation and inhomogeneity of the slick were ignored in the early studies. Literature on the visibility of oil discharges was also reviewed and compared to slick visibility results. Some correlation was achieved in converting discharge to approximate slick thickness. A new correlation table relating wind speed and vessel discharge speed wth the visibility threshold is also presented. Overall, the data indicated that the minimum visible threshold for discharge is about 100 ppm oil in water, except for a calm situation at two knots where it may be as little as 50 ppm. Data collected on remote sensing thresholds showed that the thresholds could be lowered somewhat by both video and traditional photography. 33 refs., 6 tabs

  19. The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utlu, Zafer [Education-Teaching Department, Guelhane Military Academy, TR-34668 Istanbul (Turkey); Kocak, Mevluet Suereyya [Automotive Sciences Department, Turkish Land Forces NCO Vocational College, 10110 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, usage of methyl ester obtained from waste frying oil (WFO) is examined as an experimental material. A reactor was designed and installed for production of methyl ester from this kind of oil. Physical and chemical properties of methyl ester were determined in the laboratory. The methyl ester was tested in a diesel engine with turbocharged, four cylinders and direct injection. Gathered results were compared with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine tests results obtained with the aim of comparison from the measures of torque, power; specific fuel consumptions are nearly the same. In addition, amount of emission such as CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and smoke darkness of waste frying oils are less than No. 2 diesel fuel. (author)

  20. Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovski Branislava G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly decrease the amount of some emulsifier that is normally involved in every emulsification process. A central composite rotatable experimental design was implemented to analyze the impact of the contents of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and pumpkin seed oil in the continuous phase, as well as water phase content in the emulsion on droplet size distribution and the response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal conditions for water-in-oil emulsion preparation. Mean size diameter of water droplets was in a range from 400 to 850 nm, with mean peak width of 100 to 220 nm, respectively. The influence of all three investigated factors on the emulsification was determined. Additionally, the emulsions prepared with pumpkin seed oil showed a higher stability during the storage time compared to the emulsions with sunflower oil.

  1. Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

  2. Cooling Effect of Water Injection on a High-Temperature Supersonic Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature and high pressure supersonic jet is one of the key problems in the design of solid rocket motors. To reduce the jet temperature and noise, cooling water is typically injected into the exhaust plume. Numerical simulations for the gas-liquid multiphase flow field with mixture multiphase model were developed and a series of experiments were carried out. By introducing the energy source terms caused by the vaporization of liquid water into the energy equation, a coupling solution was developed to calculate the multiphase flow field. The temperature data predictions agreed well with the experimental results. When water was injected into the plume, the high temperature core region area was reduced, and the temperature on the head face was much lower than that without water. The relationship between the reduction of temperature on the bottom plate and the momentum ratio is developed, which can be used to predict the cooling effect of water injection in many cases.

  3. A high efficiency oxyfuel internal combustion engine cycle with water direct injection for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel concept of combining water injection process with an oxyfuel internal combustion engine cycle to enhance thermal efficiency. Since the emission of NOx is eliminated by using oxygen instead of air as oxidant, the exhaust gas is CO2–water vapor mixture, and CO2 is recovered through condensation of the exhaust gas at low cost. In this way, an ultra-low emission working cycle is achieved. The evaporation of injected water not only moderates the peak in-cylinder temperature, but also increases the mass of working gas inside the cylinder, therefore improves the thermal efficiency of the cycle. An ideal thermodynamic model combining an oxyfuel Otto cycle with water injection process was established to investigate the potential of the cycle thermal efficiency. Calculation results show that thermal efficiency reaches 53% when water injection temperature is 120 °C and 67% when water injection temperature reaches 200 °C. Moreover, bench tests were carried out on prototype engine based on this working cycle. Experimental results show that the thermal efficiency improves with the increase of both engine load and water injection mass, and indicated thermal efficiency increases from 32.1% to 41.5% under appropriate test condition. - Highlights: • We present an oxy-fuel combustion cycle coupled with water injection for IC engines. • High thermo efficiency can be realized with the potential of CO2 capture. • Steam is employed as working gas of an reciprocating engine cycle. • An efficiency increase of 33% is achievable based on thermodynamic analysis. • Thermo efficiency increases from 32.1% to 41.5% through engine tests

  4. Heat pump system utilizing produced water in oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the alternative to the heating furnace for crude oil heating, a heat pump system utilizing produced water, a main byproduct, in oil fields was proposed and the thermodynamic model of the system was established. A particular compression process with inner evaporative spray water cooling was applied in the screw compressor and an analysis method for the variable-mass compression process was introduced. The simulation results showed that the efficiency of the screw compressor, the temperature of produced water and the temperature difference in flash process are key parameters affecting the system performance. The energy cost of the heat pump system was compared to that of the heating furnace, revealing that the heat pump system with EER, 4.67, would save over 20% energy cost as compared with the heating furnace. Thus, the heat pump system was energy saving, money saving and environmentally benign

  5. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop a...... thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems experimental data are required but such data with natural gas-condensate/oil systems are very rare in the literature. In this project experimental work has been carried at Statoil R & D and an experimental method has been established and...... tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds...

  6. Electrolytic separation of tars and oils from waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filonenko, Yu.Ya.; Konev, N.L.; Rzhavichev, S.P.; Myachin, G.V.; Sobolev, S.Ya.; Kuznetsov, V.Ya.; Ivantsov, V.A.

    1991-08-01

    Discusses the feasibility of separating oils and tars from coking waste-water using electrocoagulation. Soluble electrodes made of St3 steel were used. Waste water was treated by flotation (by hydrogen bubbles evolving from a cathode) as well as coagulation (by ions of iron Fe{sup 2+}) formed during catalytic dissolution of an anode. Efficiency of oil and tar separation from waste water using electrocoagulation was tested under laboratory conditions: voltage 15 V, current 62.2. A, current density 1,666.7 A/m{sup 2}, four 11x11 cm electrodes situated at intervals of 3 mm, volume of an electrolyzer 4.42 l, electrolysis time 15 s, output 1.0 m{sup 3}/h. Energy consumption was 1.25 kWxh/m{sup 3}. 3 refs.

  7. Membrane technology to improve water management in oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a bench-scale experiment designed to improve water management in oil sands processing using a membrane technology. The study addressed the following two aspects of water management: (1) reducing the hardness of water used in technological processes, and (2) reducing the toxicity in effluent streams caused by the presence of naphthenic acids. Both issues were also addressed through the evaluation of a membrane separation process called nanofiltration. The primary focus of this study was to choose an appropriate membrane and to determine its subsequent ability to reduce the hardness from groundwater and remove naphthenic acids from discharge water. The study revealed that nanofiltration technology is a good water management tool in oil sands operations. Membrane filtration managed to reduce water hardness significantly. A high napthenic acid removal efficiency (up to 94 per cent) was noted for both synthetic solutions and actual water samples. Permeate flux was also maintained at a high level of 15 litres per square metre per hour or more. A 90 per cent water recovery was obtained by reducing the feed volume by 10 fold. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  8. 33 CFR 157.33 - Water ballast in fuel oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. 157.33 Section...Vessel Operation § 157.33 Water ballast in fuel oil tanks. A new vessel may not carry ballast water in a fuel oil tank. [CGD...

  9. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  10. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Cao, Shengbin; Xu, Guangbiao

    2016-03-15

    Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6min when the water ran at 60.35ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates. PMID:26642440

  11. INFLUENCE OF INJECTION TIMING ON EMISSION ANALYSIS OF A DI ENGINE RUNNING ON RUBBER SEED AND JATROPHA OIL FUELLED WITH DIESEL FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahalingam; B. R. RameshBapu

    2014-01-01

    The petroleum fuels availability and cost concerns the nonedible oils used as raw materials can be obtained from different oil crops that may be used to reduce the environmental pollution.In the development of alternative, biodegradable, and renewable fuels used forinternal combustion (IC) engines to obtain the power. Therefore, in this present study, in?uence of fuel injection timing on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder, four stroke, and direct injection(DI) diesel en...

  12. Hydrodynamics of Particles at an Oil-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Archit; Keiser, Geoff; Yeganeh, Mohsen; Maldarelli, Charles

    2015-12-15

    This study is a theoretical and experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of the mutual approach of two floating spherical particles moving along an oil-water interface. An analytical expression is obtained for the (inertialess) Stokes drag for an isolated particle translating on a flat interface as a function of the immersion depth into the water phase for the case in which the viscosity of the oil is much larger than that of the water. An approximation for the viscous drag due to the mutual approach of identical spheres is formulated as the product of the isolated drag multiplied by the resistance of approaching spheres in an infinite medium. Experiments are undertaken on the capillary attraction of large, millimeter-sized Teflon spheres floating at the interface between a very viscous oil and water. With the use of image visualization and particle tracking, the separation distance as a function of time [[Formula: see text](t)] is measured along with the immersion depth and predicted by setting the capillary attraction force equal to the viscous drag resistance. The excellent agreement validates the approximating formula. PMID:26488685

  13. Determination of colloid silver in drinking water by flow injection analysis with TLS spectrometric UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work flow injection analysis coupled to collinear dual beam thermal lens spectrometric UV detection was used for determination of silver in water. The detection is based on the increase in absorbance resulting from the formation of colloidal elemental silver due to reduction of Ag+ after reaction with BH4-. The optimal performance of the experimental setup was achieved with 500 ?L sample injection loops or larger and the flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) for silver in water was 0.01 mg/L what compares favorably with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for silver in drinking water.

  14. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani; Mozhgan Emtyazjoo; Parinaz Poursafa; Sedigheh Mehrabian; Samira Bijani; Daryoush Farkhani; Parisa Mirmoghtadaee

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of...

  15. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  16. Purification of trona ores by conditioning with an oil-in-water emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2009-04-14

    The present invention is a trona concentrate and a process for floating gangue material from trona ore that comprises forming an emulsion, conditioning the trona ore at a high solids content in a saturated trona suspension, and then floating and removing the gangue material. The process for separating trona from gangue materials in trona ore can include emulsifying an oil in an aqueous solution to form an oil-in-water emulsion. A saturated trona suspension having a high solids content can also be formed having trona of a desired particle size. The undissolved trona in the saturated suspension can be conditioned by mixing the saturated suspension and the oil-in-water emulsion to form a conditioning solid suspension of trona and gangue material. A gas can be injected through the conditioning solid suspension to float the gangue material. Thus, the floated gangue material can be readily separated from the trona to form a purified trona concentrate without requirements of additional heat or other expensive processing steps.

