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Sample records for water displacement functions

  1. Rotor Displacement of the Ultrasonic Motor Having an Angular Displacement Self-Correction Function

    Chen, Xiaoduo; Kusakabe, Chiharu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

    1993-09-01

    This paper deals with the experimental investigation for confirmation of rotor displacement of the ultrasonic stepping motor having an angular displacement self-correction function. The experiment focused on the relationship between the rotor’s vibration displacement and its staying position for the self-correction. The result proved that the rotor always stays at the position where the displacement is smallest by cutting a slit into the rotor. Moreover, it has also been found that the stable self-correction of rotor angular displacement depends upon both the rotor driving frequency and rotor clamping force.

  2. Liquid CO2 displacement of water in a dual-permeability pore network micromodel.

    Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Mart; Grate, Jay W; Wietsma, Thomas W; Warner, Marvin G

    2011-09-01

    Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale displacements, liquid CO(2) (LCO(2))-water displacement was evaluated in a pore network micromodel with two distinct permeability zones. Due to the low viscosity ratio (logM = -1.1), unstable displacement occurred at all injection rates over 2 orders of magnitude. LCO(2) displaced water only in the high permeability zone at low injection rates with the mechanism shifting from capillary fingering to viscous fingering with increasing flow rate. At high injection rates, LCO(2) displaced water in the low permeability zone with capillary fingering as the dominant mechanism. LCO(2) saturation (S(LCO2)) as a function of injection rate was quantified using fluorescent microscopy. In all experiments, more than 50% of LCO(2) resided in the active flowpaths, and this fraction increased as displacement transitioned from capillary to viscous fingering. A continuum-scale two-phase flow model with independently determined fluid and hydraulic parameters was used to predict S(LCO2) in the dual-permeability field. Agreement with the micromodel experiments was obtained for low injection rates. However, the numerical model does not account for the unstable viscous fingering processes observed experimentally at higher rates and hence overestimated S(LCO2). PMID:21774502

  3. Experimental Research on Profile Control for Oil Displacement by Functional Polymer in Low Permeability Fractured Reservoir

    Li, Li; Xiuting, Han; Lin, Meng

    Utilizing artificial fractured cores with low permeability, a physical simulation experiment on profile control for oil displacement was carried out. The result showed that 23.63% extra oil recovery was realized by functional polymer, and 29.05% extra oil recovery was realized by functional polymer with gas which is higher than water flooding alone. The experiment demonstrates that functional polymer is effective for enhance oil recovery for low permeability fractured reservoir significantly.

  4. Landslide velocity prediction using a rainfall to displacements transfer function. La Barmasse case study (Valais, Switzerland).

    Abellán, Antonio; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Baillifard, François; Demierre, Jonathan; Carrea, Dario

    2013-04-01

    We present a model for ground displacements prediction using a transfer function. Model was mainly tested at the Barmasse rockslide (Valais, Switzerland) which is an active structurally-controlled instability formed by intensively deformed and metamorphosed mica schists. The kinematics of the slide, which currently threatens roads and inhabitants of the Bal de Bagnes Valley, is characterized by a continuous displacement with variable rates of displacements. Indeed, the velocity is strongly affected by external forces: a sharp increase in landslide velocity is observed with a short delay after every snow melting period and after each rainfall pulse. The instability is currently monitored by different remote sensing and in situ techniques (Terrestrial LiDAR, GB Radar and extensometers). In order to predict ground displacements, we developed a new model composed by two different parts: (a) calculation of the Effective Rainfall (Peff) and (b) modelling of the landslide velocity. First of all, Peff was obtained using Thornthwaite (1946) method, which estimates the water that infiltrates into the terrain as a function of the total precipitation, Real Evapo-Transpiration (ETR) and water recharge. Afterwards, the rates of displacement were modelled through a stochastic transfer function which links the Peff (input) with daily displacements (output). Model computes the displacement rates at each time lapse (e.g. one day) as a convolution of the above mentioned transfer function times daily effective rainfall during a certain time lapse (50 days in our case). The transfer function has two components: first component account for the sudden increase of landslide velocities after each rainfall pulse and second component account for the progressive decay. The variables of these functions were optimized in Matlab in order to minimize the error between the real and the modelled velocities. The model performance was assessed for two different response functions (following either

  5. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT IN POROUS MEDIA INFLUENCED BY MOBILE WATER AND IMMOBILE WATER

    崔明; 梁栋

    2002-01-01

    The numerical methods for miscible displacment in aggregated or sorbing medium areconsidered. A mixed finite element method is adopted for the pressure equation. The concentra-tion in the mobile water is approximated by a combination of a Galerkin finite element method andthe method of characteristics and the concentration in immobile water is approximated by a stan-dard Galerkin method. The moving mesh technique which depends on time t is adopted here. Themoving meshes can vary in different spacial domains with different variable times. Optima errorestimates in energy norm and L2 norm are obtained under certain constraints.

  6. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    A.C. Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  7. [The influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms].

    Xia, W D; Fu, K Y

    2016-03-01

    Anterior disc displacement is a common subtype seen in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. It may cause mandibular movement disorders, such as clicking of joint, intermittent closed lock, limitation of mouth opening, etc. These disorders may affect the life qualities of patients. Anterior disc displacement may also cause mandibular malformations, especially among adolescents, which may affect the growth of condyle, therefore may have a correlation with mandibular retrusion or mandibular deviation when grown up. This paper going to review the influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms. PMID:26980658

  8. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish;

    2015-01-01

    hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population...

  9. Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first the dynamical generation at time $t$ of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time $\\tau \\geq 0$ apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier ensures that the temporal second-order coherence function depends only on $\\tau$, via $\\tau/t$, for given Gaussian state parameters, Gaussian state preparation time $t$, and average number $\\bar{n}$ of thermal photons. It is interesting that the time evolution for displaced thermal states shows a power decay in $\\tau/t$ rather than an exponential one as is the case for general, displaced-squeezed thermal states.

  10. Derivation of an Efficient Non-Prismatic Thin Curved Beam Element Using Basic Displacement Functions

    Ahmad Shahba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and accuracy of the elements proposed by the Finite Element Method (FEM considerably depend on the interpolating functions, namely shape functions, used to formulate the displacement field within an element. In this paper, a new insight is proposed for derivation of elements from a mechanical point of view. Special functions namely Basic Displacement Functions (BDFs are introduced which hold pure structural foundations. Following basic principles of structural mechanics, it is shown that exact shape functions for non-prismatic thin curved beams could be derived in terms of BDFs. Performing a limiting study, it is observed that the new curved beam element successfully becomes the straight Euler-Bernoulli beam element. Carrying out numerical examples, it is shown that the element provides exact static deformations. Finally efficiency of the method in free vibration analysis is verified through several examples. The results are in good agreement with those in the literature.

  11. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  12. Experimental study of displacement of viscous oil in pipes by water

    Kazemihatami, Milad

    2013-01-01

    This study is specifically concerned with the understanding of real restart procedure that is very crucial for prediction of oil-water columns displacement after un-expected shut down at water-viscous crude oil transportation. This issue gets more important for subsea pipeline which is generally located in ups and downs topology and in average cold medium. At subsea pipelines the risk of formation of oil-water columns is high and in addition the viscosity of crude oil gets higher due to heat ...

  13. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  14. Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first the dynamical generation at time $t$ of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time $\\tau \\geq 0$ apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier ensures that the temporal second-o...

  15. Mean square displacement evaluation by elastic neutron scattering self-distribution function

    Magazù, Salvatore; Maisano, Giacomo; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    In the present work an operational recipe for the mean square displacement (MSD) determination, highlighting the connection between elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) intensity profiles and the associated self-distribution function, is presented. The determination of the thermal behavior of the total MSD and of its partial contributions is tested on EINS data collected by the backscattering spectrometer IN13 (ILL, Grenoble) on a model system such as PolyEthylene Glycol with a mean molecular weight of 400 Dalton (PEG 400).

