WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

2

Logical approach yields correct injection water quality. [North sea oil wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Sea oil fields need water injection to maintain reservoir pressure. Sea water thus directly injected contains suspended solids of 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l, composed mostly of plankton. To prevent plugging of tubulars, filters of sand, dual media, diatomaceous earth, or cartridge construction may be used. In the end, the nature of the reservoir will determine the degree of filtration needed. Other treatments of the injection water may be called for to minimize corrosion and to inhibit bacterial growth. 6 refs.

King, P.J.; Robinson, K.

1981-10-01

3

Injection-water quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))

1990-10-01

4

Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken into account. 1-D numerical simulations are carried out to reveal the erosion of reservoir formation due to water injection. 2-D numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the suspension and deposition profiles around the injection wells. These preliminary results indicate the non-Fickian behaviors of suspended reservoir fines and the corresponding formation damage due to erosion and relocation of reservoir fines.

Yuan, Hao

2010-01-01

5

Modeling Reservoir Formation Damage due to Water Injection for Oil Recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The elliptic equation for non-Fickian transport of suspension in porous media is applied to simulate the reservoir formation damage due to water injection for oil recovery. The deposition release (erosion of reservoir formation) and the suspension deposition (pore plugging) are both taken into accou...

Yuan, Hao

6

Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine composition but also the formation water composition affected the oil recovery at high temperatures from the Stevns Klint chalk rock.

Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander

2012-01-01

7

Development and testing of the U.S. Coast Guard water injection enhanced viscous oil pumping system (VOPS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of workshops related to marine oil spills were held to find ways to improve the viscous oil pumping capability of the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Navy and industry at minimal costs and without increasing existing inventories. A prototype viscous oil pumping/off-loading system which consists of a water injection annulus flange mounted on the discharge end of a Desmi DOP-250 positive displacement screw pump. The annulus sends small amounts of water at high pressure into the oil stream creating a water ring that reduces the friction between the viscous oil and the hose wall. This reduces the high pressure losses found in viscous ship-to-ship or ship-to-shore oil transfer operations. It was determined that water injection significantly increases both the quantity of very viscous product and the distance it can be pumped. Other operational procedures were also developed. This included ensuring that water is injected first through the hose to prelubricate the system before pumping the oil. A method to slowly increase the flow rate of oil discharge so as not to choke the water injection was also developed. 6 refs., 8 figs.

Loesch, R. [United States Coast Guard Headquarters, Washington, DC (United States). Ocean Engineering Div; Moffatt, C. [PCCI-GPC, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Knutson, S. [United States Thirteenth Coast Guard District, Seattle, WA (United States)

2000-07-01

8

Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Salinity Formation Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the results of Laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of calcium and strontium sulfates in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of calcium and strontium ions at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by calcium and strontium sulfates deposit on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of calcium and strontium ions.

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

2007-01-01

9

Barium Sulfate Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir During Water Injection at High-Barium Formation Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the results of laboratory experiments carried out to investigate the formation of barium sulfate in sandstone cores from mixing injected sea water and formation water contain high concentration of barium at various temperatures (50 and 80°C) and differential pressures (100, 150 and 200 psig). The morphology of scaling crystals as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is presented. Results show a large extent of permeability damage caused by barium sulfate deposits on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of barium ions.

Amer Badr Bin Merdhah; Abu Azam Mohd Yassin

2007-01-01

10

Optimizing water injection performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, major advances have been made in understanding injection well performance. In particular, the impact of fracturing, thermal stress effects and water quality are far better understood, as a result of both improved theoretical understanding and from detailed analyses of field data. This paper reviews the current understanding of the processes which control the performance of injection wells, including the effects of produced water quality, taking examples mainly from the Prudhoe Bay and Forties oil fields. Techniques for predicting and optimizing injector performance under a variety of circumstances are discussed, together with the implications for waterflood management.

Paige, R.W.; Murray, L.R.; Martins, J.P.; Marsh, S.M.

1995-11-01

11

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31

12

Water over oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fall of 2009, a large heavy oil producer approached Champion Technologies Inc., the world's second biggest oilfield chemical company, with a problem. The company had several wells that had the potential to be good producers if one obstacle could be overcome. The oil viscosity was so high that operators couldn't run the pumps at high enough speeds to get good production rates. After a year of research and development, Champion did its first field trial of a chemical additive called Champion Flow Plus VR-1100. The VR-1100 chemical is added to produce water injected into the annular space of the wellbore in order to encapsulate the oil in the water to create globules or droplets of oil surrounded by a water external surface. The goal is to reduce drag and enable the oil to flow more freely. The oil is dispersed within the water, and that oil-and-water dispersion has a lower viscosity than straight oil. When the oil/water dispersion reaches the surface production facilities and is allowed to sit in a tank, the oil and water separate readily. The primary purpose of the VR-1100 is to restore or increase production in wells that have the potential to be good producers if the viscosity problem can be overcome.

Roche, Pat

2011-11-15

13

Water injection methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of external constraints, particularly in terms of the size and the weight of the water treatment facilities, and of reservoir criteria on offshore water injection system design is discussed. Examples are drawn mainly from BP's (British Petroleum) 5 years operational experience with the Forties Field Sea Water Injection System in the North Sea. Experience with this system suggests that the chemical requirements are minimal with chlorine representing the major use. In the majority of cases water injection proceeds very smoothly and the major problem is controlling and detecting water path in the reservoir. 11 refs.

Mitchell, R.W.; Bowyer, P.M.

1982-01-01

14

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

1996-01-01

15

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

16

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

Baroni, M.R.

1994-04-30

17

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-12-21

18

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Technical progress for this quarter is described.

Baroni, M.

1994-01-25

19

Water injection profiling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors.

1982-01-01

20

Treatment of Injection Waters for Secondary Recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of water, which is compatible both with itself and with the formations injected, is one of the essential conditions for the satisfactory secondary recovery of the oil in a reservoir. Actually, this water must not cause either a reduction in the pe...

M. Peinado

1965-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Magnus Field: Surfactant stimulation of water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water injection wells in BP's Magnus Field are located updip of the oil water contact because of poor aquifer injectivities. A pilot project was undertaken to increase water injection rates by improving near wellbore relative permeabilities to water, using a surfactant to reduce residual oil saturations. This paper discusses the laboratory reservoir condition core flood tests, the field monitoring during surfactant addition and an interpretation of the success of the project.

Dymond, P.F.; Spurr, P.R.

1985-01-01

22

Magnus field: Surfactant stimulation of water-injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-injection wells in BP's Magnus field are located updip of the oil/water contact (OWC) because of poor aquifer injectivities. A pilot project was undertaken to increase water-injection rates by improving near-wellbore relative permeabilities to water by use of a surfactant to reduce residual oil saturations. This paper discusses the laboratory reservoir-condition coreflood tests, the field monitoring during surfactant treatment, and an interpretation of the success of the project.

Dymond, P.F.; Spurr, P.R.

1988-02-01

23

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01

24

Selecting methods of preparing surface water to be injected into oil formations of West Siberia. [Purification of surface waters for injection into oil formations: bactericides, filters, electrocoagulation and heat treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of data concerning the operation of both producing oil wells and exploratory wells, and the analysis of micro-organisms living in water samples taken these wells, has indicated that the intensive development of sulphate-regenerating bacteria fluctuates somewhat during different times of the year. The greatest number of micro-organisms appear between early spring and late summer making this the best time to treat oil wells with bactericides. The most appropriate type of water treatment can be selected based on the following conditions: a balanced PPD water system, and simple service methods and units that are adaptable and easily employed. Technical-economic calculations have shown that the use of well filters is the most economical way of cleaning water. Although physical heat-treatment is expensive, it is technically feasible and prevents the freezing-up of equipment and water pipes. The substitution of industrial by-products and the use of improved electro-coagulation methods are prospective cost-saving methods.

Mineeva, N.U.; Gunbina, L.A.; Kisarev, E.L.

1982-01-01

25

Enhanced oil recovery using hydrogen peroxide injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NOVATEC received an US Patent on a novel method to recovery viscous oil by hydrogen peroxide injection. The process appears to offer several significant improvements over existing thermal methods of oil recovery. Tejas joined NOVATEC to test the process in the laboratory and to develop oil field applications and procedures.

Moss, J.T. Jr.; Moss, J.T.

1995-02-01

26

Oil recovery process: injection of fatty alcohol followed by soap  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for recovering crude oil from a subterranean reservoir having one or more injection means in fluid communication with one or more producing means. The method comprises injecting into said reservoir through said injection means an effective quantity of a solution of a fatty alcohol wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of n-dodecyl, n-octyl and oleyl alcohols and mixtures thereof ranging in concentration from about 0.1 to about 10.0 weight percent of the injected solution and either a crude oil or a refined fraction of crude oil followed by an effective quantity of a solution comprising a soap and water wherein said soap is a sodium dodecyl sulfate ranging in concentration from about 0.05 to about 5.0 weight percent of the injected solution, said solutions combining with the crude oil present in the reservoir to form an oil-in-water emulsion, driving said solutions and emulsion through the reservoir by injection of a driving fluid and recovering the crude oil through said produciton means.

Cardenas, R.; Carlin, J.

1980-07-22

27

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-09-30

28

Oil injection into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil atomization, increased blast temperature and oxygen and injection of reducing gases into the bosh zone. (orig.) 25 refs.

Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

1997-12-31

29

Energy recovery by water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several analytical and numerical studies that address injection and thermal breakthrough in fractured geothermal reservoirs are described. The results show that excellent thermal sweeps can be achieved in fractured reservoirs, and that premature cold water breakthrough can be avoided if the injection wells are appropriately located.

Witherspoon, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Tsang, C.F.

1982-07-01

30

Water injection performance in Libyan carbonate reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formation damage caused by inappropriate drilling, completion, workover, production scheme and water injection operation is a major cost to the oil and gas industry worldwide. The reservoir rocks and resident fluids are essentially in a state of physiochemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. Disruption of this equilibrium due to changes in pressure, temperature and fluid chemistry around the wellbore region can create barriers to flow and yield low production rates. (author)

Nasr, M.; Rajab, B. Ben [Libya Univ., Tripoli (Libya). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Aattia, Ali [Veba Oil Operations, Tripoli (Libya)

1998-07-01

31

Process for producing or cleaning high pressure water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for cleaning a production well. It comprises: stopping the pumping of oil out of the wall; generating an aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide gas under pressure; and injecting under pressure the solution of chlorine dioxide gas into a pumped water injection stream and thereafter under pressure into the well. Also describes is a second process for cleaning a producing well. It comprises: stopping the pumping of oil out of the well; selecting an oxidant reactive with hydrogen sulfide under downhole conditions; and injecting the oxidant under pressure into a pumped water injection stream and thereafter under pressure into a well containing hydrogen sulfide.

Sacco, F.J.

1990-08-07

32

Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

2010-01-01

33

Bye-bye forms 17 and 17A : Pedigree salt water injection monitoring partners with ND Oil and Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North Dakota-based Pedigree Technologies is a leading provider of web-based M2M applications for fleet, asset and supply chain management. This presentation described their simple web-based system which helps companies track, locate, monitor and control their fixed and mobile assets and equipment. It highlighted a typical class 2 injection well problem regarding compliance issues for saltwater injection well equipment. The solution was a cost-effective web-enabled remote monitoring system that activates alarms for equipment health conditions and reporting for compliance needs all in one system. In particular, the system replaces manual data entry of Forms 17 and 17A with automated remote monitoring and reporting. It allows real time access to alarms and trends of injection data. The solar powered monitoring system measures flow rate, pipe pressure and annulus pressure. It provides automated hourly readings and cellular communication. In addition to increasing process efficiency, the system decreases the costs of manual data collection at injection sites. tabs., figs.

Warner, A. [Pedigree Technologies, Fargo, ND (United States)

2010-07-01

34

Chemical flood oil recovery with highly saline reservoir water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an oil reservoir in which the water contains more than about 9% dissolved salt, oil is produced by injecting an oil-displacin dispersion of at least one surface active alkylaryloxy polyethoxyethane sulfonate in the reservoir water or an equally saline water followed by a mobility controlling dispersion of noncondensible gas in an equally saline water.

Reisberg, J.

1980-05-20

35

Separating oil and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil and water, skimmed from the sea after an oil spill, is delivered downward through a trapping layer of oil which retains the oil. The oil/water mixture is pumped through a manifold to a number of annular traps each consisting of concentric tubes. Clean water leaves the lower chamber through an adjustable weir assembly and separated oil enters the upper chamber over several weirs. The trapping layer has sufficient depth for retaining the thin film which collects on the relatively large surface area of a separating tank where separating of skimmed oil takes place due to differing densities. The trapping layer has a relatively small surface area and is confined by structure within the apparatus. The apparatus includes a container, means for allowing entry of the mixture into the upper part of the container, a trap for oil in the upper part of the container through which the mixture is driven and is allowed to fall into the main body of the container and means for discharging the oil layer. Further means for discharging water or aqueous liquid from the container also are provided as one means for regulating the thickness of the trapping layer. 22 claims.

Bremner, W.A.

1982-06-30

36

Predicting tarmat response to water injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tarmat (heavy oil at the oil-water contact) in a reservoir acts as a sealing barrier, and thus its behavior during a waterflood will affect overall oil recovery. Here's how to predict that behavior.

Osman, M.E.S. (Univ. of United Arab Emirates, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi (AE))

1991-07-01

37

Heavy oil recovery by electromagnetic heating and gas injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were carried out to determine the effectiveness of electromagnetic heating on oil recovery from pay zones (<10 m) typically found in Alberta and Saskatchewan. A laboratory sand-pack reservoir model was used to determine the effects of gas injection pressure, temperature, electromagnetic frequency, oil viscosity, electrode distance, and formation water salinity on recovery and energy consumption. Higher electromagnetic frequencies were found to provide faster heating rates and can overcome problems associated with discontinuity of the media through which electromagnetic waves must propagate in the reservoir. Heat loss can also be minimized with the use of higher frequencies. For moderate heavy oil reservoirs (less than 1,000 MPa-s), it is not necessary to heat the entire pay zone. Heating of the wellbore vicinity is sufficient. Recovery can be further improved by gas injection. Oil recovery as high as 45% of original oil in place was achieved using electromagnetic heating and gas injection compared to estimated primary recovery rates of less than 5%. 62 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

Hu Vunfeng.

1993-01-01

38

Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined theoretically at a larger scale.

Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina

2006-01-01

39

Impact of edible oil injection on the permeability of aquifer sands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that food-grade edible oils can be injected into the subsurface for installation of in-situ permeable reactive barriers. However to be effective, the oil must be distributed out away from the oil injection points without excessive permeability loss. In this work, we examine the distribution of soybean oil in representative aquifer sediments as non-aqueous phase liquid oil (NAPL oil) or as an oil-in-water emulsion. Laboratory columns packed with sands or clayey sands were flushed with either NAPL oil or a soybean emulsion followed by plain water, while monitoring permeability loss and the final oil residual saturation. NAPL oil can be injected into coarse-grained sands. However NAPL injection into finer grained sediments requires high injection pressures which may not be feasible at some sites. In addition, NAPL injection results in high oil residual saturations and moderate permeability losses. In contrast, properly prepared emulsions can be distributed through sands with varying clay content without excessive pressure buildup, low oil retention and very low to moderate permeability loss. For effective transport, the emulsion must be stable, the oil droplets must be significantly smaller than the mean pore size of the sediment and the oil droplets should have a low to moderate tendency to stick to each other and the aquifer sediments. In our work, oil retention and associated permeability loss increased with sediment clay content and with the ratio of droplet size to pore size. For sandy sediments, the permeability loss is modest (0-40% loss) and is proportional to the oil residual saturation.

Coulibaly KM; Borden RC

2004-07-01

40

Caustic flooding with stabilized water for enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method for enhanced oil recovery utilizing caustic or alkaline water flooding which avoids precipitation of hydroxides in the injection water or plugging of the reservoir. A lignosulfonate material is blended with the injection water before the addition of the alkaline chemical, the amount of lignosulfonate being sufficient to prevent formation of any precipitates.

Chan, K.S.; Majoros, S.J.

1984-08-21

 
 
 
 
41

Oil-in-water microemulsions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water-insoluble pharmaceutically active substances such as cyclosporin are formulated for administration in the form of an oil-in-water microemulsion, wherein the active substance is fully dissolved in the dispersed oil particles. The oil is C8 to C20 fatty acid vegetable oil glycerides, and lecithin and another surfactant are included to form and stabilise the microemulsion in which the hydrophilic phase comprises propylene glycol. A preconcentrate comprising the above components but free from any hydrophilic phase can be utilised to make up the compositions, which are most suitably soft gelatine capsules or oral administration fluids. The glycerides are preferably from castor oil, coconut oil or peanut oil.

Hamied Y.K. Dr.; Nayak V.G. Dr.; Malhotra G.

42

Viability of water injection in the gas-oil contact in reservoirs of a mature field at threshold of liberations of its gas caps; Viabilidade da injecao de agua no contato gas-oleo em reservatorios de um campo maduro em vias de liberacao de suas capas de gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Agua Grande field, located in the central part of the Reconcavo basin, was discovered in 1951. Fluvial and eolian reworked sandstones of the Agua Grande and Sergi formations are the main reservoirs. Presently the oil field production is 730 m{sup 3}/d through 139 wells. The main recovery mechanisms are Gas Cap and Segregation for the Agua Grande Formation and Gas Cap and Water Influx for the Sergi Formation. In addition to the natural mechanisms, gas is injected in both formations and water is injected in the Sergi. Due to the growing demand for natural gas, the gas caps will be produced. This production will reduce the oil reserves of the field. In order to avoid the reduction in the oil reserves, preliminary studies were done such as: substitution on the natural gas injection by Nitrogen and water injection in the present gas-oil contact. This later method has shown to be very attractive. (author)

Ferreira, Luiz Eraldo A.; Matos, Bruno Gomes de; Gozzini, Luiz Carlos; Rigueira, Reginaldo Cardoso [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2000-07-01

43

Water flooding of EL Bundok oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Godo Oil Expoitation Co. conducted prospecting and exploitation of the El Bundok oil field located approximately in the center of the Persian Gulf since 1971 and extracted 18,000,000bbl of crude oil. However, the production was tentatively stopped due to the pressure drop of the oil reservoir. In the end of 1983, water flooding facilities were completed and the continuous production of 25,000BPD over about a dicade was assumed. This assumption is generally in agreement with the actual production result up to now since the above time. It has become possible to compute flow of fluid and pressure change in a reservoir by preparing a three-dimentional simulation numerical model of an oil reservoir and inputting the physical nature of the reservoir thereto thanks to the recent development of mass storage computer. Thanks to the above simulation study, it was theoretically found that for the water flooding of the El Bundok oil field, the peripheral pressurized water injection was not effective, but the pattern pressurized water injection was extremely effective. When the latter was conducted, good result was obtained. The technique concerning removal of floating micro-particles, etc. was also developed. (2 figs)

Ishikawa, Ko

1988-09-01

44

Injection of oilfield produced water into water aquifiers - the Ojo Alamo project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the feasibility of using the Ojo Alamo Sandstone (OAS) aquifer of the San Juan Basin (SJB) to store produced water from oil and gas operations. Included are data analysis and reservoir modeling. To perform this study, we have constructed a reservoir (aquifer) simulation model that allows us to estimate the effect of injecting low salinity produced water from oil and gas wells into the Ojo Alamo Sandstone. Using the simulation model, we have the ability to select sites for both the injection and discharge of water within the reservoir boundaries and predict water quality at any point in the aquifer. The OAS`s in-situ water and formation properties were compiled from recent studies. In areas of the OAS which have insufficient data, electric log correlations from oil and gas wells were utilized to increase the accuracy of the model. The injected water quality is based on current production water analyses available from area operators. Realistic variations of injected water quality and flow rates are simulated in the model to create potential water quality distributions within the reservoir. The short range benefits of this project will be to provide readily available storage for production water for later use in agricultural and urban areas. Certain low salinity production water that is currently considered a {open_quotes}waste product{close_quotes} could be turned into a valuable resource. A benefit for New Mexico is more usable water and less unused {open_quotes}waste water{close_quotes}.

Russell, C.S.; Hazlett, W.G.

1996-11-01

45

Produced water re-injection - Experiences from the Ula field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As discussed in this presentation, there are three principles for disposal/re-injection of produced water: (1) Re-injection back into the reservoir as pressure support, (2) Disposal into ''dead wells'' or inactive parts of the reservoir, (3) Disposal of water into formation zones. The MUST Produced Water Reinjection (PWRI) Project is discussed. The objectives of MUST PWRI are (1) Contribute to the understanding of the potential for PWRI, (2) Reduce the environmental impact from oil production, (3) Contribute to the development of cost-effective solutions to the produced water handling, (4) Present knowledge to other oil companies, (5) Contribute to the development of the Norwegian service industry. Full scale field trial was one part of the work and the experience from it is discussed.

Sande, Arvid

1998-07-01

46

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process. (authors)

2006-01-01

47

Use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection in exploitation of light oil reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The secondary recovery processes in oil reservoirs may be performed using various techniques, e.g. the conventional waterflooding, water alternating gas injection or the double displacement process. The use of high nitrogen content gas obtained from a Polish Lowland natural gas field by separation is considered for the injection process.

Stanislaw Nagy; Andrzej Olajossy; Jakub Siemek

2006-01-01

48

Removal of colloidal suspensions from injection water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship is presented between the content of colloidal particles in the injection water and temperature (from 0 to 30/sup 0/C). This relationship is explained by the structural formation of colloidal particles of injection water and the laws governing ion exchange.

Parcalabescu, I.D.; Manea, F.

1981-01-01

49

Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

S. Siregar; A. D. Hidayaturobbi; B. A. Wijaya; S.N. Listiani; T. Adiningrum; Irwan; A.I. Pratomo

2007-01-01

50

Water shutoff treatments - reduce water and accelerate oil production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water production is a serious problem in oil-producing reservoirs. The use of gel treatments for improved oil well performance was discussed. Gel technology can totally block certain porous features associated with the porous media, thereby diverting fluid flow from areas of low drag to areas of much greater drag. The use of gel treatment in fractured reservoirs with high permeability streaks, bottom water, water coning, worm holes and near wellbore difficulties was described. The viscosity of the treatment substance at time of injection is one of the major parameters defining the success of the treatment. The reservoir parameters that need to be considered are pore size distribution, oil viscosity, source of the water problem, permeability trends, fracture orientation and all production, completion and log data for the wells in the field. Treatments for water shutoff were considered very effective technically and economically, provided that the product exhibited the appropriate characteristics relative to the deficiencies of the well. 4 tabs., 2 figs.

Thomas, F.B.; Bennion, D.B. [Hycal Energy Research Laboratories Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Anderson, G.; Meldrum, B.

1998-09-01

51

Evaluation of heavy oil recovery process using a novel combination of injectants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the displacement of heavy oil by a combination of hot water and gas has been undertaken, based on bench-scale, non-scaled, core displacement experiments. Two heavy oils from Alberta and Saskatchewan were used. The effect of a range of operating variables (injection temperature, water injection rate, gas injection rate, and back pressure) and interactions (oil/gas/permeability interactions and oil/additive/connate water salt concentration) was investigated. The potential roles of a soluble gas and of interfacial additives petroleum sulfonate additive were also examined. The hot water-gas drive process was ultimately evaluated by comparison with steamflood reference experiments. An oil recovery enhancement index was defined, and consistently used in the statistical analysis of the experimental results. Of the operating variables, only injection temperature increase had the expected effect of increasing oil recovery (by the hot water-gas process). Fluid injection rates and back pressure had statistically insignificant effects on the process. Analysis of the results shows a significant advantage to using carbon dioxide, over nitrogen, in the hot water/gas drive process. Using interfacial additives, particularly NaOH, proved to have potential merit in connection with the process. The results suggest that heavy oil recovery by a combinatin of hot water and gas displacement is comparable to recovery using a steam drive (60-75% of original oil saturation, under the present set of experimental conditions). The study points to the controlling factors, range of sensitivities, and areas of potential improvements of the hot water/gas drive. 53 refs., 177 figs., 63 tabs.

Azzam, M.I.S.

1989-02-01

52

The Hot Water Oil Expulsion Technique for Geothermal Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the rapid development of Chinese petroleum industry, Oil production way of burning crude oil to produce steam need change. Heavy oil reservoir with thin layer or edgewater is unsuitable thermal recovery, electric heating leads to considerable electrical consumption, low injection water temperature decreases reservoir temperature and increased crude oil viscosity. The prolonged temperature difference break up reservoir pore throat cement and framework minerals. To improve high-capacity channel communication, we proposed geothermal oil recovery. Broad-sense abundant geothermal resources and existing injection water technique equipment are used, deep-seated high temperature liquid (oil-gas-water mixture) draws geothermal warming flowing layer to transit heat upward, decreases viscidity and increases fluidity. Reservoir temperature different offer geothermal fountain. Practicability process is analyzed. statistics and reservoir temperature variation analysis of Gudong Oilfield, Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC, we have designed flow-chart concept for geothermal oil recovery, suggested drilling multi-branch well in heavy oil reservoir as injection-well, at the same position of geothermal fountain well, using free-pressure pump to inject hot liquid directly to aimed oil layer, made oil recovery in surrounding wells. It is proposed that geothermal oil recovery forerunner test should be first conducted in favorable blocks.

Xuezhong Wang

2012-01-01

53

Integration of oil dehydration and water purification processes and technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formational pressure in oil deposits is maintained through increased oil flow and greater oil yield coefficients for productive layers. Both these indicators can be used in efforts to improve flooding while reducing fresh water waste and minimizing low-mineral water usage. Similarly, the waste water that is used should be free of weighted particles and oil products, especially asphalt-tar materials. An examination is conducted of prospects for integrating the processes of oil dehydration (the preparation of oil for transport and refining), the scrubbing of waste water from oil products and the removal of weighted particles with a demulsifier unit. The combining of these three processes will accordingly minimize expenses. The correlation of the allowable levels for concentrations of chemical regents is studied for normal oil products. Weighted particles in separated water are examined with regard to their relationship to technical equipment parameters. The correlations determined through analysis allow the researchers to set parameters for demulsifier regimes securing a sharp water-oil emulsion separation to the degree that the oil and water obtained is suitable for injection into formations. Temperature and chemical regent correlations are determined for demulsification and specific regent expenditure regimes as are levels for water-logged oil products. The formation of sharp water-oil emulsion regimes allows refiners to avoid the separate scrubbing of water thereby significantly reducing equipment requirements and capital expenditures.

Putokhin, V.S.

1981-01-01

54

Magmatic water - the best oil remover from deposit. Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the ionic change laws applied in the natural oil deposit conditions and taking into account the chemical composition of the underground waters, a model is built up in a Fortran program in order to find out the best composition of the injection water. The model shows the syngenetic water as the basic agent followed by the common regional water.

Parcalabescu, I.D.; Popa, C.G.

1981-08-01

55

The desulvurization by water injection activation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The furnace limestone injection has been paid more attention due to low capital cost, easy installation and operation. However, the SO{sub 2} conversion is low and most of lime remained unreacted while leaving furnace. An activation reactor can be used to form highly active slurry droplets by water sprays and consequent impaction so as to enhance the sorbent utilization and reduce operation cost. In addition, sorbent is directly injected into the duct and activated by water sprays downstream in the so-called duct injection. The authors develop a simplified one-dimensional model to simulate the impaction between droplet and sorbent, evaporation, and reactions which occur simultaneously in the reactor.

Yongqi Lu; Jiming Hao; Kebin He [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

1996-12-31

56

Flow improvers for water injection based on surfactants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In many cases it is desirable to increase the flow of injection water when an oil well deteriorates. It is very costly in offshore operation to lay down an additional water pipe to the injection site. Flow improvers for the injection water will thus be the most cost-effective way to increase the flow rate. During the last years water-soluble polymers have also been applied for this purpose. These drag-reducing polymers are however only slowly biodegraded which has been an incentive for the development of readily biodegradable surfactants as flow improvers for injection water. A combination of a zwitterionic and an anionic surfactant has been tested in a 5.5 inch, 700 m long flow loop containing sulphate brine with salinity similar to sea water. A drag reduction between 75 and 80% was achieved with 119 ppm in solution of the surfactant blend at an average velocity of 1.9 m/s and between 50 and 55% at 2.9 m/s. The surfactants in this formulation were also found to be readily biodegradable in sea water and low bio accumulating which means they have an improved environmental profile compared to the polymers used today. Due to the self-healing properties of the drag-reducing structures formed by surfactants, these may be added before the pump section - contrary to polymers which are permanently destroyed by high shear forces. (Author)

Oskarsson, H.; Uneback, I.; Hellsten, M.

2006-03-15

57

Removing oil from produced water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the design, operation, and performance of a new gas-assisted clarifier system which acts to remove oil from waste water. The system has no moving parts and uses no chemical additives. The results show that the system can be successfully used to reduce the oil content of waste water to acceptable effluent limits. The systems are designed for offshore oil and gas production facilities. Test results are provided which show the reduction of oil and grease from 211 mg/L to 3 mg/L

1992-01-01

58

Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-12-31

59

The application of isotope tracers to the injected water adjusting in oilfield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to know about injected water's movement velocity and movement direction, two well groups of Tarim Donghe Oilfield are tested by isotopic tracer of K3(Co(CN)6) and HTO. Through applying analysis, the injected water's movement velocity and movement direction are obtained. Thus it offers important reliance for the oil field's reasonable development and adjustment

2003-01-01

60

Investigation of the effect of formation water disposal on ground water in oil fields of Assam, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the major waste products of oil industry is formation water which comes with crude oil from underground and this is considered as pollutant because of the presence of several undesirable elements exceeding the permissible limits. The conventional oil field practice is to dispose the formation water by injecting underground. Such underground injection is practiced in many oil fields across the globe. The ground water pollution threat by injected formation water has been a subject matter of investigation in some oil producing regions. The oil fields in Assam (India), some of which have been operating for about 50 years, also resort to similar disposal practice through some designated wells. The present study concerning underground disposal of formation water in 15 disposal wells of 3 oil fields in Assam analysed water samples collected during three consecutive years and could not detect migration of pollutant formation water to nearby ground water.