  17. Research on the performance of water-injection twin screw compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the development of the automotive fuel cell systems, the study on water-injection twin screw compressor has been aroused again. Twin screw compressors with water injection can be used to supply the clean compressed air for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. In this research, a thermodynamic model of the working process of water-injection twin screw compressor was established based on the equations of conservation of mass and energy. The effects of internal leakage and air-water heat transfer were taken into account simultaneously in the present mathematical model. The experiments of the performance of a prototype compressor operating under various conditions were conducted to verify the model. The results show that the predictions of the model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Management of Water for Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations Enhanced with the Expanded U.S.Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Thordsen, J. J.; Thomas, B.; Reidy, M. E.; Engle, M.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Rowan, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in hydraulic fracturing practices for shale gas and tight oil reservoirs have dramatically increased petroleum production in the USA, but have also made the issue of water management from these operations a high priority. Hydraulic fracturing requires ~ 10,000 to 50,000 m3 of water per well for injection in addition to water used to drill the well. Initially much of the water used for hydraulic fracturing was fresh water, but attitudes and operations are changing in response to costs and concerns. Concerns about groundwater depletion and contamination have prompted operators to increase the amount of produced water that can be recycled for hydraulic fracturing and to find suitable locations for salt-water injection. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water recycling. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use outside of the petroleum industry (e.g. irrigation, municipal uses, and industrial operations). The updated and expanded USGS Produced Waters Database available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp/ will facilitate and enhance studies on management of water, including produced water, for unconventional oil and gas drilling and production. The USGS database contains > 160,000 samples. Expanding on the 2002 database, we have filled in state and regional gaps with information from conventional and unconventional wells and have increased the number of constituents to include minor and trace chemicals, isotopes, and time series data. We currently have produced water data from 5,200 tight gas wells, 4,500 coal-bed methane (CBM) wells, 3,500 shale gas wells, and 700 tight oil wells. These numbers will increase as we continue to receive positive responses from oil companies, state oil and gas commissions, and scientists wanting to contribute their data. This database is an important resource for a wide range of interested parties. Scientists from universities, government agencies, public municipalities and citizens can determine the geochemical nature of deep groundwater supplies, contamination sources, and impacts of hydraulic fracturing. Energy companies can utilize the database for determining the suitability of water reuse and for identifying regions where non-potable hydraulic fracturing water may be obtainable.

  19. Novel preparation method for sustained-release PLGA microspheres using water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic-oil-in-water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong X

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyun Hong,1,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Liuqing Ma,2 Yinghui Chen,4 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2,* 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University, 3Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology, Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: An increasing number of drugs are needing improved formulations to optimize patient compliance because of their short half-lives in blood. Sustained-release formulations of drugs are often required for long-term efficacy, and microspheres are among the most popular ones. When drugs are encapsulated into microsphere formulations, different methods of preparation need to be used according to specific clinical requirements and the differing physicochemical characteristics of individual drugs. In this work, we developed a novel method for sustained-release drug delivery using a water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (w/o/oh/w emulsion to encapsulate a drug into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres. Different effects were achieved by varying the proportions and concentrations of hydrophilic oil and PLGA. Scanning electron and optical microscopic images showed the surfaces of the microspheres to be smooth and that their morphology was spherical. Microspheres prepared using the w/o/oh/w emulsion were able to load protein efficiently and had sustained-release properties. These results indicate that the above-mentioned method might be useful for developing sustained-release microsphere formulations in the future. Keywords: protein, microspheres, water-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water emulsion, sustained-release

  20. Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman H. Nour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

  1. Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Abdurahman H.; Suliman, A.; Hadow, Mahmmoud M.

    During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A) ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

  2. Recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers by adsorptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Sivasurian, N; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to identify, a low cost sorbent for the recovery of oil from oil-in-water emulsion using biopolymers such as chitin and chitosan. Chitin has the greater adsorption capacity than chitosan due to its hydrophobic nature. The characterizations of chitin and chitosan were done using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, XRD, TGA and DSC techniques. Under batch equilibrium mode, a systematic study was performed to optimize the various equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, dosage, initial concentration of oil, and temperature. The adsorption process reached equilibrium at 40 min of contact time and the percentage removal of oil was found to be higher (90%) in the acidic medium. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H° and ?S° were calculated to find out the nature of the sorption mechanism. The kinetic studies were investigated with reaction-based and diffusion-based models. The suitable mechanism for the removal of oil has been established. PMID:25017179

  3. A water-in-oil emulsion containing Kelex-100 for the speciation analysis of trace heavy metals in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, Hiroaki [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: h-matsu@numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ohkouchi, Ryohei [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hiraide, Masataka [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2006-01-25

    A water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion containing Kelex-100 (7-dodecenyl-8-quinolinol) and Span-80 (sorbitan monooleate, non-ionic surfactant) was ultrasonically prepared from 1.0 mol l{sup -1} hydrochloric acid and a (1 + 3) mixture of toluene and n-heptane. The resulting emulsion was gradually injected into water sample and dispersed as numerous tiny globules (0.01-0.1 mm in diameter). Dissolved inorganic species (free metal species) of heavy metals (e.g., Fe, Co, Cu, Cd, and Pb) were selectively transported through the oil layer into the internal aqueous phase of the emulsion, leaving other species, such as humic complexes and suspended particles (larger than 1 {mu}m), in the sample solution. After collecting the dispersed emulsion globules, they were demulsified and the heavy metals in the segregated aqueous phase were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The emulsion-based separation method allowed the selective collection of free metal species with a high concentration factor of 100, whereas the conventional solvent extraction did not offer such discrimination. This unique property of the emulsion method was successfully applied to the selective determination of free species of heavy metals in fresh water samples.

  4. Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

  5. Direct {mu}-flow injection isotope dilution ICP-MS for the determination of heavy metals in oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettmer, Joerg; Kutscher, Daniel J.; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain); Heilmann, Jens; Heumann, Klaus G. [Institute for Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The determination of trace elements in oil samples and their products is of high interest as their presence significantly affects refinery processes and the environment by possible impact of their combustion products. In this context, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) plays an important role due to its outstanding analytical properties in the quantification of trace elements. In this work, we present the accurate and precise determination of selected heavy metals in oil samples by making use of the combination of {mu}-flow direct injection and isotope dilution ICP-MS (ICP-IDMS). Spike solutions of {sup 62}Ni, {sup 97}Mo, {sup 117}Sn and {sup 206}Pb were prepared in an organic solvent, mixed directly with the diluted oil samples and tested to be fit for purpose for the intended ID approach. The analysis of real samples revealed strong matrix effects affecting the ICP-MS sensitivity, but not the isotope ratio measurements, so that accurate results are obtained by ICP-IDMS. Typical relative standard deviations were about 15% for peak area and peak height measurements, whereas the isotope ratios were not significantly affected (RSD < 2%). The developed method was validated by the analysis of a metallo-organic multi-element standard (SCP-21, typically applied as a calibration standard) and the standard reference material SRM1084a (wear metals in lubricating oil). The obtained results were in excellent agreement with the certified values (recoveries between 98% and 102%), so the proposed methodology of combining {mu}-flow direct injection and ICP-IDMS can be regarded as a new tool for the matrix-independent, multi-element and reliable determination of trace elements in oil and related organic liquids. (orig.)

  6. Effects of caffeic acid and bovine serum albumin in reducing the rate of development of rancidity in oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Enma; Gordon, Micheal H.; Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of caffeic acid and bovine serum albumin in oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions were studied. Caffeic acid (5 mmol/kg emulsion) showed good antioxidant properties in both 30% sunflower oil-in-water (OW) and 20% water-in-sunflower oil emulsions (WO), pH 5.4, during storage at 50 ºC. Although bovine serum albumin (BSA) (0.2%) had a slight antioxidant effect, the combination of caffeic acid and BSA showed a synergistic reduction in the rate of development of rancid...

  7. Geochemical Differentiation of Injected Freshwater Vertical and Horizontal Flow Through Deep Saline Water Karst Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, W.; Price, R.

    2008-05-01

    Geochemical data at two deep well injection sites of freshwater into deep saline karst aquifers in south Florida indicate chemically distinct vertical and horizontal flow pathways once the freshwater is introduced into the aquifers. Ammonium contained in the injected water is higher than native aquifer water background levels, and exhibits a high seasonal variability in response to the wet and dry climatic conditions in south Florida. Geochemical data indicate that the injected ammonium behaves conservatively when mixed with native water, and thus can be used to distinguish flowpaths of injected water. Ammonium data in conjunction with major ion chemistry and stable isotope data were used to identify source and pathways of the freshwater injectate. Data indicate multiple pathways that are distinct depending on their pathway to the aquifer, and suggest vertical migration a result of either natural or well construction-induced fractures. Once introduced into the overlying aquifer, horizontal migration appears to be the result of natural advection/diffusion through a highly heterogeneous carbonate aquifer with little mixing of native waters.

  8. Low-Sulfate Seawater Injection into Oil Reservoir to Avoid Scaling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Badr Bin Merdhah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates from mixing Angsi seawater or low sulfate seawater with the following sulfate contents (75, 50, 25, 5 and 1% and formation water contain high concentration of calcium, strontium and barium ions at various temperatures (40-90°C and atmospheric pressure. The knowledge of solubility of common oil field scale formation and how their solubilities are affected by changes in salinity and temperatures is also studied. Results show a large of precipitation occurred in all jars containing seawater while the amount of precipitation decreased when the low sulfate seawater was used. At higher temperatures the mass of precipitation of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales increases and the mass of precipitation of BaSO4 scale decreases since the solubilities of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales decreases and the solubility of BaSO4 increases with increasing temperature. It can be concluded that even at sulfate content of 1% there may still be a scaling problem.

  9. An X-ray Scattering Study of Water-Conditioned Injection- Molded Starch during Isothermal Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Cagiao, M.E.; Bayer, R. K.; Rueda, D. R.; Baltá Calleja, F. J.

    2003-01-01

    The in situ structure variation of injection molded starch (as processed and after water conditioning)during heat treatment was investigated by means of wideangle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. Results confirm that the crystal structure of potato starch is destroyed after injection molding, while as-processed corn starch preserves some degree of crystallinity. This residual crystallinity in corn starch is related to the crystalline Vh form,made of complexes of amylose with l...

  10. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  11. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Street 15, P.O. Box LT-53361, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min{sup -1} speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min{sup -1} speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively. (author)

  12. Comparative performance of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on the biofuel kinematical viscosity, brake mean effective pressure (bmep), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a diesel engine and its brake thermal efficiency (bte). Addition into RO from 2.5 to 7.5 vol% of ethanol and petrol its viscosity at ambient temperature of 20 deg. C diminishes by 9.2-28.3% and 14.1-31.7%, respectively. Heating up to the temperature of 60 deg. C the viscosity of pure RO, blends ERO2.5-7.5 and PRO2.5-10 further diminishes 4.2, 3.9-3.8 and 3.9-3.6 times. At 1800 min-1 speed, the maximum brake mean effective pressure (bmep) higher up to 1.6% comparing with that of pure RO (0.77 MPa) ensure three agent blends EPRO5-7.5, whereas at rated 2200 min-1 speed, the bmep higher by 5.6% can be obtained when fuelling the engine with blend PRO2.5. Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) at maximum torque (240.2 g/kWh) and rated power (234.0 g/kWh) is correspondingly lower by 3.4% and 5.5% in comparison with pure RO when biofuel blends EPRO5 and PRO2.5 are used. The biggest brake thermal efficiency at maximum torque (0.40-0.41) and rated power (0.42-0.43) relative to that of RO (0.39) suggest blends PRO2.5 and EPRO5-7.5, respectively

  13. In-situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 2. Oil spill cleanup efficiency as a function of oil type, marsh type, and water depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Carney, Kenneth; Miles, Scott M; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of spilled oil, which receives considerable attention in marine conditions, could be an effective way to cleanup wetland oil spills. An experimental in-situ burn was conducted to study the effects of oil type, marsh type, and water depth on oil chemistry and oil removal efficiency from the water surface and sediment. In-situ burning decreased the totaltargeted alkanes and total targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the burn residues as compared to the pre-burn diesel and crude oils. Removal was even more effective for short-chain alkanes and low ring-number PAHs. Removal efficiencies for alkanes and PAHs were >98% in terms of mass balance although concentrations of some long-chain alkanes and high ring-number PAHs increased in the burn residue as compared to the pre-burn oils. Thus, in-situ burning potentially prevents floating oil from drifting into and contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the sediment. In addition, in-situ burning significantly removed diesel oil that had penetrated the sediment for all water depths. Furthermore, in-situ burning at a water depth 2 cm below the soil surface significantly removed crude oil that had penetrated the sediment. As a result, in-situ burning may reduce the long-term impacts of oil on benthic organisms. PMID:15819247