  16. A computational chemical study of penetration and displacement of water films near mineral surfaces

    Larter Steve R

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on organic–water mixtures near mineral surfaces. These simulations show that, in contrast to apolar compounds, small polar organic compounds such as phenols can penetrate through thin water films to adsorb on these mineral surfaces. Furthermore, additional simulations involving demixing of an organic–water mixture near a surfactant-covered mineral surface demonstrate that even low concentrations of adsorbed polar compounds can induce major changes in mineral surface wettability, allowing sorption of apolar molecules. This strongly supports a two-stage adsorption mechanism for organic solutes, involving initial migration of small polar organic molecules to the mineral surface followed by water film displacement due to co-adsorption of the more apolar organic compounds, thus converting an initial water-wet mineral system to an organic-covered surface. This has profound implications for studies of petroleum reservoir diagenesis and wettability changes.

  17. Large-Deformation Displacement Transfer Functions for Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Slender Aerospace Structures

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    Large deformation displacement transfer functions were formulated for deformed shape predictions of highly flexible slender structures like aircraft wings. In the formulation, the embedded beam (depth wise cross section of structure along the surface strain sensing line) was first evenly discretized into multiple small domains, with surface strain sensing stations located at the domain junctures. Thus, the surface strain (bending strains) variation within each domain could be expressed with linear of nonlinear function. Such piecewise approach enabled piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations [classical (Eulerian), physical (Lagrangian), and shifted curvature equations] to yield closed form slope and deflection equations in recursive forms.

  18. Heavy metal displacement in salt-water-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Wahla, Intkhab Hazoor [Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5501 (United States); Kirkham, M.B. [Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5501 (United States)], E-mail: mbk@ksu.edu

    2008-09-15

    In regions where phytoremediation is carried out, brackish water must often be used. However, no information exists concerning the consequences of saline-water irrigation on the mobility of heavy metals in sludge applied to soil during phytoremediation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of NaCl irrigation on displacement of seven heavy metals in sludge (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) applied to the surface of soil columns containing barley plants. Half the columns received NaCl irrigation (10,000 mg L{sup -1}) and half the columns received tap-water irrigation. Half the columns were treated with the chelating agent EDTA. With no EDTA, irrigation with the NaCl solution increased the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb in the drainage water above drinking-water standards. Irrigation of sludge farms with brackish water is not recommended, because saline water increased the mobility of the heavy metals and they polluted the drainage water. - Irrigation with brackish water mobilizes heavy metals in contaminated soils.

  19. Heavy metal displacement in salt-water-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    In regions where phytoremediation is carried out, brackish water must often be used. However, no information exists concerning the consequences of saline-water irrigation on the mobility of heavy metals in sludge applied to soil during phytoremediation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of NaCl irrigation on displacement of seven heavy metals in sludge (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) applied to the surface of soil columns containing barley plants. Half the columns received NaCl irrigation (10,000 mg L-1) and half the columns received tap-water irrigation. Half the columns were treated with the chelating agent EDTA. With no EDTA, irrigation with the NaCl solution increased the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb in the drainage water above drinking-water standards. Irrigation of sludge farms with brackish water is not recommended, because saline water increased the mobility of the heavy metals and they polluted the drainage water. - Irrigation with brackish water mobilizes heavy metals in contaminated soils

  20. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail

  1. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann;

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water a...

  2. Stresses and displacements in functionally graded materials of semi-infinite extent induced by rectangular loadings

    Zhong-Qi Yue; Hong-Tian Xiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM) caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over t...

  3. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Hedegaard, Kathrine; Springer, Niels

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water and...... forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  4. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    Highlights: • Energy and water services are a key need in long-term displacement situations. • At present electricity is supplied mostly with diesel generators and water is imported. • On-site electricity and clean water production can decrease costs and increase security. • The proposed containerized solution produces electricity and purifies water locally. • Model results show the cost-competitiveness and technical potential of the solution. - Abstract: The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency

  5. Nozzle optimization for water jet propulsion with a positive displacement pump

    Yang, You-sheng; Xie, Ying-chun; Nie, Song-lin

    2014-06-01

    In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

  6. Nozzle Optimization for Water Jet Propulsion with A Positive Displacement Pump

    杨友胜; 谢迎春; 聂松林

    2014-01-01

    In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

  7. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam

    Oro S.R.; Mafioleti T.R.; Chaves Neto A.; Garcia S.R.P.; Neumann Júnior C.

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam found...

  8. Upwind finite difference method for miscible oil and water displacement problem with moving boundary values

    Yi-rang YUAN; Chang-feng LI; Cheng-shun YANG; Yu-ji HAN

    2009-01-01

    The research of the miscible oil and water displacement problem with moving boundary values is of great value to the history of oil-gas transport and accumulation in the basin evolution as well as to the rational evaluation in prospecting and exploiting oil-gas resources. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with moving boundary values. For the two-dimensional bounded region, the upwind finite difference schemes are proposed. Some techniques, such as the calculus of variations, the change of variables, and the theory of a priori estimates, are used. The optimal order l2-norm estimates are derived for the errors in the approximate solutions. The research is important both theoretically and practically for the model analysis in the field, the model numerical method, and the software development.

  9. Stresses and Displacements in Functionally Graded Materials of Semi-Infinite Extent Induced by Rectangular Loadings

    Zhong-Qi Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over the distributed loaded area. The loaded area is discretized into 200 small equal-sized rectangular elements. The numerical integration is carried out with the regular Gaussian quadrature. Weak and strong singular integrations encountered when the field points are located on the loaded plane, are resolved with the classical methods in boundary element analysis. The numerical integration results have high accuracy.

  10. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    Vrebos, D.; Vansteenkiste, T.; Staes, J.; Willems, P.; Meire, P.

    2013-06-01

    Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area), based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between -16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between -99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  11. Water flooding to displace heavy oil with electromagnetic resistive heating (ERH)

    Oliverira, H.J.M.; Barillas, J.L.M.; Mata, W.; Dutra, T.V.Jr. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova (Brazil). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The viscosity of heavy oil can be effectively reduced by increasing its temperature, thus providing better mobility in the reservoir. Steam flooding is a commonly used technique to improve oil recovery, but may not be technically possible or economically feasible in situations such as permafrost, deep formations, thin pay zones and low permeability formations. Therefore, alternative methods are needed to produce this heavy oil. This paper proposed the use of electromagnetic resistive heating (ERH), a thermal stimulation technique in which an electrical current passes through a formation to increase the original temperature by Joule effect. The reservoir temperatures increases proportionally as the electrical current intensity increases. This paper demonstrated the results of computational simulations using water injection, with or without ERH in a reservoir of heavy oil with similar characteristics to those found in northeastern Brazilian basins. The paper outlined the reservoir and fluids characteristics used to model the ERH process and waterflooding. It was concluded that using water flooding, without ERH to displace heavy oil can enhance oil recovery. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    D. Vrebos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area, based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between −16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between −99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  13. The probability density function of the multiplication factor due to small, random displacements of fissile spheres

    An analytical expression is obtained for the probability density function of the multiplication factor of an array of spheres when each sphere is displaced in a random fashion from its initial position. Two cases are considered: (1) spheres in an infinite background medium in which the total cross section in spheres and medium is the same, and (2) spheres in a void. In all cases we use integral transport theory and cast the problem into one involving average fluxes in the spheres which interact via collision probabilities. The statistical aspects of the problem are treated by first order perturbation theory and the general conclusion is that, when the number of spheres exceeds about 5, the reduced multiplication factor ((ξ (k-k0))/(k0)), where k0 is the unperturbed value, is given accurately by the Gaussian distribution P (ξ)= (1)/(SQRT(2 π) σ DT) exp-((ξ 2)/(2 σ2 DT2)).)) The partial standard deviation σ -2δ / SQRT (3), δ being the maximum movement of the sphere from its equilibrium position. DT is a function of the system properties and geometry. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the magnitude of the effects and also the accuracy of diffusion theory for this type of problem is assessed. The overall accuracy of the perturbation method is assessed by an essentially exact result obtained using simulation, thereby enabling the range of perturbation theory to be investigated

  14. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  15. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam

    Oro S.R.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam foundations. The factor analysis is used to identify data sources of variability and order the sensors according to the action of factors. The dates of the measurements are grouped according to similarities in the present observations, by applying the cluster analysis. Then the discriminant analysis is used to assess the groups as to their homogeneity. The results demonstrate that the techniques used for distinguishing the dam responses and identify the effects of changes in environmental conditions on the displacements of the structures and dam foundations.