B. N. Sahoo; D. C. Baruah

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Redistribution of Water Injected into the Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1984 an analytically response function for one dimensional vertical redistribution of water injected into the soil was drived. In this study a theoretical h0(t) solution (the time variation of capillary pressure) for radial redistribution of water injected into the soil is developed and compared to the corresponding one for the vertical case. The compression of theoretical solution and excremental results shows that Except for the slightly more rapid redistribution, no advantages for radial redistribution over the vertical one is observed.

M. Mahmoodian-Shooshtari; Zahra Izadpanah; Seyed A.A. Jafari Moosavi

2007-01-01

62

Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O' Hern, Timothy John

2004-05-01

63

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266-269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M; Agrawal, Akhil; Voordouw, Gerrit

2013-06-14

64

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

65

Removing oil from waste water with sulfur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to water pollution control and concerns system for removing dispersed oil from water by contacting the oily water with sulfur to cause the oil to coalesce or agglomerate. In a preferred embodiment, the water containing the dispersed oil is passed through a bed of granular media presenting a surface area of solid phase sulfur to coalesce the dispersed oil. The coalesced oil is then separated from the water.

Jones, L.W.

1980-10-07

66

Measurement of oil on water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the measurement of oil on water in the cooling water outflow, in the outfall and intaked of effluent treatment plants, in waterways and in process plants, many methods of measurement available in the market have duration problems or basic difficulties as a result of associated conditions. A series of methods of measurement and equipment has been investigated for the measurement of oil on water. It was been established that the fluorescence method of measurement which operates without contact is especially suitable for this task. (orig.).

1994-01-01

67

Oil-in-water emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an oil-in-water emulsion composition consisting essentially of 100 parts by weight of a water-insoluble oil, at least 0.05 millimol of a nonionic tertiary surfactant having an HLB number of at least 16, at least 3 millimols of a nonionic primary surfactant having an HLB number of from 13 to 15, from 1 to 5 millimols, per millimol of the primary surfactant, of a nonionic secondary surfactant having an HLB number of from 7 to 9, and at least 10 parts by weight of water.

Narula, D.

1988-11-29

68

Effect of injection volume on the pharmacokinetics of oil particles and incorporated menatetrenone after intravenous injection as O/W lipid emulsions in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil-in-water lipid emulsions are promising drug carriers for lipophilic drugs, however, the pharmacokinetics after entering the circulation should be clarified at clinical injection volume in order to utilize them in a clinical situation. In the present study, the standard lipid emulsions, consisting of soybean oil, egg yolk phosphatides and menatetrenone with diameters of about 150 nm, were prepared using a microfluidizer system. The pharmacokinetics of menatetrenone and the oil particles after intravenous injection as standard lipid emulsions at various injection volumes, from the clinical injection volume (0.1 ml/kg) to the experimental injection volume (3.0 ml/kg), were examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of menatetrenone and the oil particles were similar after administration, showing that menatetrenone was not released even after entering the circulation. Menatetrenone was delivered to the liver and spleen at the clinical injection volume, and more menatetrenone was delivered to the liver at clinical injection volume compared with the experimental volume. Moreover, additional information on injection volume-dependency was also obtained from these findings. These results at various injection volumes suggested that the standard lipid emulsions can be utilized as a useful drug delivery system at the clinical injection volume, especially for liver and spleen targeting. PMID:11770705

Ueda, K; Ishida, M; Inoue, T; Fujimoto, M; Kawahara, Y; Sakaeda, T; Iwakawa, S

2001-01-01

69

Effect of injection volume on the pharmacokinetics of oil particles and incorporated menatetrenone after intravenous injection as O/W lipid emulsions in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil-in-water lipid emulsions are promising drug carriers for lipophilic drugs, however, the pharmacokinetics after entering the circulation should be clarified at clinical injection volume in order to utilize them in a clinical situation. In the present study, the standard lipid emulsions, consisting of soybean oil, egg yolk phosphatides and menatetrenone with diameters of about 150 nm, were prepared using a microfluidizer system. The pharmacokinetics of menatetrenone and the oil particles after intravenous injection as standard lipid emulsions at various injection volumes, from the clinical injection volume (0.1 ml/kg) to the experimental injection volume (3.0 ml/kg), were examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of menatetrenone and the oil particles were similar after administration, showing that menatetrenone was not released even after entering the circulation. Menatetrenone was delivered to the liver and spleen at the clinical injection volume, and more menatetrenone was delivered to the liver at clinical injection volume compared with the experimental volume. Moreover, additional information on injection volume-dependency was also obtained from these findings. These results at various injection volumes suggested that the standard lipid emulsions can be utilized as a useful drug delivery system at the clinical injection volume, especially for liver and spleen targeting.

Ueda K; Ishida M; Inoue T; Fujimoto M; Kawahara Y; Sakaeda T; Iwakawa S

2001-01-01

70

BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES  

Science.gov (United States)

This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

Treshow, M.

1963-04-30

71

Bilateral breast necrosis due to local injection of fish oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The breast is as aesthetically important as it is physiologically. Physicians and women have practiced various methods for breast aesthetics and augmentation. We report a female veterinarian who injected fish oil into her breast, which led to inflammation and necrosis of breast tissue. When all medical therapies failed, bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy was performed. We did not find a case in the literature where fish oil had been used for breast augmentation. However, we did find that many agents have been injected for breast augmentation, the results of which were tragic, just as the case presented herein.

Turk E; Karagulle E; Koksal H; Togan T; Erinanc OH; Dogru O; Moray G

2013-03-01

72

Emulsification of water into bitumen in co-injection experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-in-oil emulsion samples from the Clearwater deposit at the Cold Lake cyclic steam stimulation operation were found to have higher viscosities than bitumen. This high viscosity was expected to reduce the bitumen recovery rate. It was assumed that emulsification of the bitumen occurred during the flow of separated phases into the wellbore. Co-injection experiments to study emulsification were based on this assumption. Wettability of the sandpack was found to be the most important factor in causing emulsification. Based on constants wettability, emulsification was shown to be dependant on flow rate. In view of the fact that the Clearwater formation was water wet, it was assumed that changes in wettability occurred in the steam injection or the production cycle.

Chen, T.; Yuan, J. Y.; Serres, A.; Rancier, D.

1995-05-01

73

CO[sub 2] from industrial sources as injection gas in oil reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of CO[sub 2] injection into an oil reservoir on the Norweigan Continental Shelf has been conducted. With a numerical reservoir simulator a production profile from a scenario where the reservoir pressure is maintained by displacing oil with CO[sub 2] has been performed on a three dimensional reservoir model using reservoir properties measured in the laboratory. The forecasted production profile was compared to the profile that was obtained when CO[sub 2] was substituted by water. The simulations showed that considerably more oil could be recovered with CO[sub 2] injection, approximately 60% of original oil in place, compared to approximately 40% by water injection. A technical/economic evaluation of CO[sub 2] separation from industrial sources, transport and injection into oil reservoirs has also been made. The results show positive economics only when some sort of CO[sub 2] tax avoidance is imposed on the source which alternatively would release CO[sub 2] into the atmosphere. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Holt, T.; Lindeberg, E. (IKU Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway))

1993-01-01

74

Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing [n-1-14C] octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs.

1984-01-01

75

Hydrocarbons in hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactivity of different organs and tissues of laying hens injected with inactivated oil adjuvant vaccine containing (n-1-/sup 14/C) octadecane was measured. It was shown that the hydrocarbons injected with the vaccination diffuse in relatively short periods of time to all the tissues, especially to those of the organs with greater blood supply, and that the hydrocarbons are largely eliminated by means of the eggs.

Franchini, A.; Piretti, M.V.; Tubertini, O.; Govoni, S.; Sapigni, R.

1984-12-01

76

Water injection system for reactor container  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present invention, water is injected rapidly to a reactor container disposed in a nuclear power plant. Namely, a residual-heat removing system (RHR system) removes residue-heat from the reactor container. A reactor equipment cooling sea water system (RCWS system) transfers the heat in the RHR system to sea water. In a water injection system for the reactor container, the RHR system and the RCWS system are connected by a tie line. In the present invention, an electromotive isolation valve and a booster pump are disposed to the tie line. With such a constitution, opening/closing operation for the electromotive isolation valve can be performed by remote operation from a central operation chamber. Accordingly, after occurrence of some or other phenomenon, it is not necessary for an operator to perform manual opening/closing operation in the field. In addition, operation of removing a closing plate is also unnecessary. Further, since the pump is disposed to the tie line to a lifting stroke of the tie line pump is added to the lift stroke of the RCWS pump, so that water can be injected even if pressure in the reactor container is elevated. (I.S.).

1993-08-17

77

Water injection profiling by nuclear logging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

78

Enhanced oil recovery. Operators fight corrosion with fiberglass injection pipe, casing and sucker rods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operators have been fighting corrosion in the Permian Basin since the first oil (along with saltwater and H/sub 2/S gas) was produced. However, with ever- increasing attempts to squeeze more oil out of the ground through secondary and tertiary recovery methods, a new high in corrosive properties has been reached. It starts when waterflooding is introduced, and reaches its maximum effect when CO/sub 2/ is injected to recover tertiary oil. Corrosion strikes whenever contaminated water, H/sub 2/S or wet CO/sub 2/ is injected or produced. Even the dry CO/sub 2/ used in most tertiary injection projects becomes extremely corrosive when it contacts water or wet surfaces. Amoco is designing its injection and production facilities to be corrosion resistant. A major element in the fight against corrosion at Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee in the Kelly-Snyder field in Scurry County, Texas, has been the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) materials in high pressure surface injection pipes, saltwater gathering lines, casing liners and sucker rods. Amoco has used fiberglass flowlines for injection wells in waterflood operations as well as FRP sucker rods in producing wells.

Wash, R.

1983-04-01

79

Analysis of oil-water replacement in limestone by MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of experiment were performed: (a) oil was injected into a water-saturated limestone sample, (b) water was injected into an oil-saturated sample, and (c) D{sub 2}O was injected into a water-saturated sample. The measuring protocol comprised the acquisition of a 1D spectrum, a CPMG experiment to estimate the T{sub 2} relaxation time, and the acquisition of spin-echo images. (orig.).

Dereppe, J.M. (Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Lab. de Chimie Physique); Schenker, K.V. (Spectrospin AG, Faellanden (Switzerland))

1989-01-01

80

Alkaline injection for enhanced oil recovery: a status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past several years, there has been renewed interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline injection. Alkaline solutions also are being used as preflushes in micellar/polymer projects. Several major field tests of alkaline flooding are planned, are in progress, or recently have been completed. Considerable basic research on alkaline injection has been published recently, and more is in progress. This paper summarizes known field tests and, where available, the amount of alkali injected and the performance results. Recent laboratory work, much sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and the findings are described. Alkaline flood field test plans for new projects are summarized.

Mayer, E.H.; Berg, R.L.; Carmichael, J.D.; Weinbrandt, R.M.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Analysis and modelling study of raceway phenomena including oil injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report analyzes the raceway phenomena in details, and describes the following fundamental knowledge about the raceway. The dynamic conditions causing raceway are blast velocities greater than terminal velocities of coke particles; The forming mechanism of raceway can be explained by the turbulence diffuse theory of jet and stress distribution around the raceway. Different views lead to various predicting methods for raceway dimensions. Coke particles circulating inside raceway are mainly from upper part of the raceway; Conditions around raceway can be divided into several zones which are active zone, dead-man, melt level and raceway shell. The interaction between zones greatly affects raceway dynamics. In this study, the reasons that oil injection can reduce coke rate and effects of oil injection on operation state of a blast furnace are discussed based on theory. The combustion phenomena of oil in the raceway are analyzed. The problems encountered under high oil injection rate, and some methods for improving combustion of oil in the raceway are also presented. A total model on the raceway phenomena is developed in co-operation with Tampere University of Technology. The model simulates coke (movement, heating and combustion kinetics), oil (motion, heating, evaporation of oil droplet and oxidation of residual coke) and gas phenomena (movement, gas phase reaction and turbulence) taking place in the raceway. The model is solved numerically and the preliminary results obtained show that both gas and coke particles circulate above the tuyere level. Also a part of coke moves in clockwise pattern beneath the tuyere level. The mixing of oxygen with oil is poor in combustion area. This study also analyzes and corrects a gas distribution model. The gas distribution functions both within the raceway and burden are obtained through mathematical derivation. Compared to the literature, the results are reliable. The dead-man dimensions can also be estimated through the model. (orig.) 96 refs. SULA2 Research Programme

Liao Dongsheng [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Process Metallurgy Lab.

1998-09-01

82

Oil and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vast shoal area of twenty thousand square miles off Nantucket, Georges Bank is one of the world's great fisheries. For ten years it has also been under examination as a source of offshore oil and gas. The story of the struggles that have ensued are described by William MacLeish. The stakes in Georges Bank seem high indeed - the survival of America's fisheries, of America's fuel supply - and the actors are public officials, private citizens, federal and state governments in Canada and the United States, including Texas, California and New England.

MacLeish, W.H.

1985-01-01

83

Corneoscleral cyst treated with distilled water injection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To describe the first case of the treatment of a corneoscleral cyst by distilled water injection into a corneal cyst. The anterior wall of a cyst of the limbal communication was punctured with a surgical blade. Aspiration and irrigation of the contents of the cyst with a 27-gauge anterior chamber cannula were performed repeatedly, three times. Distilled water, instead of balanced salt solution, was injected into the collapsed cyst, and was then aspirated completely after 5 minutes. The injection and aspiration of distilled water was repeated once more. The scleral cyst was surgically excised. Twelve months after surgery, several small white granular opacities, presumably epithelial cell nests, were observed on the interface of the collapsed cyst cavity, but there was no recurrence of the cyst. The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 1.0 with a correction of +1.25-2.00 X 45. No significant change in central corneal endothelial cell density was noted. We suggest that this simple technique may represent an alternative method for the management of corneal cysts, and may have less risk of developing a corneal opacity or causing other serious damage to surrounding tissues.

Shin YJ; Wee WR; Kim M; Lee JH

2002-12-01

84

Production of fuels. [oil-water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method for producing a fuel comprised of oil and water in which a mixture of oil and water is constituted as an emulsion by exposure to agitation effective to cause cavitation within the mixture.

Cottell, E.C.

1980-08-19

85

OIL-IN-WATER EMULSION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil-in-water emulsion containing (1) an emulsifying system containing at least one silicone surfactant of molecular weight greater than or equal to 10,000, at least one non-ionic cosurfactant, and at least one anionic cosurfactant, and (2) at least one monohydric alcohol containing from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, where the oils of the oily phase are soluble in the monohydric alcohol. These compositions exhibit good stability and good cosmetic properties. They can be used in many cosmetic and dermatological applications.

INOUE MIKA

86

Advanced water injection for low permeability reservoirs theory and practice  

CERN Multimedia

Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs provides operators with the proper workflow systems and engineering techniques for designing, planning and implementing  water injection systems that will improve recovery factors. When used in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is one of the most economical methods for ensuring maximum production rates. This book provides both theoretical analysis and practical cases for designing and evaluating water injection systems and understanding key production variables involved in makin

Xinquan, Ran

2013-01-01

87

Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

88

Method of breaking a water-in-oil emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for breaking a water-in-crude oil emulsion. A crude oil feedstock is tangentially injected into the upper portion of a vortex chamber operating on the vortex principle, with the emulsion rotating within the chamber and the velocity of the emulsion increasing toward the center of the vortex. In this manner, concentric layers of emulsion having different tangential velocities apply shear stresses to the dispersed water in the crude oil causing the interfacial film between the water and the oil to rupture. This enables chemical demulsifiers, added prior to the vortex operation, to act more quickly and efficiently. Thereafter, the dewatering of the crude oil is easily accomplished by usual methods.

Parker, R.J.; Ranganathan, R.; Lakshmanan, V.I.; Last A.J.

1987-07-07

89

Fundamental Investigation of Charge Injection Type of Electrostatic Oil Filter  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the effects of mechanical factors on the filtration speed of a charge injection type of electrostatic oil filter. The new filter has been proposed by Yanada and his coworkers and it has been demonstrated that the filtration speed can be increased to a great or some degree by injecting charges into oils, but the experimental condition was limited. In this paper, the effects of the number of the projections, the electrode spacing, the applied voltage and the oil temperature on the filtration speed are examined using a simple filter model and various types of oil. In order to discuss the effects of those mechanical factors on the filtration speed, numerical simulation of electrostatic field between electrodes is done and the oil flow caused between the electrodes due to ion drag phenomenon, called the ion drag flow in the paper, is observed using a charge coupled devise (CCD) camera and is analyzed using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The experiments and numerical simulation make clear the effects of the mechanical factors on the filtration speed. An optimal electrode configuration and operating condition are found out.

Tran, Khanh Duong; Yanada, Hideki

90

Subsurface brine injection: Proactive approach to close the produced water loop in the western desert of Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1988 a major onshore production facility was producing oil from eight formations in six oil fields located in the western desert of Egypt. Two of these formations include active water drive reservoirs, in addition; three reservoirs at that date were receiving water injection to enhance oil recovery. To handle the increasing volumes of the produced water (which is contaminated with oil, production chemicals and other pollutants), three alternatives were investigated: (1) Injection into disposal wells. (2) Dumping in surface disposal pits. (3) Re-injection to waterflood some oil reservoirs. The investigation revealed that the first two options are technically unfavorable, also they are conventional Waste Management Technologies (WMT) which provide short-term remedial solution. In contrast, Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) is an Environmental Control Technology (ECT) which minimize the environmental impact through process improvements. A state -of-the-art re-injection process was utilized using chemical treatment, gas liberation, settling, filtration and injection. This process represents a combination of two (ECT) methods: Reuse (for water flooding) and Recycling (when brine is redisposed underground). This process reduce the overall volumes of produced water to be disposed, increase the oil reserves, reservoir pressure and oil production and converse the underground water reserve.

Farid, E.E.; Nour, M.H.

1996-11-01

91

The technical specifics of insulating inflows of water into oil wells by using an oil-sulfuric acid mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of research into the development of a technology for the insulation of the inflow of water into oil wells by using an alkaline-sulphuric acid in a mixture with oil are presented. This mixture would be injected during oil production activities. Border conditions are developed for the technical parameters used in researching the usability of irrigated strata and the injection of water insulating mixture of oil and sulphuric acid. The high rate of effectiveness in using this mixture was verified in terrigenous and carbon sedimentation.

Glumov, I.F.; Gazizov, A.Sh.; Kochetkov, V.D.; Yumadilov, A.Yu.; Zaretskiy, B.Ya.

1980-01-01

92

Water shedding agents in distillate fuel oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Block polymers of organosiloxane and polyalkylene oxide are used in middle distillate petroleum fuel oils for separating out or otherwise reducing water haze in the oil. These block polymers are particularly useful in heating oils and diesel fuels, containing wax crystal modifier additives to improve the low temperature flow properties of the oil, particularly those modifiers which are copolymers of ethylene and an unsaturated ester and which have a tendency to stabilize and maintain the water haze in the oil.

Rehrer, D.H.

1984-07-17

93

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

CERN Document Server

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01

94

Produced water from off-shore oil and gas production, a new challenge in marine pollution monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Produced water consists of water naturally present in the oil and gas reservoir (formation water), flood water previously injected into the formation, and/or, in the case of some gas production, condensed water. Produced water is part of the well stream together with oil and/or gas

1999-01-01

95

Oil and troubled waters : reducing the impact of the oil and gas industry on Alberta's water resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of conventional oil and gas activities, oil sand production and coalbed methane development on water resources in Alberta was examined. The use of water by the upstream oil and gas industry has become an issue of public concern in Alberta, particularly since the province has been subjected to extended periods of drought in recent years. Recommendations were presented for improving government policy and to encourage better management and conservation of this precious and finite resource. In 2002, 380 million cubic metres of surface water was allocated for use by the petroleum industry for oil extraction and processing purposes. This represents about 4 per cent of all freshwater allocations. One third of this allocation is for oil field injection which includes water for enhanced oil recovery in conventional fields as well as water used to generate steam for extraction of bitumen from oil sands deposits. In Alberta, the policy on use of fresh water by the oil and gas industry depends on whether a project is located in a White or Green area of the province. White areas include areas used mainly for agriculture, while Green areas are forested lands along the Rocky Mountains. Environmental policy on groundwater does not apply in the Green area which explains why the use of fresh water for oil field injection in the Green area is 3 times the volume of saline water. Saline water is found at greater depths than surface water. It is not suitable for drinking or irrigation, but it is suitable for industry and there is significant scope to increase the use of saline water for oil field purposes. The factors that determine if saline water can be used include the chemical makeup of the water and the chemical properties of the oil reservoir. Saline water used for steam generation for in situ steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects may require treatment to must meet specific quality guidelines. It was concluded that there is potential to significantly reduce the amount of fresh water currently being used by the petroleum industry. 112 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Griffiths, M.; Woynillowicz, D.

2003-04-01

96

The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded reservoirs...

Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

97

Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25 °C, 40 °C, 55 °C and 70 °C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effects of microorganisms in the injected waters on microbial community compositions in the produced waters is. In addition, microbes inhabiting in the produced waters of the four water-flooded oil reservoirs were varied but all dominated by Proteobacteria. Moreover, most of the detected microbes were not identified as indigenous. The objective of this study was to expand the pictures of the microbial ecosystem of water-flooded oil reservoirs.

Zhang F; She YH; Chai LJ; Banat IM; Zhang XT; Shu FC; Wang ZL; Yu LJ; Hou DJ

2012-01-01

98

Formation of fluid heavy oil-in-water emulsions for pipeline transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The diverse factors affecting the viscosity of a surfactant stabilized viscous crude oil-in-water emulsion for pipeline transportation were studied. The study discloses that the stability of the oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by a nonionic surfactant Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylate increases as the surfactant concentration increases with a subsequent decrease in the crude-oil-water interfacial tension (IFT). Increasing the oil content and the speed of mixing of the emulsion resulted in an increased emulsion stability. Fresh water and synthetic formation water were used to study the effect of aqueous phase salinity on the stability and viscosity of the emulsion. Surfactant dissolved in synthetic formation water was utilized to find out the possibility of injecting the surfactant into a well bore to effect emulsification in the pump or tubing for the production of heavy crude oils as oil-in-water emulsion. The effective viscosity of a viscous Egyptian crude oil (Geisum crude oil) decreased when it was emulsified with water in the presence of a nonionic surfactant in the form of an oil-in-water emulsion. It was possible to form stable emulsions with synthetic formation water characterized by a low dynamic shear viscosity. This will enhance the production of viscous crude oils by injecting surfactant dissolved in formation water to affect downhole emulsification. Further, the produced crude oil-in-water emulsion is characterized by its low effective viscosity which will facilitate its pipeline transportation to the refiner. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ahmed, N.S.; Nassar, A.M.; Zaki, N.N.; Gharieb, H.K. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Petroleum Applications

1999-04-01

99

Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Berea Sandstone Cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates in Berea sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton) and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions at various temperatures (60-90°C) and differential pressures (75-100 psig). The solubility of common oil field scales formed and how their solubilities were affected by changes in salinity and temperatures (40-90°C) were also studied. The morphology and particle size of scaling crystals formed as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also presented. The results showed that a large extent of permeability damage caused by calcium, strontium and barium sulfates that deposited on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of calcium, barium and strontium ions. At higher temperatures, the deposition of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales increases and the deposition of BaSO4 scale decreases, since the solubilities of CaSO4 and SrSO4 scales decreases and the solubility of BaSO4 increases with increasing temperature. The deposition of CaSO4, SrSO4 and BaSO4 scales during flow of injection waters into porous media was shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs.

A.B.B. Merdhah; A.A.M. Yassin

2009-01-01

100

Removal of oil from water by bentonite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many materials, included activated carbon, peat, coal, fiberglass, polypropylene, organoclay and bentonite have been used for removing oils and grease from water. However, bentonite has been used only rarely for this purpose. In this study Na-bentonite was used to remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions of various kinds such as standard mineral oil, cutting oils, refinery effluent and produced water from production wells at Estevan, Saskatchewan. Removal efficiencies obtained were 85 to 96 per cent for cutting oils, 84 to 86 per cent for produced water and 54 to 87 per cent for refinery effluent. Bentonite proved to be more effective in the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsions than from actual waste waters; up to 96 percent from oil-in-water emulsions to only 87 per cent from actual waste water. The percentage of oil removed was found to be a function of the amount of bentonite added and the adsorption time up to the equilibrium time. Result also showed that the Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms are well suited to describe the adsorption of oil by bentonite from the various oily waters employed in this study. 15 refs.

Moazed, H.; Viraraghavan, T. [Regina Univ., Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering, Regina, SK (Canada)

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Removal of oil from water by bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many materials, included activated carbon, peat, coal, fiberglass, polypropylene, organoclay and bentonite have been used for removing oils and grease from water. However, bentonite has been used only rarely for this purpose. In this study Na-bentonite was used to remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions of various kinds such as standard mineral oil, cutting oils, refinery effluent and produced water from production wells at Estevan, Saskatchewan. Removal efficiencies obtained were 85 to 96 per cent for cutting oils, 84 to 86 per cent for produced water and 54 to 87 per cent for refinery effluent. Bentonite proved to be more effective in the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsions than from actual waste waters; up to 96 percent from oil-in-water emulsions to only 87 per cent from actual waste water. The percentage of oil removed was found to be a function of the amount of bentonite added and the adsorption time up to the equilibrium time. Result also showed that the Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms are well suited to describe the adsorption of oil by bentonite from the various oily waters employed in this study. 15 refs.

1999-01-01

102

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21{sup o} CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

Raghu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jayam College of Engineering and Technology, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramadoss, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Peter' s University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2011-07-01

103

Optimization of injection timing and injection pressure of a DI diesel engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study experiments were carried out in a constant speed, stationary direct injection diesel engine and the performance was investigated. Initially the engine fueled with diesel, rice bran biodiesel (methyl ester), raw rice bran oil and preheated rice bran oil with standard injection timing and injection pressures at different load conditions and the performances were compared. With the help of a heat exchanger and using the exhaust gases, the rice bran oil was preheated. It was found that the pre heated rice bran oil exhibits a closer performance as compared to rice bran biodiesel. Then the injection timing and injection were varied and the performance and emission parameters were investigated using preheated rice bran oil. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen were found to be higher and BSFC and smoke were found to be lower at 21° CA bTDC of injection timing and 230 bar injection pressure. From the test results the optimum injection timing and injection timing for the engine fueled with preheated rice bran oil were evaluated.

R. Raghu1, G. Ramadoss

2011-01-01

104

Performance of direct-injection off-road diesel engine on rapeseed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine operating on Diesel fuel and cold pressed rapeseed oil. The purpose of this research is to study rapeseed oil flow through the fuelling system, the effect of oil as renewable fuel on a high speed Diesel engine performance efficiency and injector coking under various loading conditions. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with rapeseed oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.2 and 12.8% than that for Diesel fuel. However, the brake thermal efficiency of both fuels does not differ greatly and its maximum values remain equal to 0.37-0.38 for Diesel fuel and 0.38-0.39 for rapeseed oil. The smoke opacity at a fully opened throttle for rapeseed oil is lower by about 27-35%, however, at the easy loads its characteristics can be affected by white coloured vapours. Oil heating to the temperature of 60{sup o}C diminishes its viscosity to 19.5mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} ensuring a smooth oil flow through the fuel filter and reducing the brake specific energy consumption at light loads by 11.7-7.4%. Further heating to the temperature of 90{sup o}C offers no advantages in terms of performance. Special tests conducted with modified fuel injection pump revealed that coking of the injector nozzles depends on the engine performance mode. The first and second injector nozzles that operated on pure oil were more coated by carbonaceous deposits than control injector nozzles that operated simultaneously on Diesel fuel. (author)

Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys [Department of Transport and Power Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Student Str. 15, P.O. Box LT-53067, Kaunas Academy (Lithuania)

2006-05-15

105

OIL-IN-WATER TYPE COSMETIC  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An oil-in-water type cosmetic including an aqueous phase and an oil phase and containing sorbitan stearate and hydrogenated polyisobutene having a kinematic viscosity at 100 DEG C of 200mm2/s-1000mm2/s.

KINAI MIKI

106

Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a water-saturated porous medium. For ambient pressure, there are three kinds of solutions, depending on injection and reservoir conditions. We show that the solution is unique for each initial data.

J. Bruining; D. Marchesin; C.J. Van Duijn

2003-01-01

107

Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NOx emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

2005-01-01

108

Study on Technical Measures of Romashkino Oil Field after Entering Ultra-High Water Cut Stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romashkino oil field has large oilfield area, small formation dip, many reservoir layers, wide oil-water transition zone and complicated sedimentary environment. Since development, 3 overall development plannings and adjustments of individual block have been established. This achieves a high oil production. However, the recoverable reserves of major oil layer with high production become smaller and smaller and the water cut increases over time, the production ability of oil layer decreases. The development status of oil layer of mining siltstone, oil-water transition zone and oil layer with upswept injected water cannot be changed under present dilute well network condition, because there is no reinforced measurement to water well. This results the low oil production of Romashkino oil field. In order to improve oil production rate and reach the designed oil recovery, Romashkino oil field has been implemented many added cuttings since development. Resent researches about Romashkino oil field show: in later oilfield development stage, sidetrack and lateral drilling horizontal wells technology is very reasonable; formation hydraulic fracturing technology has been widely used in recent years; in tertiary oil recovery, sweep efficiency and flooding efficiency related technologies have been taken. This offers reference and guidance for the effective and reasonable oil field development in later period.

Liuli Lu; Zhibin Liu; Haohan Liu; Yongqin Yan

2013-01-01

109

OIL-IN-WATER EMULSION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a composition in the form of an emulsion of the oil-in-water type formed of oily globules which are each provided with a lamellar liquid crystal coating and which are dispersed in an aqueous phase, wherein it has a pH ranging from 3 to 5.5 and in that it contains at least one lipophilic surface-active agent with an HLB ranging from 2 to 5, at least one hydrophilic surface-active agent with an HLB ranging from 8 to 12 and at least one amphiphilic compound of ionic nature at a pH ranging from 3 to 5.5.