  14. Experimental investigation of the effects of direct water injection parameters on engine performance in a six-stroke engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption decreased with six stroke engine. • Thermal efficiency increased with water injection. • NO emissions decreased with water injection as the temperature decreased at the end of cycle. • Injection timing should be advanced with the increase of engine speed. • HC and CO emissions decrease until 3000 rpm engine speed. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of water injection quantity and injection timing were investigated on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a six-stroke engine. For this purpose, a single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine was converted to six-stroke engine modifying a new cam mechanism and adapting the water injection system. The experiments were conducted at stoichometric air/fuel ratio (λ = 1) between 2250 and 3500 rpm engine speed at full load with liquid petroleum gas. Water injection was performed at three different stages as before top dead center, top dead center and after top dead center at constant injection duration and four different injection pressure 25, 50, 75 and 100 bar. The test results showed that exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption decreased by about 7% and 9% respectively. In contrast, fuel consumption and power output increased 2% and 10% respectively with water injection. Thermal efficiency increased by about 8.72% with water injection. CO and HC emissions decreased 21.97% and 18.23% until 3000 rpm respectively. NO emissions decreased with water injection as the temperature decreased at the end of cycle. As a result, it was seen that engine performance improved when suitable injection timing and injected water quantity were selected due to effect of exhaust heat recovery with water injection

  15. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrick, E.; WALSTRA, P.; Dewettinck, K.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufacturing of products like ice cream. butter and whipped toppings partial coalescence is required to achieve the desired product properties. It contributes to the structure formation, the physicochem...

  16. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald; Gröschl, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of alu...

  17. Efecto de la inyección de vapor sobre la composición de crudos / Effects of steam injection on chemical composition of oils

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, López; Karla, Quintero; Patricia, Lugo; Salvador, Lo Mónaco.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer los cambios en la composición SARA (saturados, aromáticos, resinas y asfaltenos), elementos mayoritarios (C, S), traza (V, Ni), grupos funcionales en la fracción de asfaltenos y biomarcadores (terpanos y esteranos) en crudos de pozos sometidos a inyección de vapor, se est [...] udiaron 20 muestras provenientes de Campo Lagunillas (Cuenca de Maracaibo) tomadas de un pozo sin inyección de vapor (LS-SE), dos pozos en un primer ciclo (LS-A, LS-B) y un pozo en segundo ciclo (LS-C) de inyección de vapor. Los crudos analizados son extra-pesados ( Abstract in english In order to know the changes in SARA composition (saturated, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes), major (C, S), trace (V, Ni) elements, functional groups in the asphaltenes fraction and biomarkers (terpanes and steranes) in oils from wells under steam injection, 20 samples were studied from Lagunilla [...] s field (Maracaibo Basin) taken from a well without stem injection (LS-SE), two wells in a first cycle (LS-A, LS- B), and a well in the second cycle (LS-C) of steam injection. Oils analyzed are extra heavy ones (

  18. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two

  19. Monitoring, characterization and comparison. Operation-project of oil and oil water systems in platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the process of petroleum production, water are also commonly produced. Usually, a standard oil-water separation process will not lead to water phase ready to be discharged - the present legislation requires oily contents (oil and/or greases) bellow 20 mg/L concentration level value. Thus, secondary treatment is required to bring such oily concentration to the allowed level or lower, prior to the water discard in the environment. This paper describes the adopted systematic work in the Campos Basin Petroleum Production Platforms, which has allowed to evaluate and optimize the water treatment performed in there. Such description includes the typical water treatment systems installed, the typical physical-chemistry of the effluents and also presents comparisons between the basic designs that guided such systems construction and their present operational conditions and set-ups. The analysis of such results has allowed the introduction of minor modifications leading to the process optimization. The common use of Pilot Plants in such optimization process is also described and their contribution reported. (author)

  20. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf

    1999-01-01

    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of aluminium or tempax glass and the PZT piezoceramic transducer delivers an acoustic energy flow density of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil-in-water emulsion samples have been investigated. The quality of the ultrasonic-induced particle separation/coagulation process is characterized by physical–chemical analysis of the separated oil- and water phase and by determining the change of the particle size distribution of the initial emulsion due to the ultrasonic treatment. [Work supported by the European Commission, Contract Nos. ERBFMBICT960916 and ERBFMRXCT970156.

  1. Radiation-thermal purification of waste water from oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the extraction, preparation, transportation and refining of oil the sewages containing oil contaminations are produced. The concentration of oil content in the water depends on used technology and may vary from a thousandths parts up to tens percents. There is a necessity of cleaning this pollution up to a permissible level. There are numerous methods (adsorption, mechanical, chemical and etc) of treating of waster water from oil contaminations. Radiation-chemical method is one of the effective among the above mentioned methods. The results of radiation-thermal decomposition of n-heptane micro-admixtures in water medium are adduced. The main parameters of radiolysis change within the intervals: temperature 20-400oC, absorbed dose - 0†10.8 kGy at dose rate 3.6 kGy/h. The correlation of n-heptane concentration and water steam changed within [C5H12]/[H2O] (1-100) 10-5. Total concentration of steam was about 1020 molec/ml. As a product of decomposition are observed H2, CO, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C4H8, hydrocarbons C5, and C6. The changes of n-heptane concentration in the reactor also were established. The chain regime of n-heptane decomposition at high temperatures in the irradiated mixture is observed. The critical value of temperature and mixture ratio of components, under which the break of chain process of normal n-heptane occurs are defined. The mechanisms of proceeding radiation thermal processes in hydrocarbons-water system are discussed. At the temperatures higher than 300oC the radiation-thermal decompositions of hydrocarbon micro-impurities in water into gas products occurs according a chain mechanism and the radiation-chemical yield of the decomposition exceeds 100 molec/100eV. This method can be used for purification of sewages from oil contaminations

  2. Treatment of produced water by means of a new technology (MDIF): application for waters containing oil at low concentrations; Tratamento de aguas produzidas por meio de nova tecnologia (MDIF): aplicacao para aguas contendo baixas concentracoes em oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS S.A., Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Ativo de Producao Mossoro]. E-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo; Moraes, Norberto Araujo de Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica). E-mails: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; norberto@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Antonio Faria; Lacerda, Geraldo de Moura [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Instalacoes, Processamento e Automacao]. E-mails: farialima@petrobras.com.br; geraldoml@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The production of oil is associated with waters which exist naturally at the reservoirs or were injected into wells. These waters, named produced waters, contain beside free oil, emulsioned or micro-emulsioned oil which can not be discharged directly at the environment. The conventional decanters are not efficient to separate this kind of oil dispersed as fine droplets. In this case, a promising alternative to solve the problem of oil/water separation is accomplished by means of the phase inversion method. This method is the basis of working of a new model of mixer-settler which has a vertical disposition and occupies a small surface area. The last characteristic becomes especially important when exist a limitation of place, for example, over the maritime platforms to explore oil. The device of laboratory of the equipment named MDIF (mixer-settler based on phase inversion) has been efficient for treat waters containing up to 2 000 mg/L of emulsioned oil. This equipment on a semi-industrial scale was installed in the entrance of oil/water separator (OWS) from effluent treatment plant from Guamare, Rio Grande do Norte (ETP/GMR) and treats produced waters contaminated with oil at low concentrations (ranging from 30 to 150 mg/L) and throughputs of 320 m3/d (47,4 m3 m-2 h-1). Good results were obtained on oil/water separation which leads to the necessary specification to discharge waters. Besides, the non dependence of the efficiency of separation in the face of the salinity of the medium becomes the equipment a new technology to treat wastewaters containing oil at low concentrations. In this condition conventional equipment do not present a good efficiency of separation, till dispersed droplets are very small (less than 100 {mu}m) requiring a long time of sedimentation. (author)

  3. Water-oil drainage dynamics in oil-wet random microfluidic porous media analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei(School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China); Ok, Jeong Tae; Neeves, Keith; Yin, Xiaolong

    2012-01-01

    Displacement experiments carried out in microfluidic porous media analogs show that reduced surface tension leads to a more stable displacement, opposite to the process in Hele-Shaw cells where surface tension stabilizes the displacement of a more viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid. In addition, geometry of porous media is observed to play an important role. Three random microfluidic porous media analogs were made to study water-oil drainage dynamics, featuring a pattern of randomly connec...

  4. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches of the production. Early diagnosis of faults is hence of considerable interest for this process. This study investigates the properties of multiple matchings with respect to isolability and it suggests to explo...

  5. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery : Experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface causes a high risk for chemical reaction and consequently for mechanical weakening. In order to address this issue we studied two types of chalk from South Arne field, North Sea: (1) Ekofisk Formation having >12% non-carbonate and (2) Tor Formation, which has less than 5% non-carbonate. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties due to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. We analyzed these changes with respect to the differences in porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical strength. We observed a 2–3% increase in porosity, a minor decrease of specific surface and consequently a small increase in permeability. A decrease in elastic stiffness is indicated by an increase of Biot?s effective stress coefficient (?) by 1–2%. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data indicated no change in wettability and the samples remained water wet. We found that the effect of CO2 injection on both petrophysical and mechanical properties of chalk depends on carbonate content. Pure chalk with high carbonate content was found to be vulnerable to mechanical weakening due to CO2 injection, whereas, no significant mechanical effect was observed in the impure chalk of Ekofisk Formation. It should in this context be noted that the experiments spanned only 8 days, therefore long term effects cannot be ruled out. In spite of weakening of the chalk, we expect only minor mechanical effects, because the weakening also causes a lowering of effective stress due to an increase in effective stress coefficient. Extensive time-lapse monitoring strategies are required during a CO2-EOR process for the measurement of changes in reservoir properties that may cause deformation of and leakage from a reservoir. Results of this study will provide data for designing future monitoring strategies based on 4D seismic.

  6. Coupled Flow and Geomechanical Modeling of Fluid Production and Injection in the Cavone Oil Field, Northern Italy: an Assessment of the Potential for Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, B.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.; Hager, B. H.; Juanes, R.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a recent increase in the number of earthquakes reported in proximity of active oil and gas fields. In particular, the occurrence of a sequence of damaging earthquakes in May 2012 near the Cavone oil field, in Northern Italy, raised the question of whether these earthquakes might have been triggered, or, if not, if future activities might trigger other damaging events. Production and injection of fluids in the underground reservoirs are known to be capable of triggering seismicity by inducing slip on seismogenic faults. However, the effects of injection and production on fault stability in real fields are not always intuitively obvious, and require the development of new-generation coupled flow-geomechanical models that capture the effect of multiphase poromechanics on faults. We study, by way of numerical modeling and simulation, the potential for induced seismicity at the Cavone field. Using a coupled flow and geomechanics model of the field that honors reservoir geology and historical well schedule, we simulate oil production and water injection in the field for a period of three decades leading up to the earthquake sequence. We calculate the change in Coulomb stress on the bounding Mirandola fault, which sourced the May 29, 2012 M 5.8 earthquake. This quantity varies in space and evolves in time with changing pore pressure and total stress in the reservoir. A novel and important aspect of our work is the identification of a potential instability mechanism for a bounding fault at the edge of a reservoir experiencing pressure depletion. The discontinuity in pore pressure across the fault means that there is a discontinuity in effective normal stress and that, therefore, the Coulomb failure criterion must be evaluated locally on both sides of the fault. We track the evolution of the Coulomb stress at the earthquake hypocenter and compare it with the regional tectonic stressing rate to conclude in favor of tectonic origin of the earthquake. In addition, analysis of the locations of aftershocks of the May 2012 sequence shows a lack of seismicity in the area where the stressing rates from contraction of the reservoir are largest. This observed lack of seismic activity within 1-2 km from the reservoir suggests that fluid production and injection from the Cavone field was not an important driver for the observed seismicity.