  16. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Eihab Fathelrahman; Amalia Davies; Stephen Davies; James Pritchett

    2014-01-01

    This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that c...

  17. Application of the Moliere multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement function in Monte-Carlo calculations

    A two-dimensional approximation is found for the multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement correlation formula which satisfies two conditions: first, that it be close to the Moliere one (better than 10-3) and, second, that it be suitable for Monte Carlo calculations. These Monte Carlo calculations are made for relativistic particles. (orig.)

  18. Application of the Moliere multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement function in Monte-Carlo calculations

    A two-dimensional approximation is found for the multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement correlation formula. The formula satisfies two conditions: it is close to the Moliere one (better than 10-3) and suitable for Monte-Carlo calculations. These Monte-Carlo calculations are made for relativistic particles

  19. Assessment of damage of masonry walls as a function of displacements and repair costs

    Krumpestar, David

    2015-01-01

    An overview of a database of cyclic tests of masonry walls is firstly presented in this thesis. The objective of the analysis of the database was to estimate the relationship between the damage and displacements of the masonry walls. A discussion on the typical failure mechanisms of masonry walls and definition of damage states is then presented in the first part of the thesis which addresses also the issue of rehabilitaiton and strengthening of masonry walls by different techn...

  20. Experimental study of crossover from capillary to viscous fingering for supercritical CO2-water displacement in a homogeneous pore network.

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Changyong; Wei, Ning; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W; Li, Xiaochun; Bonneville, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in saline aquifers involves displacing brine from the pore space by supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)). The displacement process is considered unstable due to the unfavorable viscosity ratio between the invading scCO(2) and the resident brine. The mechanisms that affect scCO(2)-water displacement under reservoir conditions (41 °C, 9 MPa) were investigated in a homogeneous micromodel. A large range of injection rates, expressed as the dimensionless capillary number (Ca), was studied in two sets of experiments: discontinuous-rate injection, where the micromodel was saturated with water before each injection rate was imposed, and continuous-rate injection, where the rate was increased after quasi-steady conditions were reached for a certain rate. For the discontinuous-rate experiments, capillary fingering and viscous fingering are the dominant mechanisms for low (logCa ≤ -6.61) and high injection rates (logCa ≥ -5.21), respectively. Crossover from capillary to viscous fingering was observed for logCa = -5.91 to -5.21, resulting in a large decrease in scCO(2) saturation. The discontinuous-rate experimental results confirmed the decrease in nonwetting fluid saturation during crossover from capillary to viscous fingering predicted by numerical simulations by Lenormand et al. (J. Fluid Mech.1988, 189, 165-187). Capillary fingering was the dominant mechanism for all injection rates in the continuous-rate experiment, resulting in monotonic increase in scCO(2) saturation. PMID:22676368

  1. Job Displacement

    Lori G. Kletzer

    1998-01-01

    The past decade and a half has seen tremendous research growth in the area of job displacement. This paper discusses the state of knowledge on the issues and questions of job loss. The 1984-96 Displaced Worker Surveys are used to describe how the characteristics of displacement are changing to include more college educated, white collar, and nonmanufacturing workers. For many workers, the long-term earnings losses following displacement are large due to the loss of firm-specific human capital...

  2. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement.

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-14

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. PMID:26814628

  3. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool.Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed descriptions of DNA logic gate design, materials and methods, and additional data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08497k

  4. Influence of basin characteristics on the effectiveness and downstream reach of interbasin water transfers: displacing a problem

    Emanuel, Ryan E.; Buckley, John J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, Ge

    2015-12-01

    Interbasin water transfers are globally important water management strategies, yet little is known about their role in the hydrologic cycle at regional and continental scales. Specifically, there is a dearth of centralized information on transfer locations and characteristics, and few analyses place transfers into a relevant hydrological context. We assessed hydrological characteristics of interbasin transfers (IBTs) in the conterminous US using a nationwide inventory of transfers together with historical climate data and hydrological modeling. Supplying and receiving drainage basins share similar hydroclimatological conditions, suggesting that climatological drivers of water shortages in receiving basins likely have similar effects on supplying basins. This result calls into question the effectiveness of transfers as a strategy to mitigate climate-driven water shortages, as the water shortage may be displaced but not resolved. We also identified hydrologically advantageous and disadvantageous IBTs by comparing the water balances of supplying and receiving basins. Transfer magnitudes did not vary between the two categories, confirming that factors driving individual IBTs, such as patterns of human water demand or engineering constraints, also influence the continental-scale distribution of transfers. Some IBTs impact streamflow for hundreds of kilometers downstream. Transfer magnitude, hydroclimate and organization of downstream river networks mediate downstream impacts, and these impacts have the potential to expand downstream nonlinearly during years of drought. This work sheds new light on IBTs and emphasizes the need for updated inventories and analyses that place IBTs in an appropriate hydrological context.

  5. A forcefield with discrete displaceable waters and desolvation entropy for hydrated ligand docking

    Forli, Stefano; Olson, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    In modeling ligand-protein interactions, the representation and role of water is of great importance. We introduce a forcefield and hydration docking method that enables the automated prediction of waters mediating the binding of ligands with target proteins. The method presumes no prior knowledge of the apo or holo protein hydration state, and is potentially useful in the process of structure-based drug discovery. The hydration forcefield accounts for the entropic and enthalpic contributions...

  6. Development of extensometer system for measuring displacement of gauge length of low cycle fatigue specimen in high temperature and high pressure water

    Low cycle fatigue experiment in high temperature and high pressure water have been conducted to evaluate environmental fatigue characteristics of nuclear materials which are used in the primary water. The experimental methods of evaluating low cycle fatigue properties are to control by either load or displacement. The study is about the development of extensometer system for measuring displacement in gauge length of low cycle fatigue specimen in autoclave which simulated high temperature and high pressure water. The developed extensometer system showed precise change of displacement data by controlling actuator in room temperature as well as high temperature and high pressure water. This device can be applied to various material testings in high temperature and high pressure environments and is expected to greatly contribute on acquiring more detailed test data.

  7. Effect of a Selected Physical Exercise on the Development of Displacement Movement Skills in Highly Functional Autistic Children

    Fatemeh Keyhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on the development of displacement skills in High Function Autistic (HFA children. Materials and Methods: In this research, 10 children (7.9±1.4 years among of 33 children with HFA in Sahr-e-Kord city (in Iran based on their pre-test scores randomly were selected. The measuring tool was Test of Gross Motor Development-2000 (TGMD-2. Selected motor program (SPARK motor program in this research includes motor strengthening activities, games and sports for children that were performed for 12 sessions by our subjects. Normal distribution of data checked by K-S test and appropriate statistical Levine's and ANOVA tests (dependent and independent types were used for compare mean values (α=0.05. Results: Twelfth sessions of selected physical exercises training in experiment group made significant differences in some research variables but it was not the case for the control group. There were significant differences in running (p=0.002, trotting (p=0.08, jumping (p=0.002 and gliding (p=0.004 and there were non-significant differences in hop (p=0.035 and leaping (p=0.02. Conclusion: According to the results of this research we suggest that the selected physical exercise programs that derived from SPARK motor program can improve displacement motor skills in children with HFA.

  8. Permeability heterogeneity in cross-bedded sandstones: Impact on water/oil displacement in fluvial reservoirs. Doctoral thesis

    Hartkamp-Bakker, C.A.

    1993-09-07

    This study focuses on quantitatively defining the permeability/capillary-pressure characteristics in a number of well-exposed analoges and cored reservoirs by minipermeametry. Average contrasts in permeability are determined for fluvial cross-bedding and combined with thin-section studies to characterize the grain size, sorting and compositional characteristics that determine permeability contrasts. In addition capillary pressure experiments of laminated samples were carried out to study the contrasting capillary-pressure characteristics between the laminae. Water/oil displacement through cross-bedding by numerical and physical modelling were performed in close corporation with reservoir engineers to increase the understanding of the geological and physical conditions under which movable-oil entrapment occurs. Finally, the likely percentages of movable oil that are initially trapped in a cross-bedded reservoir are estimated.