L ALLORET FLORENCE; SIMONNET JEAN-THIERRY

110

Problems with injection facilities for process additives or wash water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Process additives or wash water have been used during the past years to control corrosion and fouling in various refinery process streams. Various problems with injection facilities for process additives or wash water are reviewed and appropriate solutions suggested. Topics covered include reasons for injecting process additives or wash water into refinery process streams, process considerations, location and design of injection nozzles, dilution methods, and temperature and velocity limitations for streams being treated. Corrosion, fouling, and contamination problems downstream of injection points are also covered.

Gutzeit, J. [Gutzeit (Joerg), Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-08-01

111

Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling or hot watering is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of ``hot oiling`` and the potential for the fluid to aggravate well problems and cause formation damage. Field tests have shown that the chemical and thermal processes that occur during ``hot oiling`` are very complex and that there are significant variations in practices among operators. Key issues include: (1) During a typical hot oiling job, a significant amount of the fluid injected into the well goes into the formation, and hence, particulates and chemicals in the fluid have the potential to damage the formation. (2) Hot oiling can vaporize oil in the tubing faster than the pump lifts oil. This interrupts paraffin removal from the well, and thus the wax is refined into harder deposits, goes deeper into the well, and can stick rods. These insights have been used to determine good ``hot oiling`` practices designed to maximize wax removal and minimize formation damage.

Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barker, K.M. [Petrolite Corp. (United States)

1994-03-01

112

Study on Advanced Water Injection Time in Low Permeability Reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A certain formation pressure level must be kept due to the threshold pressure of the low-permeability reser-voir during the seepage. Advanced water injection can keep the formation pressure at a higher level and keep a higher pressure gradient, which is an effective way to develop low-permeability reservoir. Based on the mechanism of advanced water injection and characteristic of porous flow in low permeability reservoir, a seepage model considering threshold pressure gradient is established to determine the formation pressure distribution at anytime as the water is injected at a constant speed. The optimum water injection time for the advanced water injection technology can be determined by using this model. The calculated result coincides basically with the numerical simulation result, which indicates that the model put forward in this paper is feasible.

Lijun Wang; Linli Wei

2011-01-01

113

Feasibility of steam injection process in a thin, low-permeability heavy oil reservoir of Arkansas -- a numerical simulation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the findings of an in-depth study undertaken to assess the viability of the steam injection process in the heavy oil bearing Nacatoch sands of Arkansas. Published screening criteria and DOE`s steamflood predictive models were utilized to screen and select reservoirs for further scrutiny. Although, several prospects satisfied the steam injection screening criteria, only a single candidate was selected for detailed simulation studies. The selection was based on the availability of needed data for simulation and the uniqueness of the reservoir. The reservoir investigated is a shallow, thin, low-permeability reservoir with low initial oil saturation and has an underlying water sand. The study showed that the reservoir will respond favorably to steamdrive, but not to cyclic steaming. Steam stimulation, however, is necessary to improve steam injectivity during subsequent steamdrive. Further, in such marginal heavy oil reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterized by thin pay zone and low initial oil saturation) conventional steamdrive (i.e., steam injection using vertical wells) is unlikely to be economical, and nonconventional methods must be utilized. It was found that the use of horizontal injectors and horizontal producers significantly improved the recovery and oil-steam ratio and improved the economics. It is recommended that the applicability of horizontal steam injection technology in this reservoir be further investigated.

Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

1993-12-01

114

Tracing the fate of injected CO{sub 2} during enhanced oil recovery using stable isotope techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stable isotope data were used to detect and quantify carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration applications. The study demonstrated that when injected CO{sub 2} is isotopically distinct from CO{sub 2} already present in the reservoir, measurable variations in the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of CO{sub 2} and water can be used to determine the fate of injected CO{sub 2} in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Monitoring data obtained from the Penn West Pembina Cardium CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery monitoring pilot study and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO{sub 2} monitoring and storage project were used to demonstrate the method. Isotopic variations included carbon isotope ratios and oxygen isotope ratios. It was concluded that carbon isotope ratios are an effective means of tracing the movement and reaction of injected CO{sub 2} in mature oil fields. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Johnson, G.; Raistrick, M.; Mayer, B.; Taylor, S.; Shevalier, M.; Nightingale, M.; Hutcheon, I. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

115

Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fuels’ physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels’ characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

Bambuleac Dumitru

2012-01-01

116

Microscopic structure of water in a water/oil emulsion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have determined the microscopic structure of water within a water/oil emulsion, by combining neutron diffraction data, exploiting the isotopic H/D substitution, and a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of a portion of a water droplet, containing the water/oil interface. The dependence of the data on the simulation box size and the reliability of the water-water radial distribution functions are discussed. Although water in the emulsion forms shorter and stronger hydrogen bonds compared to pure bulk water, its overall microscopic structure looks more disordered.

Mancinelli R; Bruni F; Ricci MA; Imberti S

2013-05-01

117

Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum. - This study was conducted to advance our understanding of dispersion chemistry in fresh waters.

2009-01-01

118

Method of Injecting Solid Organic Acids Into Crude Oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Solid organic acids may be introduced into hydrocarbon solvents to form dispersions the dispersions in turn may be introduced into crude oil. A wash water may be added to the crude oil to create an emulsion. The organic acids may transfer metals and/or amines from a hydrocarbon phase into an aqueous phase in an electrostatic desalter which resolves the emulsion into the two phases. Suitable solid organic acids include, but are not necessarily limited to, C2-C4 alpha hydroxyacids, such as, but not necessarily limited to, glycolic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and even sulfamic acid, chloroacetic acid, thiomalic acid, including esters of, polymers of, amine salts of, alkali metal salts of, and/or ammonium salts of all of these acids.

KREMER LAWRENCE N; WEERS JERRY J; SANDU CORINA L

119

OIL-IN-WATER EMULSION COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion composition which contains an oil-soluble ultraviolet absorber having low solubility, and which exhibits superior stability. The O/W emulsion composition is characterised by containing: (a) an aqueous dispersion of an oil-soluble ultraviolet absorber (b) a compound of a non-ionic surfactant and at least one type of fatty acid soap (c) a water-swelling clay mineral and (d) a higher fatty acid. Component (a) is preferably an aqueous dispersion of a complex particle of an oil-soluble ultraviolet absorber and an organic polymer.

NAGARE YUKO; YAMAGUCHI KAZUHIRO

120

Microphysical model of water-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microphysical model is offered of water-oil emulsions, which is a set of structural and optical parameters sufficient to describe the effects of interaction of radiation in the band of spectral transparency of oil with water-oil emulsions in the process of their emulsification. The model is developed based on experimental dependences of the structural and optical characteristics on the emulsification time, and their comparison with theoretically obtained characteristics of light scattering. It can be used in the design and calibration of optical analyzers of the quality (composition) of oil.

Yesel' son, M.P.; Oshchepkov, S.L.; Prishivalko, A.P.; Yanovskiy, V.Yu.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Method for treating a water-containing waste oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for treating a watercontaining waste oil comprising oils, water and solid constituents and forming a water-in-oil emulsion, which comprises adding to the water-containing waste oil having an aromatic oil ratio a as represented by the following formula: aromatic oil ratio = weight of aromatic oil content/weight of total oil content at least 1% by weight, on the basis of the weight of the watercontaining waste oil, of a treating oil having an aromatic oil ratio b(exclamationa-bexclamation>0.5 and excluding 0.4 < or = B < or = 0.6) thereby to separate the oil content.

Okazaki, H.; Soeda, M.; Yoshimura, T.; Yushima, T.

1982-06-22

122

Functional results after vitrectomy with silicone oil injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a prospective study we investigated the visual acuity and differential light sensitivity in 39 patients (40 eyes) with reattached macula. One group, treated with an encircling band (21 eyes), was compared to another, where vitrectomy and silicone oil injection had been necessary (19 eyes). Intraoperatively 9 of the vitrectomized eyes received an infusion of daunomycin (7.5 mg/l for 10 min). On average the vitrectomized eyes had a greater loss of visual acuity and differential light sensitivity. In all groups we found a positive correlation between visual acuity and the differential light sensitivity. At the same visual acuity we did not find any obvious difference in sensitivity between the groups. Correlation and regression line were similar for both groups. The mean relative sensitivity was lower in the fovea than in the rest of the tested field. A selective effect of silicone oil on either spatial resolution or differential light sensitivity could not be verified. The intraoperative application of daunomycin had no influence on the functional results. PMID:1821207

Stefer, U; Wiedemann, P; Weber, J; Heimann, K

123

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection ( 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

Edwin A. Chukwudeme; Aly A. Hamouda

2009-01-01

124

Treatment for reducing water coning in an oil reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is provided for suppressing or reducing water coning in a situation involving an injection well and one or more surrounding producer wells which produce water as well as oil. According to the invention, gas is injected into the reservoir through the injection wells, with the result that communication is established with the producer well so that gas or gases are produced from the well. The injected gas may be air, to induce combustion in the reservoir, with the result that combustion gases are produced by the producer well. Or, the injection gas may be natural gas or the like, which is simply circulated through the formation. In either case, the gas saturation around the producer wellbore is increased. After this step is accomplished, a relatively small slug of gas is injected into the reservoir through the producer well to increase the gas saturation locally around the well. It is found that, as a result of this combination of steps, the water cut at the producer well is reduced. A field test is described to illustrate the invention.

Kisman, K.E.; Russell, B.

1990-12-15

125

Kinetic analysis of electron transfer across single water-microdroplet/oil and oil-microdroplet/water interfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using techniques comprising laser trapping, microcapillary injection/manipulation, fluorescence microspectroscopy and electrochemistry of single microdroplets, we kinetically investigated the electron transfer (ET) reaction between decamethylferrocene in tributyl phosphate and hexacyanoferrate(III) in water. In the oil-microdroplet/water system, the overall ET reaction rate significantly depended on the droplet radius (r(d), 0.5 microm < r(d) < 10 microm) and on the potential-determining ion concentration in the oil phase. The interfacial ET reaction rate constant determined in the water-microdroplet (r(d) = 21 microm)/oil system agreed very well with that in the oil-microdroplet (r(d) > 2 microm)/water system. The rate constant values were extremely small in the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) range of -10 to -25 kJ mol(-1), with DeltaG consisting of the Galvani potential difference between the water and oil phases and the redox potential difference of the solutes. The characteristic ET reaction was discussed in terms of the ion transfer and the ET across the interfacial mixed layer with nanometer-sized thickness.

Nakatani K; Uchino M; Suzuki S; Negishi T; Osakai T

2009-02-01

126

Small scale model experiments on the injection of heavy fuel oil into blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is a part of the research project High oil injection rates in a blast furnace, which is a part of the National Energy Research Program SULA 2 in Finland. The injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace was studied using a small scale model of the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway assembly of a blast furnace. Mixtures of water, glycerol and ethanol were used to simulate heavy fuel oil. Air at atmospheric pressure and temperature was used to simulate the hot blast. Dimensional analysis was used in the design of the test rig and in the interpretation of the results. It has to be noted, however, that the surface tension of the test liquids was higher than what would have been desirable and that full similarity between model experiments and the actual blast furnace was therefore not achieved. The experiments were recorded on video tapes for visual observation of the injection process. A Malvern Particle Sizer was used for the measurement of the spray drop size distributions. The results show that the mean size of the drops increases with increasing liquid flow rate and with increasing surface tension of the liquid and that the mean size of the drops decreases with increasing velocity of the blast and with increasing diameter of the injection lances. The mean size of the drops was found to be independent of the viscosity of the liquid. A correlation equation was fitted to the experimental data and good fit was obtained. A correlation equation in dimensionless form was also developed. The results were compared with correlation equations presented in the literature. (18 refs.)

Hakala, J.; Paloposki, T.

1996-12-31

127

Particle retention in porous media: Applications to water injectivity decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis studies the problem of migration and deposition of colloidal particles within porous media, theoretically and by computerized simulation. Special emphasis is put on the prediction of injectivity decline in water injection wells due to inherent particles in the injection water. The study of particle deposition within porous media requires a correct prediction of the deposition rate or filtration coefficient. A thorough review of the modeling approaches used in the past are combined with new ideas in order to arrive at an improved model for the prediction of the filtration coefficient. A new way of determining the transition time for the dominant deposition mechanism to change from internal deposition to external cake formation is proposed. From this fundamental theory, equations are given for water injectivity decline predictions. A computer program called WID for water injectivity decline predictions was developed. Using water quality, formation properties, injection rate/pressure and completion information as input, WID predicts decline in vertical and horizontal injection wells with openhole, perforated and fractured completions. The calculations agree fairly well with field data; in some cases the agreement is excellent. A poor match in a few cases indicates that more mechanisms may be responsible for injectivity decline than those presently accounted for by the simulator. The second part of the study deals with a theoretical investigation of the multi-dimensional nature of particle deposition in porous media. 112 refs., 100 figs., 9 tabs.

Wennberg, Kjell Erik

1998-12-31

128

Oil-water separation food oil frying electric cooker  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to an electric frying pan used for oil-water separated foods, and the frying pan substantially consists of a box shell, a box cover, an electric control box and a frying pan. The box covered is arranged at the opening at the top of the box shell, the electric frying pan is arranged and supported in the box shell. An opening is provided at the top of the frying pan and opposite the box cover. An electric heating tube is suspended at the right side of the opening at the top of the electric frying pan, and an oil discharge tube and a water discharge tube are respectively arranged near the lower part of the electric heating tube and the left side of the bottom of the electric frying pan. The oil and water discharge tubes are communicated with the left side of the frying pan, and horizontally stretches out of the box cover, and operating valves are provided for the ends of the oil and water discharge tubes. The design thus saves edible oil, reduces environmental pollution, and more importantly, allows people to discover whether vendors are using edible oil that have fried foods with the sense of smell.

ZHANG YINZENG

129

Process for confining steam injected into a heavy oil reservoir having a thief zone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An array of gas injection wells is provided along the perimeter of a pattern comprising steam injection and oil production wells. The steam injection and oil production wells are completed in a heavy oil reservoir which is in communication with a thief zone. The gas injection wells are completed so that gas injected through them will enter the thief zone. During the course of steam injection, non-condensable gas is injected through the gas injection wells. This injected gas (preferably flue gas, carbon dioxide, or natural gas) enters the permeable thief zone, increases the pressure within the zone, and functions to inhibit steam from entering or escaping through the zone. As a result, the oil production increases, as the steam heat is better contained in the oil-saturated portion of the reservoir within the pattern, and the reservoir operating temperature and pressure in the pattern increase. Preferably, the gas is injected at a rate such that the pressure in the reservoir at the gas injection wells is substantially equalized with the pressure in the steam zone within the pattern. The process of the invention is illustrated by a description of a field test conducted in the Kearl Lake region of Alberta. 4 figs.

Kisman, K.E.

1991-10-26

130

Effects of oil spills on land and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil spills on land and water and their effects on vegetation, terrestrial animals and aquatic organisms are briefly discussed. The toxicity of oils, the ecological effects of oil spills and the significance of marine oil pollution are also considered. (UK).

Nelson-Smith, A.

1985-09-01

131

Water injection for NO sub x -reduction in natural gas combustion. NO sub x -reduktion vid naturgaseldning genom vatteninsprutning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A theoretical model for the thermal dependency for NO-formation is shown. With cooling of the flame by water injection, calculations show a significant NO-reduction. A literature survey covering reports from tests made with water injection has been performed. All found reports support the theory that water injection is a useful NO-reducing method. Three different test on gasfired boilers showed a 70% reduction of NO-formation when 5% wt water, calculated on the total flue gas flow, was injected. These studies also found that the NO-reduction increased with the amount of water up to 20-25% wt, where instability of the flame occurred. Two of these test investigated the amount of unburnt but no results from these measurements has been presented. A reference is also made to a test with water injection in an oil flame. In this test the authors have found a relation between the amount of NO-reduction and the position of the water injection nossle. This means that it should be possible to optimize the NO-reduction in gas flames not only by the amount of water but also by the geometrical outfit of the burner and water injection nossle. An experimental test is proposed in order to evaluate the risk on incomplete combustion as a result of water injection. (authors).

Fermbaeck, G.; Jantze, U.; Jedeur-Palmgren, M. (Theorell + VBB Energikonsulter AB, Stockholm (SE)); Wanselius, K. (KW Energiprodukter AB, Stockholm (SE))

1990-11-01

132

Using water soluble polymers in oil extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issues of producing homogeneous water soluble polymers for processes of oil recuperation are discussed. The chemical structures and properties of a number of vegetable resins, derivatives of cellulose, synthetic polymers and biopolymers are examined.

Xi, X.

1983-01-01

133

The reconstitution of powders for injection with ?-irradiated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earlier studies on the use of ?-radiation for the sterilization of water for injections have demonstrated the production of H2O2. The effect of irradiated water on oxidation-susceptible drugs has been tested. The results show that such drugs are not generally degraded by radiation-sterilized water. (author)

1981-01-01

134

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C...

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muñiz, M.

135

Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammme...

1989-01-01

136

[HPLC determination of six components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To establish an HPLC method to simultaneously determine six ingredients in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections. METHOD: HPLC analysis was performed on Waters Symmetry C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was composed of methanol and water solution in gradient elution mode with at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 30 degrees C and the UV detection wavelength was 215 nm. RESULT: The six ingredients were separated well. The linear ranges of curdione, curcumol, germacrone, curzerene, furanodiene and beta-elemene were 1.74-347.00, 2.38-475.00, 2.49-497.00, 2.07-826.00, 5.05-1009.00, 4.78-955.00 mg x L(-1) (r > or = 0.9996), respectively. The average recoveries were above 95% (RSD <3.0%, n=9). CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, reliable and reproducible, it can be used for the quality control of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.

He H; Ma S; Tian S; Zhang Q

2010-03-01

137

In vivo cytogenetic effects of oil shale retort process waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The induction of cytogenetic effects by oil shale retort process waters from 3 types of pilot plant retorts were examined in murine bone marrow. Each of the process waters induced increased frequencies of structural aberrations in mice treated with 3 daily intraperitoneal injections of the waters. The same treatment had no effect on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Mice given a 1% solution of an above-ground retort water ad libitum for 8 weeks consumed about 1 ml/kg per day of the process water and had a frequency of aberrations comparable to mice given the same dose intraperitoneally for 3 days. Transplacental exposure of C3H mouse embryos indicated that clastogenic compounds in the above-ground retort process water can cross the placenta and induce chromosomal aberrations in embryonic tissues.

Meyne J; Deaven LL

1982-01-01

138

Operation and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Esterified Cotton Seed Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable oils are renewable in nature and can be directly used as fuels in diesel engines.  However, their high viscosity and poor volatility lead to reduced thermal efficiency and increased hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. Transesterification is one of the methods by which viscosity could be drastically reduced and the fuel could be adopted for use in diesel engine.  This Esterified vegetable oil is popularly known as Bio-diesel and that is commercially available in the developed countries due to its distinct advantage over the conventional diesel. In this work, neat cotton seed oil was converted into  Bio diesel  by  the   transesterification  process  and  the  viscosity  was  reduced from 21.4 ×10-6 m2/s to 4.8×10-6 m2/s (viscosity of the neat Cotton seed oil). A single cylinder water-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm was used for the experimental investigations which include combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. Base data was generated for diesel first and subsequently, it was replaced by the Bio diesel and both the results were compared and discussed.

Murugu Mohan Kumar Kandasamy; Sarangan Jeganathan; Rajamohan Ganesan

2009-01-01

139

Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

Skodvin, T.

1995-12-31

140

Process and apparatus for introducing aqueous chloride dioxide into high pressure water injection wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for treating a high pressure water-containing line used for carrying water into a subterranean oil field so as to minimize clogging and corrosion of the pipeline, the method comprising the steps of: providing a small diameter tube centrally disposed along the longitudinal axis of the line and having a discharge end provided with at least one opening to permit the effluence of an aqueous solution from the tube, the tube being made from an NCMC alloy; introducing an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution into the tube; and injecting the aqueous chlorine dioxide solution into the high pressure water-containing line.

Sacco, F.J.

1989-04-25

 
 
 
 
141

Water Local Volume Fraction on Oil in Water Dispersion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The phase distribution of water-oil flows was studied experimentally from a separated flow without mixer to a oil in water or water in oil dispersed in horizontal tubes. Under most conditions the pattern was oil continuous in water dispersed or water continuous in oil dispersed flow continuously and there is entrainment in the form of drops of phase into the other. The investigations were carried out through the cross-sectional phase distribution in the flow of mixtures of water and kerosene such as EXXSOL-D80 in a horizontal 25.4 mm bore stainless steel section. The phase fraction distribution was determined using a traversing beam gamma densitometer, with the beam being traversed in three directions (00, 450 and 900 of the vertical line passing through the axis of the tube). Measurements were made at three positions spaced along the 9.7 m test section length (1.0 m, 5.85 m and 7.72 m along the horizontal tube). The measurements were done in the Two-phase Oil Water Experimental Rig (TOWER) facility. This facility allows the two fluids to be fed to the test section before they are separated and returned once more to the test line. The flow developed naturally from an initial stratified flow in which the oil and water were introduced separately at the top and the bottom of the test section respectively. It was found that the liquids were fully inter-dispersed by the end of the test section. The results were also used to define the flow patterns in water-oil liquid-liquid flow system. The phase fraction distribution was shown to be homogeneously mixed near to the outlet of the test section.

siti aslina hussain; Xiao Y. Xu; Geoffrey F. Hewitt

2008-01-01

142

Changes in the viscosity of oil and water-oil emulsion during the displacement of oil by carbon dioxide fluid fringes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents a study of changes in oil viscosity and water oil emulsion present during the displacement of oil by means of a dioxide-carbon fringe of various levels remaining after a water injection. This study used an oil model with viscosity level of 0.005-0.055 pascals per second. Each model used CO/sub 2/ fringe displacement at levels of 0.05 to 0.40 within the porous cavities of the formation model. During the model displacement of oil with a viscosity of 0.005 and 0.03 pascals per hour dioxide-carbon fringes were used having twice the volume used in the porous-cavity models. This resulted in a significant drop in the viscosity of oil displaced.

Bruslov, A.Yu.

1981-01-01

143

Organically modified clay removes oil from water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more.

Alther, G.R. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

144

Organically modified clay removes oil from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more.

1995-01-01

145

DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

146

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru M.; Goran N.

2013-01-01

147

Appliance for collecting oil, etc. on water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The appliance consists of a vessel mostly closed under the sealine, with propulsion devices and external tentacles directed diagonally forward in the motion direction. In front of the tentacles there are placed pumping installations for removing liquid from the inside. The vessel is supposed to be used for collecting oil leaking from wrecked tankers or from offshore oil production installations etc. The oil and water mixture is sucked into the inner tank. There the oil and water is separated by a rotating principle combined with gravitational forces and the water is removed. The vessel's position versus the sea level is regulated by the amount of water in the buoyancy tanks around the inner tank. When the inner tank is too full of oil, it is being unloaded through certain pipes to an outer vessel. When the vessel is not used for collecting oil spill the inventors suggest it to be used for housing purposes for crew and platform personnel etc due to it's big deck space and very good stability properties. 5 drawings.

Haavie, T.O.

1982-10-25

148

Scale Formation Due to Water Injection in Berea Sandstone Cores  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium, strontium and barium sulfates in Berea sandstone cores from mixing of injected Malaysian sea waters (Angsi and Barton) and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium, barium and stro...

A.B.B. Merdhah; A.A.M. Yassin

149

Water management in Siri oil field in Iran: A comprehensive case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful water management and dealing with produced water is a crucial part of any oil and gas production scenarios. This paper investigates the role of comprehensive study in water management and produced water re-injection in an Iranian offshore oil field. Appropriate method can be chosen by taking into account various effective parameters such as reservoir properties, laboratory experiment, and learning from already done projects and etc. In this work, produced water reinjection in Siri oil field in Iran has been investigated by examining the effective parameters including reservoir characterization such as permeability, porosity, petrophysical properties as well as performing relevant laboratory experiments and reservoir parameters like aquifer support and carbonated rock reservoir issues. Finally, it was concluded that comprehensive study together with proper laboratory investigation has a significant effect in success of produced water re-injection process. (author) (tk)

Masoudi, Zahedzadeh M.; Abbasian, Ataei A.; Shokrollahzadeh, S.; Raadmehr, M.

2006-03-15

150

Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

Campbell, K. [Miswaco(CANADA); Phair, C [Mneme Corp, CALGARY (Canada); Alloisio, S [SWS, Vancouver (CANADA); Novotny, M [SWS, Denver, (United States); Raven, S [Oilsands Quest Inc., Calgary (CANADA)

2011-07-01

151

Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

2011-01-01

152

Organically modified clay removes oil from water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG's and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline.

1995-01-01

153

Organically modified clay removes oil from water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG`s and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline.

Alther, G.R. [Biomin, Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

154

Valve controls water injection in gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water valve expressly designed to control water in systems used to reduce nitrous oxide (NO/sub x/) emissions in gas turbines has been developed and tested by the Woodward Governor Co. The valve is being used on several models of gas turbines such as the General Electric LM2500 and LM5000, the Rolls Royce Olympus, and the Pratt and Whitney FT4. The valve may be used on any gas turbine. The valve should be particularly useful in areas with very stringent emission regulations like West Germany, Japan, and Florida and California in the USA. In NO/sub x/ reduction applications deionized water is metered into the fuel or the turbine combustion chamber and this lowers combustion temperatures. The lowered combustion temperature not only reduces NO/sub x/ emissions but also increases turbine power output. The 3151A water valve has increased resistance to cavitation, corrosion, and erosion. The valve achieves its high degree of reliability through the use of ceramic technology, hardened stainless steel parts, and the unique design of a spool-type metering valve. 1 figure.

Bering, F.

1986-04-01

155

Enhanced oil-water separation--The Performax coalescer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Freewater Knockout (FWKO) has been the basic oil field standard in oil-water separation for many years; The Performax Matrix Plate Coalescer is an improved enhanced oil-water separator which satisfies the oil producers' desire for a simple, efficient separator. Sizing and case history information is reviewed. Results from light gravity paraffinic oils to heavy gravity asphaltic oils are detailed. The Performax Coalescer with improved oil, gas, and water quality is becoming the new industry standard for oil-water separation.

Rehm, S.J.; Shaughnessy, R.J.

1983-02-01

156

Emulsifier for water-in-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a water-in-oil emulsion. It comprises: a continuous oil phase, a discontinuous aqueous phase, and an emulsion stabilizing amount of a thermally altered lecithin composition which has been prepare by heating lecithin at a temperature in the range of from about 100{degrees}C, to about 250{degrees}C, for a period of time ranging from about 15 to about 480 minutes.

Weete, J.D.; Griffith, G.L.

1990-07-24

157

Oil sands hot water extraction process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a hot water extraction process for removing bitumen from oil sands, the efficiency is improved by filtering the wet tailings to recover hot water, bitumen and diluent which are returned and recovered in the process. Dry tailings are also produced which can be disposed of in a manner which permits reconservation of the mined out area and which eliminates environmental pollution impact on surrounding water bodies and land bodies.

Clarke, T. P.

1980-12-23

158

Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

1997-01-01

159

REMOVAL OF BOUND WATER FROM BIO-OIL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process and system for removing bound water from bio-oil by azeotropic distillation. The process comprises combining a bound-water-containing bio-oil with an azeotrope agent and subjecting the resulting treated bio-oil to azeotropic distillation under reduced pressure. The azeotropic distillation removes a substantial portion of the bound water from the bio-oil, thus producing a water-depleted bio-oil that is less corrosive, more stable, and more readily miscible with hydrocarbons.

LIN RONNY W; BARTEK ROBERT

160

REMOVAL OF BOUND WATER FROM BIO-OIL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process and system for removing bound water from bio-oil by azeotropic distillation, The process includes combining a bound-water-containing bio-oil with an azeotrope agent and subjecting the resulting treated bio-oil to azeotropic distillation under reduced pressure. The azeotropic distillation removes a substantial portion of the bound water from the bio-oil, thus producing a water-depleted bio-oil that is less corrosive, more stable, and more readily miscible with hydrocarbons.

LIN RONNY W; BARTEK ROBERT

 
 
 
 
161

Two cases illustrate acid gas/water injection scheme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two field installations in Canada illustrate the facilities required for injecting low-volume acid gases mixed with water. The first installation, near Provost, Alta., is at the PanCanadian Ltd. David Battery No. 3 and the second is at the PanCanadian Thompson Lake facility near Hardisty, Alta. This paper discusses reservoir considerations, surface facilities, injection equipment, operations experience, and reservoir response.

Kopperson, D.; Horne, S.; Kohn, G.; Romansky, D.; Chan, C. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Duckworth, G.L. [DPH Engineering Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1998-08-10

162

Improvement of water injectivity in the Hobbs (Grayburg-San Andres) field. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This field trial was a cooperative project with MORANCO of Hobbs, New Mexico. The purpose was to investigate and improve water injectivity into the Grayburg formation at their Rice-Hardin waterflood in Lea County. Our laboratory tests with resrevoir cores indicated that certain chemical treatments had the ability to increase injectivity by slightly more than 20%. These treatments were designed to reduce the oil saturation in a region about 8 to 10 feet out from the injection wellbore. Two of the most promising treatments were selected for the field trial. Rice No. 1 injection well was treated with a surfactant solution, and Hardin No. 3 was treated with an aromatic solvent followed by a surfactant solution. Costs of chemicals were approximately $3000 per well. As a result of these treatments, both wells are taking slightly more water at pressures that are 400 psi less than the before-treatment levels. Since the actual improvement in injectivity is on the order of 30 to 40%, the field treatments apparently worked somewhat better than indicated by the laboratory tests. Based on the encouraging results obtained from the trial, we feel that these concepts can be applied to other waterflood projects and may also have potential in certain enhanced recovery projects where low injectivity is a problem.

Martin, F.D.; Taber, J.J.