  7. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

  8. The Results of the Emergency Water Core Injection Flow Rate Test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong-Chul; Lee, Yong-Sub; Choi, Young-San; Jung, Hoang-Sung; Lim, In-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    When the water level of a reactor pool descends to an extremely low level due to a loss of reactor pool water accident in HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor of a 30 MWth, the emergency water stored in the emergency cooling water storage tank should be injected to the core of HANARO by a gravity force. It is impossible to periodically measure an injection flow rate under an emergency condition because the reactor pool maintains a normal water level for a cooling of the core during a reactor operation. Last year, the reactor pool water was temporarily transferred to the storage tank. And the water level descended to EL 77.5 m, 0.4 m above the extremely low level to install the in-pile section of a Fuel Test Loop project in the reactor core. When the water was retransferred into the reactor pool, an emergency water injection test was conducted. This paper describes the results of the test including the test methods, results and conclusions.

  9. Optimization of planetary cooler operation by accurately controlled injection of water. Optimierung des Satellitenkuehlerbetriebs durch gezielte Einduesung von Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, W.; Scheuer, A.; Sylla, H.M. (Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, Duesseldorf (Germany))

    1991-08-01

    The cold clinker temperature in a rotary kiln system with planetary cooler was lowered by up to 60 K by injecting water into the cooling tubes. This required 31 g water per kg clinker. There was no increase in fuel energy consumption. The differences between the shell temperatures of the individual cooling tubes were also reduced by using a injection of water adapted to suit the different clinker mass flows in the tubes. This accurately controlled injection also permitted the quantity of water injected to be increased significantly without producing any wet clinker. The quantity of water was controlled by shell temperature measurement and a process computer. (orig.).

  10. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  11. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  12. Water in soybean oil microemulsions as medium for electrochemical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Carla R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions of water in soybean oil (w/o ME were prepared with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as surfactant and amyl or isoamyl alcohol, as co-surfactants. Microemulsions containing 40.0% oil, 43.2% alcohol, 10.8% SDS and 6.0% water in weight, in the ratio 1:4 [SDS]:[alcohol] showed the highest thermodynamic stability. The aqueous droplet size and its diffusion coefficient Dw/o in the ME were determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS. Voltammetric measurements in the ME at a Pt disk ultramicroelectrode (ume evidenced the oxidation of both water and ferrocene (Fc, and the reduction of oleic acid. The Dw/o values calculated from the limiting current being lower than the ones obtained from DLS indicate that water oxidation probably requires diffusion towards the electrode of both the droplets and the water molecules from inside the droplets. The results show that electroanalytical determinations can be carried out in w/o ME.

  13. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. PMID:26213059

  14. Origin of late pleistocene formation water in Mexican oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brine water invasion into petroleum reservoirs, especially in sedimentary basins, are known from a variety of global oil field, such as the Western Canada sedimentary basin and, the central Mississippi Salt Dome basin (Kharaka et al., 1987). The majority of oil wells, especially in the more mature North American fields, produce more water than they do oil (Peachey et al., 1998). In the case of Mexican oil fields, increasing volumes of invading water into the petroleum wells were detected during the past few years. Major oil reserves in the SE-part of the Gulf of Mexico are economically affected due to decreases in production rate, pipeline corrosion and well closure. The origin of deep formation water in many sedimentary basins is still controversial: Former hypothesis mainly in the 60's, explained the formation of formation water by entrapment of seawater during sediment deposition. Subsequent water-rock interaction processes explain the chemical evolution of hydrostatic connate water. More recent hydrodynamic models, mainly based on isotopic data, suggest the partial migration of connate fluids, whereas the subsequent invasion of surface water causes mixing processes (Carpenter 1978). As part of the presented study, a total of 90 oil production wells were sampled from 1998 to 2004 to obtain chemical (Major and trace elements) and isotopic composition (2H, 13C, 14C, 18O 36Cl, 37Cl, 87Sr, 129I, tritium) of deep formation water at the Mexican Gulf coast. Samples were extracted from carbonate-type reservoirs of the oil fields Luna, Samaria-Sitio Grande, Jujo-Tecominoac (on-shore), and Pol-Chuc (off-shore, including Abkatun, Batab, Caan, and Taratunich) at a depth between 2,900 m b.s.l. and 6,100 m b.s.l. During the field work, the influence of atmospheric contamination e.g. by CO2-atmospheric input was avoided by using an interval sampler to get in-situ samples from the extraction zone of selected bore holes. For wellhead samples, a 20 liter-sampling-reagent was previously filled with N2-gas for the collection and phase separation of the pressurized gas-water-crude oil mixture. No differences in 14C-concentrations were detected applying, both, conventional and AMS-techniques. In contradiction to the expected 'fossil age' of reservoir water as part of a stagnant hydraulic system, measured 14C-concentrations between 0.89 pmC and 31.86 pmC indicate a late Pleistocene-early Holocene, regional event for the infiltration of surface water into the reservoir. The variety in water mineralization from meteoric (TDSmax = 0.5 g/l) to hyper-saline composition (TDSmax = 338 g/l) is not caused by halite dissolution from adjacent salt domes, as shown by elevated Br/Cl ratios. In contrary, the linear correlation between 18O and Cl values reflect varying mixing proportions of two components - meteoric water and evaporated seawater. Instead of water/rock-interaction, evaporation of seawater at the surface prior to infiltration represents the principal process for fluid enrichment in 18O and chlorine, with maximum values of 17.2 %o and 228 g/l, respectively. The young residence time of formation water in Mexican oil reservoirs implies following: - The common assumption of 'hydraulically-frozen' reservoirs is not correct, as main descending fluid migration occurred during glacial period. Probably, major infiltration processes are related to periods with climatic changes and increased humidity - as observed for the adjacent Yucatan region in SE-Mexico during early-mid Holocene (6,000 yr BP) (Metcalfe et al. 2000) - with the probable transgression of Mexican Gulf seawater into the recent Mexican coastal plain. - The common hypothesis of hydrocarbon maturation within Jurassic organic-rich layers, and its subsequent expulsion and migration into Cretaceous/Tertiary sedimentary units must be expanded by a last-step-process: As glacial ground water level is actually located below the hydrocarbon column (due to differences in density), a general mobilization of the entire column of reservoir fluids and the displacement of the organic phase must be pos

  15. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of Methanomicrobia (mainly belonging to genera Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus). As both syntrophic Bacteria and methanogenic Archaea are abundant in Dagang, the studied areas of this oil field may have a significant potential to test the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

  16. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using microvial insert large volume injection gas-chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Three synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), were determined in different edible vegetable oil samples. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting this sample introduction step, such as temperatures, times and gas flows, were optimised. Quantification was carried out by the matrix-matched calibration method using carvacrol as internal standard, providing quantification limits between 0.08 and 0.10ngg(-1), depending on the compound. The three phenolic compounds were detected in several of the samples, BHT being the most frequently found. Recovery assays for oil samples spiked at two concentration levels, 2.5 and 10ngg(-1), provided recoveries in the 86-115% range. PMID:26830586

  17. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. PMID:21184529

  18. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding : review on epidemiology, complications, clinical evaluation and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, JØrgen Jesper

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Results: One review and seven case reports were identified. Eight case reports describe oleomas caused by repeated intramuscular injections of anabolic steroids. Conclusions: SEOs cause sclerosing lipogranulomatosis and its progression may lead to lifelong complications. Thorough radiologic evaluation is important to plan surgical revisions in active phases. Also antibiotics, steroids, and compression therapy have been successful and should be employed at different stages.

  19. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

  20. The possible influences of dietary oil supplementation in ameliorating metabolic disturbances and oxidative stress in Alloxan injected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactor disease that is associated with a number of different metabolic abnormalities. Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plant extracts in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with DM. The present work was conducted to examine the protective or treating effects of two different dietary oils rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) as coconut oil (CO) or omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs)as flaxseed oil (FO) on the severity of DM induced experimentally by alloxan injection. Wistar strain albino rats (17 Og) were fed commercial rat chow diet supplemented with either CO or FO for four weeks. A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, decreases in serum insulin, thyroxine (T4), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, elevated triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Concurrent with those changes, an increased liver malonaldehyde (MDA) level was observed. This oxidative stress was related to decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of alloxan diabetic rats. Oils supplementation after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, increased insulin and thyroxine hormone levels, improved lipid profiles, blunted the increase in MDA, modulated the levels of hepatic SOD activity and GSH content of alloxan treated rats. It could be suggested that each of CO or FO could be used as antidiabetic complement in case of DM. This may be related to their anti oxidative properties

  1. Study of performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using rice bran oil ethanol and petrol blends

    OpenAIRE

    G. Venkata Subbaiah; K. Raja Gopal; B. Durga Prasad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, influence on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated using pure rice bran oil (RBO), and its 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% blends with ethanol (ERBO) and petrol (PRBO). The influence on the viscosity of the RBO with the addition of the ethanol and petrol from 200C to 700C has also been studied. The tests conducted from no load to full load of the engine with an increment of ...

  2. Lube-oil dilution of gasoline direct-injection engines with ethanol fuels; Schmieroelverduennung von direkteinspritzenden Ottomotoren unter Kaltstartrandbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, Carsten; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Artmann, Chrsitina; Rabl, Hans-Peter [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Labor fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Abgasnachbehandlung

    2013-09-15

    Ethanol fuel mixtures account for the majority of biofuels used worldwide. However, their properties make these fuels more difficult to use in cold conditions and especially when starting a cold engine. As part of the FVV research project 'Lubricant Dilution with Ethanol Fuels under Cold Start Conditions', the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University and the Combustion Engines and Emission Control Laboratory at Regensburg University of Applied Sciences have investigated the influence of the ethanol content in fuels on the dilution of the lubricating oil in modern direct-injection gasoline engines. (orig.)

  3. Experimental Investigations of CI Engine by using Different Blends of Neat Karanja Oil and Diesel at Different Injection Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. G. Matani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present Investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of single cylinder compression ignition direct ignition fuelled with blends of neat Karanja oil and diesel at different injection pressure. As the blending with diesel increases the viscosity decreases. Brake thermal efficiency of diesel fuel is nearly equal to the brake thermal efficiency of blends10B and 20B. Brake specific fuel consumption increases as the blending proportion increases due to low calorific value of blends.