  9. Complications and functional outcome after internal fixation of dorsally displaced distal radial fractures

    Bove, Jeppe; Viberg, Bjarke; Greisen, Pernille;

    Background: Recently there has been an increasing interest in open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures. Even so further studies are still needed. Purpose: To document the functional outcome and identify complica- tions among patients treated with a volar locking plate (DVR...

  10. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical m...

  11. Stress and displacement fields for a propagating crack in a linear functionally gradient material along X direction

    Stress and displacement fields for a propagating crack in a Functionally Gradient Material (FGM) which has shear modulus as μ=μ0(1+ζX) are derived. The equations of motion in FGM which is nonhomogeneous material are different form those of homogeneous material. The stress intensity factors in stress fields have influence on odd terms of γn/2-1(n=1,3,5,...,) but stress at crack tip only retains term of γ-1/2, where the γ is a radius of cylindrical coordinates centered at crack tip. When the FGM constant ζ is zero or γ→0, the fields for FGM are almost same as the those for isotropic material

  12. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    Tawa, G J; Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for solvation of classical electrostatic interactions the diele...

  13. Tests of dielectric model descriptions of chemical charge displacements in water

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for (a) pairing of sodium and/or chloride ions; (b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; (c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to poor. It is argued that: (a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; (b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and (c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for salvation of classical electrostatic interactions the dielectric models appear to perform as well as the more detailed XRISM theory

  14. Assessment of Volume Measurement of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema by Three Methods: Circumference Measurement, Water Displacement, and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    Gjørup, Caroline; Zerahn, B.; Hendel, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Following treatment for breast cancer 12%-60% develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). There are several ways of assessing BCRL. Circumference measurement (CM) and water displacement (WD) for volume measurements (VM) are frequently used methods in practice and research...

  15. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that comes from runoff derived from snowpack in the Rocky Mountains. The analysis is composed of a Base simulation, designed to represent selected features of the agricultural economy several decades in the future, and then three alternative climatic scenarios are run. The Base starts with a reduction in agricultural water by 10.3% from increased municipal and industrial water demand, and assumes a 75% increase in corn extracted-ethanol production. From this, the first simulation (S1 reduces agricultural water availability by a further 14.0%, for a combined decrease of 24.3%, due to climatic factors and related groundwater depletion. The second simulation (S2-WET describes wet year conditions, which negatively affect yields of irrigated corn and milking cows, but improves yields for important crops such as non-irrigated wheat and forages. In contrast, the third simulation (S3-DRY describes a drought year, which leads to reduced dairy output and reduced corn and wheat. Consumer and producer surplus losses are approximately $10 million in this simulation. The simulation results also demonstrate the importance of the modeling trade when studying climate change in a small open economy, and of linking crop and livestock activities to quantify overall sector effects. This model has not taken into account farmers’ adaptation strategies, which would reduce the climate impact on yields, nor has it reflected climate-induced shifts in planting decisions and production

  16. Displacing use

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a hum...

  17. Displacement Ventilation

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats;

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment in the...

  18. Water displacement by cyanogold complexes in binuclear nickel(II) compounds based on bridging oxalate. Synthesis, structural diversity, magnetic properties, and DFT calculations.

    Vitoria, Pablo; Muga, Iñaki; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Luque, Antonio; Román, Pascual; Lezama, Luis; Zúniga, F Javier; Beitia, Javier I

    2003-02-24

    Several cyanogold complexes react with the binuclear nickel complex [(Ni(dien)(H(2)O))(2)(mu-ox)](PF(6))(2).2H(2)O to give the compounds [(Ni(dien)(H(2)O))(2)(mu-ox)]Br(2) (1), [(Ni(dien)(Au(CN)(2)))(2)(mu-ox)] (2), and [(Ni(dien))(2)(mu-ox)(mu-Au(CN)(4))](PF(6)) (3) (dien, diethilenetriamine; ox, oxalate). In the case of compounds 2 and 3, water displacement by the corresponding cyanogold complex takes place, whereas compound 1 is formed by a substitution of the anion. The crystal structures of compounds 1 and 2 present a 2D arrangement where the layers are connected by van der Waals forces (1) or N-H.Ntbd1;C hydrogen bonds (2), where each binuclear complex is hydrogen bonded to its neighbors, whereas compound 3 presents a novel structure where the tetracyanoaurate acts as a bridging ligand to give a polymeric compound. Magnetic studies of these compounds reveal an antiferromagnetic behavior. Finally, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on isolated models of compounds 2 and 3 in order to gain some insight about the different behavior of the [Au(CN)(2)](-) and [Au(CN)(4)](-) groups as ligands and proton acceptors in hydrogen bonds. PMID:12588126

  19. Computing the Kirkwood g-Factor by Combining Constant Maxwell Electric Field and Electric Displacement Simulations: Application to the Dielectric Constant of Liquid Water.

    Zhang, Chao; Hutter, Jürg; Sprik, Michiel

    2016-07-21

    In his classic 1939 paper, Kirkwood linked the macroscopic dielectric constant of polar liquids to the local orientational order as measured by the g-factor (later named after him) and suggested that the corresponding dielectric constant at short-range is effectively equal to the macroscopic value just after "a distance of molecular magnitude" [ Kirkwood, J. Chem. Phys., 1939, 7, 911 ]. Here, we show a simple approach to extract the short-ranged Kirkwood g-factor from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation by superposing the outcomes of constant electric field E and constant electric displacement D simulations [ Zhang and Sprik, Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2016, 93, 144201 ]. Rather than from the notoriously slow fluctuations of the dipole moment of the full MD cell, the dielectric constant can now be estimated from dipole fluctuations at short-range, accelerating the convergence. Exploiting this feature, we computed the bulk dielectric constant of liquid water modeled in the generalized gradient approximation (PBE) to density functional theory and found it to be at least 40% larger than the experimental value. PMID:27352038

  20. Seafloor slow vertical displacement inferred by sea bottom pressure measurements in shallow water: an application to the Campi Flegrei volcanic area

    Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; La Rocca, Adriano; Pinto, Salvatore; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The vertical component of sea floor displacement in tectonic or volcanically active areas can be observed using sea bottom pressure recorders. These measurements are usually acquired in areas affected by strong dynamics with large vertical displacement and in deep water, where the noise induced by the sea state is low. Under these conditions the contribution of the variation of sea water density and the contribution of the instrumental drift - a typical feature of the bottom pressure recorders - can be negligible. We have developed a new methodology to monitor vertical sea floor displacement both in areas with small and slow deformation, and in shallow water. We take advantage of bottom pressure recorder data, augmented with ancillary sea level, barometric and water physical parameters measurements. We have applied this method to the data collected by a bottom pressure recorder deployed at 100 m w.d. in the Campi Flegrei Caldera as part of CUMAS multiparameter monitoring system. During several months of 2011 we have observed a small uplift episode related to the bradiseismic activity of the area. These observations are compatible with other geodetic data recorded in the region and provide unprecedented measurements of the vertical deformation in the marine area.

  1. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    Bo Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system.

  2. Water chemistry management during hot functional test

    To reduce radiation exposure in light water reactor, it is important decrease radioactive corrosion product which is a radiation source. One of the countermeasures is to improve water quality during plant trial operation to form a stable oxide film and to minimize metal release to the coolant at the beginning of commercial operation. This study reviews the optimum water quality conditions to form a chromium rich oxide film during hot functional test (HFT) that is thought to be stable under the PWR condition and reduce the release of Ni that is the source of Co-58, the main radiation source of exposure. (author)

  3. The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging

    Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

  4. Combined Effects of Mass and Velocity on Forward Displacement and Phenomenological Ratings: A Functional Measurement Approach to the Momentum Metaphor

    De Sa Teixeira, Nuno; Oliveira, Armando Monica; Amorim, Michel-Ange

    2010-01-01

    Representational Momentum (RepMo) refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as…

  5. Stresses and Displacements in Steel-Lined Pressure Tunnels and Shafts in Anisotropic Rock Under Quasi-Static Internal Water Pressure

    Pachoud, Alexandre J.; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    Steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts are constructed to convey water from reservoirs to hydroelectric power plants. They are multilayer structures made of a steel liner, a cracked backfill concrete layer, a cracked or loosened near-field rock zone and a sound far-field rock zone. Designers often assume isotropic behavior of the far-field rock, considering the most unfavorable rock mass elastic modulus measured in situ, and a quasi-static internal water pressure. Such a conventional model is thus axisymmetrical and has an analytical solution for stresses and displacements. However, rock masses often have an anisotropic behavior and such isotropic assumption is usually conservative in terms of quasi-static maximum stresses in the steel liner. In this work, the stresses and displacements in steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock mass are studied by means of the finite element method. A quasi-static internal water pressure is considered. The materials are considered linear elastic, and tied contact is assumed between the layers. The constitutive models used for the rock mass and the cracked layers are presented and the practical ranges of variation of the parameters are discussed. An extensive systematic parametric study is performed and stresses and displacements in the steel liner and in the far-field rock mass are presented. Finally, correction factors are derived to be included in the axisymmetrical solution which allow a rapid estimate of the maximum stresses in the steel liners of pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock.