1982-11-01

163

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe; E.A. Hammer; Y. Kaahwa

2011-01-01

164

Water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition is described. An emulsion composition is prepared consisting of 1) ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and the other inorganic oxidizer salts, 2) water, 3) oils and/or waxes, and 4) a sorbitan fatty acid ester surfactant. This emulsion is added to a mixture of nitromethane gelatinized product obtained by gelatinizing nitromethane with a gelatinizer and hollow microspheres. In place of hollow microspheres, bubbles formed by using a chemical foaming agent or the bubbles together with hollow microspheres may be used. 12 claims.

Hattori, K.; Fukatsu, Y.; Takahashi, M.

1982-04-27

165

Method of increasing the breakdown of water-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of the breakdown of water-oil emulsions by means of treatment with an oil-in-water emulsion consisting of unstable benzene in water, stabilized by a reagent demulsifier of the water-in-oil emulsion is demonstrated.

Zaripov, A.G.; Pozdnyshev, G.N.; Shamov, V.D.

1981-01-01

166

Optimal injection policies for enhanced oil recovery: Part 1-Theory and computational strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory of optimal control of distributed-parameter systems is presented for determining the best possible injection policies for EOR processes. The optimization criterion is to maximize the amount of oil recovered at minimum injection costs. Necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin's weak minimum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection policies.

Ramirez, W.F.; Cagnol, J.L.; Fathi, Z.

1984-06-01

167

Emissions from large-scale medium-speed diesel engines: 3. Influence of direct water injection and common rail  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of direct water injection (DWI) on emissions from a multivariable large-scale (6-18 cyl, {proportional_to} 1 MW/cyl) diesel engine is reported, using a combined injection valve and nozzle that allows for injection of water and fuel oil into the cylinder. This method allows for injecting a relatively large amount of water without derating the engine power and NO{sub x} emissions can be more than halved by DWI. Indeed DWI decreases combustion temperatures and NO{sub x} emissions, but it gives somewhat increased (yet not problematic) emissions of CO, HC, soot (smoke) and particulate matter (PM), depending on the water injection timing and degree of incomplete combustion. Common rail (CR) technology offers almost unlimited possibilities to control the fuel injection and to meet emission regulations. Different from a conventional injection system, the CR concept is based on the optimization of fuel pumping, injection timing, and injection rate. Optimum combustion is guaranteed by the CR engine map. For generator mode, CR resulted in clearly lower emissions of NO{sub x}, HC, CO and soot. Combining CR with DWI resulted in yet lower NO{sub x} (max. ca 50% reduction) and somewhat lower HC emissions but slightly higher CO and soot emissions. (author)

Sarvi, Arto; Zevenhoven, Ron [Aabo Akademi University, Heat Engineering Laboratory, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500, Aabo/Turku (Finland); Kilpinen, Pia [Skilpro Oy, FI-21600, Pargas/Parainen (Finland)

2009-02-15

168

Dispersion of oil floating on water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for dispersing oil floating on water comprises the steps of generating ultrasonic vibrations at a number of locations at the interface of water and oil to create cavitation and emulsification at the interface. The ultrasonic vibrators are supported on a floating structure and the structure is displaced in a direction parallel to the interface. The power source for the ultrasonic vibrator is mounted on the floating structure. A gas, such as air or an inert gas is introduced into the interface to assist in creating cavitation and emulsification. It is convenient to introduce an oil solvent, in mist or vapor form, into the gas before releasing the gas at the interface. The vibrators are placed in spaced-apart relationship and the gas is supplied through ducts. 16 claims.

Hood, B.J.

1980-07-30

169

Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2008-07-15

170

Oil well pumping string tubular extension for increasing oil to salt water ratio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A venturi type tube is coaxially connected with the depending end of an oil well pumping string for installation in a producing oil well for increasing the ratio of oil to salt water obtained from the well.

Smith, A.

1982-06-22

171

Flotation aids for oil-in-water emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An oil-in-water emulsion is separated to float the oil and thereby clarify the water. It is useful for recovering water used in secondary recovery of petroleum in oil fields and also in recovering water from other oil-in-water emulsions. The clarification of water in an oil-in-water emulsion and the recovery of oil from such an emulsion is enhanced by treating the oil-in-water emulsion to separate the emulsion and float the oil incidental to recovering one of the emulsion phases. This is done by adding to the emulsion an effective amount of a cationic polyacrylamide such as a diethylaminoethylmethacrylamid acrylamide copolymer, or a dialkyl aminopropylmethacrylamide, acrylamide copolymer or similar copolymers. 3 claims.

Allain, D.J.; Fong, D.W.

1982-12-14

172

Photoassisted oxidation of oil films on water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the project is to develop a method for the solar assisted oxidation of oil slicks. A semiconducting photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, is used. Upon absorbing a photon, an electron-hole pair is generated in the TiO{sub 2} microcrystal. The electron reacts with surface-adsorbed oxygen, reducing it to hydrogen peroxide; the hole directly oxidizes adsorbed organic compounds. Titanium dioxide is denser than either oil or seawater; the density of its anatase phase is 3.8 and that of its rutile phase is 4.3. In order to keep the titanium dioxide at the air/oil interface, it is attached to a low density, floating material. The particles of the latter are sufficiently small to make the system economical. Specifically, the photocatalyst particles are attached to inexpensive hollow glass microbeads of about 100{mu}m diameter. Those areas of the microbeads that are not covered by photocatalyst are made oleophilic, so that the microbeads will follow the oil slick and not migrate to either the air/water or the water/oil interface.

Heller, A.; Brock, J.R.

1990-10-01

173

Oil in water emulsion sunscreen composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A waterproof oil in water emulsion sunscreen composition is disclosed. The composition includes a film forming portion comprising between about 0.5 and about 20 weight percent of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate together with a second polymeric film forming agent which increases the substantivity of the film forming composition. This second polymeric film forming agent is present at between about 0.5 and about 10 weight percent. The sunscreen composition also includes between about 1 and about 30 percent sunscreen agent and between about 0.5 and about 10 percent of an emulsifier. In addition, the sunscreen composition includes between about 45 and about 90 percent water. A method of forming the water in oil sunscreen composition is also disclosed.

STROBRIDGE JOHN R

174

Method for controlling bottom water coning in a producing oil well  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of treating a producing oil well completed in an oil containing formation overlying and in contact with a formation water containing an aqueous fluid. The well has communication means with at least a portion of the oil formation, to form a water impermeable barrier below the communication means of the well to prevent aqueous fluid moving upward from the underlying aqueous fluid containing formation into the well. The method comprises: forming an acidified resin emulsion composition; and introducing the acidified resin emulsion composition through the well into the formation at a predetermined injection rate.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-05-05

175

Efficiency analysis of greenhouse gas sequestration during miscible CO2 injection in fractured oil reservoirs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During CO2 injection into naturally fractured oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, the great portion of oil is recovered by matrix-fracture interaction. Diffusive mass transfer between matrix and fracture controls this process if CO2 is miscible with matrix oil. Oil expelled from matrix is replaced by CO2, and the matrix could be potentially a good storage medium for the long-term. For the cooptimization of the oil recovery and CO2 storage, i.e., maximizing the oil recovery while maximizing the amount of CO2 stored, we propose an efficiency analysis using a dimensionless term defined as the global effectiveness factor. The Biot number and Thiele modulus were incorporated in the development of the global effectiveness factor. Diffusion coefficients and the rate of mass-transfer constants were obtained from our previous finite element modeling study. We first defined and derived the dimensionless groups to be used in the efficiency analysis and then formulated a relationship between the dimensionless groups and the efficiency indicators, i.e., the ratios of total solute (oil) produced to total solvent injected and total solvent stored to total solvent injected. It was shown that the efficiency of the process can be represented by a dimensionless group that consists of well-known dimensionless numbers such as the Reynolds number, the Peclet number, the Sherwood number, and the global effectiveness factor.

Trivedi J; Babadagli T

2008-08-01

176

Water injection in longwall top-coal caving face in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the means of improving dust control efficiency using water injection. At first, the authors point out that internal water has effect on dust control. The objective of water injection is to increase the amount of internal water. Secondly, by analyzing the development trend of crack in top-coal, proper water injection station and boreholes can be determined for dust control.

Yong, Z.; Gui, F.

1999-07-01

177

Fine emulsion of oil in water  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil-in-water emulsion containing (1) an emulsifying system containing at least one silicone surfactant of molecular weight greater than or equal to 10,000, at least one non-ionic cosurfactant, and at least one anionic cosurfactant, and (2) at least one monohydric alcohol containing from 2 to 6 carbon atoms, where the oils of the oily phase are soluble in the monohydric alcohol. These compositions exhibit good stability and good cosmetic properties. They can be used in many cosmetic and dermatological applications.

MIKA INOUE

178

Hydrolysis of corn oil using subcritical water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the use of subcritical water as both solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of corn oil without the use of acids or alkalis at temperatures of 150-280 degreesC. Corn oil hydrolysis leads to the formation of its respective fatty acids with the same efficiency of conventional methods. Fatty acids form an important group of products, which are used in a range of applications. The confirmation and identification of the hydrolysis products was done by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC/MS.

Pinto Jair Sebastião S.; Lanças Fernando M.

2006-01-01

179

Effects of ultrasonic waves on the interfacial forces between oil and water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of ultrasound on flow through a capillary using the pendant drop method was investigated. Water was injected into a 0.1 mm Hastelloy C-276 capillary tube submersed into several mineral oils with different viscosity, and kerosene. The average drop rate per minute was measured at several ultrasonic intensities. We observed that there exists a peak drop rate at a characteristic intensity, which strongly depends on oil viscosity and the interfacial tension between water and the oil. The semi-quantitative results reveal that the remarkable change in the interfacial forces between oil and water could be the explanation to the enhancement of oil recovery when the ultrasonic waves are applied.

Hamida T; Babadagli T

2008-04-01

180

Cosmetic cream preparation containing water/oil and oil/water emulsions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cosmetic preparation consists essentially of a mixture of a stable oil/water emulsion of cosmetically acceptable ingredients and a stable water/oil emulsion of cosmetically acceptable ingredients. The new preparation is prepared by mixing the two original emulsions such that a superfinely dispersed product is obtained. The particle size of the inner phases of the emulsions is 2-50 mu m. The preparation provides needed ingredients such as fats or moisture to skin of varying types. An example of the cosmetic preparation is a cream containing jojoba oil.

STINDL WOLFGANG

 
 
 
 
181

A review on sequential injection methods for water analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of fast, automatic and less expensive methods of analysis has always been the main aim of flow methodologies. The search for new procedures that still maintain the reliability and accuracy of the reference procedures is an ever growing challenge. New requirements are continually added to analytical methodologies, such as lower consumption of samples and reagents, miniaturisation and portability of the equipment, computer interfaces for full decision systems and so on. Therefore, the development of flow methodologies meeting the extra requirements of water analysis is a challenging work. Sequential injection analysis (SIA) presents a set of characteristics that make it highly suitable for water analysis. With sequential injection analysis, most routine determinations in waters can be performed more quickly with much lower reagent consumption when compared to reference procedures. Additionally, SIA can be a valuable tool for analyte speciation and multiparametric analysis. This paper critically reviews the overall work in this area.

Mesquita RB; Rangel AO

2009-08-01

182

One-step process for transforming a water-in-oil emulsion into an oil-in-water emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for the production of an oil-in-water emulsion for pipeline transmission which comprises: (a) producing a hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion; (b) adding to the hydrocarbon crude when the crude is at a temperature of from about 100/sup 0/ to about 200/sup 0/F, an emulsifier system capable of forming and sustaining an oil-in-water emulsion at the temperature and at ambient pipeline transmission temperatures. The amount of emulsifier system added is sufficient to form and sustain an oil-in-water emulsion having a selected water content of from about 15 percent to about 35 percent by weight water and a viscosity sufficiently low for pipeline transmission; (c) agitating the hydrocarbon crude including a water-in-oil emulsion and the added emulsifier system, to form an oil-in-water emulsion; and (d) separating any excess water from the formed oil-in-water emulsion.

Prasad, R.R.S.

1986-12-09

183

Water-assisted flow of heavy oil and gas in a vertical pipe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many new technologies are not as economically viable as water injection. An experimental study of the 3-phase upward flow of heavy oil, water and air in a vertical pipe was presented in this paper. The work consisted of visualizing the flow through the use of a high speed camera as well as measuring the total pressure drop at several different flow rates of the phases. A laboratory scale apparatus was built allowing flow pattern visualization and pressure drop management. Results were then compared with some well-known oil and gas correlations. A total of 6 flow patterns were investigated, all of which had water as continuous phase and allowed for movement of the viscous oil with low pressure drop. An increase in the gas superficial velocity caused a decrease in the pressure gradient, which was dominated by the gravity contribution. The reduction factor of the pressure gradient relative to the single-phase oil flow was in the range of 1.5-35, and increased with increasing oil and gas flow rates. In addition, the reduction factor of the pressure gradient relative to oil-gas flow was in the range of 1.5-50 when calculated with correlations valid for light oil. It was observed that the total pressure gradient was always lower than the single-phase water flow at the 3-phase mixture flow rate, which decreased as the gas flow rate increased at constant oil and water flow rates. It was concluded that the comparison of the experimental pressure drop with 5 different oil-gas correlations indicated that all the tested correlations underestimated the experimental values. Results were presented in the form of flow maps based on superficial velocities and total pressure gradient plots. It was concluded that water injection is a viable option in offshore heavy oil development. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

Bannwart, A.C. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Campinas State Univ., Campinas (Brazil); Vieira, F.F. [Campinas State Univ. (Brazil); Carvalho, C.H.M. [Petrobras-Cenpes (Brazil); Oliveira, A.P. [Pontifical Catholic Univ., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). GTEP

2005-11-01

184

Radiating chemical decomposition of oil hydrocarbons in water environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Water resources purification problems from natural oil and mineral oils has an important value as for extracting additional oil resources from oilcontained waste waters, so for safeguard of water resources from pollution. For the past 150 years there were 250 artificial lakes formed on the territory of Absheron peninsula of Azerbaijan as a result of oil deposits exploitation, concentration of which sometimes exceeds 25 mg/l. Every year enterprises of Azerbaijan oil industry reset more than 4-5 tons of waste waters to an environment during production of 1 ton of oil. Taking into account the fact that the larger danger for environment represents an oil slicks and emulsified mineral oils in it, the possibility of application of ionizing radiation for mineral oils of waste waters becomes the more important circumstance during solving of some ecological problems. The possibilities radiation-chemical technology application while purification of waste waters from oil pollutions had been studied and also it is studied some legitimacies of radiation-chemical molding of oil hydrogens in water sphere. In case of radiation purification of water from oil impurities it is possible the radiation-chemical molding of oil hydrogens during the process and removal of molding products from water. Data given in this article proves that there are happens an effective interaction between active particles of different origin.

2010-01-01

185

Injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents an introduction to beam injection. Especially considered are single-turn injection, multi-turn injection, H- charge-exchange injection, and injection from a cyclotron into a synchrotron. Finally some novel injection schemes are briefly mentioned. (HSI).

1994-01-26

186

Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR) operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

Vladimir Alvarado; Xiuyu Wang; Mehrnoosh Moradi

2011-01-01

187

Photocatalytic decomposition of oil in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various titanates prepared by calcination of a mixture of KOH [Ba(OH){sub 2} or Ca(OH){sub 2}] and titanium dioxide slurry with a slightly crystallized structure were used as a photocatalyst in the reaction of oil decomposition in water. The influence of both the calcination temperature and the kind of metal used on the photocatalytic activity of resulted titanates in the oil decomposition reaction in water have been studied. The phase composition of photocatalysts was determined by XRD technique. The correlation between the photocatalyst content, time of UV-illumination and the rate of oil decomposition were presented. The most active material was prepared from a slightly crystallized titania precursor and potassium hydroxide calcinated at 550 degrees C. The complete oil decomposition was achieved after 2 h of UV illumination with the photocatalyst content of 0.5 g/litre. The photocatalyst forms a complex mixture of various titanium oxides and titanates that are probably responsible for the increase of activity. For the most active TiO{sub 2}/KOH photocatalyst the optimal preparation conditions were established. (author)

Grzechulska, J.; Hamerski, M.; Morawski, A.W. [Technical Univ. of Szczecin (Poland). Inst. of Inorganic Chemical Technology

2000-07-01

188

Interfacial action of natural surfactants in oil/water systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper concerns the tendency of a few natural surfactants at the oil/water interface to induce spontaneous emulsification. N-paraffin (n-dodecane), liquid triglycerides (oleic safflower oil and corn oil), and liquid fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) were used as the oil phase and distilled water was used as the water phase. Natural surfactants such as cholesterol, lecithin, and oleic acid were applied to the systems as the oil-soluble additives. Lecithin was the most strongly effective in reducing the interfacial tension of the oil/water systems, and cholesterol was effective at the second strength. The oil/water interface of the systems containing the oil-soluble additives changed in various ways as observed by microscopy and the unaided eye. The most remarkable change was found in the system of glycerides containing cholesterol in contact with water, in which crystals of cholesterol were formed at the interface. 13 references.

Ogino, K.; Onishi, M.

1981-09-01

189

A novel approach for determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils by a flow injection system with manual injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-aqueous flow injection method for determining free fatty acid (FFA) content in corn and sunflower oil samples was developed. A single-line manifold system was built by modification of an HPLC for flow injection analysis (FIA). Without pre-treatment, oil samples were injected into a n-propanol solution containing KOH and phenolphthalein (PHP). The main parameters, such as flow rate of carrier phase, length, geometry, inner diameters of the coils and reagent concentration were all optimized. The proposed FIA method was validated for precision, accuracy, linear region, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The intra- and inter-day measurements of the precision of the method were found to be within the limits of acceptance criteria (RSD < 1%), and were rugged when the method was performed by a different analyst. The linear concentration range was calculated as 0.09-1.50 and 0.07-1.40 FFA% for corn and sunflower oils, correspondingly. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 7.53 × 10(-4)-2.28 × 10(-3) oleic acid % and 7.11 × 10(-4)-2.23 × 10(-3) oleic acid % for corn and sunflower oils, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained by the AOCS (Ca-5a-40) method using statistical t and F tests, and a significant difference was not observed between the methods at a 95% confidence level. The proposed method is suitable for quality control of routine applications due to its simplicity, high sample throughput, and economy of solvents and sample, offering considerable promise as a low cost analytical system that needs minimum human intervention over long periods of time. PMID:21904794

Ayyildiz, H Filiz; Kara, Huseyin; Sherazi, S T H

2011-09-09

190

Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) present promising ''greener'' substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported in the literature, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. Experiments were also conducted using various blends of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), smoke opacity, CO2, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on Jatropha oil (preheated and blends), performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior. (author)

2007-01-01

191

Water-in-oil emulsion blasting agent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-in-oil emulsion blasting agent is described. It includes a water-immiscible liquid organic fuel as a continuous phase dispersed in it by means of an emulsifying agent an aqueous inorganic oxidizer salt solution as a discontinuous phase. The salt solution contains the nitrates of calcium and ammonium in a weight ratio calcium nitrate to ammonium nitrate of 1.5 or greater. The agent is non-cap sensitive, the organic fuel is selected from mineral oil, waxes, benzene, toluene, xylene, and petroleum distillates, and the dispersing agent may be sorbitan fatty acid esters, glycol esters, substituted oxazolines, alkyl amines or their salts or derivatives. The agent also may contain density reducing agents. 14 claims.

Funk, A.G.; Jessop, H.A.

1982-10-20

192

Water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-in-oil emulsion explosive composition which has enhanced storage stability is described. The explosive composition comprises a disperse phase formed of an aqueous oxidizer solution consisting of (1) ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and another oxidizer salt, (2) water and (3) a specifically limited weak acid salt or condensed phosphate, (4) a continuous phase consisting of fuel oil and/or wax, (5) an emulsifier, and (6) hollow microspheres or microbubbles. The weak acid salts consist of lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium salts of carbonic acid, boric acid, acetic acid, silicic acid, and citric acid. As the condensed phosphates, use is made of orthophosphates, polyphosphates, metaphosphates, and ultraphosphates. 6 claims.

Takeuchi, F.; Takahashi, M.

1983-07-19

193

Mathematical modeling of chemical oil-soluble transport for water control in porous media  

Science.gov (United States)

High water-cut is a long-standing problem in the upstream petroleum industry. Typically one-fourth of the produced fluids from oil wells worldwide are hydrocarbons and the remaining is water. Self-selective in-situ gel formation is a new potential technology to decrease the production of water from oil reservoirs. In this method an oil-soluble chemical is being injected in the reservoir. The chemical, which in this case is tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate or tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) reacts with water and ultimately results in the formation of a semi-rigid gel in the water phase. Due to this gelation, the relative permeabilities of the formation to water and oil change in favor of the oil phase; therefore the ultimate effect of this gelation is a reduction of the water production rate from the reservoir. The subject of this paper was to model the flow of TMOS in a core, including the mass transfer of TMOS from oil phase to the water phase, and the occurring chemical reaction in the water phase.

Valiollahi, H.; Ziabakhsh, Z.; Zitha, P. L. J.

2012-08-01

194

Study of processes involved in oil spill gathering in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate flow of an oil/water mixture along a tray has been found possible only at very low rates. Higher flowrates cause surges where some oil globules begin running away from the bulk of blocked oil, skipping under the boom used in experiments. It has been found that booms used for gathering oil spills on the water surface will be efficient of water flows below 0.16 m/sec. 2 figs

1996-01-01

195

Method for removing water from produced crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for removing emulsified water from a crude oil stream produced from a subterranean, oil-containing formation, the oil stream containing about 14 to about 65% by volume of emulsified water. The method consists of: (a) passing the crude oil stream containing emulsified water through a bed of a water-saturated hydrophilic coalescing medium selected from the group consisting of sand, crushed quartz, diatomaceous earth, porous silica and ground walnut shells, whereby the water coalesces and an oil phase, substantially free of water, and a water phase are formed; and (b) separating the oil phase containing less than 3 volume percent of water from the water phase by gravitational separation or centrifuging.

McMillen, J.M.

1986-06-03

196

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs.

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muniz, M.

2009-07-01

197

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 degree centigrade in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined. (Author) 18 refs

2009-01-01

198

Additive for inclusion in a heavy oil reservoir undergoing steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The viscosity of heavy oil may be incrementally reduced over what can be achieved by steam alone, by introducing an aqueous metal salt solution into a reservoir undergoing steam injection. The metal ion is selected from the group consisting of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Al. In a preferred feature CO is also introduced as a second additive, with a further oil viscosity reduction being observed with certain of the metal ions.

Hyne, J. B.; Clark, P. D.

1985-03-26

199

Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

1995-05-01

200

Comparison of asymmetric with symmetric feed oil injection parameters in a riser reactor.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code was used to determine the effects of product yields of three feed injection parameters in a fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) riser reactor. This study includes the effects of both symmetrical and non-symmetrical injection parameters. All these parameters have significant effects on the feed oil spray distribution, vaporization rates and the resulting product yields. This study also indicates that optimum parameter ranges exist for the investigated parameters.

Bowman, B. J.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

1999-04-20

 
 
 
 
201

Water retentivity improver for fat and oil composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

(1) A use of an edible fine powder, e.g., a microfibrillated cellulose, a microfibrillated chitin, a microfibrillated chitosan, a microfibrillated hide and a microfibrillated silk fiber, as a water retentivity improver for a fat and oil composition which can solve the problems, such as syneresis, of a fat and oil composition, particularly a water-rich fat and oil composition such as a low-fat margarine to give a stable water-in-oil emulsified fat and oil composition. (2) A method for retaining water in an emulsified fat and oil composition with an edible fine powder. (3) A stable emulsified fat and oil composition comprising a fat and/or oil, from 17 to 70 % by weight, based on the composition, of water and from 0.5 to 5 % by weight, based on the composition, of an edible fine powder.

Yukami Yoshikazu; Sakow Masami

202

Cold-water injection reanalysis for N Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A re-analysis of the cold water injection transient, with a space- dependent, two-dimensional reactor kinetics code TWIGL has been completed. The analyses considered the impact of flux flattening on the consequences of this accident. Separate categories of cold water source were evaluated. Introduction of a sixth steam generator cell, postulated as a significant cold water transient in previous studies, was re-analyzed in greater depth. Activation of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the main steam line break on the secondary side were also evaluated for worst-case condition. In all instances, the results of the analyses confirmed that N Reactor is well protected against the consequences of cold water reactivity transients by appropriate trip settings and by fast acting control systems. Accidents were analyzed for the possibilities that the control rods failed to insert, and safe shutdown was accomplished with the ball backup safety system. All calculations were performed for the flattened core. The flux flattened core did not alter the timing or the severity of the transient. The results of the re-analyses compare favorably with the analysis discussed in N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report (NUSAR) (UNI 1978). Total control aspects of cold water injection, a steady-state analysis, are unaffected by the conclusions of this report. The document contains detailed discussion of the computer analyses including the preparation of input, underlying assumptions, code validation discussion, and comparisons to past work. 10 refs., 27 figs.

Toffer, H.; Crowe, R.D.; Fortner, R.L.; Mohr, C.L.

1988-02-01

203

Statistical research on oil output and the water-oil factor of Ural-Volga fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formulas are given which can be used with known statistical methods to compare oil output and the water-oil factor of an operating unit given an identical maximum water content of the well. It is shown that the most acceptable results of determining the oil output and water-oil factor for the Ural-Volga fields are provided by the methods of G.S. Kambarov and A.A. Kazakov.

Shavaliev, A.M.

1981-01-01

204

Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is one of the most common essential oil containing linalool and linalyl acetate as major volatile components. This study investigated the effect of intraplantar (i.pl.) bergamot essential oil (BEO) or linalool on neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in mice. The i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool into the ipsilateral hindpaw to PSNL reduced PSNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Peripheral (i.pl.) injection of BEO or linalool into the contralateral hindpaw did not yield anti-allodynic effects, suggesting a local anti-mechanical allodynic effect of BEO or linalool in PSNL mice. Anti-mechanical hypersensitivity of morphine was enhanced by the combined injection of BEO or linalool at an ineffective dose when injected alone. We also examined the possible involvement of spinal extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in BEO or linalool-induced anti-mechanical allodynia. In western blotting analysis, i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool resulted in a significant blockade of spinal ERK activation induced by PSNL. These results suggest that i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool may reduce PSNL-induced mechanical allodynia followed by decreasing spinal ERK activation.

Kuwahata H; Komatsu T; Katsuyama S; Corasaniti MT; Bagetta G; Sakurada S; Sakurada T; Takahama K

2013-02-01

205

Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties.

Fingas M; Fieldhouse B

2012-02-01

206

OIL RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CO2 INJECTION MONITORING IN THE PERMIAN BASIN WITH CROSSWELL ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial petroleum reserves exist in US oil fields that cannot be produced economically, at current prices, unless improvements in technology are forthcoming. Recovery of these reserves is vital to US economic and security interests as it lessens our dependence on foreign sources and keeps our domestic petroleum industry vital. Several new technologies have emerged that may improve the situation. The first is a series of new flooding techniques to re-pressurize reservoirs and improve the recovery. Of these the most promising is miscible CO{sub 2} flooding, which has been used in several US petroleum basins. The second is the emergence of new monitoring technologies to track and help manage this injection. One of the major players in here is crosswell electromagnetics, which has a proven sensitivity to reservoir fluids. In this project, we are applying the crosswell EM technology to a CO{sub 2} flood in the Permian Basin oil fields of New Mexico. With our partner ChevronTexaco, we are testing the suitability of using EM for tracking the flow of injected CO{sub 2} through the San Andreas reservoir in the Vacuum field in New Mexico. The project consisted of three phases, the first of which was a preliminary field test at Vacuum, where a prototype system was tested in oil field conditions including widely spaced wells with steel casing. The results, although useful, demonstrated that the older technology was not suitable for practical deployment. In the second phase of the project, we developed a much more powerful and robust field system capable of collecting and interpreting field data through steel-cased wells. The final phase of the project involved applying this system in field tests in the US and overseas. Results for tests in steam and water floods showed remarkable capability to image between steel wells and provided images that helped understand the geology and ongoing flood and helped better manage the field. The future of this technology is indeed bright with development ongoing and a commercialization plan in place. We expect that this DOE sponsored technology will be a major technical and commercial success story in the coming years.

Michael Wilt

2004-02-01

207

Polarized phase functions in oil-in-water emulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results of modeling of polarized phase functions (PPFs) in water polluted by oil-in-water emulsion are presented. The shapes of PPFs for various oil droplets size distributions and for two optically different oil types are shown for various wavelengths in the visible region. It is revealed that PPFs...

Zbigniew Otremba; Jacek Piskozub

208

Stability Investigation of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water in-crude oil emulsion has great importance in the oil industry. Experimental data are presented to investigate the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions in both creaming and coalescence states were measured as a function of sodium chloride concentration. Also the stability of w/o emuls...

Abdurahman H. Nour; Rosli Mohd. Yunus

209

Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Combustion studies on both diesel fuel and vegetable oil fuels, with the standard and advanced injection timing, were carried out using the same engine and test procedures so that comparative assessments may be made. The diesel engine principle demands self-ignition of the fuel as it is injected at some degrees before top dead centre (BTDC) into the hot compressed cylinder gas. Longer delays between injection and ignition lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock because too much fuel is ready to take part in premixed combustion. Alternative fuels have been noted to exhibit longer delay periods and slower burning rate especially at low load operating conditions hence resulting in late combustion in the expansion stroke. Advanced injection timing is expected to compensate these effects. The engine has standard injection timing of 30degC BTDC. The injection was first advanced by 5.5degC given injection timing of 35.5degC BTDC. The engine performance was very erratic on this timing. The injection was then advanced by 3.5degC and the effects are presented in this paper. The engine performance was smooth especially at low load levels. The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. Moderate advanced injection timing is recommended for low speed operations. (Author)

2000-01-01

210

Bio-physicochemical treatment of oil contaminated sea water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article introduces a combined physicochemical and biological process for treatment of oil contaminated sea water. In this process, a new polymeric surfactant is successfully applied with a dosage of 0.0015 g/g of crude oil to accumulate oil spots on the sea water in a microcosm. In the next step, microbial degradation of accumulated oil spots using isolated bacteria from oil contaminated Caspian Sea water was studied. The results of a proposed process for treatment of contaminated sea water in a pilot scale, using a 1500-l microcosm with several basins at different conditions are presented

2000-05-01

211

Phase functions of oil-in-water emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling of optical phase function (PF) of water polluted by dispersed oil. The shapes of PFs for various oil droplet size distributions and for two optically extremely different oil types are shown for various wavelengths from 350 to 750 nm. It is proved that changes of optical properties of oil (the complex refractive index) play minor role in PF shaping towards the impact of wavelength and size distribution. Water with oil emulsion has a PF significantly different from that of natural ocean water or harbour turbid water.