  4. Study of the feasibility of chemical dispersion of viscous oils and water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of chemically dispersing high viscosity-oils and water-in-oil emulsions with recently developed modern dispersants is discussed. Laboratory dispersibility tests were performed using the Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) method and the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) dilution method. Larger scale tests were done in the Polludrome. The laboratory methods produced high efficiency results for oils with viscosities of up to 10,000 to 20,000 cSt, depending on dispersant used. For emulsified oils the efficiency was much lower, less than 15 per cent for similar viscosities. In the Polludrome, it was necessary to adopt special strategies such as double dispersant applications to get significant dispersions of emulsions. Results led to the conclusion that laboratory tests do not accurately simulate the dispersion process at sea. Efficiencies are generally overestimated and the test protocol must be adapted to the viscosity range. In addition, emulsions prepared in the laboratory are poorly dispersible, even when subjected to strong mixing. Polludrome tests produce more reliable results and also allow the assessment of alternative treatment strategies. 6 refs., 11 figs

  5. Effects of preheating of crude palm oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emission of a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude palm oil (CPO) is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuels for diesel engines. CPO is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. However, at room temperature (30-32 deg C) CPO has a viscosity about 10 times higher than that of diesel. To lower CPO's viscosity to the level of diesel's viscosity, a heating temperature of at least 92 deg C is needed. At this temperature, there is a concern that the close-fitting parts of the injection system might be affected. This study focused on finding out the effects of preheating of fuel on the injection system utilising a modified method of friction test, which involves injecting fuel outside the combustion chamber during motoring. Results show that preheating of CPO lowered CPO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow, but did not affect the injection system, even heating up to 100 deg C. Nevertheless, heating up to such a high temperature offered no benefits in terms of engine performance. However, heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. Both can be achieved by heating CPO to 60 deg C. Combustion analyses comparisons between CPO and diesel found that CPO produced a higher peak pressure of 6%, a shorter ignition delay of 2.6 deg, a lower maximum heat release rate and a longer combustion period. Over the entire load range, CPO combustion produced average CO and NO emissions that were 9.2 and 29.3% higher, respectively, compared with those from diesel combustion. (Author)

  6. A Study of the Test Results for an Emergency Water Core Injection Flow Rate in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Chul; Lee, Yong Sub; Jung, Hoan Sung; Lim, In Cheol; Choi, Young San [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    When the water level of the reactor pool descends to an extremely low level due to a loss of reactor pool water accident in HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor of a 30 MWth, the emergency water stored in the tank should be fed to the core by a gravity force. Last year, the reactor pool water was temporarily transferred to the emergency cooling water storage tank. And the water level came down to EL 77.5 m, 0.4 m above the extremely low level to install the in-pile section of a Fuel Test Loop in the reactor core. When the water was re-transferred into the reactor pool, an emergency water injection test was performed. This paper describes the test results and a consideration of the results. It was confirmed through the test that the injection flow rate was maintained above the design injection flow rate by setting the flow control valve at 3.5 turns to a partially open position.

  7. Water injection test and finite element calculations of water percolation through fissured granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the German/Swiss Cooperation agreed in 1983 it is intended to test and further develop engineering geological rock-mechanical investigative methods for use in crystalline rock. Partners involved are the Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA), the Institut fuer Tieflagerung der Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF) and the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources - BGR). The NAGRA Rock Laboratory at Grimsel is situated in the Aare and Gotthardt massiv in the Swiss Alps, in the vicinity of the Grimsel Pass. The main access tunnel to the control centre of Grimsel II, of the Kraftwerke Oberhasli AG (Electricity Generating Company), was investigated by NAGRA and an area below the Juchlistock at a depth of approximately 450 - 500 m was chosen for the rock laboratory. The laboratory tunnel and the test sites were cut in 1983/84. This report describes the planning of the modified water injection test and the accompanying investigations proposed of the BGR. 9 refs.; 16 figs

  8. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the ...

  9. Viscous-Gravity Spreading of Oil on Water: Modeling and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chebbi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil spreading is one of the major factors affecting the fate of oil spills on water. Modeling spreading is required to study the impact of oil slicks on the environment and plants using sea water including desalination units. Spreading of oil on water undergoes three stages. In the second stage, gravity acts as the main driving force against the viscous force, which is the main resisting force in stages 2 and 3. The paper presents the state of the art in modeling the second stage of spreading. Challenges in analyzing viscous-gravity spreading of continuously discharged oil on water are also presented

  10. Self-assembly behavior of lipids at an oil-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautot, Sophie

    The hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of lipid molecules enable them to organize into large structures when dissolved in water or in oil. Under certain conditions and with the right they can organize into micellar or into lamellar phases under certain conditions and with the right system composition. The equilibrium phase of lipids have been well studied. In this work we observe the behavior of lipids at an oil-water interface, and we investigate the molecular assembly that can result in the presence of lipids at an oil-water interface. We have established that lipids can be used as a surfactant to stabilize water droplets in oil, and we have developed a new method, a reverse emulsion technique, that allows us to use these emulsions to assemble unilamellar vesicles with a high encapsulation yield. The vesicle bilayer is formed from the assembly of two monolayers formed independently and we have proven that this technique offers the possibility to directly assemble asymmetric bilayer. Because the encapsulated phase remains contained at all time by a surfactant layer the reactivity of the molecules initially encapsulated can be preserved. We have demonstrated using fluorescence measurement that the vesicles formed can be used as micro-reactor where reactive molecules can be encapsulated and their activity remotely triggered. This technique is not limited to lipids and we have demonstrated that the process can also be applied to other amphiphilic molecules such as polymers or synthetic surfactants. In addition, we have used dynamic light scattering to study the size of the inverted emulsion stabilized with lipids as a function of the shear applied to the suspension. We have established that a water drop injected in an alkane solution such as dodecane lead to the spontaneous formation of emulsion droplet. Moreover we have demonstrated that the spontaneous emulsification is due to the swelling of a lyotropic semi-crystalline phase which forms at the dodecane-water interface. We have observed by optical microscopy that large droplet composed of lipid and water grow at the interface and lead to the formation of onion like assembly in dodecane.

  11. Purification of water polluted with oil and sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds contained in oil and oil products using bacteria relating to thiosphaera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity of natural purification (self-purification) of reservoirs polluted with oil and oil products is determined by microorganisms. Hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms are constant natural constituent of biocenose in reservoirs. However, as a result of outflows, the oil and oil products concentration exceeds maximum values allowing normal vital functions of microorganisms resulting in breaking micro-biocenose suppression of vital functions of bacteria. In this regard, elective anaerobic microorganisms of Thiosphaera are worthy of notice. We found out that bacteria belonging to Thiosphaera pantotropha decomposed oil at high oil concentrations in water (at oil concentration like 1 liter of oil in 1 liter of water). And this is when aerobic microorganisms lose their vital functions at maximum concentration of 20 g of oil in 1 liter of water. To intensify the process of oil decomposition we emulsified oil with aqueous solutions of salts. Thiosphaera pantotropha are found out to decompose oil in a wide range of ratio between oil and aqueous solutions of salts: from 1:10 to 10:1. The water solutions salinity made from 20 g/l to 80 g/l. It must be noticed that, since the Thiosphaera pantotropha are elective anaerobes and decompose oil both in presence and in absence of oxygen, it is not necessary anymore to conduct the process under strictly anaerobic conditions and to supply additional oxygen. This makes it possible to simplify the process of biodegradation of oil and to make this process practically more feasible and economically more profitable being compared to the processes based on the use of other species of bacteria. We found out that Thiosphaera decompose sulfurous closed-ring and aromatic compounds in oil which are chemically and thermally stable and can be hardly decomposed, and possess extremely poisonous properties, as well. The use of microorganisms of Thiosphaera pantotropha allows to purify waters polluted with oil and oil products both during planned purification of old impurities and in cases of emergency, in cases of oil outflows. (authors)

  12. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  13. Chemical equilibrium models: Their use in simulating the injection of incompatible waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertero, L.; Chierici, G.L.; Gottardi, G.; Mesini, E.; Mormino, G.

    1988-02-01

    One of the problems encountered in waterflooding projects is scale formation caused by chemical incompatibility between potential injection waters and reservoir brine. Chemical compatibility evaluation through laboratory experiments on cores at reservoir conditions is of limited value because only first-contact phenomena are reproduced. A numerical model is presented that couples a reservoir-fluid-flow/thermal-equilibrium simulator with a chemical-equilibrium computer code. This model, AGIPS, enables us to calculate the evolution in time of the amount of scale formed at any point in the reservoir and inside the wells when changes occur in the temperature of the injected water and when the injection water mixes with reservoir brine. Moreover, the model calculates temperature and pressure profiles in the reservoir, together with their evolution in time, taking into account the permeability reduction caused by scale formation. Results are presented for the chemical-equilibrium code validation by matching experimental data on scale formation in mixtures of incompatible waters. An example is also given of the use of AGIPS in simulating a five-spot waterflood where incompatible water is injected.

  14. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  15. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  16. Monitoring of fluid-rock interaction and CO2 storage through produced fluid sampling at the Weyburn CO2-injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weyburn Oil Field is a carbonate reservoir in south central Saskatchewan, Canada and is the site of a large CO2 injection project for purposes of enhanced oil recovery. The Weyburn Field, in the Mississippian Midale Formation, was discovered in 1954 and was under primary production until secondary recovery by water flood began in 1964. The reservoir comprises two units, the Vuggy and the Marly, and primary and secondary recovery are thought to only have significantly depleted the Vuggy zone, leaving the Marly with higher oil saturations. In 2000, PanCanadian Resources (now EnCana), the operator of the field, began tertiary recovery by injection of CO2 and water, primarily into the Marly. The advent of this project was an opportunity to study the potential for geological storage of CO2. Using 43 Baseline samples collected in August 2000, before CO2 injection at Weyburn, and 44 monitoring samples collected in March 2001, changes in the fluid chemistry and isotope composition have been tracked. The initial fluid distribution showed water from discovery through water flood in the Midale Formation with Cl ranging from 25,000 to 60,000 mg/L, from the NW to the SE across the Phase 1A area. By the time of Baseline sampling the produced water had been diluted to Cl of 25,000-50,000 mg/L as a result of the addition of make up water from the low TDS Blairmore Formation, but the pattern of distribution was still present. The Cl distribution is mimicked by the distribution of other dissolved ions and variables, with Ca (1250-1500 mg/L) and NH3(aq) increasing from NW to SE, and alkalinity (700-300 mg/L), resistivity, and H2S (300-100 mg/L) decreasing. Based on chemical and isotopic data, the H2S is interpreted to result from bacterial SO4 reduction. After 6 months of injection of CO2, the general patterns are changed very little, except that the pH has decreased by 0.5 units and alkalinity has increased, with values over 1400 mg/L in the NW, decreasing to 500 mg/L in the SE. Calcium has increased to range from 1250 to 1750 mg/L, but the pattern of NW-SE distribution is altered. Chemical and isotopic data suggest this change in distribution is caused by the dissolution of calcite due to water-rock reactions driven by CO2. The Baseline samples varied from -22 to -12%o ? 13C (V-PDB) for CO2 gas. The injected CO2 has an isotope ratio of -20%o. The Monitor-1 samples of produced CO2 ranged from -18 to -13%o, requiring a heavy source of C, most easily attributed to dissolution of carbonate minerals. Field measured pH had increased and alkalinity had decreased by the second monitoring trip (July 2001) to near Baseline values, suggesting continued reaction with reservoir minerals. Addition of CO2 to water-rock mixtures comprising carbonate minerals causes dissolution of carbonates and production of alkalinity. Geochemical modeling suggests dissolution is taking place, however more detail on water-oil-gas ratios needs to be gathered to obtain more accurate estimates of pH at the formation level. Geological storage of CO2 relies on the potential that, over the longer term, silicate minerals will buffer the pH, causing any added CO2 to be precipitated as calcite. Some initial modeling of water-rock reactions suggests that silica sources are available to the water resident in the Midale Formation, and that clay minerals may well be capable of acting as pH buffers, allowing injected CO2 to be stored as carbonate minerals. Further work is underway to document the mineralogy of the Midale Formation and associated units so as to define more accurately the potential for geological storage