  6. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    Mehmet Kerem Canbora; Ozkan Kose; Atilla Polat; Levent Konukoglu; Mucahit Gorgec

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification ...

  7. Digital displacements

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...... digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...

  8. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [99mTc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.)

  9. Self-Oscillated Ultrasonic Stepping Motor with Function of Angular Displacement Self-Correction: Nonaxisymmetric ((2,1))-Mode Thin Disk Motor

    Chen, Xiaoduo; Aoyagi, Manabu; Kusakabe, Chiharu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    1994-05-01

    This paper deals with experimental investigation of a self-oscillated open-loop driving motor using a slitted rotor and a nonaxisymmetric ((2,1)) vibration mode thin annular disk which has four projection teeth on its inner circumference. This motor is suitable for application to watches because it can be constructed in a thin configuration and the slitted rotor enables the self-correction of angular displacement. In the experiment, two types of self-oscillation circuits were investigated for suitable driving. The results were that the self-oscillated driving motor could be achieved by using an operational amplifier and some inverter IC elements. That is, the self-correction function of the angular displacement of a stepping motor was confirmed in the case of the nonaxisymmetric-mode disk motor.

  10. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita, E-mail: charus@chemistry.iitd.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Murari [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor [Science Institute, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-11-07

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O–O–O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O–O–O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  11. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  12. Molecular Density Functional Theory of Water

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Borgis, Daniel; 10.1021/jz301956b

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional implementations of liquid state theories offer an efficient alternative to computer simulations for the atomic-level description of aqueous solutions in complex environments. In this context, we present a (classical) molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water that is derived from first principles and is based on two classical density fields, a scalar one, the particle density, and a vectorial one, the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric constants. It has to be complemented by a solute-solvent three-body term that reinforces tetrahedral order at short range. The approach is shown to provide the correct three-dimensional microscopic solvation profile around various molecular solutes, possibly possessing H-bonding sites, at a computer cost two-three orders of magnitude lower tha...

  13. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    Canbora, Mehmet Kerem; Kose, Ozkan; Polat, Atilla; Konukoglu, Levent; Gorgec, Mucahit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification and all met the displacement criteria described by Neer. Standard physical therapy program was applied. Patients were evaluated clinically using Constant shoulder score, quick form of disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand score and visual analog scale. At the final follow-up, humeral head position in the coronal plane was assessed with neck-shaft angle. Any complication was recorded during the treatment period. Correlation between the functional outcomes and final radiologic results were statistically analyzed. Results: Data were analyzed from 29 cases (21 female, 8 male) with a mean age was 78 ± 8.6 years (range 65-93 years). The mean follow-up period was 18.2 ± 4.07 months (range 12-26 months). Functional results were significantly related with initial fragmentation. However, there was no correlation between the functional outcomes and the final geometry of the humeral head. Despite the union occurred with deformity, the functional outcome were satisfactory. Conclusion: The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results. PMID:24167402

  14. Combined effects of Mass and Velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: a functional measurement approach to the Momentum metaphor

    Michel-Ange Amorim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Representational Momentum (RepMo refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as a second-order isomorphism between mental representations and principles of the physical world. However, very few studies have addressed the effects of mass on RepMo, and consistent replications of the null effect are lacking. The extent of motor engagement of the observers in RepMo tasks has, on the other hand, been suggested to determine the occurrence of the phenomenon; however, no systematic investigations were made of the degree to which it might modulate the effect of target mass. In the present work, we use Information Integration Theory to study the joint effects of different motor responses, target velocity and target mass on RepMo, and also of velocity and target mass on rating responses. Outcomes point not only to an effect of mass on RepMo, as to a differential effect of response modality on kinematic (e.g., velocity and dynamic (e.g., mass variables. Comparisons of patterns of mislocalisation with phenomenological ratings suggest that simplification of physical principles, rather than strict internalization or isomorphism per se, might underlie RepMo.

  15. Asymmetrical Deterministic Lateral Displacement Gaps for Dual Functions of Enhanced Separation and Throughput of Red Blood Cells

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Salafi, Thoriq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) method for particle separation in microfluidic devices has been extensively used for particle separation in recent years due to its high resolution and robust separation. DLD has shown versatility for a wide spectrum of applications for sorting of micro particles such as parasites, blood cells to bacteria and DNA. DLD model is designed for spherical particles and efficient separation of blood cells is challenging due to non-uniform shape and size. Moreover, separation in sub-micron regime requires the gap size of DLD systems to be reduced which exponentially increases the device resistance, resulting in greatly reduced throughput. This paper shows how simple application of asymmetrical DLD gap-size by changing the ratio of lateral-gap (GL) to downstream-gap (GD) enables efficient separation of RBCs without greatly restricting throughput. This method reduces the need for challenging fabrication of DLD pillars and provides new insight to the current DLD model. The separation shows an increase in DLD critical diameter resolution (separate smaller particles) and increase selectivity for non-spherical RBCs. The RBCs separate better as compared to standard DLD model with symmetrical gap sizes. This method can be applied to separate non-spherical bacteria or sub-micron particles to enhance throughput and DLD resolution.

  16. Water soluble azido polyisocyanopeptides as functional β-sheet mimics

    Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Kitto, Heather J.; Espelt, Mónica; Nebot-Carda, Vicent J.; Gelder, de Rene; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The design and synthesis of functional biomimetic water soluble polymers with a defined secondary structure has been developed using β-sheet polyisocyanopeptide scaffolds. Water soluble isocyanopolymers were prepared by random copolymerisation of the azido functionalized isocyanopeptides with nonfun

  17. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La11B6 and EuB6 as a function of temperature

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data and the local structure from La LIII-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) are presented for a La11B6 sample as a function of temperature (∼10 - 320K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB6 sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites obtained from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB6 indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB6 place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites

  18. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  19. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    Good, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  20. The Role of Drinking Water Shortages on Human Psychological Functioning

    Siamak Khodarahimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded on an ecopsychological approach towards the effect of water shortages on human psychological functioning. The purpose of this study was to: (1 to examine the prevalence of psychological problems in rural residents with and without water shortages; (2 to evaluate human attributions about the possible causes of water scarcity; (3 to explore human coping styles towards water shortage; and (4 to recognize the role of sociocultural factors on the aforesaid factors. Participants included 3850 Iranian rural residents, those with water shortages (WWS, and those without water shortages (WOWS. A demographic questionnaire and several self-rating measures were used. Resulting data indicates that the prevalence of mental health problems is significantly higher in rural residents who suffer with water shortages. Attributional styles towards water shortages consisted of four components: personal, social, natural, and organizational. Coping styles of participants (with water shortages indicated an emotional-avoidant coping style, the utilization of water consumption methods to optimize water usage, the use of water-free technologies, social adaptation to life with regards to water, and the application of high quality technologies for water saving. Demographic and sociocultural factors influence psychological functioning with regards to water scarcity. This study demonstrates that mental health problems are more prevalent in areas with water shortages. It also indicates the impact of attributional styles, coping methods and the role of demographic and sociocultural factors on psychological functioning when water shortages occur,

  1. Generation of plastic influence functions for J-integral and crack opening displacement of thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack

    Fracture mechanics parameters such as the J-integral and crack opening displacement (COD), are necessary for Leak-Before-Break (LBB) evaluation. The famous two estimation methods, the GE/EPRI and the Reference Stress Method (RSM), have their applicability limit with regard to the ratio of a pipe mean radius to thickness (Rm/t). In order to extend their applicability limit to a thin walled pipe, several finite element analyses are performed for the J-integral and COD, and then new plastic influence functions are developed for thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack. With the newly generated plastic influence functions, the GE/EPRI and the RSM give closer results with those obtained from detailed finite element analyses. In addition, C*-integral and COD rate are estimated by using the new plastic influence functions and they are well matched with elastic–creep finite element analysis results under the power-law creep condition. Since the LBB concept can be applied to a piping system in a Korean Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) which is designed to have thin-walled pipes and to operate in high temperature enough to cause creep, this paper can be applied for the LBB assessment of thin-walled pipes with a short through-wall crack in the SFR

  2. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.

    Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2007-09-01

    Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:17927413

  3. Job Displacement and Crime

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing a...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  4. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  5. Job Displacement and Crime

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities.......This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced...... individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits no...

  6. Electrochemical determination of microRNAs based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction coupled with multienzyme functionalized magnetic micro-carriers.

    Ma, Wen; Situ, Bo; Lv, Weifeng; Li, Bo; Yin, Xiaomao; Vadgama, Pankaj; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Wen

    2016-06-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) show great potential for disease diagnostics due to their specific molecular profiles. Detection of miRNAs remains challenging and often requires sophisticated platforms. Here we report a multienzyme-functionalized magnetic microcarriers-assisted isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction (ISDPR) for quantitative detection of miRNAs. Magnetic micro-carriers (MMCs) were functionalized with molecular beacons to enable miRNAs recognition and magnetic separation. The target miRNAs triggered a phi29-mediated ISDPR, which can produce biotin-modified sequences on the MMCs. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase was then conjugated to the MMC surface through biotin-streptavidin interactions. In the presence of 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid, miRNAs were quantitatively determined on a screen-printed carbon electrode from the anodic current of the enzymatic product. We show that this method enables detection of miRNAs as low as 9 fM and allows the discrimination of one base mismatched sequence. The proposed method was also successfully applied to analyze miRNAs in clinical tumor samples. This paper reports a new strategy for miRNAs analysis with high sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. It would be particularly useful for rapid point-of-care testing of miRNAs in clinical laboratory. PMID:26855164

  7. Optimization of an exchange-correlation density functional for water

    Fritz, Michelle; Fernández-Serra, Marivi; Soler, José M.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a method, that we call data projection onto parameter space (DPPS), to optimize an energy functional of the electron density, so that it reproduces a dataset of experimental magnitudes. Our scheme, based on Bayes theorem, constrains the optimized functional not to depart unphysically from existing ab initio functionals. The resulting functional maximizes the probability of being the "correct" parameterization of a given functional form, in the sense of Bayes theory. The application of DPPS to water sheds new light on why density functional theory has performed rather poorly for liquid water, on what improvements are needed, and on the intrinsic limitations of the generalized gradient approximation to electron exchange and correlation. Finally, we present tests of our water-optimized functional, that we call vdW-DF-w, showing that it performs very well for a variety of condensed water systems.

  8. Optimization of an exchange-correlation density functional for water.

    Fritz, Michelle; Fernández-Serra, Marivi; Soler, José M

    2016-06-14

    We describe a method, that we call data projection onto parameter space (DPPS), to optimize an energy functional of the electron density, so that it reproduces a dataset of experimental magnitudes. Our scheme, based on Bayes theorem, constrains the optimized functional not to depart unphysically from existing ab initio functionals. The resulting functional maximizes the probability of being the "correct" parameterization of a given functional form, in the sense of Bayes theory. The application of DPPS to water sheds new light on why density functional theory has performed rather poorly for liquid water, on what improvements are needed, and on the intrinsic limitations of the generalized gradient approximation to electron exchange and correlation. Finally, we present tests of our water-optimized functional, that we call vdW-DF-w, showing that it performs very well for a variety of condensed water systems. PMID:27305990

  9. Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor

    The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

  10. Displacement solid-phase extraction on mercapto-functionalized magnetite microspheres for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric determination of trace noble metals

    A flow injection online displacement solid-phase extraction (DSPE) via magnetic immobilization of mercapto-functionalized magnetite microspheres onto the inner walls of a knotted reactor (KR) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed for selective preconcentration and determination of trace noble metals (Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au) in complex matrices. Online DSPE of 2.7 mL aqueous solution gave the enhancement factors of 32-46 for the six noble metals in comparison with direct nebulization of aqueous sample solution, and the detection limits (3 s) of 2.1 ng L-1 for Ru, 1.9 ng L-1 for Rh, 2.5 ng L-1 for Pd, 1.8 ng L-1 for Ir, 1.9 ng L-1 for Pt and 1.7 ng L-1 for Au. The sample throughput of the developed method was about 20 samples h-1, and the relative standard deviation for eleven replicate determinations of the noble metals at the 30 ng L-1 level ranged from 1.2% to 2.1%. The recoveries of Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au still maintained 90% even after successive 140 cycles of DSPE. The developed method was successfully applied to selective determination of trace Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au in complex matrices.

  11. Field kites: Crop-water production functions and the timing of water application for supplementary irrigation

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is directly related to water management and water supply. The temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season can significantly influence crop yield, and the facility to manage both the timing and amount of irrigation water may result in higher yields. The crop-water production function quantitatively evaluates the relationship between seasonal water use and crop yield. Previous efforts have attempted to describe and formalize the crop-water production function as a single-variable function of seasonal water use. However, these representations do not account for the effects of temporal distribution of water use and trivialize the associated variability in yields by assuming an optimized or arbitrary temporal distribution of soil moisture. This over-simplification renders the function inappropriate for recommendations related to irrigation scheduling, water management, economically optimal irrigation, water and agricultural productivity, and assessing the role of full and supplementary irrigation. We propose field kites, a novel representation of the crop-water production function that explicitly acknowledges crop yield variability as a function of both seasonal water use and associated temporal distributions of water use. Field kites are a tool that explicitly considers the farmers' capacity to manage their water resources, to more appropriately evaluate the optimal depth of irrigation water under water-limiting conditions. The field kite for winter wheat is presented both generally and cultivar- and climate-specific for Western Canada. The field kites are constructed using AquaCrop and previously validated cultivar-specific variables. Field kites provide the tools for water authorities and policy makers to evaluate agricultural production as it relates to farm water management, and to determine appropriate policies related to developing and supporting the necessary irrigation infrastructure to increase water productivity.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel injectable and water-swelling gingival displacement materials%可注射吸水膨胀性排龈膏的制备与排龈效果评价

    徐晓华; 祝小鹏; 宁天云; 刘巍; 李全利

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制一种新型可注射、吸水膨胀性排龈材料的膏剂.方法 将吸水膨胀性高分子载体基质与高岭土、氯化铝等药物机械混合,获得一种膏剂材料.采用Expasyl(R)作为对照,体外评价其在水中的稳定性和吸水膨胀性能,通过动物实验评价其排龈效果.结果 新型排龈膏体外吸水膨胀,但是可以维持结构的完整性,不会崩解.动物实验也显示无论在牙龈高度退缩和龈沟宽度变化方面都有良好的排龈效果.结论 获得一种新型的具有良好应用前景的可注射吸水膨胀性、遇水不崩解的排龈材料.%Objective To synthesize and evaluate a novel injectable and water-swelling gingival displacement materials. Methods A kind of water-swelling polymer, kaolin and aluminum chloride were mechanically mixed at certain ratio in water solution, resulting to a novel paste materials for gingival displacement. Then, its stability in aqueous solution and water swelling properties were evaluated in vitro. The effect on gingival displacement was evaluated by animal experiments in dogs. A commercial gingival displacement materials paste of Expasyl was used as control. Results While contacting with water, the novel gingival displacement paste did not collapse, maintained its integrity structure, and could expand for adsorbing water. Animal experiments in dogs showed that the materials could lead to displace the gingival margins from the dental root surfaces. Conclusion The novel injectable and expanded gingival displacement material is efficient to retract free gingival margin with potential clinical application.