Zbigniew Otremba; Jacek Piskozub

2004-01-01

212

Combination of low salinity water flooding with surfactant injection : a new hybrid EOR process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work addresses different aspects related to the hybrid EOR process, low salinity surfactant injection including closely connected topics such as low salinity water injection and physicochemical properties of micro emulsions. In the first part, measurements of self-diffusion, ultrasonic speed, density and viscosity (i.e., shear dependency) are evaluated as methods to detect the structural changes in the micro emulsions imposed with a variation of the brine salinity. The viscosity measurements on Winsor type micro emulsions and adjacent excess phases all show Newtonian behaviour for shear controlled measurements in the interval 1- 1 000 s-1. The microemulsion viscosity reaches a maximum at the phase transition between Winsor I and Winsor III, which is likely to be coupled to structural changes (i.e., clustering of the oil-in-water droplets where attractive interactions between separate aggregates lead to the formation of increasing number of transient clusters) or existence of a percolation threshold. Microemulsion densities seem to be a good indicator for the phase transitions. The results obtained from speed of sound and self-diffusion measurements indicate, however, structural changes of the surfactant aggregates within the Winsor I region. The diffusion coefficient of the surfactant reaches a maximum in the middle of the Winsor III phase, which coincide well with the optimal salinity, SP found in static phase behaviour studies. All investigated parameters indicate changes at the phase transition boundary from Winsor III to Winsor II. In the second part, we sought a better understanding of low salinity water injection method by conducting core displacement experiments using the same COBR ensemble. The results from both secondary and tertiary injections proves that injection of low salinity water (LS) into aged Berea core samples give a moderate increase in oil recovery compared to the results obtained with sea water (SW) as the displacing fluid. This is attributed to destabilisation of adsorbed oil layers by the injection of brine lower in salinity than the connate water. A comparison of the performance of tertiary LS floods versus secondary LS floods indicates that in both cases the total oil recovery falls roughly into the same range. It has also been shown that secondary LS floods performed on the aged core samples affect output parameters (i.e., oil recovery profile, water breakthrough (WBT), endpoint permeability to water k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) and differential pressure) in another fashion than secondary SW floods. Further, the results from secondary SW floods conducted on the aged cores were used to confirm that aging process with crude oil at elevated temperature for extended time period has indeed managed to decrease the water-wetness of the core samples. By establishing this reference and exploiting the close relationship between the aforementioned parameters and wettability, a qualitative differentiation of wettability regimes is thus used to elucidate the observed difference in behaviour of water floods. Features accompanied with secondary LS floods such as delayed WBT, reduced two-phase production period after WBT, lower k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) after LS floods at lower S{sub 0r}compared to k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) after SW floods at higher S{sub 0r}, indicate a wettability change toward more water-wet state during LS injections. An attempt to relate low k{sub w}(S{sub 0r}) after LS floods to possible fines migration and subsequent blocking in pore constrictions, revealed that turbidity of the effluent from a more water-wet core (i.e., used in its natural state) was significantly higher than from the aged core. Increased turbidity of effluent indicates a larger quantity of eluted fine particles from the core matrix in the former case. Partially, these results infer that fines migration is not the predominant mechanism explaining increased oil recovery by LS injection in our experiments. The effluent ion analysis from secondary LS floods showed that Mg2+ were strongly retained in the aged cores while Ca2+ were being

Alagic, Edin

2010-03-15

213

Intérêt de l'injection d'eau alcaline en récupération assistée Significance of Allkaline Water Injection for Enhanced Recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'étude présentée ici s'insère dans un programme de recherche destiné à déterminer les conditions d'emploi de l'injection de soude, à partir d'une meilleure connaissance des mécanismes physico-chimiques mis en jeu dans le processus de récupération de l'huile. L'activité interfaciale de la soude est liée essentiellement à la composition chimique des huiles brutes à déplacer, en particulier à leur teneur en acides. Suivant cette teneur, l'abaissement de tension interfaciale en présence de soude peut être permanent ou juste transitoire, il dépend aussi de la concentration en soude utilisée et de la salinité de l'eau d'injection. Les tests de récupération réalisés en milieux gréseux et calcaires avec différentes huiles brutes, montrent que l'amélioration de récupération obtenue par la soude, résulte de l'action combinée de deux mécanismes - importante réduction de la tension interfaciale eau-huile ; - augmentation de la mouillabilité à l'eau de la roche. Ce dernier effet a été mis en évidence par des tests complémentaires d'imbibition ou par la comparaison des perméabilités relatives déterminées avec et sans additif dans la phase aqueuse. This article reports on a research project aimed at determining the conditions for using sodium-hydroxide injection on the basis of a better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the cil recovery process. The interfacial activity of sodium hydroxide is mainly linked to the chemical composition of the crude cils to be displaced, in particular to their acid content. Depending on this content, the lowering of interfacial tension in the presence of sodium hydroxide may be permanent or merely transitory. It also depends on the sodium-hydroxide concentration utilized and on the salinity of the injection water. Recovery tests mode in sandstone and limestone media with different crude oils show that the improvement in recovery obtained with sodium hydroxide is the result of the combined action of two mechanisms, i. e. a considerable reduction in the water/cil interfacial tension and an increase in the wafer wettability of the rock. The latter effect has been revealed by supplementary imbibition tests or by comparing relative permeabilities determined with and without thé additive in the aqueous phase.

Minssieux L.

2006-01-01

214

Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased smoke, NO{sub x} emissions and increased CO emissions were observed for dual fuel mode for all the fuel combinations compared to single fuel operation. (author)

Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

2009-07-15

215

Water injection system for turbine driven BWR type reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a water injection system of a turbine driven nuclear reactor for maintaining the function thereof even upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type nuclear reactor. That is, the system comprises a differential pressure detection means for measuring a pressure difference between the downstream of a the turbine and a reactor container and an interrupting means for stopping the supply of steams to the turbine when the differential pressure exceeds a predetermined value. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the turbine driven water injection system is locally increased, the differential pressure detection means detects the differential pressure, to interrupt the supply of the steams to the turbine. Further, upon occurrence of a severe accident that a pressure in the reactor container is abnormally elevated, differential pressure is not caused between the downstream of the turbine and the reactor container. Accordingly, a protection function is not operated by the differential pressure detection means. Accordingly, injection of coolants to the reactor can be continued even upon loss of AC power source. (I.S.).

1992-07-31

216

CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

2007-08-02

217

The effectiveness of polymer flooding of water oil regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effectiveness of the polymer flooding of water oil regions in a platform field containing high viscosity oil is investigated. An estimation of the cost efficiency of various polymer techniques used to act on a formation is given.

Levi, B.I.; Sankin, V.M.

1984-01-01

218

Laboratory study with a light crude oil to determine the effect of high-pressure nitrogen injection on enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory research was conducted to study displacements of crude oil by high-pressure nitrogen injection. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of temperature and gas-oil ratio in solution on crude oil recovery and miscibility process in high- pressure nitrogen injection; study nitrogen effectiveness in crude oil recovery after waterflooding; and investigate the effect on oil recovery of nitrogen-driven propane slugs. The results obtained in this study suggested that crude oil and miscibility depend on temperature and gas-oil ratio in solution. A multiple-regression equation to predict crude oil recovery using temperature and gas-oil ratio in solution was developed based on the experimental data. Another multiple-regression equation was developed and presented to predict crude oil recovery using temperature, gas-oil ratio in solution, and injection pressure as predictors. High-pressure nitrogen injection after waterflooding yielded low oil recovery. However, the results suggest that high crude oil recovery may be expected from displacement using nitrogen-driven propane slugs. Recommendations are made for future research projects.

Alcocer.Alarcon, C.F.

1983-05-01

219

Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

Seibert, D. L.

1985-08-13

220

Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

 
 
 
 
221

Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

2012-07-01

222

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

CERN Multimedia

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01

223

Cold water injection into two-phase mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a review of the international literature regarding the dynamic loadings associated with the injection of cold water into two-phase mixtures. The review placed emphasis on waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Waterhammmer incidence data were reviewed for information related to thermalhydraulic conditions, underlying causes and consequential damage. Condensation induced waterhammer was found to be the most significant consequence of injecting cold water into a two-phase system. Several severe waterhammer incidents have been attributed to slug formation and steam bubble collapse under conditions of stratified steam and cold water flows. These phenomena are complex and not well understood. The current body of experimental and analytical knowledge is not large enough to establish maps of expected regimes of condensation induced waterhammer. The Electric Power Research Institute, in the United States, has undertaken a major research and development programme to develop the knowledge base for this area. The limited models and data currently available show that mechanical parameters are as important as thermodynamic conditions for the initiation of condensation induced waterhammer. Examples of bounds for avoiding two-phase waterhammer are given. These bounds are system specific and depend upon parameters such as pump capacity, pipe length and pipe orientation.

1989-01-01

224

Flooding to recover oil from subterranean formations and employing injection of hot, low-viscosity polymer solution that becomes more viscous than the oil out in the formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of recovering oil from an oil-containing subterranean formation penetrated by an injection means and production means. The method comprises injecting through the injection means and into the formation at least a slug of a hot polymer solution that will reduce its viscosity at elevated temperatures and recover its viscosity when the temperature decreases. The injection is carried out through a thermally stimulated zone extending to at least five feet from the wellhead and having temperatures in the range of only a few degrees above the general formation temperature to more than 250/sup 0/F., such that the thickened aqueous polymer solution can be injected through the thermally stimulated zone without incurring significant losses in the production of oil from the production means during the injection of the polymer solution through the injection means.

De Ruiter, R.A.

1987-03-03

225

Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup.

Liu X; Gao J; Xue Z; Chen L; Lin L; Jiang L; Wang S

2012-06-01

226

Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup. PMID:22607241

Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

2012-05-24

227

Adhesion of oil to kaolinite in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Uniform coats of kaolinite particles on a flat glass substrate were prepared to be sufficiently smooth and thin to allow reliable measurement of contact angles of captive crude oil drops in a range of salt solutions, without any particle removal. The contact angle hysteresis was used to infer the extent of oil adhesion via rupture of the intervening water film and anchoring of charged groups to kaolinite. For sodium chloride solutions, adhesion decreases monotonically with pH and/or salinity, with strong adhesion only manifested under acidic conditions with salinity at most 0.1 M. Calcium chloride solutions at pH around 6 switch from strong adhesion in the range 0.001-0.01 M to weak adhesion at higher concentrations. For all mixtures of sodium and calcium chlorides investigated, a total ionic strength above 0.1 M guarantees a weak adhesion of oil to kaolinite. Results are qualitatively consistent with theoretical expectations of electrostatic interactions, with H(+) and Ca(2+) being potential-determining ions for both interfaces.

Lebedeva EV; Fogden A

2010-12-01

228

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

1995-01-01

229

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

230

A Performance, Emission and Combustion Investigation on Hot Air Assisted Eucalyptus Oil Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A diesel engine modified for eucalyptus oil direct injection (EuDI) has been tested to study eucalyptus oil behavior. Since the eucalyptus oil possesses low cetane number fails to auto ignite, the test engine was modified to supply hot air during suction stroke which helps to auto-ignite the injected eucalyptus oil. The engine with this facility was operated using eucalyptus oil under various load conditions and at various intake temperatures. The results of the investigation were proved that eucalyptus oil could be direct injectable in a regular diesel engine after little engine modification. This method showed almost same brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at full load compared to standard diesel operation. Except NOx emission other emissions were found closer to diesel baseline operation. This mode offered almost 50% smoke free operation at all loads compared to standard diesel operation. Also this method successfully proved the complete replacement of diesel fuel by eucalyptus oil.

D. TAMILVENDHAN; V. ILANGOVAN

2011-01-01

231

Predicting pressure gradients in heavy oil-water pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The flow of water-heavy oil mixtures were studied at velocities typical to that in an oil-field gathering system to determine if continuous water assisted flow at very low pressure gradients can be achieved in pipelines. In Western Canada water is found in heavy crude oil wells. This water, which increases over the life of a well is present as both free water and emulsified water droplets found within the oil. It has been known since 1960 that water has a significant effect on the pressure gradient for heavy oil flows and for this reason, heavy oil has been transported by truck to treating facilities where the emulsified water is removed. The objective of this study was to see if pipeline transport of heavy crudes is possible in order to avoid increasingly high truck transport costs. This paper described the laboratory experiments of flow regimes for complex flows such as oil-water mixtures. Experimental results, restart tests and field tests were also presented. Correlations for predicting flow regime and pressure gradient also were included. It was concluded that it is feasible to achieve continuous water assisted flow of heavy oil in steel pipelines if the water fraction and the pipeline velocity are high enough. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

McKibben, M.J.; Gillies, R.G.; Shook, C.A. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

2000-08-01

232

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

2007-01-01

233

Disposal of wastes generated by the treatment of injection water; Descarte de residuos gerados pelo tratamento de agua de injecao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a pioneer operation in Brazil, E and P-BA discharged 10000 m{sup 3} waste generated by the treatment of water for injection. The waste was injected in a porous-permeable 125 thick 900 m deep formation. The viscous waste was basically brine, oil and wax, with a low solids content. The waste was pumped through a 3 line from the treatment facilities to a well situated 400 m from it and there it was injected to the target formation. The injection was made in 200m{sup 3} lots at a rate of 95m{sup 3}/h (10bbl/min) and a 8MPa (1200psi) pressure. This operation achieved completely its objective without any damage to the environment and at a relatively low cost. (author)

Campos, Joao C.B. de; Almeida, Jose R.C. de [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao

1998-07-01

234

COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp). The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

HARIRAM V.; G. MOHAN KUMAR

2013-01-01

235

Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

236

Phototurbidometric analysis of polyacrylamide in oil field water and water-oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the proposed technique, the reaction of acid hydrolysis of polyacrylamide (PAA) of hydrochloric acid is used with subsequent measurement of suspension turbidity formed as a result of hydrolysis. The applicability of the technique to determining PAA and the water-oil emulsions is indicated. It was established that determination of PAA is not disrupted by the presence of nonionogenic surfactants. Characteristics of the method were found. The minimum determined concentration of PAA is 5 x 10/sup -4/%. Relative error of the method equals 2.95%. The proposed method can be used to analyze the content of PAA samples with molecular mass about 10/sup -6/-10/sup 7/ and degree of hydrolysis 5% and higher. It was established that the Stavropol oil mixture forms a more stable emulsion as compared to the Nogayskiy, and therefore the conditions of preparing it are more rigid. It is indicated that the Stavropol oil mixture can be desalinated under conditions of GPZ to 50 mg/l by combined method in three stages (first stage, thermochemical, while the second and third are electrical) with operation of the unit on the recommended optimal technological mode. In order to desalinate oil of the Nogayskiy oil and gas recovery administration to 50 mg/l, one should use the combined method of working in two stages (first thermochemical, second electrical) with operation of the unit on a technological mode similar for the Stavropol oil mixture.

Smerdova, S.G.

1982-01-01

237

Gas turbine installation with total water injection in the combustion chamber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the authors present the results of their thermodynamic analysis, regarding gas turbine installations (GTIs) with total water injection in the combustion chamber (CC). Among existing GTIs, the majority are without water or steam injection in the working fluid, while some of them employ partial water/steam injection (GTIWI). The technical solution proposed by the authors, with total water injection (GTITWI), is designed to realize the desired temperature in the CC by means of the injected water exclusively. The introduced air flow is only the quantity strictly needed to produce combustion. As a result, for many cases, we have higher values for the thermal efficiency in a GTITWI compared with the GTIs without water/steam injection. Consequently, from this point of view, GTIWI are situated between GTI and GTITWI. Also, like for all GTIWI, for GTITWI too, using water injection results in much lower values for NO{sub x} emissions. (Author)

Cardu, Mircea [SOCET SA, 168-184 Calea 13 Septembrie, Sector 5,76302, Bucharest (Romania); Baicah, Malvina [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Wisconsin, 800 West Main Street, 53190-1313, Whitewater, WI (United States)

2002-11-01

238

Transconjunctival 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and silicone oil injection in diabetic tractional retinal detachment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to evaluate the outcomes and complications of transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy using silicone oil tamponade in diabetic tractional retinal detachment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were retrospectively evaluated. Main outcome measure was the feasibility of pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection with 25-gauge system in eyes with diabetic tractional retinal detachment. RESULTS: Fourteen eyes of 14 patients were included in the study. Tractional retinal detachment was accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage in 9 eyes and combined traction/rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was present in 1 eye. All patients underwent transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy and 1,000 centistokes silicone oil injection. Angled insertion of the trocars was made in all eyes. Bimanual surgery was performed in 6 (42.8%) eyes. The median preoperative best-corrected visual acuities were 3.00 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; it increased to 1.60 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution at last visit. Retinal tear formation occurred in 4 (28.5%) eyes. Retinal detachment developed in 2 (14.2%) eyes. Intraocular pressure of 5 mmHg or less was detected in 3 (21.4%) eyes. One patient lost light perception due to anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation. CONCLUSION: Pars plana vitrectomy and 1,000 centistokes silicone oil injection with 25-gauge system is feasible in diabetic tractional retinal detachment even in complex cases. Indications of 25-gauge surgery may be expanded toward this area.

Altan T; Acar N; Kapran Z; Unver YB; Ozdogan S

2008-10-01

239

Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the common oil-field wellbore problems is paraffin deposition. Even though hot oiling or hot watering is usually the first method tried for removing paraffin, few operators appreciate the limitations of ''hot oiling'' and the potential for the flui...

A. J. Mansure K. M. Barker

1994-01-01

240

Food-grade emulsions of water-oil or oil-water-oil type, have aqueous phase comprising hydrophilic thickener and oil phase comprising lipophilic surfactant and phytosterol  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emulsions consist of an aqueous phase comprising hydrophilic thickener and continuous oil phase comprising lipophilic surfactant and phytosterol. The emulsions of water/oil or oil/water/oil kind consist aqueous phase comprising hydrophilic thickener and continuous oil phase comprising lipophilic surfactant and phytosterol. Lipophilic surfactant is preferably present in concentration up to 0.4 wt.%, phytosterol at concentration 0.05-10 (preferably 0.1-1) wt.%, and hydrophilic thickener at concentration 0.1-5 (preferably 0.8-2) wt.% (per total wt. of emulsion). Aqueous phase may comprise 3-12 wt.% of dissolved salt (NaCl, KCl) and/or sugar (glucose, maltodextrin, fructose) and preferably contains sodium chloride, in amount 2-10 wt.% per total wt. of emulsion, and has pH below 4 (preferably 3-3.5). Aqueous phase may also comprise hydrophilic surfactant, in amount 0.01-5 (preferably 0.5-3) wt.%. The emulsion preferably contains disperse phase, in amount 30-70 (preferably 50-65) wt.%, and has viscosity (at shear 1/sec) below 5 Pa s (preferably below 2 Pa s). An Independent claim is also included for French dressing consisting of water/oil emulsion or oil/water/oil emulsion as claimed.

LEAL CALDERON FERNANDO; BIBETTE JEROME; GUIMBERTEAU FLORENCE

 
 
 
 
241

Polarized phase functions in oil-in-water emulsion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results of modeling of polarized phase functions (PPFs) in water polluted by oil-in-water emulsion are presented. The shapes of PPFs for various oil droplets size distributions and for two optically different oil types are shown for various wavelengths in the visible region. It is revealed that PPFs for two perpendicular planes are different for angles greater than 50° (with even 2-fold difference close to 90°). Shapes of PPFs depend on the type of oil and on wavelength; oil droplets size distribution plays a minor role only.

Zbigniew Otremba; Jacek Piskozub

2009-01-01

242

Optimal injection policies for enhanced oil recovery: Part 2--Surfactant flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimal control theory of distributed-parameter systems has been applied to the problem of determining the best injection policy of a surfactant slug for a tertiary oil recovery chemical flood. The optimization criterion is to maximize the amount of oil recovered while minimizing the chemical cost. A steepest-descent gradient method was used as the computational approach to the solution of this dynamic optimization problem. The performance of the algorithm was examined for the surfactant injection in a one-dimensional flooding problem. Two types of interfacial tension (IFT) behavior were considered. These are a Type A system where the IFT is a monotonically decreasing function with solute concentration and a Type B system where a minimum IFT occurs at a nominal surfactant concentration. For a Type A system, the shape of the optimal injection strategy was not unique; however, there is a unique optimum for the amount of surfactant needed. For a Type B system, the shape of the optimal injection as well as the amount injected was unique.

Fathi, Z.; Ramirez, W.F.

1984-06-01

243

Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

None

1982-02-01

244

Experimental investigation on the use of a caustic-nitrogen injection process in a waterflooded oil reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consolidated Berea Sandstone cores were saturated with brine and flooded with a light oil, and waterfloods were conducted until the waterflood residual oil saturations were stabilized. Different improved oil recovery processes including alkaline injection, acidic slug injection, and intermittent nitrogen injection in different combinations were applied to each new core. A mathematical expression, which relates the injection pressure gradient and the capillary number to the specific surface area per pore volume, was developed and used as a theoretical basis for interpreting the recovery mechanisms encountered in removing residual oil. The experimental results indicated that the recovery of the residual oil is mainly dominated by the Jamin Effect, and the selective plugging of the flooded pore paths provides the necessary mechanism to overcome the Jamin Effect which prohibits the residual oil from moving. Results also showed that under proper conditions, the dispersed clay particles and the alkaline-oil emulsions formed in-situ can effectively plug the flow paths of smaller capillaries, while the nitrogen bubbles created from the nitrogen injections can successfully plug the flow paths of larger capillaries. When the temperature increases from 78 to 150/sup 0/F, it was found that in the recovery processes used, the recovery mechanisms for removing waterflooded residual oil shifted from capillary force domination to viscous force domination. It was also found that even under such a different recovery condition, the alkaline-nitrogen injection process yielded the optimal recovery.

Tsay, S.C.

1982-01-01

245

Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scarce and rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Among various possible options, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) present promising ''greener'' substitutes for fossil fuels. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines reported in the literature, which are because of their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel fuel. In the present research, experiments were designed to study the effect of reducing Jatropha oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature (using waste heat of the exhaust gases) and thereby eliminating its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. Experiments were also conducted using various blends of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel to study the effect of reduced blend viscosity on emissions and performance of diesel engine. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine typically used in agricultural sector was used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), smoke opacity, CO{sub 2}, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on Jatropha oil (preheated and blends), performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior. (author)

Agarwal, Deepak [Environmental Engineering and Management Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

2007-09-15

246

Fresh water supply to oil producing countries by means of crude oil tankers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil producing area and oil consuming area in the world sometimes coincide with water deficient area and water surplus area, like as Arabian Gulf area and Japan. Ocean transportation of oil over these areas is being made by oil tankers, but return voyage of tankers has so far not been put to productive use. By boost of international regulation to prevent marine pollution caused by discharging sea water ballast, such half used bridge will provide with practical measures of fresh water transportation to oil producing arid area. This is to report the proposed scheme to transport and supply fresh water to Arabian Gulf area by means of return voyages of crude oil tankers voyaging between Arabian Gulf area and Japan with it technical and economical aspects as well as its effect and additional advantages to be expected by the scheme.

Akiyama, Y.

1980-12-01

247

Low-mineralized waters of oil and gas basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information about the conference on the topic ''study and use of low-mineralized waters of oil and gas water pressure basins'' which took place from 23 to 25 April 1983 is provided.

Kartsev, A.A.; Kolodiy, V.V.

1984-01-01

248

Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

2011-01-01

249

Experimental study of efficiency of purifying oil-field waste water when using oil and water as contact media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description is made of the design and operation of a experimental pilot unit, and results are presented. High efficiency of purifying the oil field waste water with subsequent flotation of it by oil drops and filtering through a hydrophobic (oil) filter is shown.

Nurutdinov, R.G.; Kateyeva, K.K.; Murtazin, A.M.

1981-01-01

250

Influence of ph on corrosion control of carbon steel by peroxide injection in sour water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sour hydrogen damage is considered the most important corrosive process in the light-ends recovery section of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU). Corrosion in this condition is due to heavy gas oil that originates great amount of contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Hydrogen absorption is promoted by the presence of free cyanides in the environment. The attenuation of this process requires the use of some inhibitors, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or commercial polysulfides. The effect of these compounds is to neutralize free cyanides (CN{sup -}) into thio-sulfides (SCN{sup -}). When peroxide injection is selected, cyanide concentration in sour water has been used as key parameter to start the peroxide introduction. However, the importance of pH in this system has been pointed out by many authors. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of pH when peroxide injection is carried out in less alkaline conditions of sour water. Electrochemical techniques - like anodic polarization and hydrogen permeation tests - and weight loss measurements were used to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control of carbon steel. It was concluded that at pH 7.5 peroxide injection can drive to an increment of the corrosion rate. Besides that, it was concluded that hydrogen permeation into the metal is promoted. Both detrimental effects were due to elemental sulfur generation in this pH range. The adoption of pH as a key parameter for peroxide injection is then suggested. (authors)

Vieira, Martins Magda; Baptista, Walmar; Joia, Carlos Jose Bandeira de Mello [PROTEMP - PETROBRAS/CENPES, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil); Ponciano, Gomes Jose Antonio da Cunha [Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais-COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2004-07-01

251

Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented.

Seshaiah, N. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India)]. E-mail: seshuet@yahoo.com; Ghosh, Subrata Kr. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India); Sahoo, R.K. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India); Sarangi, Sunil Kr. [Cryogenics and Gas dynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Sector-2, NIT Campus, Rourkela 769008, Orissa (India)

2007-01-15

252

Mathematical modeling of the working cycle of oil injected rotary twin screw compressor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil injected twin-screw air and gas compressors are widely used for medium pressure applications in many industries. Low cost air compressors can be adopted for compression of helium and special gases, leading to significant cost saving. Mathematical analysis of oil injected twin-screw compressor is carried out on the basis of the laws of perfect gas and standard thermodynamic relations. Heat transfer coefficient required for computer simulation is experimentally obtained and used in performance prediction, when the working medium being air or helium. A mathematical model has been developed for calculating the compressor performance and for validating the results with experimental data. The flow coefficients required for numerical simulation to calculate leakage flow rates are obtained from efficiency verses clearance curves. Effect of some of the compressor operating and design parameters on power and volumetric efficiencies have been analyzed and presented.

2007-01-01

253

Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

2009-01-01

254

Water management challenges and perspective for surface oil sands operations in North Eastern Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands waters has many sources, such as raw water inputs (import water and hydrologic waters); oil sands ore water such as formation water; and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) such as produced water and released water from tailings. This presentation demonstrated the importance of water to oil sands operations and indicated how oil sands processing affects water quality. Water imports to meet oil sands needs is a topic of particular interest. Other topics that were presented included water properties changing during oil sands operations; tailings management and the effects on water quality; oil sands tailings and water management and the impact on water quality of the region; how oil sands processing affected water quality; and current tailings approach and proposed new tailings methods and the effects on water composition. Post extraction changes in OSPW and the potential impacts of engineered tailings were also discussed. It was concluded that water treatment options must meet water management objectives. figs.

MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

255

Thermoelectric and electrochemical self-potential anomalies induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

Downhole measurements of electrokinetic (EK) streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, has been shown to be useful for informing production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric (TE) and/or electrochemical (EC) effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a study of the contribution of these effects based on numerical models of subsurface potentials during production. We find that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both TE and EC potential signals in an oil reservoir, which may be measured at the production well along with EK potential signals. In particular, there is a peak in the TE potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The EC potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the TE and EC coupling coefficient. When we use the maximum theoretical magnitude for the TE and EC coupling coefficients, in the case of a perfect membrane, the lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible TE potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the EC potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front approximately coincide. The dependence of the TE and EC coupling coefficients upon temperature, salinity and/or partial water saturation is still uncertain. We explore the contribution of the EK and EC potential signals to the overall signal measured at the well as a function of salinity and water saturation. Our results imply that measurements of the spontaneous potential at a production well will combine contributions from both streaming and electrochemical effects, and may be used to detect an advancing waterfront some time before water breakthrough occurs at the well. Moreover, inversion of the measured signals could be used to determine the water saturation in the vicinity of the well, and to regulate flow into the well using control valves in order to maintain or increase oil production.

Gulamali, Murtaza; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, Matthew; Pain, Christopher

2010-05-01

256

USING COHERENT WATER JETS TO CONTROL OIL SPILLS  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of coherent water streams to induce a surface current in water and thus control a floating oil slick was examined at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT). The objective of the tests ...

257

Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

1994-01-01

258

Application of tritiated water as a tracer for quantitative determination of water flow distribution in an oil-field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the flow of water in an underground oil reservoir, tritiated water was injected in a well and, subsequently, tritium was determined in the water produced by the surrounding wells. Since the specific radioactivity of the water produced by the more remote wells appeared to be rather low, partly owing to dilution of the tritium water by the water present in the formation, enrichment methods were used, in order to increase counting sensitivity. Three methods of enrichment were examined: exchange with ethanol, conversion to toluene, and electrolysis. The latter method proved to be the most useful. The tritium was determined with a liquid scintillation counter; the scintillator consisted of a toluene-ethanol (2:1) mixture with DPO and POPOP, the water sample being dissolved in this liquid. Some statistical problems in connexion with the minimum detectable specific activity and the reduction of background are discussed briefly. (author)

1962-01-01

259

Injection device with the addition of water for Diesel engine. Einspritzvorrichtung mit Wasserzumischung fuer Dieselmotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an injection device with the addition of water for Diesel engines, apart from the actual Diesel fuel injection system there is a further injection system with its own injection pump for the water to be added. The latter system opens into the Diesel fuel injection system between the Diesel fuel injection pump and the associated injection valve. Electronic controls are provided for measuring the quantity of water to be added, which take into account the exhaust gas temperature, the fuel consumption and/or the speed. Important components which are in contact with the water are preferably made of ceramic materials. In this way optimum mixing rations for Diesel engine operation can be set without danger of mixing, and the supply of water can be completely shut off.