  17. An Experimental Study of Oil / Water Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elseth, Geir

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the behaviour of the simultaneous flow of oil and water in horizontal pipes. In this connection, two test facilities are used. Both facilities have horizontal test sections with inner pipe diameters equal to 2 inches. The largest facility, called the model oil facility, has reservoirs of 1 m{sub 3} of each medium enabling flow rates as high as 30 m{sub 3}/h, which corresponds to mixture velocities as high as 3.35 m/s. The flow rates of oil and water can be varied individually producing different flow patterns according to variations in mixture velocity and input water cut. Two main classes of flows are seen, stratified and dispersed. In this facility, the main focus has been on stratified flows. Pressure drops and local phase fractions are measured for a large number of flow conditions. Among the instruments used are differential pressure transmitters and a traversing gamma densitometer, respectively. The flow patterns that appear are classified in flow pattern maps as functions of either mixture velocity and water cut or superficial velocities. From these experiments a smaller number of stratified flows are selected for studies of velocity and turbulence. A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) is applied for these measurements in a transparent part of the test section. To be able to produce accurate measurements a partial refractive index matching procedure is used. The other facility, called the matched refractive index facility, has a 0.2 m{sub 3} reservoir enabling mainly dispersed flows. Mixture velocities range from 0.75 m/s to 3 m/s. The fluids in this facility are carefully selected to match the refractive index of the transparent part of the test section. A full refractive index matching procedure is carried out producing excellent optical conditions for velocity and turbulence studies by LDA. In addition, pressure drops and local phase fractions are measured. (author)

  18. Numerical Study of Water Control with Downhole Oil-Water Separation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Khor Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maturing oil fields with increasing water production can pose a challenging produced water handling and disposal issues. This paper presents a numerical study of a motorless hydrocyclone to enhance understanding of the downhole oil-water separation. The turbulence of fluid flow is obtained using K-? Realizable Turbulence model for complex swirl dominated flow, while the interface between hydrocarbon and water is described using the Discrete Phase model. In this approach, factors which contribute to the hydrocyclone separation instability were discussed. Discussion is then extended to the relationship of residence time with pressure difference between overflow and underflow. These pressure differences are able to relate to pressure condition for high water cut well which require downhole separation.

  19. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  20. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  1. Versatile fabrication of magnetic carbon fiber aerogel applied for bidirectional oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhu, Xiaotao; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Li, Peilong; Zhang, Zhaozhu

    2015-09-01

    Fabricating functional materials that can solve environmental problems resulting from oil or organic solvent pollution is highly desired. However, expensive materials or complicated procedures and unidirectional oil-water separation hamper their applications. Herein, a magnetic superhydrophobic carbon fiber aerogel with high absorption capacity was developed by one-step pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3-coated cotton in an argon atmosphere. The obtained aerogel can selectively collect oils from oil-polluted region by a magnet bar owing to its magnetic properties and achieves fast oil-water separation for its superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. Furthermore, the aerogel performs recyclable oil absorption capacity even after ten cycles of oil-water separation and bears organic solvent immersion. Importantly, the obtained aerogel turns to superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic after thermal treatment, allowing it as a promising and efficient material for bidirectional oil-water separation and organic contaminants removal.

  2. ANAIS experiment : consequences of water injection on a molten corium pool in the lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The context of this work is In Vessel Corium Retention. In the situation that is considered here, a corium pool is formed in the lower head. A metal layer is supposed to be located on top of an oxidic pool. The lower head is externally cooled by water under natural circulation. When water is absent from the primary circuit, the surface of the metal layer is molten. Due to the elevated heat flux that is delivered by the corium pool to the vessel, the thickness of the steel in the lower head is reduced to some centimetres. Therefore, the lower head is no more able to withstand elevated pressures in the primary circuit. The ANAIS experiment is dedicated to the study of the corium-water interaction in the case of reflooding over a stratified metal-oxide pool. In the ANAIS experiment, water is injected on an overheated (?1800 .deg. C) molten steel layer, under controlled conditions. Heating in the metal is maintained under water injection while the extracted heat flux under steady state is about 1 MW/m2 (similar to the reactor situation in case of reflooding). The results of the tests that are presented in the paper show that the steel-water interaction leads to very different final situations depending on the injection mode and water velocity. It should be noted that no steam explosion was observed in any case

  3. Flow velocity effect on the corrosion/erosion in water injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main causes of fails at water injection lines on the secondary petroleum recovery systems are related with corrosion/erosion problems which are influenced by the flow velocity, the presence of dissolved oxygen, solids in the medium and the microorganisms proliferation. So too, this corrosion process promotes the suspended solids generation which affects the water quality injected, causing wells tamponage and loss of injectivity, with the consequent decrease in the crude production. This situation has been impacted in meaning order at the production processes of an exploration enterprise which utilizes the Maracaibo lake as water resource for their injection by pattern projects. Stating that, it was developed a study for determining in experimental order the effect of flow velocity on the corrosion/erosion process joined to the presence of dissolved oxygen which allows to determine the optimum range of the said working velocity for the water injection systems. This range is defined by critical velocities of bio layers deposition and erosion. They were realized simulation pilot tests of the corrosion standard variables, concentration of dissolved oxygen and fluid velocity in the injection systems with filtered and non filtered water. For the development of these tests it was constructed a device which allows to install and expose cylindrical manometers of carbon steel according to predetermined conditions which was obtained the necessary information to make correlations the results of these variables. Additionally, they were determined the mathematical models that adjusts to dynamical behavior of the corrosion/erosion process, finding the optimum range of the flow velocity for the control of this process, being necessary to utilize the following techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersion analysis (EDX) for encourage the surface studies. They were effected morphological analysis of the surfaces studies and the values were determined of corrosion standards for different conditions essayed (filtered and non filtered water). With the basis of the obtained results, it was concluded that for water injection systems with oxygen concentrations greater than 1.0 ppm the optimum operation range of the flow velocity is between 2 and 4 ft/sec, however for oxygen concentrations less than 0.05 ppm the upper limit can extend until 8.0 ft/sec. It is important to emphasize that the bio layers morphology generated during the tests to be similar so much for the filtered as non filtered water, however it was determined that the standard corrosion is directly proportional to flow velocity, even as the process is leading by the dissolved oxygen concentration. (Author)

  4. Techniques for Determining Small Fractions of Oil Components in the Sea Water Flow by Rotation of Vibration Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the results of the effect of water-flow rate and air fraction component on intensity, I, are presented and discussed. The study which was carried out at Bergen University in Norway, presents the impact of monochromatic defects on polarization and measurements of small oil fractions of various crude oils are presented. When there was refraction, it was observed that in static sea-water &mustatic = 0.38 and in running water &muflow = 0.42 When refraction was eliminated by grafting windows in the pipe, &mustatic = 0, &muflow = 0.11 and in both cases &muflow was independent of the flow rate. Air fraction component, &alpha> = 0.12 reduced light intensity. With rate flow Q = 13.6m3/h and Q = 27.2 m3/h critical air fraction was found at &alphac = 0.18 and &alphac = 0.12 respectively. For &alphac = 0.18 up to &alpha 0.87 at Q = 13.6m3/h and &alphac = 0.12 up to &alpha = 0.78 at Q = 27.2 m3/h light intensity was found independent of &alpha. The highest rotation was found in Gullfaks crude oil, followed by Heidrun, the rotation is Statfjord crude oil was less than one in Heidrun and the least rotation was observed in 0A sg 0a rd crude oil. At 40ppm, the rotation was as follows: Gullfaks &empty = 27.0±0.20, Heidrun &empty = 23.9±0.20, Statfjord &empty = 20.0±0.20 and 0Asg 0ard &empty = 10.0±0.10. This method studys very well when small oil fractions from 5.0-70 ppm are in sea-water flow. This technique can be deployed to monitor the environment and to control the re-injected process water.

  5. Investigating the factors influencing recovery of asphaltenic oil by water and miscible CO{sub 2} flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwudeme, Edwin Andrew

    2009-09-15

    Conclusions that may be drawn from this work on the influence of CO{sub 2}, temperature, pressure and water composition on the recovery of asphaltenic oil by water and CO{sub 2} flooding are as follows: Asphaltene is found to alter outcrop chalk wettability from water-wet to more oil wet, which influence oil recovery by miscible CO{sub 2} and water flooding. Modification of Hirschberg solubility model for predicting asphaltene deposition has been done to account for the effect of CO{sub 2} fraction in the liquid phase during miscible flooding. This is done based on data from this work and literature. This model made it possible to isolate the effect of CO{sub 2} fraction in liquid phase on asphaltene deposition during miscible flooding. Hence, determine the critical fraction of CO{sub 2} that initiate the asphaltene deposition. The critical fraction of CO{sub 2} is estimated to be between 17 to 42 mol percent (mol%), with 33 mol% as average value. A ternary diagram is developed and is based on solubility parameter ratio (S.P.R) and molar volume ratio (V{sub CO2}/V{sub L}) and their relation to asphaltene deposition using data from this work and literature. From this data, it may be suggested that S.P.R is a determining factor for asphaltene deposition during CO{sub 2} flooding, which is not unreasonable since it is influenced by the molar volume ratio, hence temperature, pressure and composition. It is interesting to see a linear relationship between asphaltene precipitation and pressure drop regardless of the flowing pressure at isothermal condition. This is tested for under-saturated fluids. Oil recovery by miscible CO{sub 2} flooding shows low ultimate oil recovery with increasing temperature and pressure for asphaltenic oil compared to non-asphaltenic. CO{sub 2} flooding is found to be plausible for asphaltenic reservoir at lower temperature (< 70 C). From simulation studies, EOR by CO{sub 2} initiated after at least three years of water injection show the benefit of miscible flooding. Water containing magnesium or sulfate ions has shown to alter modified oil- wet chalk to more water-wet which indicates their potential in improving oil recovery from asphaltenic oil reservoir. (Author)

  6. Solubilizing excipients in oral and injectable formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickley, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    A review of commercially available oral and injectable solution formulations reveals that the solubilizing excipients include water-soluble organic solvents (polyethylene glycol 300, polyethylene glycol 400, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide), non-ionic surfactants (Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH 40, Cremophor RH 60, d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, Solutol HS 15, sorbitan monooleate, poloxamer 407, Labrafil M-1944CS, Labrafil M-2125CS, Labrasol, Gellucire 44/14, Softigen 767, and mono- and di-fatty acid esters of PEG 300, 400, or 1750), water-insoluble lipids (castor oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, peppermint oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated vegetable oils, hydrogenated soybean oil, and medium-chain triglycerides of coconut oil and palm seed oil), organic liquids/semi-solids (beeswax, d-alpha-tocopherol, oleic acid, medium-chain mono- and diglycerides), various cyclodextrins (alpha-cyclodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin), and phospholipids (hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol). The chemical techniques to solubilize water-insoluble drugs for oral and injection administration include pH adjustment, cosolvents, complexation, microemulsions, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, micelles, liposomes, and emulsions. PMID:15032302