  13. A molecular density functional theory to study solvation in water

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A classical density functional theory is applied to study solvation of solutes in water. An approx- imate form of the excess functional is proposed for water. This functional requires the knowledge of pure solvent direct correlation functions. Those functions can be computed by using molecular simulations such as molecular dynamic or Monte Carlo. It is also possible to use functions that have been determined experimentally. The functional minimization gives access to the solvation free energy and to the equilibrium solvent density. Some correction to the functional are also proposed to get the proper tetrahedral order of solvent molecules around a charged solute and to reproduce the correct long range hydrophobic behavior of big apolar solutes. To proceed the numerical minimization of the functional, the theory has been discretized on two tridimensional grids, one for the space coordinates, the other for the angular coordinates, in a functional minimization code written in modern Fortran, mdft. This program i...

  14. The Role of Drinking Water Shortages on Human Psychological Functioning

    Siamak Khodarahimi; Abdolrahman Rahimian Boogar; Cheryl-anne Johnston

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded on an ecopsychological approach towards the effect of water shortages on human psychological functioning. The purpose of this study was to: (1) to examine the prevalence of psychological problems in rural residents with and without water shortages; (2) to evaluate human attributions about the possible causes of water scarcity; (3) to explore human coping styles towards water shortage; and (4) to recognize the role of sociocultural factors on the aforesaid factors. Part...

  15. A Prospective Study on Radiological and Functional Outcome of Displaced Tongue Type Intra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures Treated by Percutaneous Screw Fixation

    Hegde, Anoop; Mathias, Lawrence John; Shetty, Vikram; Shetty, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calcaneal fractures have posed a challenge to orthopaedic surgeon for many years. The major problem is to reconstruct the fracture and improve healing of the fracture and also the surrounding tissues. Anatomic restoration of the three-dimensional anatomy of the calcaneum is the goal of surgical management of calcaneal fractures. Over the years, various techniques have been developed to accomplish this goal. Aim To determine the functional outcome in displaced tongue-type calcaneal fracture treated by percutaneous screw fixation. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted from October 2012 and September 2014. A total of 23 patients with intra-articular ‘tongue type’ calcaneal fractures were included in the study. Complete clinical and radiological evaluation was done. The surgical procedure encompassed closed reduction and fixation with two criss-cross 6.5 mm cannulated cancellous across the fracture site under fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperatively, on day three ankle and toe mobilization was begun. Non-weight bearing crutch mobilization was begun on postoperative day three. Reviews were done at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks postoperatively. At 6 weeks partial weight bearing mobilization was started. Full weight bearing was begun at 12 weeks. The patient was finally reviewed at 24 weeks and assessment of ankle function was done as per the Maryland foot scoring system. Radiographs were compared and preoperative and postoperative Gissane’s and Bohler’s angles were also compared. The results were analysed as per descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage). The complications noted were documented. Results Of the 23 patients under the study, three had excellent results with mean score of 90, 17 had good results with mean score of 82.94 and three had fair results with mean score of 74. Only one patient had subtalar arthritis as a complication. No other complications were seen. Conclusion Percutaneous screw fixation of tongue type

  16. Research Paradigm of Displaced Aggression

    Tanno, Syota

    2013-01-01

    A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.

  17. Water-displacement plethysmography: a technique for the simultaneous thermal manipulation and measurement of whole-hand and whole-foot blood flows

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and validate water-displacement plethysmographs for the forearm, hand and foot that could clamp segmental skin temperature whilst simultaneously measuring cutaneous blood flow. Two experiments were performed. In the first, the forearm plethysmograph was validated against a mercury-in-silastic plethysmograph under thermoneutral conditions, with and without forearm heating. Cutaneous vascular conductance was elevated almost three-fold by this treatment, however, there were no significant differences between the two forms of plethysmography in either state (P > 0.05). In study two, hand and foot blood flows were measured under clamped thermoneutral conditions, but with three local skin temperature treatments (5, 25, 40 °C). The hand had significantly higher blood flows than the foot at both 25 °C (4.07 versus 2.20 mL.100 mL − 1.min − 1; P < 0.05) and 40 °C (8.20 versus 4.47 mL.100 mL − 1.min − 1; P < 0.05). The foot was maximally constricted during the two lower temperatures, yet the cutaneous thermal sensitivity of the hand was almost two-fold greater (P < 0.05). This evidence supports the significant role played by these appendages in heat loss and conservation, and these plethysmographs will now be used to map cutaneous vascular responses (forearm, hand, calf, foot) across combinations of core and local skin temperatures. (paper)

  18. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement

    Šulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  19. Simulation of miscible laboratory displacements by the total dispersion method

    The total dispersion method was developed to simulate first-contact miscible displacements performed in the laboratory. Simulations applying this method add sufficient dispersivity to the numerical dispersion inherent in finite differencing methods so the sum approximates the actual physical dispersion. This paper describes the application of this technique to model three floods taken from the literature and three displacements performed in a CT scanner. A key variable for modelling miscible displacements is dispersion. Numerical dispersion for both 1-point and 2-point upstream weighing was characterized as a function of grid block size and through put for an IMPES simulator. After quantifying numerical dispersion, three floods reported in the literature were simulated to confirm the total dispersion method. Recovery curves for two displacements dominated by viscous fingering that one exhibiting gravity override were modelled with good agreement. The authors' next objective was to determine if concentration profiles as well as recovery curves could be matched in a well characterized rock. First, longitudinal convective dispersion was measured for Bentheimer sandstone by a series of tritiated water displacements

  20. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    Moskowitz, Ian; Snyder, Mark A.; Mittal, Jeetain, E-mail: jeetain@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ≈ 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f – an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f < 0.4, and almost no change in flux for higher f values, similar to the change in water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior.

  1. Irradiation embrittlement mechanism of reactor pressure vessel steels of light water reactors; Effect of displacement cascade on production of copper-enriched clusters

    To investigate experimentally whether displacement cascade causes copper-enriched clusters, which is one of primarily causes of irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels, we developed a new experimental technique for measuring the number of copper-enriched clusters produced by irradiation. The technique is a way to decorate copper-enriched clusters with solute copper atoms by heating irradiated iron-based alloy with relatively high copper content. Consequently, copper-enriched clusters can be observed as copper precipitates with a transmission electron microscope. We applied the technique to iron-based alloy containing 0.9 wt% copper irradiated nickel ion at an energy of 4 MeV to 0.1 dpa at 288degC. The results showed that no copper-enriched clusters were observed in the as-irradiated alloy, whereas fine and high-density copper precipitates were observed in the irradiated alloy aged for 30 minutes at 550degC. A comparison of the estimated number density of displacement cascade with the number density of copper precipitates in the irradiated alloy aged for 30 minutes showed that the number density of displacement cascade was almost same as that of the copper precipitates. This means that the high-energy displacement cascade produces directly nuclei of copper-enriched clusters, and that the number and size of the high-energy displacement cascade are a very important scale to predict embrittlement caused by copper-enriched clusters. (author)

  2. Displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift reactor

    A displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor comprises a sectioned substantially hollow low neutron absorbing metal rod capable of displacing reactor coolant without absorbing a high amount of neutrons. The tubular sections preferably consist of stainless steel and Zircaloy tubing interconnected by a solid Zircaloy metal rod and may contain pellets for weighting the displacer rod. (author)

  3. Estimation of Water Demand of Agriculture Sector by Water-Yield Function (Case Study: Sistan Province

    Zahra Ghaffari Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I n this study, yield-water and profit function was used to obtain water demand function in agriculture sector. The results showed that the ratio of actual to potential Evapotranspiration had positive, significant effect on the ratio of actual to potential yield for wheat and barley. Also, square ratio of actual to potential Evapotranspiration had negative, significant relationship. After estimation of product function, water demand function for agriculture sector was obtained by profit function. Price elasticity of water demand for agriculture was -1.10 being less than -1 and showing that price policies can be an important factor in the control of non-optimum use of their valuable inputs.