Rossmann, A.

1984-04-12

260

Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species.

Lenchi N; Inceo?lu O; Kebbouche-Gana S; Gana ML; Llirós M; Servais P; García-Armisen T

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Key development technologies of heavy oil reservoirs with strong water sensitivity in Wangzhuang oilfield  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examined development technologies used during thermal recovery optimization processes at a heavy oil reservoir with strong water sensitivity. The reservoir was a proximal fan-delta glutenite deposit at a lake basin edge. The reservoir had a high clay content, low permeability, and uneven oil distribution. Although elastic drive recovery, waterflooding, and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) were used at the reservoir, the ratio of total oil produced to original oil in place (OOIP) was only 4.5 per cent. The study included an investigation of water sensitivity evaluation methods, water sensitivity mechanisms, anti-swelling mechanisms, reservoir protection and transformation modes during thermal processes. Development schemes were also reviewed. Results of the investigation demonstrated that the reservoir had high amounts of clay, chilkinite, and montmorillonite mix-beds caused by proximal material and low effective permeability. Laboratory experiments showed that rock minerals and swollen clay materials converted to chilkinites as steam injection temperatures increased. Nitrogenous anti-swelling agents were then used swelling in the reservoir. It was concluded that reservoirs with water sensitivity can be developed by enhancing steam injection processes. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Li, W.Z.; Shi, D.H.; Sun, J.F.; Min, L.Y. [SINOPEC, Shengli (China). Shengli Oil Field Co. Ltd.

2006-07-01

262

An experimental study of stability of oil-water emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been much interest in alternative fuels made from coal which is much more abundant than oil. The coal-oil-water slurry is a new type of oil-based synfuel composed of finely pulverized coal, oil and water. It has lower viscosity, lower ignition point and higher heating value than coal-water slurry. The preparation of stable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion is critical for the success of production of stable coal-oil-water slurry. The present study was undertaken to experimentally investigate the effects of different process variables on emulsion stability. The emulsion was prepared using 100 ml colloid mill with sorbitan monooleate (SM) as emulsifier. The variables studied include emulsifier dosage, ratio of oil to water, stirring intensity, emulsifying temperature and mixing time. The results showed that the optimum process conditions are: emulsifier dosage, 0.5%; oil to water ratio, 1:1; stirring intensity, 2500 rpm; and mixing temperature, 30 {sup o}C.

Chen, Gonglun; Tao, Daniel [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky, 234E MMRB, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

2005-02-25

263

Combustion of waste oils simulating their injection in blast furnace tuyeres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study has been made of the combustion of different waste oils produced in an iron and steel works. Combustion is achieved by injecting the waste oil at flows of 10-20 kg/h in a combustion chamber that simulates the conditions of the blast furnace tuyere zone. The waste oil is preheated to 65-90 °C in order to achieve conditions of fluidity and is injected by spraying into the combustion chamber. During combustion the temperatures and the CO2, O2, CO N2 and H2 contents of the gases in the combustion chamber are constantly recorded. The efficiency of the combustion of each waste oil is determined.Se realiza un estudio de la combustión de diferentes aceites residuales que se producen en las plantas siderúrgicas. La combustión se consigue al inyectar el aceite residual, con caudales de 10-20 kg/h, en una cámara de combustión que simula las condiciones del horno alto en la zona de toberas. El aceite residual se precalienta a 65-90 °C para conseguir las condiciones de fluidez y se inyecta en la cámara de combustión. Durante la combustión, se registran de modo continuo las temperaturas y los contenidos de CO2, O2, CO, N2 y H2 en los gases de la cámara de combustión. Se calcula la eficiencia de la combustión de cada aceite residual.

Cores, A.; Ferreira, S.; Isidro, A.; Muñiz, M.

2009-01-01

264

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

David B. Burnett

2005-09-29

265

A replacement of oil by coal injection at the blast furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The suitability of Australian coals as low cost alternatives to oil and natural gas as supplementary fuel injectants in iron making blast furnaces is examined. For this purpose theoretical and experimental studies of pulverised coal combustion have been carried out to establish the critical coal properties and combustion conditions relative to typical operating conditions of Australian blast furnaces. Coal properties studied included volatile matter content, ash content, ash fusibility and particle size. The combustion conditions examined included air preheat and coal flow rate. A high temperature pilot scale test facility is described which simulates the highly turbulent and reactive 'raceway zone' of a blast furnace. To date the characteristics of the raceway zone have been determined for the complete range of Australian blast furnace cokes. A preliminary trial in which pulverised coal was injected into an experimental raceway in the simulation equipment has provided basic operating data for the development of suitable coal injection test conditions.

Scaife, P.H.; Mathieson, J.G.; McCarthy, M.J.; Rogers, H.; Nomura, S.

1983-03-01

266

Isotopic composition of uranium, water and oils of some oil-gas bearing provinces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study into the pattern of distribution of uranium isotopes and 234U/238U ratio in the stratal waters, oils and water-bearing rocks of active water-exchange zones and oil fields in Central Asia, the Terek-Sunzha region, and the Volga region has been made. The radioactive ratios for stratal waters in the water-oil contact area are suggestive of an active isotopic exchange which leads to an isotopic equilibrium at the water-oil interface. The less intensive interphase isotopic exchange of uranium in the ''oil-rock'' system, as compared to the ''water-rock'' system, is indicative of a stronger link between uranium and oil, than between uranium and water. The deficit of the 234U isotope in the hypergenesis zone attests to the fact that, in the active water-exchange zone, depletion of rocks in 234U is currently taking place, while the values of 234U/238U ratios close to equilibrium, in water-bearing rocks indicate the absence of processes of intensive uranium migration in the rocks of the oil-gas provinces studied

1977-01-01

267

Land and water impacts of oil sands production in Alberta.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Expansion of oil sands development results not only in the release of greenhouse gas emissions, but also impacts land and water resources. Though less discussed internationally due to to their inherently local nature, land and water impacts can be severe. Research in key areas is needed to manage oil sands operations effectively; including improved monitoring of ground and surface water quality. The resulting information gap means that such impacts are not well understood. Improved analyses of oil sands products are required that compare land and water use with other transportation fuel pathways and use a regional perspective so local effects can be considered and mitigated.

Jordaan SM

2012-04-01

268

Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement) and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method) were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determination. Test setup and procedure for verification and calibration of moisture sensor with specific-oil solubility parameters is described then tested and evaluated. This allows greater accuracy of online water content monitoring in the operating transformers under the changing temperature conditions.

PANKAJSHUKLA; Y.R.SOOD; R.K.JARIAL

2013-01-01

269

Innovative technology for ultra-deep water gravity-based separators: the heavy oil challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Troll subsea separation station is the only full-size, subsea separation station installed, operating and establishing a working track record. The station separates water and oil, re-injecting the water into a dedicated disposal well. Troll field is located in the Norwegian North Sea in 360-m (1,180-ft) water depth. Adapting this technology to ultra-deep water fields is a major challenge, calling for radically improved methods for gravity based separation. To meet the demands of future deep water fields, some radical changes will be necessary to adapt subsea separation to ultra-deep water fields, and to do so at acceptable levels of risk. This paper focuses on this challenge, and describes principles that can be used in the next generation of deep water and ultra-deep water subsea systems. (author)

Michaelsen, Jarle; Enger, Eric [VETCO Gray (Norway)

2004-07-01

270

Nontoxicity of an oil shale process water to Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The survival of Escherichia coli in the presence of an oil shale process water was studied over a five day period. The organism survived better in the presence of one or ten percent concentration of the process water than it did in distilled or tap water. Water chemistry of the diluent appeared to be important to the survival of the organism.

Adams JC

1985-04-01

271

Metallorganic, Organic, and Mutagenic Properties of Oil Shale Retort Waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, organic, and metallorganic properties of oil shale retort waters. Four retort water samples were analyzed in the mutagenesis/organics study: a storage water and a condensate water from the Para...

A. P. Toste R. B. Myers

1981-01-01

272

Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

Sharma, G.D.

1995-07-01

273

Use of pulse water injection to increase efficiency of gas emission from coal seams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses use of water injection and pulse water injection for increasing efficiency of coal seam degassing. Effects of increasing and decreasing water pressure on a coal seam in a tri-axial state of stress are analyzed. Tensile forces and their effects on sorptive capacity of coal are evaluated. Effects of compression of pores in a coal body on sorptive coal capacity and increase in gas emission from a coal seam are investigated. Practical aspects of water injection used for increasing efficiency of coal seam degassing in the Karaganda basin are discussed: number, dimensions and position of long boreholes used for water injection, types of equipment developed in Kazakhstan and used for pulse water injection (the GIN-12A system), injection schemes.

Rogov, E.I.; Lobikov, I.I. (Institut Gornogo Dela Akademii Nauk Respubliki Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan))

1992-02-01

274

Nodal analysis of oil wells with downhole water sink completions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Any representative analysis of well production must consider water coning. Water coning in partially completed wells refers to the movement of water toward the oil zone which thereby changes the saturation profile near the wellbore. The vertical movement of the water is rate and time dependent. If the oil rate is under the critical rate, the partial completion prevents water breakthrough. Water coning decreases the area where oil flows into the wellbore and oil productivity is decreased because the oil flow path becomes blocked. The total mobility is degraded due to the relative permeability effects. This paper presents a new nodal analysis method for downhole water sink (DWS) wells which includes 5 new operational constraints to evaluate natural flow rate. The method identifies the operational range of top and bottom rates, with water coning at the top completion and oil-free water production at the bottom completion. DWS wells were shown to be effective in improving well productivity by reducing water coning and the resulting adverse multiphase effects. The maximum pressure drawdown limits early production rates. Tubing performance controls production rate when reservoir pressure drops. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

Arslan, O.; White, C.D.; Wojtanowicz, A.K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2004-07-01

275

Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils.

Burguera JL; Burguera M; Antón RE; Salager JL; Arandia MA; Rondón C; Carrero P; de Peña YP; Brunetto R; Gallignani M

2005-12-01

276

Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils. PMID:18970302

Burguera, José L; Burguera, Marcela; Antón, Raquel E; Salager, Jean-Louis; Arandia, María A; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo

2005-08-09

277

Investigation of the two- and three-phase relative permeability relation in carbon dioxide-oil-water systems for light and heavy oil reservoirs  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 flooding has gained increased interest in regard to both light and heavy oil reservoirs, as a means of combining improved oil recovery and geological storage of CO2 in partially depleted oil reservoirs. Distribution and movement of CO2 in oil reservoirs is a function of the relative permeability of three phases of water, oil, and CO2 in oil reservoirs. In general, three-phase relative permeability relations are required with respect to the design of CO2 field projects for accurate predictions via numerical reservoir simulation of CO 2 flood performance and to model production and injection problems. However, a two-phase relative permeability relation is used to generate the three-phase relative permeability relation for use in reservoir simulations. An overview of the available literature indicates few attempts have been made to experimentally determine the three-phase relative permeability relation for CO2-oil-water systems under practical reservoir conditions. This research attempts to investigate the two- and three-phase relative permeability relation of CO2-oil-water systems through a series of carefully designed laboratory experiments. Fourteen experiments in two-phase systems, and four experiments in three-phase systems with heavy and light oils, were conducted in order to study the effect of pressure, temperature, viscosity, and flow rate on the relative permeability relation. It was shown that relative permeability is temperature dependent and increases with an increase in temperature. Pressure and oil viscosity had similar effects, although higher pressure caused a decrease in relative permeability to water in water-oil and water-oil-gas systems. Investigating the effect of flow rate it was found that higher injection flow rate caused increase in relative permeability values. The effect of the injection flow rate on relative permeability behaviour can be explained by the formation of emulsion during the displacement process. A set of new correlations with which to calculate two- and three-phase relative permeabilities was developed. The new correlations, when compared to existing correlations, can better predict relative permeability values which take into account the effects of pressure, viscosity, and flow rate.

Zarivnyy, Ostap

278

The effect of low capacity injection systems on transient initiated loss of vessel water injection at Browns Ferry unit one  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient initiated loss of vessel water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence.

1983-09-01

279

Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

2012-01-01

280

Process for separating crude oil from mixtures comprising finely divided inorganic solids, crude oil and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is claimed for separating crude oil from a mixture comprising crude oil, finely divided organic solids and water by contacting the mixture with a solvent and a solvent vapor stream in a first contacting zone to heat the mixture and produce a vaporous stream containing at least a major portion of the water and a crude oil laden solvent and inorganic solids mixture which is thereafter separated into a crude oil laden solvent stream and an inorganic solids stream with the inorganic solids stream being thereafter contacted with additional solvent to remove additional quantities of crude oil from the inorganic solids. Crude oil is recovered from a crude oil laden solvent stream.

Johnson, S.W.; Smith, R.H.

1984-07-17

 
 
 
 
281

Research on Dispersed Oil Droplets Breakage and Emulsification in the Dynamic Oil and Water Hydrocyclone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil and water dynamic hydrocyclone is one type of facilities that separate two phases or multiple phases applied widely in the fields such as food processing, environmental protection, biological pharmacy, petroleum and chemistry. The dispersed oil droplets in the dynamic oil and water hydrocyclone were often broken into small drops by shear force, which decreased the separation efficiency of dynamic oil-water hydrocyclone greatly. To avoid the breakage of the oil droplets, the turbulence field and the velocity field of the dynamic hydrocyclone were studied by the software of Fluent to analyze the main reason that led to breakage of oil droplets. Results indicated that the deformation of oil droplets was caused by the viscous shear force; the breakage of oil droplets was caused by the Reynolds shear stress and the local pressure fluctuations. The main area that the drops were prone to breakup of the dynamic hydrocyclone is that the rotating grating nearby, the wall boundary layer of the drum and center axis of the drum. Finally, the breakage of oil droplets and emulsification of oil and water in the dynamic hydrocyclone were verified by the experiments.

Guangdong Guo; Songsheng Deng

2013-01-01

282

????????????????? Numerical Simulation of Oil and Water Tow-Phase See-page in Stress Sensitivity Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The mathematical model of oil and water two-phase seepage was derived and solved by numerical limited difference method in the paper. During the simulation, permeability values of every time step were calculated by relation curves between dimensionless permeability and effective stress obtained by experiment. Then the pressure distribution of next time step was calculated by the new permeability distribution. The situation of non-stress sensitivity and three different kinds of sensitive degree are studied respectively through numerical stimulation method. Figures of the dimensionless permeability space distribution, the daily oil production and the average reservoir pressure were drawn. Results show the stronger the stress sensitivity is, the variation range of the average reservoir pressure is small and the daily oil production is lower during the water free oil production period. While the weaker the stress sensitivity is, the variation range of the average reservoir pressure is large and the daily oil production is higher during the water free oil production period. Permeability distribution changes sharply around production and injection wells, while smoothly far from wells.

??; ???; ??; ???; ??

2011-01-01

283

Simultaneous injection of polymer and surfactant for improving oil recovery; Injecao simultanea de polimero e surfactante para aumento da recuperacao de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The injection of polymeric solutions in petroleum reservoirs is a supplemental method of petroleum recovery, that seeks to increase the volumetric efficiency of swept of the oil with the decrease of the mobility of the injection water. In the contact between two non miscible fluids, superficial tensions are established, that can influence the relations between the rock and the fluids, depending on the nature of both. Therefore, the combined injection of a surfactant and a polymer can promote improvements in the injectivity and in the global recovery efficiency. In this work it was used samples of commercial polyacrylamide, which were characterized through hydrolysis degree, molecular weight and rheological behavior. From these results it was chosen one sample to be used associated to a polymeric surfactant. Through a core flood system, the following tests were done: injection of polymer solution; injection of surfactant solution followed by polymer solution and injection of surfactant / polymer mixture. The results showed that the injection of surfactant / polymer mixture promoted a significant increase in the residual resistance factor, in relation to the other situations. (author)

Medeiros, Ana C.R.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Fagundes, Fabio P.; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

2004-07-01

284

Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the effect of bergamot essential oil (BEO) containing linalool and linalyl acetate as major volatile components in the capsaicin test. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin (1.6 ?g) produced a short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected paw. The nociceptive behavioral response evoked by capsaicin was inhibited dose-dependently by intraplantar injection of BEO. Both linalool and linalyl acetate, injected into the hindpaw, showed a significant reduction of nociceptive response, which was much more potent than BEO. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intraplantar pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly reversed BEO- and linalool-induced antinociception. Pretreatment with naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting ?-opioid receptor preferring antagonist, resulted in a significant antagonizing effect on antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. Antinociception induced by i.p. or intrathecal morphine was enhanced by the combined injection of BEO or linalool. The enhanced effect of combination of BEO or linalool with morphine was antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids, in the antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. Combined administration of BEO or linalool acting at the peripheral site, and morphine may be a promising approach in the treatment of clinical pain.

Sakurada T; Mizoguchi H; Kuwahata H; Katsuyama S; Komatsu T; Morrone LA; Corasaniti MT; Bagetta G; Sakurada S

2011-01-01

285

Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of bergamot essential oil (BEO) containing linalool and linalyl acetate as major volatile components in the capsaicin test. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin (1.6 ?g) produced a short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected paw. The nociceptive behavioral response evoked by capsaicin was inhibited dose-dependently by intraplantar injection of BEO. Both linalool and linalyl acetate, injected into the hindpaw, showed a significant reduction of nociceptive response, which was much more potent than BEO. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intraplantar pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly reversed BEO- and linalool-induced antinociception. Pretreatment with naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting ?-opioid receptor preferring antagonist, resulted in a significant antagonizing effect on antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. Antinociception induced by i.p. or intrathecal morphine was enhanced by the combined injection of BEO or linalool. The enhanced effect of combination of BEO or linalool with morphine was antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids, in the antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. Combined administration of BEO or linalool acting at the peripheral site, and morphine may be a promising approach in the treatment of clinical pain. PMID:20932858

Sakurada, Tsukasa; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

2010-10-13

286

Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a subcutaneous injection of sesame oil against iron-induced acute renal injury in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Iron intoxication causes acute nephrotoxicity in animals and humans. Sesame oil, a healthful food, increases resistance to lipid peroxidation and protects against multiple organ injury in various animal models. The authors examined the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a subcutaneous injection of sesame oil against iron-induced acute renal injury in mice. METHODS: Iron intoxication in mice was induced with an intraperitoneal injection (2 mg/kg) of ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA). Various doses of sesame oil (0, 1, 2, and 4 mL/kg, subcutaneously) were given immediately after (prophylactic) or 30 minutes after (therapeutic) the Fe-NTA injection. Renal injury was assessed by the rise in serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels 3 hours after the Fe-NTA injection. RESULTS: One hour after the Fe-NTA injection, serum BUN and CRE levels were significantly higher in Fe-NTA-treated mice than in saline-treated controls; 3 and 6 hours after the Fe-NTA injection, they were dose-dependently and significantly lower in all sesame oil-treated groups than in the group treated only with Fe-NTA and saline. CONCLUSION: A subcutaneous injection of sesame oil had both prophylactic and therapeutic effects against iron-induced acute renal injury in mice.

Li YH; Chien SP; Chu PY; Liu MY

2012-05-01

287

Characterization of oil sands naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using fluorescence technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to protect surface waters in the Athabasca oil sands region, oil sands operations cannot discharge process-affected water to the surrounding environment. The bitumen extraction process enhances the release of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water that is stored in tailings impoundments. This study developed, verified and optimized fluorescence spectrophotometry as a quick, accurate, and cost-effective analytical technique to characterize naphthenic acids by generating fingerprint signatures. For this study, process-affected water samples were collected from 3 oil sands operations in the Athabasca region. Groundwater samples were supplied from a nested monitoring well near a tailings pond. All water samples were obtained in the winter of 2009. Naphthenic acid concentrations in the oil sands process-affected waters were in the order of 10 mg/L. Qualitative analysis was conducted in this study to determine if unique fingerprints would be detected in environmental samples using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Both oil sands process-affected and ground water samples were analyzed to determine if signals differed between samples. The study showed that the fluorescence signals in the samples of process waters were different from groundwater collected near a tailings pond. A dilution series prepared with process-affected water produced a linear response curve, following correction for inner filtering effects. It was concluded that fluorescence spectrophotometry is a potentially powerful tool for characterizing and quantifying naphthenic acids in waters. 17 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, L.D.; Alostaz, M.; Ulrich, A.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-07-01

288

Device for producing an oil/water emulsion. Einrichtung zum Herstellen einer Oel-Wasser-Emulsion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a device for producing an oil/water emulsion for operating an injection pump, particularly of a diesel engine, which a symmetrical turbulence chamber with tangential inlet and a narrowing axial outlet. To produce a fine homogeneous emulsion with a size of suspended water droplets in the region of 2 and 4 my, the axial end section of the turbulence chamber away from the outlet is surrounded by a coaxial annular duct, which is connected to it via tangential inlet slots to the turbulence chamber and into which an oil inlet duct opens tangentially. An electromagnetically-controlled water injection nozzle opens into the inlet end section of the turbulence chamber. The outlet of the turbulence chamber opens via an expanded section into a suction into a suction chamber of a radial rotor, which is situated in a pump chamber, which has an outlet duct in the area of the circumference of the radial rotor, to which a 'go' pipe going to the injection pump and a recirculation pipe going to an emulsion inlet duct can be connected, which also opens into the annular duct. An inlet duct opens at the side of the suction chamber of the radial rotor, to which a return pipe coming from the injection pump can be connected.

Ulrich, A.

1990-10-18

289

Water-in-oil emulsions : studies on water resolution and rheology over time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Water-in-oil emulsions, which often form following oil spills, make cleanup very difficult because the physical properties and characteristics of the oil change significantly after the spill. In this study, water-in-oil mixtures from crude oil and petroleum products were studied in a laboratory for up to one year. The types of mixtures were characterized by resolution of water and rheology measurements at one and seven days, and some after one year. Oil and petroleum products formed 4 clearly-defined water-in-oil types when mixed with water. These were categorized as stable, unstable, mesostable and entrained. The distinct physical properties of each category were described in this paper. The water-in-oil types were characterized using a newly developed numerical stability index which is the product of the ratio of viscosity increase and a ratio of the elasticity increase. The index was also used to correlate stability with oil compositions and properties. The asphaltene and resin content in the starting oil, along with its viscosity and density were the most important factors for water uptake and emulsion formation, as determined by a comparative evaluation of the properties of the starting oils before mixing. The saturate content and asphaltene-to-resin ratio are other important factors. 42 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

2008-01-01

290

Laboratory and field measurements of oil concentrations in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentrations of mechanically dispersed crude oil in water and in a Regional SAE 30 water-in-oil emulsion were measured in a calibration tank in the laboratory with a beam transmittance meter. It was found that the beam attenuation increased almost exponentially as the consentration of dispersed crude oil and water-in-oil emulsion in the laboratory were increased from 0 to 60 ppM and from 0 to 80-90 ppM, respectively. The standard deviation in the laboratory measurements was found to be about 2.1 ppM, when the crude concentration was below 60 ppM, and about 2.70 ppM when the concentration of the emulsion was below 80 ppM. The time changes of the concentration of dispersed oil under breaking waves in a wave tank in the laboratory has been measured in different depths below the surface. These measurements showed that the oil concentrations decreased almost exponentially below the surface, down to a depth approximately equal to the height of the breaking wave. Both laboratory and field experiments have shown that beam transmittance measurements of concentrations of dispersed oil in water are possible to carry out when the oil concentration is below 500-1000 ppM. This measuring technique is relatively accurate, and measurements are easy to carry out. Another advantage, compared to water samples, is the possibility of measuring continuously both in time and space. 5 references.

1982-01-01

291

Ten-year experience using injectable silicone oil for soft tissue augmentation in the Philippines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: No ideal, permanent filler is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Repeated injections of new temporary fillers make this cosmetic procedure expensive. OBJECTIVE: To show that silicone oil is effective, safe, economical, and permanent. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The age, sex, number, indications, sites, adverse reactions, total amounts injected, and clinical cosmetic results of 206 cases were tallied. RESULTS: Females (82%) outnumbered males (18%). The majority were in the 21- to 30-year age group. Fifty-five percent had acne scars, 42% nasolabial grooves, 13.5% marionette lines, 12.6% glabellar lines, 9.8% postvaricella scars, 9.3% inframalar depressions, 1.8% post-traumatic scars, 1.4% lipodystrophy, 1% lip augmentation, 0.9% sleep lines, and 0.4% contour defect. Fifty-one percent had < or = 0.5 cc, 22% 1 cc, 7% < or = 1.5 cc, 7% < or = 2 cc, and 12% >2 cc. Clinical improvement was graded excellent (76-100%), good (50-75%), fair (26-50%), and poor (< 25%). Seventy-two percent had excellent results, 18% good, 2% fair, and 0.5% poor. Seven percent were lost to follow-up. Two percent (n=5) had transient erythematous papules lasting 2 to 6 weeks, with the exception of two patients. CONCLUSION: Silicone oil injected with the correct indications and techniques and with microdroplet injections is a safe, economical, and permanent dermal and subcutaneous filler. Rare permanent erythematous papules and transient ecchymoses appear on deep dermal injections.

Jacinto SS

2005-11-01

292

Three-phase pressure drop in heavy oil, water and gas flow in a horizontal pipe for application in heavy oil transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant extent of the Brazilian oil reserves consists of heavy oil, and its importance and economic value have been increasing in the last years. However, these oils, besides their elevated densities (API degree lower than 20), have viscosities higher than 100 mPa.s , which makes it more difficult to transport them through pipelines. A solution for this problem is the injection of water in the pipe, in such a way to reduce friction and, consequently, the energy expend for a given oil flow rate. The two-phase flow of heavy oil and water has been the object of a number of recent studies, and concepts such as the core-flow technology can be useful for heavy oil transportation. But in production operations, gas is also present, initially dissolved in the oil phase then leaving the solution to form a free gas phase if the pressure is below the bubble point pressure. Thus the study of three-phase flow of heavy oil, water and gas is in order. The present paper presents the three-phase flow pressure drop measured in a horizontal glass tube of 2.84 cm i.d. at several combinations of the individual flow rates. Initially, for the development of the experiment, two-phase flow of heavy oil-water and gas-water were studied to establish the flow rate ranges that cover the main patterns already known. The superficial velocities used varied from 0.04 to 0.5 m/s for water, 0.04 to 9.0 m/s for gas and 0.02 to 1.2 m/s for oil. For each test run, the three-phase flow pressure drop was determined with the help of absolute and differential pressure transducers. The results are shown in the form of maps in terms of superficial velocities. (author)

Trevisan, Francisco E.; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2003-07-01

293

System to inject steam and produce oil from the same wellbore through downhole valves switching. Fifth quarterly report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although EOR by steam injection is used primarily to recover Heavy Oil, the same methods are also applicable to some Light Oil reservoirs. A typical example is that of the Shannon reservoirs in the Teapot Dome field, WY, operated by the DOE, for the US Na...

1993-01-01

294

Oil-in-water emulsion as a modifier of water reflectance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a component of the water reflectance in the visible region, stimulated by oil-in-water emulsion in the concentration of 1 ppm. A proxy for reflectance which is in use in oceanic optics has been studied. A significant change in reflectance for water contaminated by oil emulsion is ...

Zbigniew Otremba

295

Direct observation of oil displacement by water flowing toward an oil nanogap  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluorescence microscope and a light microscope were employed to observe the phenomenon of water flowing toward an oil nanogap between two solid surfaces. It was found that water was able to displace hexadecane in the nanogap confinement, which contradicted previous viewpoints. An increase in water flow speed contributed to entrainment of water into the contact region, due to inadequate oil supply. Surface energy was found to be another factor that influenced the displacement phenomenon. It was easier for water to enter the contact region on the surface with a greater surface energy, since less energy is required to separate the contact of hexadecane and solid surface and to form water's own contact.

Xiao, Huaping; Guo, Dan; Liu, Shuhai; Xie, Guoxin; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun; Luo, Jianbin

2011-08-01

296

Optimal injection strategies for surfactant flooding enhanced oil recovery using a streamtube reservoir simulator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding has been studied in order to calculate chemical injection strategies which maximize the amount of profit obtained from the flood. The maximization problem was formulated by defining a cost functional. This functional was then maximized using the calculus of variations. This was a large scale non-linear optimization problem. A two-dimensional reservoir simulator was developed and used for the studies. The simulator combined concepts from steamtube modeling along with a compositional micellar/polymer flooding simulator. The resulting simulator was used to predict the behavior of the state variables and in turn to calculate optimal injection strategies. Physical property data was taken from Amoco's Sloss pilot plant surfactant flood. Optimal policies were found to be nonunique for the physical data used. Optimization studies were performed using different numbers of streamtubes to represent the two dimensional behavior of the Sloss oil field. Studies were run for one, three, five and seven streamtube representations. Results from the five and seven streamtube representations were identical. A second group of optimal injection studies were investigated using a more realistic version of the reservoir simulator. The new version included a more realistic phase behavior model and a more realistic definition of a variable known as effective salinity. Results from single streamtube optimization studies using this model were not as encouraging as equivalent studies using the old model.

Porzucek, C.

1987-01-01

297

Heating of Oil Well by Hot Water Circulation  

CERN Multimedia

When highly viscous oil is produced at low temperatures, large pressure drops will significantly decrease production rate. One of possible solutions to this problem is heating of oil well by hot water recycling. We construct and analyze a mathematical model of oil-well heating composed of three linear parabolic PDE coupled with one Volterra integral equation. Further on we construct numerical method for the model and present some simulation results.

Jurak, M; Jurak, Mladen; Prnic, Zarko

2005-01-01

298

Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

2001-12-01

299

Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

2001-01-01

300

Seeking methods to increase oil removal from effluent waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study had shown that still residues of fatty acids from the Shchebekinsk Chemical Plant were inefficient in removal of oil from that plant's effluent waters. Hence spun glass filters were developed for use in a cooling jacket of 45 mm diameter through which the water was directed along a 440 mm-long filtering tube at a controlled speed. The filter did remove the oil; the filter was regenerated with benzene when its efficiency in removing oil fell below 50%. Better filtration came after treating the filter with benzene, and the benzene was then reused. In addition to the water purification, it was possible to redistil the oil-benzene mix, yielding a product similar to absorbing oil and components of ''heavy benzene.''

Boyetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, Y.M.

1982-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Reactions in and characterization of oil in water microemulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study of oil-in-water microemulsion media was to determine the role(s) played by these systems in modifying reaction processes which take place at the oil/water interface. A somewhat extensive characterization of the systems employed was coupled with kinetic data. Several oil-in-water microemulsion systems have been characterized by phase mapping, electric conductivity, and light scattering. With the exception of the Tween 60 System, which contains pentanol as cosurfactant, all the systems employed in this study used 1-butanol. The BRIJ 96, CTAB, mixed BRIJ 96-CTAB, and Tween 60 Systems all contained hexadecane as the oil. The alcohol/surfactant molar ratio was 5:1 for the BRIJ 96, CTAB, and mixed BRIJ 96-CTAB systems and 8:1 for the Tween 60 system. By suitable treatment of the light scattering data, droplet diameters were obtained as a function of composition. These diameters were observed to increase exponentially with increasing oil content.

Hermansky, C.G.

1980-01-01

302

Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 ?g C L(-1), 20 ?g C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures. PMID:23639397

Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

2013-04-08

303

Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 ?g C L(-1), 20 ?g C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures.

Santos IC; Mesquita RB; Machado A; Bordalo AA; Rangel AO

2013-05-01

304

Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

1989-01-01

305

Nitrogen injection into water-driven natural gas or condensate reservoirs increases recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many natural gas and condensate reservoirs are subject to secondary recovery by either water injection or a natural water drive. If the hydrocarbon is the non-wetting fluid, and water the wetting fluid, the hydrocarbon will be trapped by the water. The volume of trapped hydrocarbons at abandonment may be of the order of 20 to 45%. Low cost nitrogen might be injected at the water-hydrocarbon contact. The nitrogen would result in miscible displacement with the hydrocarbon. Water would drive and trap the nitrogen, and such could result in an increase in ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. Computer simulation studies have been made to estimate the increase in hydrocarbon recovery which might result from injection of nitrogen into natural gas or condensate reservoirs subject to secondary recovery by either a natural water drive or water injection. The projected economics of the process appear to be favorable.

Adler, A.B.; Crawford, P.B.

1983-01-01

306

Production and pipeline transport of oil-water dispersions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil-water dispersions are becoming increasingly important for their potential application in the economical exploitation of heavy-oil fields and as novel fuels to be utilized for gasification in industrial power plants and in small heating systems. Snamprogetti in co-operation with Agip and Eniricerche is involved in a research project, partially supported by the Holding Company ENI and Europen Union (Thermie project), for the developing of a new integrated process to produce heavy crude oil from the marginal fields located in the Adriatic Sea as oil-water dispersions. The process scheme provides the multiphase pipeline transportation of the oil in reservoir water dispersion (primary dispersion) from the platform to the onshore processing Oil Centre for oil production and for the preparation of a very stable dispersion of oil in fresh water (secondary dispersion) to be utilized for direct burning. To obtain the necessary information for the design of the production, transportation and processing systems Snamprogetti has equipped a pilot plant to perform dispersion preparations and characterizations, single phase and multiphase transportation tests. The present work provides experimental data relevant to pumping tests of primary and secondary dispersions showing a stable flow configuration for the secondary and a tendency to stratification for the primary in certain flow conditions. During multiphase pumping tests of primary dispersions a markedly non-newtonian behavior has been observed when strong segregation phenomena occur. A comparison with results obtained by one-phase and multiphase flow programs is also presented.

Carniani, E.; Celsi, A.; Ercolani, D. [and others

1997-07-01

307

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

308

Remote methods of indicating oil products in natural waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey is made of domestic and foreign publications covering remote methods of monitoring film petroleum products and oil in natural waters. The given methods are realized in practice with the use of different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote quality control of the natural waters at the modern level may be an indicator of water pollution with film petroleum products.

Shlyakhova, L.A.

1981-01-01

309

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PURIFICATION PROCESS OF OIL CONTAMINATED WATERS ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorption properties of carbonic sorbents on natural raw materials for purification of waste waters frompetroleum products are investigated. Temperature influence on sumption properties of sorbents on naturalraw materials to increase the purification degree of water ecosystem is studied. Mathematical model ofpurification process of oil contaminated waters is developed?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???.??????? ?????: ???????????? ??????????????, ??????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ???????.?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????????????.  ??????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????????  ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ???

?. ????????; ?. ?????; ?. ??????

2012-01-01

310

Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability : An Analysis Of Experimental Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The seasonal imbalance between supply and demand of renewable energy requires temporary storage, which can be achieved by hot water injection in warm aquifers. This requires that the permeability and porosity of the aquifer are not reduced significantly by heating. We present an overview of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation. Heating causes thermal expansion, which results in porosity reduction if the sandstone is confined. The maximum effect of porosity reduction as a result of thermal expansion on permeability is modelled and compared the change in specific surface that is computed from the reported data. This does not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx of colloidal particles due to corrosion of the apparatus at elevated temperature causes permeability reduction in a number of investigations. Mobilisation of internal particles, particularly kaolinite particles, is considered a probable mechanism of permeability reduction for the other experiments reviewed here. The parameters that strongly affect the success of heat storage therefore include the quality of the equipment and particularly the prevention of corrosion, as well as the sandstone lithology and its interaction with the reservoir fluid.

Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

2012-01-01

311

Optimization of injection pressure for a compression ignition engine with cotton seed oil as an alternate fuel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major problem with the direct use of vegetable oils as fuel into CI engines is their higher viscosity. It interferes the fuel injection and atomization and contributes to incomplete combustion, nozzle clogging, excessive engine deposits, ring sticking, producing thick smoke, etc. The problem of higher viscosity of vegetable oils can be overcome to a greater extent by various techniques, such as heating of fuel lines, trans-esterification, modification of injection system, etc. In the present investigation, short term tests were conducted with the use of untreated cotton seed oil in a single cylinder, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. Tests were conducted with cotton seed oil and diesel. To improve the combustion characteristics of cotton seed oil in an unmodified engine, effect of increase in injection pressure was studied. The injection pressure was increased from 180 bar to 240 bar (in steps of 15 bar). The investigation revealed that the optimum pressure for cottonseed oil as 210 bar and comparison of the performance of the engine was studied in terms of brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and exhaust emissions.

S. Naga Sarada; M.Shailaja; A.V. Sita Rama Raju; K. Kalyani Radha

2010-01-01

312

Cellulose as a novel amphiphilic coating for oil-in-water and water-in-oil dispersions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amphiphilic character of cellulose molecules provides the opportunity to use it as a novel eco-friendly emulsifying agent for formation of stable oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions. This may be done by mixing water, oil and cellulose solution in an ionic liquid. A more practical alternative is to form first a hydrogel from the cellulose/ionic liquid solution by coagulation with water and applying it into the sonicated water/oil or oil/water mixtures. The dissolution/regeneration process affords higher mobility to the cellulose molecules so an encapsulating coating can be formed at the water-oil interface. A solid-state dispersion was obtained by drying liquid dispersions, which can be repeatedly dissolved in excess water reforming a sustainable dispersion. The damp dispersion can be blown under reduced pressure, yielding a nanoporous foam ("aerocellulose"). The n-eicosane based solid dispersion as well as the aqueous dispersion possess a very high effective heat-absorption capacity. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the encapsulating cellulose shell is indeed in the amorphous state. Small-angle diffraction patterns of n-eicosane dispersions exhibit two sharp reflections. One is due to the n-eicosane triclinic crystal bulk phase and the other at somewhat smaller angles is interpreted as due to less ordered phase, possibly due to interactions with the encapsulating cellulose.

Rein DM; Khalfin R; Cohen Y

2012-11-01

313

Influence of fuel additives on performance of direct-injection Diesel engine and exhaust emissions when operating on shale oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on shale oil that has been treated with multi-functional fuel additives. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the fuel additives Marisol FT (Sweden) and SO-2E (Estonia) as well as to verify their ability to increase energy conversion and reduce brake specific fuel consumption, contamination and smoke opacity of the exhausts when fuelling the Diesel engine with shale oil. Test results show that application of these additives could be a very efficient means to improve Diesel engine performance on shale oil, especially when operating at the light load range. The brake specific fuel consumption at light loads and speeds of 1400-2000 min-1 reduces by 18.3-11.0% due to the application of the Marisol FT. The additive SO-2E proves to produce nearly the same effect. The total NO x emission from the fully loaded Diesel engine fuelled with the treated shale oil reduces by 29.1% (SO-2E) and 23.0% (Marisol FT). It is important that the lower NO x is obtained due to reducing both harmful pollutants, NO and NO2. The CO emission at rated power increases by 16.3% (SO-2E) and 48.0% (Marisol FT), whereas the smoke opacity of the exhausts increases by 35% and over 2 times, respectively. The effect of the fuel additives on the HC emission seems to be complicated and ambiguous.

2005-01-01

314

Carboxylic acid distribution in oil- and water-phases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carboxylic acids are the most abundant oxygen containing organic molecules found in oils and oilfield waters. Their partition behaviour in the oil/water system is a function of molecular weight, where the homologous n-carboxylic acids distribute systematically between the phases. Previous work has, however, indicated an in situ source for the aqueous acids, controlled by the overall red-ox conditions in the reservoir. Higher molecular weight acids in the oil phase are more likely generated in the petroleum source rock. The amounts and distributions of carboxylic acids (as carbon number range) in oils and corresponding formation waters have been measured. The results are compared to equivalent data on phenols and BTX distributions (presented elsewhere) using multivariate techniques. The effect of biodegradation on the distribution of organic solutes in petroleum system waters is also addressed. The results are discussed both in the context of partition and red-ox as controlling factors.

Barth, T.; Pettersen, A.R.; Moen, L.K.; Dale, J.D. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)] [and others

1996-10-01

315

Hygro-responsive membranes for effective oil-water separation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a critical need for new energy-efficient solutions to separate oil-water mixtures, especially those stabilized by surfactants. Traditional membrane-based separation technologies are energy-intensive and limited, either by fouling or by the inability of a single membrane to separate all types of oil-water mixtures. Here we report membranes with hygro-responsive surfaces, which are both superhydrophilic and superoleophobic, in air and under water. Our membranes can separate, for the first time, a range of different oil-water mixtures in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% separation efficiency, by using the difference in capillary forces acting on the two phases. Our separation methodology is solely gravity-driven and consequently is expected to be highly energy-efficient. We anticipate that our separation methodology will have numerous applications, including the clean-up of oil spills, wastewater treatment, fuel purification and the separation of commercially relevant emulsions.

Kota AK; Kwon G; Choi W; Mabry JM; Tuteja A

2012-01-01

316

Total emulsification of formation water and oil in a pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emulsification of formation water and oil during movement in a pipeline is examined assuming that the diameter of the water droplets suspended in the oil flow under the action of turbulent fluctuations is greater than the average volumetrical surface diameter of the droplets formed in the flow. It is assumed that the rate of droplet suspension by the turbulent fluctuations depends on the concentration of the disperse phase and upon reaching a dense droplet cluster, becomes equal to zero. An equation is derived in a criterional form that describes the total emulsification of water in an oil flow. A comparison of computations and experimental data on the emulsification of model fluids (water in transformer oil) demonstrated a satisfactory correlation.

Medvedev, V.F.; Boyko, V.I.; Guzhov, A.I.

1984-01-01

317

Condensate injection soak as an enhanced oil recovery technique in the Niger Delta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental investigation has been carried out on condensate injection soak in a two-dimensional micro model. The condensate was allowed to contact a resident crude. The aim being to ascertain the lowering of interfacial tension between the two liquids through convergence of composition and flatting of free surface energy. A field pilot condensate injection soak was carried out on an abandoned well in the Niger Delta which yielded additional 5% recovery. Condensate was injected at a given rate and back produced after a time lag. In the micro model experiment the condensate soak was observed to enhance the flow of the resident crude after a period of contact as a result of low interfacial tension in the system. Similarly, in the abandoned well in the Niger Delta the resident crude was recovered on back production of the injected condensate soak. This success did not only improve recovery of the residual oil, but provides means of handling and utilisation of condensate from a nearby reservoir. (orig.)

Chukwu, O.; Obah, B. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria)

1999-01-01

318

System to inject steam and produce oil from the same wellbore through downhole valve switching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various Downhole Equipment systems have been designed for typical applications in three California Oilfields,based on well data gathered from three different Operating Companies. The first system, applicable to a 2,000 ft deep reservoir (Monarch) a highly underpressured, unconsolidated sand of 200 ft net pay, located in the Midway-Sunset field, is based on the use of a new well. The second well configuration considered was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with a 7 inches casing and penetrating into two separate sandstone reservoirs, at normal pressures in the North Antelope Hills field. Only the bottom layer is presently in production through a gravel-packed 5.5 inch linear, while the upper zone is behind the cemented casing. The third case studied was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with an 8 5/8 inch casing, presently unperforated, into a thin under-pressured sand reservoir (Weber) in the Midway-Sunset field. All three California fields contain Heavy Oils of different but relatively high viscosities. A new class of potential applications of our new technology has also been considered: the recovery of Light Oil (> 20 API) by steam injection in under-pressured Carbonate reservoirs which lay at depths beyond the economic limit for conventional steam injection technology. The possibility of including this application in a Field Test proposal to the DOE, under the Class II Oil Program, is now under review by various Operators. A drilling contractor experienced in drilling multiple horizontal wells in Carbonate reservoirs and a team of reservoir engineers experienced in the recovery of Light Oil by steam in fractured reservoirs have expressed their interest in participating in such a joint Field Project. Laboratory tests on specific prototypes of Downhole Sealing Elements are underway.

1992-01-01

319

Water layer height measurement in oil-water two-phase flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Water layer height was measured by a single-wire capacitance probe in horizontal oil-water two-phase flows. The viscosity of oil was up to 140 mPa.s to simulate the actual flow in oil production logging. Typical water-layer-height curves with time were obtained when water was continuous. The accuracy was estimated by a quick-closing valve (QCV) system. Time traces of water layer height were completely consistent with the corresponding flow structures. The statistic parameters, such as amplitude, average, and frequency, were different from each other, which can describe the features of the flow patterns. The single-wire capacitance probe can only detect continuous water, instead of emulsified water in oil. However, the emulsified water had effect on flow structure, indirectly influencing the measurement results. On the basis of the measurements in different flows, the same principle was obeyed including air-water, and oil-water two-phase flows with oil of different viscosities. The detection ability of the probe decreased as interfacial velocity increasing or the size decreasing of the discrete phase, and flow patterns determined the measurement accuracy. The error of estimated water holdup by the probe was -35~10% and 5~25% for stratified and dispersed oil in water flows, respectively.

Huang, S.-F.; Lu, J.; Zhang, B. D.; Wang, D.

2012-03-01

320

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

Comprehensive waste-free technology for reprocessing accompanying oil waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology has been developed for extracting Ca, Mg, Sr, NaCl, Br, Li from accompanying oil waters. The created experimental technological units were tested in semiindustrial conditions. The use of technology for reprocessing waters of the Dybnishskiy oil field will guarantee production of an industrial product costing about 6 million lev per year. The expected economic effect will be 0.5 million lev per year.

Zlatanova, M.P.; Dimitrova, St.G.; Neykova, Ye.K.A.

1980-01-01

322

A technique for locating injected gas behind casing in oil-bearing formations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Movement of injected gas can be monitored behind pipe by using count rate data from a compensated neutron log (CNL). The method uses normalized count rates to delineate water, gas, and shale zones. When the rescaling procedure of the near and far count rates is used, an analysis of the separation of these curves provides a qualitative determination of the distance from the point of injection to the top of the displaced gas in the formation. Example analyses for both gas and liquid filled cased boreholes are shown. This technique will decrease both time and expense in monitoring gas movement.

Wallace, J.P.

1984-08-01

323

Imaging of CO{sub 2} injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of time-lapse seismic cross well and single well experiments were conducted in a diatomite reservoir to monitor the injection of CO{sub 2} into a hydrofracture zone, using P- and S-wave data. During the first phase the set of seismic experiments were conducted after the injection of water into the hydrofrac-zone. The set of seismic experiments was repeated after a time period of 7 months during which CO{sub 2} was injected into the hydrofractured zone. The issues to be addressed ranged from the detectability of the geologic structure in the diatomic reservoir to the detectability of CO{sub 2} within the hydrofracture. During the pre-injection experiment, the P-wave velocities exhibited relatively low values between 1700-1900 m/s, which decreased to 1600-1800 m/s during the post-injection phase (-5 percent). The analysis of the pre-injection S-wave data revealed slow S-wave velocities between 600-800 m/s, while the post-injection data revealed velocities between 500-700 m/s (-6 percent). These velocity estimates produced high Poisson ratios between 0.36 and 0.46 for this highly porous ({approx} 50 percent) material. Differencing post- and pre-injection data revealed an increase in Poisson ratio of up to 5 percent. Both, velocity and Poisson estimates indicate the dissolution of CO{sub 2} in the liquid phase of the reservoir accompanied by a pore-pressure increase. The results of the cross well experiments were corroborated by single well data and laboratory measurements on core data.

Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

2003-04-29

324

Essential oil and aromatic water extraction process from vegetable matrices  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aromatic water and essential oil extraction process from vegetable matrices, in the absence of solvent, in which the vegetable matrix is placed under vacuum and heated to a temperature higher than the water boiling point, in which the water that is obtained from the evaporation comes exclusively from the vegetable matrix as a result of the breaking of the cell structures, in which vapors condense by lowering the temperature, in which after condensation in a collector water and essential oil are recovered, characterized by the fact that the vegetable matrix is homogenized with the addition of a salt, that the heating is performed under vacuum with a hot bath.

LIGUORI ANGELO; BELSITO EMILIA LUCIA; LEGGIO ANTONELLA; CHIDICHIMO GIUSEPPE

325

FAT-AND-OIL COMPOSITION, AND OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIFIED PRODUCT CONTAINING THE FAT-AND-OIL COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fat-and-oil composition comprising fat-and-oil A (foA), foB, foD and optional foE as defined below and meeting the following conditions: FoA fat-and-oil including lauric fat-and-oil, etc., FoB transesterified oil of foC wherein the contents of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having 16 or more carbon atoms are in specific ranges, respectively, FoD fat-and-oil containing XOX-type triacyl glycerols in a content of 30% by mass or more, FoE fat-and-oil ingredient which is derived from vegetable fats and oils and does not belong to any of foA, foB and foD in all the fat-and-oil ingredients derived from vegetable fats and oils, the contents % by mass of foA, foB and XOX-type triacyl glycerols are 1 to 4, 10 to 20, and 40 or more but less than 60, respectively and oil-in-water emulsified product containing the composition.

OONISHI KIYOMI; HATANO YOSHIYUKI; HARUNA HIROFUMI; KIKUCHI YUKA; SATO AKIRA; KANNARI HIROKI; SATO MASAYUKI

326

Gelled Water-In-Oil Microemulsions For Hair Treatment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a gelled water-in-oil microemulsion for hair treatment comprising: (a) an oil phase comprising: (i) a first oily component which is one or more glyceride fatty esters, and (ii) a second oily component which is one or more hydrocarbon oils of average carbon chain length less than 20 carbon atoms (b) a hydrophilic phase comprising: (i) water, (ii) a nonionic emulsifier which is an ethoxylated alcohol having an HLB of at least 6, and (iii) preferably, a hair styling agent or hair conditioning agent, and (c) a gelling agent.

DICKINSON KELVIN BRIAN; MAHADESHWAR ANAND RAMCHANDRA; TAN-WALKER RUBY LOO-BICK

327

Exploratory study on prevaporation membranes for removal of water from water-crude oil emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of removing water from oil/water and water/oil emulsions by means of prevaporation. Simulated oil/water and water/oil emulsions were prepared by mixing water and kerosene of various concentrations and stabilized by adding sodium lauryl sulfate. Preliminary experiments were conducted on 12 membranes fabricated from two different materials. One membrane of each type of material was chosen for further work based on the results of preliminary tests, in which two different kinds of membranes, cellulose and polyvinylalcohol, were used. All experiments were carried out under two different down-stream pressures and various temperatures. The tests showed clearly that permeation rate increases at increasing temperatures. It was demonstrated that over 97% of water can be recovered from synthetic oil emulsions. The results also proved that both cellulose and polyvinylalcohol membranes produced permeates relatively free of oil even when the synthetic or crude oil emulsions had oil content higher than 90%. The study concluded that prevaporation was effective, but more extensive studies on various field oil emulsions with improved membrane material and systems were necessary due to the complex and site-specific characteristics of the actual field emulsions. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

1989-01-11

328

The radioactive elements of oil and of derrick water in several oil mines of Apsheron peninsula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that oil extracted from deep strata of the ground directly contacts with minerals and ores and it is a carrier of several radioactive elements. Radio-ecological investigations conducted in several oil mines of Apsheron peninsula, show that there are radioactive elements, such as uranium, radium, thorium and radon in the structures of oil and derrick water. Amount of these radioactive elements is changeable depending on the chemical structures of oil and derrick water. So, amount of uranium in the structure of naften (aromatic oil) is more, than in the structure of oil with paraffin. Besides, migration of uranium from strata water to oil leads to increasing the amount of uranium. Radio spectro metrical analysis of oil and derrick water extracted from the territories of Surahany, Sabunchi, Balahany, Qaradah, Bayil and Romana located in the Apsheron peninsula was conducted by us. Amount of the radioactive elements in specimens of oil are distributed in the following way: Uranium - 2.3 - 13.6 ?10-7 g/kg; Radium - 1.2 - 3.5 ?10-12 g/kg; Thorium - 8.2 - 17.0 ?10-7 g/kg. Amount of the radioactive elements in derrick water are: Uranium - 1.2 - 4.5 ?10-6 g/l; Radium - 2.5 - 3.2? 10-11 g/l; Thorium - 1.1 - 3.1 ?10-7 g/l.. There are ponds around the derricks, which are source of radioactive pollution in most of the oil mines. It was found that level of radiation is about 150-500 micro R/h in these ponds and near of the derricks.

2002-01-01

329

The immunological effects of oil sands surface waters and naphthenic acids on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influenced waters, NAs extracted and purified from oil sands tailings waters, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a positive control. After a 7d exposure, blood, spleen, head kidney, and gill samples were removed from a subset of fish in order to evaluate the distribution of thrombocytes, B-lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and T-lymphocytes using fluorescent antibodies specific for those cell types coupled with flow cytometry. The remaining trout in each experimental tank were injected with inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida and held in laboratory water for 21d and subjected to similar lymphatic cell evaluation in addition to evaluation of antibody production. Fluorescent metabolites in bile as well as liver CYP1A induction were also determined after the 7 and 21d exposure. Oil sands waters and extracted NAs exposures resulted in an increase in bile fluorescence at phenanthrene wavelengths, though liver CYP1A was not induced in those treatments as it was with the BaP positive control. Trout in the oil sands-influenced water exposure showed a decrease in B- and T-lymphocytes in blood as well as B-lymphocytes and myeloid cells in spleen and an increase in B-lymphocytes in head kidney. The extracted NAs exposure showed a decrease in thrombocytes in spleen at 8mg/L and an increase in T-lymphocytes at 1mg/L in head kidney after 7d. There was a significant decrease in antibody production against A. salmonicida in both oil sands-influenced water exposures. Because oil sands-influenced waters affected multiple immune parameters, while extracted NAs impacts were limited, the NAs tested here are likely not the cause of immunotoxicity found in the oil sands-influenced water.

Leclair LA; Macdonald GZ; Phalen LJ; Köllner B; Hogan NS; van den Heuvel MR

2013-08-01

330

Accounting for the effect of water-oil zones of pools on the value of projected oil recovery factor under water drive conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experience and theory of development of oil pools in platform-type fields regarding the effect of the water-oil zone (WOZ) on the oil recovery factor are generalized. Such WOZs occupy 40-70% of the total area of platform-type oil fields. Examples of calculation of oil recovery from Tataria's fields with extensive WOZs are presented.

Amelin, I.D.; Kochetov, M.N.

1982-04-01

331

A review of knowledge on water-in-oil emulsions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlined the basics of water-in-oil emulsification which is often considered to be the second most important behavioural characteristic of oil after evaporation. In the event of oil spills on water, water in-oil emulsions are formed by the emulsification process which changes the physical properties and characteristics of the oil. Stable emulsions contain from 60 to 80 per cent water, thereby expanding the spilled material from 2 to 5 times the original volume. The density of the resulting emulsion is also greater than the starting density and the viscosity of the oil generally increases. The liquid product is thus transformed into a heavy, semi-solid material. As a result of emulsification, evaporation of oil spills slows by orders-of-magnitude, spreading slows and the oil rides lower in the water column. Emulsification also affects cleanup response because emulsions are hard to treat, burn or recover mechanically. This paper also reviewed dielectric and rheological methods that study the formation mechanisms and stability of emulsions made from different types of oils. Other standard chemical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), chemical analysis techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, microscopy, interfacial pressure and interfacial tension have also been applied to emulsions. After 15 years of studies, data on water-in-oil emulsions have shown good correlation between laboratory, test tank and field scale studies. Reported test results on about 400 oils and petroleum products have shown that emulsions can be grouped into 3 categories, each with distinct physical properties. These include stable, unstable and meso-stable emulsions. An examination of the asphaltene and resin content has shown that the stability of emulsions can be predicted by the asphaltene content and its viscosity. Emulsion formation was found to occur at a threshold energy, defined in terms of relative sea state. A recently proposed numerical modeling scheme based on empirical data and corresponding physical knowledge of emulsion formation has been proposed. A class index of unstable or entrained water-in-oil state and a meso-stable or stable emulsion was determined based on density, viscosity, saturate, asphaltene and resin content. 133 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

2006-01-01

332

[Scientific and practical aspects of modern technologies for obtaining purified water and water for injection in field conditions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays drug stores of military-and-field medical organizations use the method of distillation for obtaining cleaned water and water for injection and use distillators as a technical means, which does not ensure that the water obtained has stated indices of quality. It was found out that it is the most efficient to use the technology basing on the complex usage of filtering, osmotic, ionic processes for obtaining cleaned water and water for injection from surface natural springs, which ensures minimal usage of resources and energy and the unity of constructional and technological peculiarities of cleaning water methods.

Miroshnichenko IuV; Umarov SZ; Lar'kov AA; Goriachev AB

2006-06-01

333

What Happens to Oil in the Water?  

Science.gov (United States)

When different kinds of oil enter the sea, many physical, chemical and biological degradation processes start acting on them. This resource describes the factors that decide the physical, chemical and biological degradation of the oil, as well as potential environmental damage, effects on wildlife, and effects on habitats, of the spill. The text is color-coded to reflect the sources of the information, and links to additional material on topic are also provided.

2004-05-10

334

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. PMID:24056998

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-09-13

335

Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increasing use of aromatherapy oils, there have not been many studies exploring the biological activities of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) essential oil (BEO). Recently, we have investigated the effects of BEO injected into the plantar surface of the hindpaw in the capsaicin test in mice. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an intense and short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected hindpaw. The capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was reduced significantly by intraplantar injection of BEO. The essential oils of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Thyme ct. linalool (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), Lavender Reydovan (Lavandula hybrida reydovan), and True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), had similar antinociceptive effects on the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response, while Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis) essential oil was without effect. In contrast to a small number of pharmacological studies of BEO, there is ample evidence regarding isolated components of BEO which are also found in other essential oils. The most abundant compounds found in the volatile fraction are the monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, and oxygenated derivatives, linalool and linalyl acetate. Of these monoterpenes, the pharmacological activities of linalool have been examined. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice, linalool produces antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in different animal models in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. Linalool also possesses anticonvulsant activity in experimental models of epilepsy. We address the importance of linalool or linalyl acetate in BEO-or the other essential oil-induced antinociception. PMID:19607974

Sakurada, Tsukasa; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

2009-01-01

336

Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the increasing use of aromatherapy oils, there have not been many studies exploring the biological activities of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) essential oil (BEO). Recently, we have investigated the effects of BEO injected into the plantar surface of the hindpaw in the capsaicin test in mice. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an intense and short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected hindpaw. The capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was reduced significantly by intraplantar injection of BEO. The essential oils of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Thyme ct. linalool (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), Lavender Reydovan (Lavandula hybrida reydovan), and True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), had similar antinociceptive effects on the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response, while Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis) essential oil was without effect. In contrast to a small number of pharmacological studies of BEO, there is ample evidence regarding isolated components of BEO which are also found in other essential oils. The most abundant compounds found in the volatile fraction are the monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, and oxygenated derivatives, linalool and linalyl acetate. Of these monoterpenes, the pharmacological activities of linalool have been examined. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice, linalool produces antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in different animal models in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. Linalool also possesses anticonvulsant activity in experimental models of epilepsy. We address the importance of linalool or linalyl acetate in BEO-or the other essential oil-induced antinociception.

Sakurada T; Kuwahata H; Katsuyama S; Komatsu T; Morrone LA; Corasaniti MT; Bagetta G; Sakurada S

2009-01-01

337

Combustion of water/heavy fuel oil emulsions and oil. Raskaan polttooeljyn ja sen vesiemulsion poltto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the emissions of residual oil (oil) and water/oil emulsion (emulsion) combustion. To investigate the effect of emulsion water contents on the emissions of particulates, NO and SO/sub 2/, as series of experiments was conducted at the NESTE OY Combustion Laboratory, Skoeldvik 5.-21. October 1987. A 1.5 MW boiler, a burner which modulates a pressurejet atomizer, and a water/oil emulsion apparatus. Preliminary investigation demonstrated the necessity to study emulsion combustion by changing one parameter at a time in order to optimize the process for minimum particulate emissions and maximum efficiency. The experimental results show clearly, that emulsion combustion prodused less particulate emissions than oil combustion. In oil combustion the average particulate emission was 135 mg/m/sup 3/n, and in emulsion combustion, with 8.9% water added, 93 mg/m/sup 3/n. The particle size distribution was also affected. Coarse particle (> 4 ..mu..m) emissions were reduced strongly, while fine particle (< 4 ..mu..m) remained unaffected. The average particle size was therefore much smaller in emulsion combustion (3.4 ..mu..m) than oil combustion (5.1 ..mu..m). Emulsion had no effect on the emissions of NO and SO/sub 2/.