  7. Consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The temperature and pressure response, fraction of water reacted, quantity of hydrogen produced, and behavior of radioactive species associated with the use of this alloy as a breeder material were determined. The reaction products were identified and the aerosol was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and deposition rate. The water injection was shown to be self limiting for a blanket module designed to withstand the pressure of the water coolant. Radioactive doses associated with the aerosol release from a high-temperature alloy breeder module were determined to be several orders of magnitude below the dose limit for acute health effects. The results were compared to previous experiments and recommendations were made. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Analysis of Primary External Cooling Water Injection Mass during Extended SBO in Wolsong No.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The targets of severe accident management are to remove continuous core heat, to maintain containment integrity, and to minimize fission product (FP) release into the environment. The strategy for ceaseless removal of core heat is a key method, because severe accident progression can be mitigated and FP released outside fuels can be scrubbed due to cover fuels with water. One of government requirements according to inspected results of all nuclear power plants in Korea following Fukushima accident is to install external cooling water injection paths for core cooling. The purpose of this paper is to analyze mass of primary external cooling water injection which is going to be installed in Wolsong No.1. The purpose of the analysis is to identify necessary cooling water mass during seven days. Six injections for the analysis period need to remove primary core heat, and total mass for six injections is about 1370 tones. ECWIL is useful for severe accident mitigation except containment failure. Methods for decrease in containment pressure with ECWIL are needed for preventing from containment failure

  9. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  10. Behavior of radioactive species during water injection into alloy breeder material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into lead-lithium alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The fraction of water reacted, quantity of hydrogen produced, and behavior of radioactive species associated with the use of this alloy as a breeder material were determined. The reaction products were identified, and the aerosol was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and deposition rate. 2 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Injection and Combustion of RME with Water Emulsions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cisek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ways of using the fully-digitised triggerable AVL VideoScope 513D video system for analysing the injection and combustion inside a diesel engine cylinder fuelled by RME with water emulsions.The research objects were: standard diesel fuel, rapeseed methyl ester (RME and RME – water emulsions. With the aid of a helical flow reactor, stable emulsions with the water fraction up to 30 % weight were obtained, using an additive to prevent the water from separating out of the emulsion.An investigation was made of the effect of the emulsions on exhaust gas emissions (NOX, CO and HC, particulate matter emissions, smoke and the fuel consumption of a one-cylinder HD diesel engine with direct injection. Additionally, the maximum cylinder pressure rise was calculated from the indicator diagram. The test engine was operated at a constant speed of 1 600 rpm and 4 bar BMEP load conditions. The fuel injection and combustion processes were observed and analysed using endoscopes and a digital camera. The temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was analysed quantitatively using the two-colour method. The injection and combustion phenomena were described and compared.A way to reduce NOX formation in the combustion chamber of diesel engines by adding water in the combustion zone was presented. Evaporating water efficiently lowers the peak flame temperature and the temperature in the post-flame zone. For diesel engines, there is an exponential relationship between NOX emissions and peak combustion temperatures. The energy needed to vaporize the water results in lower peak temperatures of the combusted gases, with a consequent reduction in nitrogen oxide formation. The experimental results show up to 50 % NOX emission reduction with the use of 30% water in an RME emulsion, with unchanged engine performance.

  12. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  13. Oil and Water Don't Mix: The Gulf Coast Oil Disaster as a Preschool Social Studies Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an offshore oil-drilling platform exploded, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the gulf. From Louisiana to the Gulf Coast of Florida the effects are being felt by fisherman, shrimpers, dive charters, and other hardworking folks who depend on the water for their livelihood. But there is another population in these coastal…

  14. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  15. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage.

  16. CFD analysis of effects of cross flow on water injection of DVI+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CFD analysis addressing the flow distribution in downcomer with ECBD was carried out. • Effect of water jet velocity on ECBD bypass fraction was predicted. • Effect of cross flow velocity on ECBD bypass fraction was discussed. - Abstract: Recently constructed and proposed nuclear power plants have increasingly adopted the direct vessel injection (DVI) type emergency core cooling system (ECCS) instead of the conventional cold leg injection (CLI) type one. For such a design, concern has been raised that the ECC water injected through the DVI nozzle is more easily bypassed out to the broken cold leg by a cross flow of high-speed steam in the downcomer than that of CLI during the reflood phase in the event of a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Thus, an emergency core barrel duct (ECBD) has been introduced to reduce the ECC bypass in an advanced DVI (DVI+) system for the new APR+ design. The present study numerically investigated the effects of the cross flow on the DVI+ water injection by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a simple air–water system with the ECBD. The performance of ECBD, i.e., bypass fraction of the injected water due to the cross flow with variation of Reynolds number of the cross flow was calculated. It was found that the inflow rate into the ECBD is strongly dependent on the cross flow. To consider the effect of the ECBD in a system thermal–hydraulic code calculation, the loss coefficient at the junction of the ECBD inlet was determined as a function of Reynolds number of the cross flow using the CFD results

  17. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

  18. Emission control for a glow plug direct injection CI engine using preheated coconut oil blended diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental study on the reduction of energy utilisation and thereby abiding an indirect control on the emission strategies for a CI engine. Three different methods for the control of emission were carried out and the results were compared. The first method was to improve the combustion by incorporating a copper perforated medium beneath the atomised fuel spray and thereby improve the combustion through vaporisation. The second method was to use coconut oil directly as an additive to diesel. The last method was to preheat the coconut oil blended diesel. The analysis showed that of all the coconut blends, namely, 10% to 50%, 20% blended ratio found a good place in both fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Similarly, the preheated blends showed still drastic reductions in emissions even for higher proportions of coconut oil.

  19. A facile method to fabricate functionally integrated devices for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe; Lv, Kaikai; Luan, Xinglong; Zhang, Qian; Shi, Feng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we present a facile method for the fabrication of a functionally integrated device, which has the multi-functions of the oil-containment boom, oil-sorption material, and water/oil-separating film, through a single immersion step in an ethanol solution of stearic acid. During the simple immersion process, the two dominant factors of superhydrophobicity, surface roughness and low-surface-energy coatings, could be accomplished simultaneously. The as-prepared functionally integrated device with superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity displayed a lower density than that of water, such that it could float on water and act as an oil-containment boom; an efficient oil-absorbing property, which was attributed to the capillary effect caused by micrometer-sized pore structures and could be used as oil-sorption materials; a high oil/water separating efficiency which was suitable for water/oil-separating film. In this way, the functions of oil collection, absorption, and water/oil separation are integrated into a single device, and these functions could work independently, reducing the cost in terms of energy consumption and being versatile for a wide range of applications.In this paper, we present a facile method for the fabrication of a functionally integrated device, which has the multi-functions of the oil-containment boom, oil-sorption material, and water/oil-separating film, through a single immersion step in an ethanol solution of stearic acid. During the simple immersion process, the two dominant factors of superhydrophobicity, surface roughness and low-surface-energy coatings, could be accomplished simultaneously. The as-prepared functionally integrated device with superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity displayed a lower density than that of water, such that it could float on water and act as an oil-containment boom; an efficient oil-absorbing property, which was attributed to the capillary effect caused by micrometer-sized pore structures and could be used as oil-sorption materials; a high oil/water separating efficiency which was suitable for water/oil-separating film. In this way, the functions of oil collection, absorption, and water/oil separation are integrated into a single device, and these functions could work independently, reducing the cost in terms of energy consumption and being versatile for a wide range of applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00026b

  20. An experimental study of tracers for labelling of injection gas in oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PMCP and PMCH as tracers in field experiments. These compounds have properties which make them as well suited for well to well studies as the more common tracers CH3T and 85Kr. In an injection project carried out at the Gullfaks field in the North Sea the two PFCs verified communication between wells. This implies communication between different geological layers in the reservoir and also communication across faults within the same layers. Laboratory studies carried out have focused on the retention of the tracers in dynamic flooding experiments under conditions comparable with those in the petroleum reservoirs. Simultaneous injection of a variety of tracers has shown individual variations in tracer retention which are caused by important reservoir parameters as fluid saturation and rock properties. By proper design of field injection programs the tracers response may therefore be used to estimate fluid saturation if actual rock properties are known. 45 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Land uplift due to subsurface fluid injection

    OpenAIRE

    Teatini, Pietro; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Ferronato, Massimiliano; Settari, A. (Tony); Walters, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The subsurface injection of fluid (water, gas, vapour) occurs worldwide for a variety of purposes, e.g. to enhance oil production (EOR), store gas in depleted gas/oil fields, recharge overdrafted aquifer systems (ASR), and mitigate anthropogenic land subsidence. Irrespective of the injection target, some areas have experienced an observed land uplift ranging from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres over a time period of a few months to several years depending on the q...

  2. Countermeasures for oil spills in cold water - In the case of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for Japan to develop an adequate system for dealing with large-scale oil spills on the open seas was made clear when a Russian tanker Nakhodka caused large-scale oil pollution along the coastline of Japan in early 1997. The event involved 6,000 m3 of spilled oil. It was emphasized that the much needed system to combat oil spills on the open sea should include countermeasures for dealing with oil spills in cold water. This sub-system should be part of Japan's overall system for dealing with oil spills at sea. Several recommendations were made, including the need to evaluate the effects of oil spills on the marine environment and to prepare a set of environmental sensitivity index (ESI) maps for shorelines bordering on cold water. Methods must also be developed to predict the spreading rate of spilled oil. The process of emulsification and sedimentation of spilled oil must also be studied. 5 refs

  3. Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Recovery of oil from subterranean formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, G.G.; Holbrook, O.C.

    1965-05-25

    This is a method of secondary recovery of oil using surfactants. The surfactant has the ability to lower the surface tension between the oil and water, enabling the floodwater to remove a larger portion of the oil held in the pores of the formation. A solvent, miscible with the reservoir oil, is injected in an amount equivalent to about 5-30 volume % of the oil in the reservoir. The first reactant injected may be ricinoleic acid and ricinoleic acid amine. Immediately thereafter an aqueous solution of ethylene oxide, in an amount of 5-30 volume % of the oil in the reservoir, is injected. The 2 reactants, under reservoir conditions, form a surfactant. Thereafter, water, free from surfactant, is injected in sufficient quantity to produce oil from the reservoir. (1 claim)

  5. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasushige, E-mail: ymori@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki [Doshisha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Japan)

    2001-06-15

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

  6. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Salbutamol Sulphate Loaded Ethyl Cellulose Microspheres using Water-in-Oil-Oil Emulsion Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Bipul; Kanta Nath, Lila; Mazumder, Bhaskar; Kumar, Pradeep; Sharma, Niraj; Pratap Sahu, Bhanu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparations of a highly water/soluble drug, salbutamol sulphate by (water in oil) in oil emulsion technique using ethyl cellulose as the retardant material. Various processing and formulation parameters such as drug/polymer ratio, stirring speed, volume of processing medium were optimized to maximize the entrapment. The release of salbutamol sulphate from ethyl cellulose microsphere was compared and poss...

  8. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  9. Experimental evaluation of desuperheating and oil cooling process through liquid injection in two-staged ammonia refrigeration systems with screw compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the problem of achieving desuperheating through liquid injection in two-staged refrigeration systems based on screw compressors. The oil cooling process by refrigerant injection is also included. The basic thermodynamic principles of desuperheating and compressor cooling as well as short comparison with traditional method with a thermosyphon system have also been presented. Finally, the collected data referring to a big refrigeration plant are analyzed in the paper. Specific ammonia system concept applied in this refrigeration plant has demonstrated its advantages and disadvantages. - Highlights: ? An experiment was setup during a frozen food factory refrigeration system reconstruction and adaptation. ? Desuperheating and low-stage compressors oil cooling process were investigated. ? Efficiency of compression process and high-stage compressors functioning were examined. ? Evaporation temperature reduction has great influence on the need for injected liquid refrigerant. ? Several cases in which desuperheating and oil cooling process application are justified were determined.

  10. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Eveline; Walstra, Pieter; Dewettinck, Koen

    2010-01-15

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufacturing of products like ice cream, butter and whipped toppings partial coalescence is required to achieve the desired product properties. It contributes to the structure formation, the physicochemical properties (stability, firmness,...) and the sensory perception, like fattiness and creaminess of the final food products. This review critically summarises the findings of partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions in order to provide insight in how to enhance and retard it. Next to the pioneering work, a large set of experimental results of more recent work is discussed. First, the general mechanism of partial coalescence is considered and a distinction is made between partial and 'true' coalescence. The main differences are: the required solid particles in the dispersed oil phase, the formation of irregular clusters and the increased aggregation rate. Second, the kinetics of partial coalescence is discussed. In more detail, potential parameters affecting the rate of partial coalescence are considered by means of the encounter frequency and capture efficiency of the fat globules. The flow conditions, the fat volume fraction and the physicochemical properties of continuous aqueous phase affect both the encounter frequency and capture efficiency while the actual temperature, temperature history and the composition and formulation of the emulsion mainly affect the capture efficiency. PMID:19913777

  11. Unit Operation Optimization for the Manufacturing of Botanical Injections Using a Design Space Approach: A Case Study of Water Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the p...

  12. An intelligent superwetting PVDF membrane showing switchable transport performance for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mimi; Xue, Lixin; Liu, Fu; Jiang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    A superamphiphilic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane with superoleophobicity under water and superhydrophobicity under oil is successfully prepared. Due to the switchable transport performance, the membrane is applicable to the separation of various oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions with a droplet size greater than 20 nm, and shows superior permeability and antifouling properties, as well as a high separation efficiency. PMID:24677285

  13. A Microfluidic Method to Assess Emulsion Stability in Crude-Oil/Water Separators

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The control of emulsion stability and droplet size is of crucial importance for oil production, especially for the processes of crude/oil water separation and cleanup of produced water. To recover pure oil and water, coalescence between droplets needs to take place, the extent of which will depend on the flow parameters as well as on the presence of emulsifying agents. For a successful separation, the demulsification time of the mixture must be smaller than its residence time in the separator...

  14. Effect of low-capacity injection systems on transient-initiated loss of vessel-water injection at Browns Ferry Unit One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient-initiated loss of vessel-water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low-capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence

  15. Separation mechanisms and fluid flow in oil/water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celius, H.K.; Knudsen, B. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway); Hafskjold, B.; Hansen, E.W. [Selskapet for Industriell og Teknisk Forskning, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes work aimed at physical and numerical modeling of separation rates of oil/water systems in order to establish better tools for design and operation of offshore operators. This work aims to integrate the chemical and physical phenomena behind coalescence and settling with those of fluid flow in the system, in order to develop tools for design and operational analysis of separation equipment. The work includes the development of a high pressure, bench-scale test rig to perform separation tests on live oil and water samples, and a rationale in the form of a computer code that can be used to interpret the test results and transform them to a form siutable for operational purposes. This involves a formulation of a mathematical description of the chemical and physical mechanisms behind the emulsification and separation process, and to establish a link to the hydrdynamic properties of the separator vessel. The Emucol computer program is used in the analysis. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Multicommuted flow injection method for fast photometric determination of phenolic compounds in commercial virgin olive oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Sainz-Gonzalo, Francisco J; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A multicommuted flow injection method has been developed for the determination of phenolic species in virgin olive oil samples. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on a stable and colored radical cation formation from the colorless compound N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(•+)) in acidic medium in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidant. The signal inhibition by phenolic species and other antioxidants is proportional to their concentration in the olive oil sample. Absorbance was recorded at 515nm by means of a modular fiber optic spectrometer. Oleuropein was used as the standard for phenols determination and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) was the reference standard used for total antioxidant content calculation. Linear response was observed within the range of 250-1000mg/kg oleuropein, which was in accordance with phenolic contents observed in commercial extra virgin olive oil in the present study. Fast and low-volume liquid-liquid extraction of the samples using 60% MeOH was made previous to their insertion in the flow multicommuted system. The five three-way solenoid valves used for multicommuted liquid handling were controlled by a homemade electronic interface and Java-written software. The proposed approach was applied to different commercial extra virgin olive oil samples and the results were consistent with those obtained by the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) method. Total time for the sample preparation and the analysis required in the present approach can be drastically reduced: the throughput of the present analysis is 8 samples/h in contrast to 1sample/h of the conventional FC method. The present method is easy to implement in routine analysis and can be regarded as a feasible alternative to FC method. PMID:26592643

  17. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple commodity pipeline projects. Through a series of water and energy pipelines, Turkey can gain significant political, economic, and social influence, while contributing to regional integration and stability. This paper addresses the background to Turkey's geopolitical future, with regard to both energy and water resources. It also aims to provide some suggestions as to how Turkey can take greater advantage of its geopolitical potential. Section I of the paper discusses Turkey's geopolitical potential; Section II details Turkey's complex and conflicted political relationships with regional nations; Section III examines specific pipeline projects held back by political conflicts; Section IV conclusively analyzes the situation and offers policy suggestions for Turkey. (author)

  18. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple commodity pipeline projects. Through a series of water and energy pipelines, Turkey can gain significant political, economic, and social influence, while contributing to regional integration and stability. This paper addresses the background to Turkey's geopolitical future, with regard to both energy and water resources. It also aims to provide some suggestions as to how Turkey can take greater advantage of its geopolitical potential. Section I of the paper discusses Turkey's geopolitical potential; Section II details Turkey's complex and conflicted political relationships with regional nations; Section III examines specific pipeline projects held back by political conflicts; Section IV conclusively analyzes the situation and offers policy suggestions for Turkey. (author)

  19. Breaking of Oil -Water Emulsion for the Improvement of Oil Recovery Operations in the Niger Delta Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ijogbemeye Oseghale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Emulsified water is generally present in crude oil as a result of mixing occurring during production operations. The formation of emulsion leads to problems in production and also transportation. Therefore the need to break oil/water emulsions system through demulsification process using chemical surfactants for improved oil recovery operations. Selected cationic surfactants were effective in separating oil-water emulsions expected during a surfactant/polymer (SP process for improved oil recovery. The aqueous phase of the emulsion contained an anionic surfactant blend, alcohol and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Brine composition was a suitable mixture of formation brine with brine from polymer drive. The crude oil had an API gravity of 47.2. Bottle tests were conducted at ambient temperature, which is near the reservoir temperature. Both oil and water phases of acceptable quality were obtained after settling upon addition of 200ppm of octytrimethylammonium bromide (C8TAM at ambient temperature. Microscopy image showed significant coalescence after only 1 minute in C8TAM system as the cationic surfactant reduced electrostatic repulsion among drops and shifted system behavior towards the balanced state between hydrophilic and lipohilic effect well-known to reduce emulsion stability. The amount of cationic surfactant may be reduced by reduced by adding it simultaneously with anionic demulsifier resin.

  20. Morphology of soy protein isolate at oil/water and oil/air interfaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Samira J., Fayad; Betina G., Zanetti-Ramos; Pedro L. M., Barreto; Valdir, Soldi; Edson, Minatti.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, as propriedades emulsificantes da proteína isolada de soja (SPI) foram evidenciadas mostrando que estas macromoléculas sofrem mudanças conformacionais quando adsorvidas em interfaces. Investigou-se a conformação das cadeias proteicas ancoradas nas regiões interfaciais de emulsões de ól [...] eo em água (o/a) através de técnicas de espalhamento de raios X (SAXS) e de imagem (microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM)). O valor médio do raio de giro (Rg) da SPI (aq) é 20 nm e aumenta para 30 nm em emulsões o/a; as proteínas atuam como moléculas anfifílicas expondo seus núcleos hidrofóbicos ao óleo e os resíduos hidrofílicos à fase aquosa. Este valor ainda é maior após o spray drying das emulsões, na interface o/ar das respectivas microcápsulas. As paredes das microcápsulas são fractais de objetos agregados com superfícies rugosas, que são alisadas pela presença de um agente de reticulação. Abstract in english Herein, the emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) were highlighted by showing that the macromolecules undergo conformational changes when adsorbed at interfaces. The conformation of protein chains nested at the interfacial region of oil in water (o/w) emulsions by means of X-ray scatte [...] ring (SAXS) and direct imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) techniques was investigated. The mean radius of gyration (Rg) for SPI (aq) is 20 nm and increases up to 30 nm in o/w emulsions; the proteins act as amphiphilic molecules by exposing their hydrophobic core to the oil and their hydrophilic amino acid residues to the water phase. By spray drying the emulsions, it was also possible to measure the size (Rg = 40 nm) and to evaluate the morphology of these proteins at the oil/air interface of the respective microcapsules. The walls of microcapsules are fractals of clustered objects with rough surfaces, which are smoothed by the presence of a cross-linking agent.

  1. Study on MELCOR Modeling for Emergency External Water Injection Scenario of SBO in APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Junl; Kim, Wontae [Heungdeok IT Valley, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hanchul; Lee, Sunghan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In the present study, a MELCOR model for APR1400 was developed and applied to analyze a SBO scenario selected to confirm the effectiveness of the means. In this analysis, the primary and secondary emergency cooling water injection were considered. Leakage from the Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal and opening of the Atmosphere Dump Valve (ADV) were modeled as well to simulate the external pump injection strategy. In this study, the analysis results showed that the external injection strategy with an ADV manual opening could successfully cool down the reactor for a station blackout accident through its effective implementation. It was found that the RCP seal leakage rate is a sensitive parameter for depressurization of the RCS. In this regard, further study is needed to develop a realistic RCP seal leakage model, referring to detailed technical data.

  2. Matrix injection of relative permeability modifier for water control applied in Brazil basins; Injecao matricial de modificadores de permeabilidade relativa para controle de producao de agua aplicado nas bacias petroliferas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, Flavio; Stefan, Rodolfo; Mendonca, Paulo; Ferreira, Antonio; Silva, Charles; Fonseca, Ana Isoila [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Macae, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Ricardo C.B. [BJ Services Company Africa Ltd., Angola (Angola)

    2008-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges for the oil industry, even at the beginning of well's production, and principally when the well is producing, is how to reduce and handling the produced water on this process. A conservative estimation says for each barrel of produced oil you have 5 or 6 barrels of formation's water. Some factors must be considerable to establish and maintain a carefully management of this effluent, for example the volume of produced water, which is always growing due to the reservoir maturation and for the secondary recovery process; salt content; residual oil and chemical products presence. Water production is the cause of several problems on wells, like scales, organic deposits or starting the process of formation's sand production induced by fines migration. As a consequence, a cost increment of production is observed due to hydrocarbon/water separation and destination of produced water. The same way, is extremely expensive to manage the even bigger volume, which demands efforts to re-inject the water, treatment which avoid or minimize possible environment impacts, development of new equipment and materials which helps and resists to the effects of produced water. Not inherent reservoir's cause can be several, like bad isolated water zones by cement fail, wrong determination of perforated interval, which is easier to use aid methods. When the water production is directly associated to reservoir, by conning, channeling and/or fingering, generally associated to mobility difference between water and oil, the nowadays most efficient treatment is the injection of relative permeability modifier. This paper will present techniques and results obtained with matrix injection in some fields by the use of the last generation of RPM (relative permeability modifier). (author)

  3. Analysis of the influence of well spacing on the injection rate behaviour for water injection un