Kaukanen, E.; Pyykkoenen, A.

1988-01-01

338

Study and application of gelled foam for in-depth water shutoff in a fractured oil reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most oil fields in China are in a high water cut period whereby injection water and edge water breaks through into the oil wells along high permeability zones causing a decrease in well productivity. Since high permeability zones cannot be plugged effectively with foam agents, this study focused on the feasibility of using gelled foam for in-depth water shutoff. A gelled foam consists of water, a foaming agent, a foaming stabilizer and a cross-linking agent. A gelled foam is more stable than conventional foam and therefore prolongs the effective period of water shutoff. The Ross Foamer Device was used in this study to determine the foaming and stability characteristics of a gelled foam. The best foaming agent was 0.3 per cent YG240. The stable foam agent was 0.2 to 0.4 per cent HPAM. The cross-linking agent was 0.09 per cent sodium dichromate and 0.16 per cent sodium sulphite and nitrogen. A pilot test was conducted on a well in the Huoshaoshan fractured reservoir. The workover program involved washing large fissures with a high efficiency oil displacement agent and injecting the gelled foam. Good blocking efficiency was obtained in the well, resulting in a decrease in water cut of 20 to 50 per cent. Oil production increased by 3.7 to 11.0 cubic metres per day after gelled foam treatment. 5 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs.

Qing, Y.; Yefei, W.; Wei, Z.; Ziyuan, Q.; Fulin, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

2009-12-15

339

Reservoir performance charts: oil pools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides data from 1972 to 1986 for 452 pools. Data included are average gas-oil ratio, average water-oil ratio, static bottom hole pressure, number of wells capable of production, daily and cumulative oil production, daily and cumulative water injection, and daily and cumulative gas injection. This publication also includes Alberta daily average oil production from 1950 to 1986 charted by month.

1986-12-01

340

SOLID STICK COSMETICS OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A water-in-oil emulsion type solid stick cosmetic composition is provided which shows excellent stability during hot temperature molding with little amount of an inorganic gelating agent without using a pigment for improving the stability and provide enough moisturizing effect and clean feeling of use due to no interfacial friction caused by the pigment when being applied to skin. A water-in-oil emulsion type solid stick cosmetic composition comprises 0.5-8.0 wt.% of at least one inorganic gelating agent selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, saponite, bentonite, hectorite, quarternium-18 hectorite and quarternium-18 bentonite, hydrophobic silica, silica dimethyl silate, silica dimethicone silate, and silica silate 8.0-20.0 wt.% of wax such as vegetable wax, animal wax, mineral wax, petroleum-based wax and a mixture thereof 20.0-70.0 wt.% of an oil phase ingredient including a volatile silicone oil and at least one oil selected from the group consisting of non-volatile silicone, vegetable oil, mineral oil and synthetic oil and 5.0-50.0 wt.% of an aqueous phase ingredient such as betaine, butylene glycol, polyhydric alcohol, glycoprotein, organic acid, organic salt, glycerine, propylene glycol, and dipropylene glycol.

PARK BYEONG GYU; LEE SANG MIN

 
 
 
 
341

Process for the mining exploitation of an oil-bearing layer with underlying water, and products obtained by said process. Procede d'exploitation miniere d'une couche petrolifere a eau sous-jacente et produits obtenus par ledit procede  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This mining method for the exploitation of an oil-bearing layer consists of drilling supplemental wells from work galleries into the aquifer in the zone of the water-oil contact with injection of a heat carrier fluid into the injection wells; the oil is produced from producing wells. Water is withdrawn from the supplemental wells. This process is applicable to the production of high viscosity oil and of liquid bitumen.

Vakhnin, G.I.; Verty, V.G.; Tjunkin, B.A.; Fotieva, L.I.

1982-07-09

342

Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to <1 from 4000 NTU and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand/COD ratio of 0.3-0.5 that reflected highly biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided.

Hong PK; Xiao T

2013-04-01

343

Viscosity change after dilution with solutions of water--oil--water emulsions and solute permeability through the oil layer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A water-in-oil-water (W/O/W) multiple phase emulsion was prepared by a two-step emulsification procedure. The oil phase consisted of paraffin oil and sorbitan monooleate. The inner aqueous phase and the outer aqueous phase were 0.5% glucose solution and 3% polysorbate 80 solution, respectively. Viscosity measurements were carried out on the W/O/W emulsion after diluting it with a number of solutions. A given sequence for the solutes that would increase the emulsion viscosity after dilution was determined. This sequence was identical with that obtained with the solutes in an independent permeability experiment using a planar membrane composed of sorbitan monooleate alone. As a result, it was suggested that solutes as well as water can permeate the oil layer of vesicles of the emulsion to change the vesicle volume, thereby causing a change in the emulsion viscosity.

Tomita M; Abe Y; Kondo T

1982-03-01

344

Study of enhanced oil field recovery through polymer injection in field scales; Estudo da recuperacao avancada de petroleo via injecao de polimeros em escala de campo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymer flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method consists in increasing the aqueous phase viscosity by addition of polymer, reducing in this way its mobility compared with the oleic phase, leading to an increase in reservoir's sweep efficiency. However, polymer flooding still requires more research to develop polymers that are more resistant to the injection and reservoir conditions, e.g. high temperature, high salinity, biological and mechanical degradation. Computational simulations are executed to validate the results. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of polymer flooding in enhancing the reservoir's recovery factor. Computational simulations were done for polymer flooding in filed scale using the STARS simulator (CMG). Simulations for water flooding also were done for the same reservoir. In this way, it was possible to compare, for the same reservoir, the performance of water injection and polymer flooding. The economical analysis of these recovery methods was done to evaluate their viability. (author)

Manichand, Renuka N.; Garcia, Rosangela B.; Mata, Ana L.M.L.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

2004-07-01

345

CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL SHALE MINE WATERS, CENTRAL PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to characterize the oil shale mine waters in the Piceance Basin. The study sites were Federal Prototype Lease Tracts C-a and C-b, located in the central portion of the basin. The objective was to collect water quality data in order to characterize the mine w...

346

SURFACE WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS FOR MONITORING OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report develops and recommends prioritized listings of chemical, physical, and biological parameters which can be used to assess the environmental impact of oil shale development on surface water resources. Each of the potential water-related problems is addressed in the con...

347

Theoretical analysis of the effect of water and ethanol injection on axial compressor instabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of instabilities that occur in compression systems rotating stall and surge have an adverse effect on the compressor performance. Several techniques have been explored to minimize the effect of these instabilities. It has been observed that injection of a liquid into the compressor not only improves thermodynamic efficiencies but also results in stabilizing the system. Therefore, water and ethanol injection has been investigated as an effective tool for controlling these compressor instabilities. In the present paper a modified Moore-Greitzer model has been proposed for wet compression-based system using water and ethanol. Under this work the effect of injection of water (1) at various stages of compressor, (2) at different altitudes and (3) by varying amounts has also been presented. The effect of various parameters on wet compression such as (a) Optimum stage for liquid injection (b) Optimum amount of liquid injection and (c) Effect of altitude on liquid injection is also examined in the present work which shows that the liquid injection helps in improving the performance of compression systems in terms of increase in the stall margin and pressure rise coefficient. - Highlights: ? We model the effect of liquid injection on the performance of axial flow compressors. ? The basic Moore-Grietzer's model has been appropriately modified. ? Injection of liquid in the later stages of the compressor resulted in improved stall margin and pressure rise. ? Use of ethanol was found to give better performance than water.

2011-01-01

348

Use of Drag Reducer in Improving Water (Flooding) Injectivity in Ukpokiti Field, Niger Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluation of water-flooding injectivity involves identifying the causes of the problem(s) of the operation and coming up with possible solutions. Ukpokiti field was projected to be injected with 40,000BWPD, however, on commencement of operation only about 30,000BWPD could be injected. This live field experimental work identified pipeline restriction to the injector wellheads as responsible for the lower injectivity. The test involved injecting 15ppm, 20pm and 27ppm of Conoco drag reducer (CDR) downstream the turbine pumps that supply water to the injector wells. Velocity and the injection rate of water to the injector wells (with no CDR added) were measured. From the field results, 20ppm of CDR injection gave optimum injection increase of 13% and adding a third side outlet 3? pipeline into the wellheads gives independent 16% increase in injectivity. The test had no negative impact on the environment. The result could be applied as an aid and quick means of predicting water-flooding operation in similar operating condition as Ukpokiti field.

Amieibibama JOSEPH; Joseph Atubokiki AJIENKA

2010-01-01

349

An overview of oil and grease determination in produced water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water discharges are monitored under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program, and one of its provisions limits oil and grease concentration in the water. This paper summarizes the results of studies conducted by EPA and API to compare results obtained using different solvents (Freon or n-hexane) in the gravimetric technique for EPA reporting as specified in Method 413.1 (current compliance method, Freon extraction) and Method 1664 (proposed new method, n-hexane extraction) and discusses the impact of the new method. The outline of an ongoing API project on techniques for measuring oil and grease content of produced water for overboard disposal will also be discussed.

Johnson, S.J.; Steen, A.E.; Bansal, K.M. [and others

1996-11-01

350

Oil-water separating materials. Yusui bunri zairyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In case when oil leaks, there are many treatments concerning its removal and separation and they can be roughly divided into the physical treatment and the chemical treatment. In this article, is introduced the development of organic natural fiber products, centering around mat- and sheet-products with ligneous cellulose. fibers in particular, from among oil water separating materials and oil adsorbing materials corresponding to adsorption and absorption mechanisms of the physical treatments. Natural ligneous cellulose fibers (hereinafter referred to as pulp fibers) have the merits that they have no problem in its after treatment after being used different from hydrocarbonic composites, the stable supply of their raw materials is assured and stabilization of their quality may be attained. Mats and sheets of pulp fibers are very good at absorbing oil or water alone, but have no prorerty of absorbing oil or water selectively. Since untreated cellulose has weak lipophilic property, it cannot be used as oil water separating materials unless a strong lipophilic treatment is applied to it. In this article, the manufacturing method to make pulp fibers strongly lipophilic relatively cheaply industrially is roughly explained. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Ito, R. (Sanyo Kokusaku Pulp Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-10-10

351

Direct numerical simulation of water droplet coalescence in the oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? VOF computational technique has been used to simulate coalescence of two water droplets in oil. ? The model was validated with the experimental data for binary droplet coalescence. ? Based on the CFD simulation results a correlation has been proposed to predict the coalescence time. - Abstract: Coalescence of two water droplets in the oil was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The finite volume numerical method was applied to solve the Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach for interface tracking. The effects of some parameters consisting of the collision velocity, off-center collision parameter, oil viscosity and water–oil interfacial tension on the coalescence time were investigated. The simulation results were validated against the experimental data available in the literature. The results revealed that quicker coalescence could be achieved if the head-on collisions occur or the droplets approach each other with a high velocity. In addition, low oil viscosities or large water–oil interfacial tensions cause less coalescence time. Moreover, a correlation was developed to predict coalescence efficiency as a function of the mentioned parameters.

2012-01-01

352

Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

Abdurahman H. Nour; Mohd A. Abu Hassan; Rosli Mohd Yunus

2007-01-01

353

Spontaneous charging and crystallization of water droplets in oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

de Graaf J; Zwanikken J; Bier M; Baarsma A; Oloumi Y; Spelt M; van Roij R

2008-11-01

354

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06

355

Clarithromycin liposome microsphere injection and its prepn. method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lipide microball type injection of clarithromycin with high stability and low toxin is prepared from the oil for injection, clarithromycin, surfactant, glycerin, oil-phase solubilizer, metallic chelating agent, and the water for injection. Its preparing process is also disclosed.

LIU YUHUI XIE

356

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2000-07-01

357

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

2000-01-01

358

An alternative water supply for heavy oil steam generation plants : potential sources of brackish water from the Cretaceous Mannville Group in the Cold Lake region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large quantities of freshwater are needed for processing oil sands in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River regions of Alberta. The largest in-situ bitumen recovery project where oil sands are heated by steam injection to extract bitumen to the surface is found in the Cold Lake region. This paper focused on five heavy oil plants in the area. Surface water and shallow groundwater are the two sources of water supply that are currently used for steam injection processes such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). However, brackish water is being considered as an alternative source of water. Brackish water from basal aquifers is found in the lower portion of the Mannville Group and below the heavy oil horizons. Source water for heavy oil production must have acceptable salinity and total dissolved solid (TDS) levels to reduce the risk of corrosion and precipitation. It must also have a balanced flow equilibrium to sustain long term yield. TDS and salinity can be estimated from electrical logs using empirical formulae. Chloride concentration can also be used as an indicator of both groundwater salinity and TDS. In this study, the chloride concentration and TDS of formation brackish water were calculated from formation resistivity using an empirical formula. The formation water resistivity was calculated from spontaneous potential readings and formation temperature. The objective was to determine the best locations for a long term water well to supply brackish water for steam generation in the Cold Lake area. The ideal locations were found to be in the northeastern quarter of the study area. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Horne, E.; Sun, S.; Nichols, L.; Agatonovic, V. [Terracon Geotechnique Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2002-07-01

359

Water solubilization by oil-soluble rust inhibitors and correlated with the action of rust inhibition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was made on the water solubilization by oil-soluble rust inhibitors in lubricating oil using phase diagram technique. Quantity of water solubilization by rust inhibitors was calculated based on the phase diagram. It has been established and elucidated from laboratory test that water solubilization by oil-soluble rust inhibitors is a mechanism of rust preventive oil action.

Gong, R.; Qu, P.; Han, C.

1984-01-01

360

Effect of mixed gas solvent injection on performance of the Vapex process in an Iranian heavy oil sample  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vapor extraction (VAPEX) process involves the injection of vaporized hydrocarbon solvents into oil reservoirs in order to decrease in-situ oil viscosity. The solvents are often used with non-condensable gases in high pressure reservoirs to lower the dew point of the gas mixture and prevent condensation. This study investigated the effects of mixed gas solvent injection on the VAPEX process with an Iranian heavy oil sample. A set of experiments were conducted at low, medium, and high pressure rates on a 2-D visual model. A transparent face was used in the model in order to monitor the size of the vapor chamber and the position of the gas-oil interface. Production and injection wells were placed above each other and at the center of the model. The effects of solvent concentration, and carrier gas type on production parameters and produced oil properties were also investigated. Propane was used as a solvent, and methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were used as carrier gases. Results of the study showed that high injection pressures caused fluctuations in system behaviour. The solvent chamber grew in a lateral direction, and less asphaltene precipitation was observed. It was concluded that the VAPEX process can be used in high pressure reservoirs when combined with non-condensable carrier gases. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

Derakhshanfar, M.; Kharrat, R.; Rostami, B. [Petroleum Univ. of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Etminan, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (S...

Edwin A. Chukwudeme; Aly A. Hamouda

362

Process for the recovery of crude oil contained in a deposit injection of emulsions stabilized by shear  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This process concerns the secondary recovery of the residual oil content of a deposit by injection of liquids. The injected liquid is a translucid emulsion which contains an external phase of a microemulsion and an internal phase of polymer-saltwater. The emulsion is stabilized by the shear imposed on it when it flows through the deposit; however, it does not break even in the absence of shear.

Reed, R.L.; Carpentier, C.W. Jr.

1981-12-24

363

Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices.

Roy, J.L.

1999-08-01

364

Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish.

Couillard, C.M.; Legare, B.; St-Pierre, S. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

2003-07-01

365

In-situ formation of oil-in-water emulsion from bituminous oil deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recovery of bitumen from an in situ or subterranean deposit is accomplished by the formation of an oil-in-water emulsion from the oil sand deposit. The bitumen is recovered by the alkali-recycle hot-water process. The oil-in-water emulsion is formed by contact of the oil sand with an aqueous sodium hydroxide or other salt solution at elevated temperatures. The aqueous sodium hydroxide solution is deaerated for consistent emulsion production. The deaerated sodium hydroxide solution at the desired temperature is flowed into the oil sands formation and the oil-in-water emulsion is flowed out of the formation. In order to form a cavity, some sand is initially also brought to the surface, and may continue to be removed throughout the production of the formation. Once a cavity starts to form, continued attack on the formation by the sodium hydroxide solution causes sloughing or crumbling of cavity boundary into the body of liquid in the cavity. Pressure cycling and pulsing of the sodium hydroxide solution assists the rate of sloughing of the cavity walls. Feed and withdrawal are affected in the same pipe, or with separate feed and withdrawal pipes. 9 claims.

Kessick, M.A.; Denis, C.E.St.; Currie, D.J.

1982-11-30

366

Comparative toxicity of water-accommodated fractions of oil and dispersed oil to marine fish larvae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of chemical dispersants to clean oil spills on water can increase the risk of toxic effects to early life stages of fish by increasing their exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, water-accommodated fractions of dispersed crude oil were prepared with weathered Mesa light crude oil and filtered seawater with and without Corexit 9500. Newly hatched larvae of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to the mixtures to examine the biological effects on the larvae. For an oil loading of 0.2 g/L, the addition of dispersant caused a 2-fold and 7-fold increase in total PAH and high molecular weight PAH with 3 or more benzene rings. A 5-fold increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil water accommodated fractions at a loading of 0.05 g/L. A 4-fold increase was noted when the crude oil water accommodated fractions were loaded at 1 g/L. Both mixtures resulted in reduced body length. The study confirmed that dispersants increase the risk of toxic effects for the early life stage of fish.

2003-10-01

367

Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

2013-04-01

368

Analysis of the COPESUL water-oil separation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of the water-oil separation system at COPESUL (Companhia Petroquimica do Sul). The design and operation of the system are discussed, and possible changes to be implemented to keep the oil and grease content of the effluent within the limits acceptable for its admission to SITEL (the integrated system of liquid effluent treatment of the South Petrochemical Complex). Since the start of operation, the system has experienced problems. The effluent generated has frequently had an oil and grease content above the limit set for acceptance by SITEL. It was found that the problem was due to the following: operational conditions were different to the design conditions; oil with a density higher than water was present; there were deficiencies in the maintenance and cleaning systems. Various options were studied to eliminate these problems and priority was given to increasing the capacity of the separation system, segregating the oil with a density higher than water at its source, and increasing the frequency of system maintenance. It was thought that these measures would result in an effluent oil and grease content less than 100 mg/l, and that the separation system would operate with greater flexibility. (author).

Leitao, A.A.; Rangel, C.M.P.

1988-01-01

369

The Description of Oil Displacement Mechanism in Steam Injection of Multi-Field Synergy with Exergy Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steam injection is a most effective way for improving heavy oil recovery efficiency, and it has academic and practical significance for the mechanism of multi-field synergy oil displacement. Mechanism of “diversified” oil displacement which is obtained by traditional study methods in the exploitation territory of oil and gas fields has both respective roles and mutual cross shortages. To describe and analyze the displacement process of multi-field coupling with exergy transfer can simplify this kind of problem by introducing a unified goal-driving exergy. It needs to use the method of theoretical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental validation to study the basic law of exergy transfer in the oil displacement process of multi-field synergy, make a thorough research for the flooding process of steam injection with exergy transfer theory and reveal the oil displacement mechanism in steam injection of multi-field synergy. Thus the theory instruction and technical support can be provided to improve reservoirs producing degree and extraction ratio.

Qinglin Cheng; Yang Wang; Xiaoli Sun

2013-01-01

370

Water quality changes at three reclaimed mine sites related to the injection of coal combustion residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface and groundwater pollution is a common problem associated with post-surface mining operations. The US Bureau of Mines (BOM) participated in the testing of subsurface injections of coal combustion residues (CCR) at three reclaimed surface mine sites. The addition of alkaline CCR to the subsurface environment can raise the pH, limit propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reduce the rate of acid generation. Many CCR's can also form cement-like grout, which when injected into buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. The objective of this work was to develop an effective, economical and permanent method to abate or reduce post-mining water pollution. The effectiveness of CCR injection as an acid mine drainage abatement technique was evaluated by the BOM by monitoring water quality at three sites in: Upshur County, WV, Clinton County, PA and Greene County, PA. Geophysical techniques were used at all sites to locate monitoring and injection wells that were subsequently drilled into the spoil. Grout injection work was completed between 1990 and 1994 at the three sites. Baseline water quality data were collected at all three sites for a minimum of one year. Post-grouting water quality at the discharge of the three sites showed a slight, long-term improvement and no apparent degradation in water quality resulting from the injection of the coal combustion residues. Notable and long-term improvements in water quality at various monitoring wells (on all sites) were also observed

1996-01-01

371

Massive dominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in formation waters from a Canadian oil sands reservoir containing severely biodegraded oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subsurface microbiology of an Athabasca oil sands reservoir in western Canada containing severely biodegraded oil was investigated by combining 16S rRNA gene- and polar lipid-based analyses of reservoir formation water with geochemical analyses of the crude oil and formation water. Biomass was f...

Hubert, Casey R J; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Fustic, Milovan; Gray, Neil D; Larter, Stephen R; Penn, Kevin; Rowan, Arlene K

372

Age determination of Aedes cantans using the ovarian oil injection technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of the age structure of a population of adult female Aedes cantans Meigen was undertaken using the ovarian oil injection technique to determine parity. Results showed that, contrary to popular opinion, ovariolar sacs do not form gonotrophic dilatations and cannot be used for physiological age determination. Dilatations were formed only by follicles which degenerate at a very early stage in the gonotrophic cycle. The proportion which consistently do degenerate (the gonotrophic diagnostic index) decreases in each successive cycle. Results showed that the mean age of the population during the study was 2.04 parous, which was one gonotrophic cycle less than expected, possibly due to scarcity of hosts in the area.

Hoc TQ; Charlwood JD

1990-04-01

373

Modelling the behaviour of oil spills in natural waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A state of the art review is presented of the different formulations of the physicochemical processes affecting the fate of spilled oil. These processes account for the transfer and loss of the surface oil, such as initial spreading, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, dispersion, photo-oxidation, and sedimentation. Suitable equations are selected for implementation of a mathematical model of oil spill behavior into a computer program. Blokker's equation (1964) is used to model the spread of oil, a solubility enhancement factor is adopted from Mackay and Leinonen (1977), dispersion is modelled according to the model of Delvigne and Sweeney (1988), and values relating to measurements of different wind and wave parameters as found in Bouwmeester and Wallace (1986) and Delvigne and Sweeney (1988) were adopted to represent the different sea conditions. The program calculates the amount of oil lost from the surface slick as a function of time. Its inputs include the type and composition of the oil, physical properties of each of the oil components, environmental and weather conditions, and spill size. To reflect field observations, the surface oil composition in the model is allowed to vary with time as a result of weathering. Model simulations were obtained for different sea states, wind speeds, and water temperatures. Comparisons of the model's individual components and field data have been favorable. 32 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Luk, G.K.; Kuan, H.F. (Ryerson Polytechnical Inst., Toronto, ON (Canada))

1993-01-01

374

Modelling the behaviour of oil spills in natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A state of the art review is presented of the different formulations of the physicochemical processes affecting the fate of spilled oil. These processes account for the transfer and loss of the surface oil, such as initial spreading, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, dispersion, photo-oxidation, and sedimentation. Suitable equations are selected for implementation of a mathematical model of oil spill behavior into a computer program. Blokker's equation (1964) is used to model the spread of oil, a solubility enhancement factor is adopted from Mackay and Leinonen (1977), dispersion is modelled according to the model of Delvigne and Sweeney (1988), and values relating to measurements of different wind and wave parameters as found in Bouwmeester and Wallace (1986) and Delvigne and Sweeney (1988) were adopted to represent the different sea conditions. The program calculates the amount of oil lost from the surface slick as a function of time. Its inputs include the type and composition of the oil, physical properties of each of the oil components, environmental and weather conditions, and spill size. To reflect field observations, the surface oil composition in the model is allowed to vary with time as a result of weathering. Model simulations were obtained for different sea states, wind speeds, and water temperatures. Comparisons of the model's individual components and field data have been favorable. 32 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

1993-01-01

375

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

Science.gov (United States)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

2008-07-01

376

Resolution of oil-in-water emulsions containing uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method of resolving oil-in-water emulsions resulting from the organic solvent extraction of uranium from aqueous acidic leach liquors which comprises treating the emulsions in accordance with the following steps: (a) adding to the emulsions a water-in-oil emulsion which contains from 2 to 50% by weight of a water-soluble acrylamide copolymer which contains from 5 to 50% by weight of a lower alkyl substituted tertiary aminoethyl methacrylate and quaternary ammonium salts thereof in an amount to provide at least 20 parts per million of the acrylamide copolymer; (b) adjusting the pH of the emulsion being treated with ammonia to at least 9; (c) adding to the ammonia treated emulsion a water-soluble surfactant which is capable of inverting the water-in-oil emulsion which contains the polymer; and then (d) slowly mixing the treated oil-in-water emulsion for at least one-half hour to obtain good resolution thereof

1979-01-01

377

[Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].  

Science.gov (United States)

On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this. PMID:22202469

Medverec Kneževi?, Zvonimira; Nadih, Martina; Josipovi?, Renata; Grgi?, Ivanka; Cvitkovi?, Ante

2011-12-01

378

[Mineral oil drinking water pollution accident in Slavonski Brod, Croatia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On 21 September 2008, heavy oil penetrated the drinking water supply in Slavonski Brod, Croatia. The accident was caused by the damage of heat exchange units in hot water supply. The system was polluted until the beginning of November, when the pipeline was treated with BIS O 2700 detergent and rinsed with water. Meanwhile, water samples were taken for chemical analysis using spectrometric and titrimetric methods and for microbiological analysis using membrane filtration and total plate count. Mineral oils were determined with infrared spectroscopy. Of the 192 samples taken for mineral oil analysis, 55 were above the maximally allowed concentration (MAC). Five samples were taken for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene analysis (BTEX), but none was above MAC. Epidemiologists conducted a survey about health symptoms among the residents affected by the accident. Thirty-six complained of symptoms such as diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, rash, eye burning, chills, and gastric disorders.This is the first reported case of drinking water pollution with mineral oil in Slavonski Brod and the accident has raised a number of issues, starting from poor water supply maintenance to glitches in the management of emergencies such as this.

Medverec Kneževi? Z; Nadih M; Josipovi? R; Grgi? I; Cvitkovi? A

2011-12-01

379

Water coning suppression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many oil reservoirs in Alberta overlay active water zones which provide well maintained high pressure drives for primary oil recovery. However, such high pressure aquifers create water coning which is the entry of the bottom water into the production well during primary oil production. Cold, non-condensable gas injection into an oil reservoir with bottom water has been observed to be an effective method for water coning suppression. A project was initiated to study the effect of gas injection in suppressing water coning, including partially scaled, high pressure physical model experiments in sand packs supported by numerical simulation. Tests with different non-condensable gases showed consistent reduction in water production or reduction in water-oil ratio of the produced fluids. A number of possible mechanisms for the anti-coning effect of gas injection are indicated. It is inferred that the injected gas migrates towards the production well along the oil-water interface as a blanket, thereby increasing the free gas saturation. This creates a three-phase region which results in reduction in relative permeability for water flow and the residual oil saturation. If soluble, the injected gas also dissolves in the oil and reduces its viscosity, causing the injected gas to sweep a greater volume of oil. Another minor mechanism is the plugging of pores by in-situ formation of viscous water-in-oil emulsion with acidic gas injection. 73 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Rajan, V.S.V. (Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)); Luhning, R.W. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1993-04-01

380

Stability of vitamin A in oil-in-water-in-oil-type multiple emulsions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stabilityof vitamin A was studied in thee different emulsions: oil-in-water (O/W), water-in-oil (W/O), and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O). The stability of retinol (vitamin A alcohol) in the O/W/O emulsion was the highest among the thee types of emulsions; remaining percentages at 50°C after 4 wk in the O/W/O, W/O, and O/W emulsions were 56.9, 45.7, and 32.3, respectively. With increasing peroxide value of O/W and W/O emulsifiers, the remaining percentage of vitamin A palmitate and retinol in the emulsions decreased significantly, indicating that peroxides in the formulae accelerate the decomposition of vitamin A. Organophilic clay mineral (an oil gelling agent and a W/O emulsifier) also affected the stability of retinol; synthesized saponite was better than naturally occurring bentonite for retinol stability. The stability of retinol in the O/W/O emulsion increased with increasing inner oil phase ratio (?i), whereas in O/W it was unaffected by ?i. Encapsulation percent of retinol in the O/W/O emulsion, the ratio of retinol in the inner oil phase to the total amount in the emulsion, increased with increasing ?i. The remaining percent of retinol in the O/W/O emulsion was in excellent agreement with encapsulation percent, suggesting that retinol in the inner oil phase is more stable than that in the outer oil phase. Addition of antioxidants (tert-butylhydroxytoluene, sodium ascorbate, and EDTA) to the O/W/O emulsion improved the stability of retinol up to 77.1% at 50°C after 4 wk. We conclude that the O/W/O emulsion is a useful formula to stabilize vitamin A.

Yoshida Katsunori; Sekine Tomoko; Matsuzaki Fumiaki; Yanaki Toshio; Yamaguchi Michihiro

1999-02-01

 
 
 
 
381

Organoclay cost effectively removes oil from produced water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An organoclay-based method can economically treat produced water that is reinjected into formations. Organoclay refers to bentonitic clay platelets modified with quaternary amine. Operators can dispose of the spent organoclay in landfills, as long as it is nonhazardous, or ship it to asphalt producers or fuel blenders. Activated carbon is regenerated or incinerated if it is hazardous. Operators reinject produced water into formations either for water disposal or waterflooding to recover additional oil. In either case to minimize formation plugging, it is important to remove oil and other materials from the water. If removing metals, the media must be designed carefully for each situation. The paper discusses disposal regulations, on-site treatment train, and water disposal economics.

Alther, G. [Biomin Inc., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1997-04-14

382

Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environme