  4. Displacement Data Assimilation

    Rosenthal, W Steven; Mariano, Arthur J; Restrepo, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information important. While the displacement transformation is not tied to any particular assimilation scheme, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  5. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups

    Lauwers, Karl; Breynaert, Eric; Rombouts, Ine; Delcour, Jan; Kirschhock, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic...

  6. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  7. Intrinsic mean-square displacements in proteins

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-07-01

    The thermal mean-square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width, and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), ribonuclease A, and staphysloccal nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  8. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    Vural, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), Ribonuclease A and Staphysloccal Nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  9. Water use efficiency and functional traits of a semiarid shrubland

    Perez-Priego, Oscar; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Carrara, Arnaud; Palomares-Palacio, Agustí; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2013-04-01

    In semiarid climates, water is the fundamental factor determining ecosystem productivity and thereby the capacity for carbon sequestration. Increased water use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of carbon dioxide assimilation (canopy photosynthesis, Pc) to water transpired (canopy evaporation, Ec), is assumed to be an adaptive strategy for sclerophyll shrublands to improve productivity and stress resistance in water-limited environments. However, the real complexity of WUE lies in its dependence on both plant physiological traits (e.g. stomatal resistance, photosynthetic capacity, leaf chemical composition, structure) and on environmental conditions (e.g. atmospheric CO2 concentration, vapour pressure deficit, temperature, light, soil water availability). We used a transient-state closed canopy-chamber to characterise CO2 and water vapour exchanges at the whole plant scale under different environmental conditions and phenological stages. Diurnal and seasonal variations in Pc, Ec and WUE were explained by both physiological and environmental variables. All species showed symmetric patterns in both Pc and Ec when not water limited, but asymmetry during summer drought when leaf water potential was low. During drought, grasses (Festuca sp.) showed a marked decline in functioning (Pc and Ec), whereas shrubs (Genista sp., Hormathophylla sp.) maintained spring-like assimilation rates all morning until stomatal controls shut down gas exchanges. While grasses showed the highest WUE when not water limited, their near senescence during summer drought yielded the lowest WUE. Shrubs showed reduced WUE under moderate drought stress, in contradiction to the assumptions made in global ecosystem models. The importance of the appropriate time-scale for calculating WUE (daily versus hourly), together with water use strategies and ecological functions of individual species, will be further discussed.

  10. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  11. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per;

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...... for further three soils and performed accurately for all three. Consequently, we suggest that the α(θ) model represents a useful strategy to predict the entire soil-water repellency characteristic curve, and thus potential risks for enhanced runoff and preferential (fingered) soil-water flow at given initial...

  12. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO3H and -NH2 groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D2O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D2O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D2O with bare SBA. (authors)

  13. Characterization of silica-functionalized carbon nanotubes dispersed in water

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to enhance the strength, toughness, and multifunctional ability of composite materials. However, suitable dispersion and interfacial bonding remain as key challenges. Composites that are formed by reactions with water, like Portland cement concrete and mortar, pose a special challenge for dispersing the inherently hydrophobic nanotubes. The hydration of Portland cement also offers a specific chemical framework for interfacial bonding. In this study, nanoscale silica functional groups are covalently bonded to CNTs to improve their dispersion in water while providing interfacial bond sites for the proposed matrix material. The bond signatures of treated nanotubes are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In situ dispersion is characterized using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and point of zero charge (PZC) measurements. At the nanoscale, interparticle spacing was greatly increased. A slight increase in the PZC after treatment indicates the importance of steric effects in the dispersion mechanism. Overall, results indicate successful functionalization and dramatically improved dispersion stability in water.

  14. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  15. Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure

    Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlani@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

  16. Time-dependent Displaced and Squeezed Number States

    Kim, S P

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the wave functions of the displaced and squeezed number states, found by Nieto, to a time-dependent harmonic oscillator with variable mass and frequency. These time-dependent displaced and squeezed number states are obtained by first squeezing and then displacing the exact number states and are exact solutions of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Further, these wave functions are the time-dependent squeezed harmonic-oscillator wave functions centered at classical trajectories.

  17. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  18. IRRIGATION PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS WITH WATER-CAPITAL SUBSTITUTION

    Shani, Uri; Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos; Zilberman, David

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of biomass growth implies that the yield of irrigated crops depends, in addition to the total amount of water applied, on irrigation scheduling during the growing period. Advanced irrigation technologies relax constraints on irrigation rates and timing, allowing to better adjust irrigation scheduling to the varying needs of the plants along the growing period. Irrigation production functions, then, should include capital (or expenditures on irrigation equipment) in addition to ag...

  19. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

  20. The photoelectric displacement converter

    Dragoner, Valeriu V.

    2005-02-01

    In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.

  1. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    Mehmet Kerem Canbora

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results.

  2. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  3. Simulation of root water uptake. II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different reduction functions

    Homaee, M.; Feddes, R.A.; Dirksen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The macroscopic root water uptake approach was used in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR to test four different pressure head-dependent reduction functions. The input parameter values were obtained from the literature and derived from extensive measurements under controlled conditions in the g

  4. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups.

    Lauwers, K; Breynaert, E; Rombouts, I; Delcour, J A; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-15

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic study of different electrolyte components showed that especially CaCl2 improved the oxidation rate of GSH. However, this effect was not observed for CYS, which indicated a strong impact of the local chemical environment on thiol oxidation kinetics. PMID:26675862

  5. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  6. Dispossession and displacement in Libya

    Rhodri C Williams

    2012-01-01

    Inability to access pre-displacement housing, land and property poses a significant obstacle to the achievement of durable solutions for most IDPs in Libya. Displacement and dispossession cannot be separated from the legacy of the Gaddafi era.

  7. Virtual Displacement in Lagrangian Dynamics

    Ray, S; Ray, Subhankar

    2004-01-01

    The confusion and ambiguity encountered by students, in understanding virtual displacement and virtual work, is addressed in this article. A definition of virtual displacement is presented that allows one to express them explicitly for both time independent and time dependent constraints. It is observed that for time independent constraints the virtual displacements are the displacements allowed by the constraints. However this is not so for a general time dependent case. For simple physical systems, it is shown that, the work done on virtual displacements by the constraint forces is zero in both the situations. For allowed displacements however, this is not always true. It is also demonstrated that when constraint forces do zero work on virtual displacement, as defined here, we have a solvable mechanical problem. We identify this special class of constraints, physically realized and solvable, as the ideal constraints. The concept of virtual displacement and the principle of zero virtual work by constraint fo...

  8. Displacement cascades in polyatomic materials

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Using a continuous-slowing-down, random amorphous material model, we have studied displacement cascades in a number of diatomic materials. This paper reviews a number of previous results that elucidate the effects of atomic mass, recoil energy, displacement energy, capture energy and material stoichiometry on the numbers of displacements in a cascade. The displacement cascade reveals a complex structure that is dependent on the type of irradiation and the material properties. Conclusions related to damage analysis for fusion reactors are given.

  9. Cleaning and Dewatering Fine Coal using Hydrophobic Displacement

    Smith, Kara E.

    2008-01-01

    A new processing technique, known as hydrophobic displacement, was explored as a means of simultaneously removing both mineral matter and surface moisture from coal in a single process. Previous thermodynamic analysis suggests that coal moisture will be spontaneously displaced by any oil with a contact angle greater than ninety degrees in water. Based on these results, six methods of hydrophobic displacement were evaluated: hand shaking, screening, air classification, centrifugation, filtra...

  10. [Functionally-relevant conformational dynamics of water-soluble proteins].

    Novikov, G V; Sivozhelezov, V S; Shaĭtan, K V

    2013-01-01

    A study is reported of the functional-relevant dynamics of three typical water-soluble proteins: Calmodulin, Src-tyrosine kinase as well as repressor of Trp operon. Application of the state-of-art methods of structural bioinformatics allowed to identify dynamics seen in the X-ray structures of the investigated proteins associated with their specific biological functions. In addition, Normal Mode analysis technique revealed the most probable directions of the functionally-relevant motions for all that proteins were also predicted. Importantly, overall type of the motions observed on the lowest-frequency modes was very similar to the motions seen from the analysis of the X-ray data of the examined macromolecules. Thereby it was shown that the large-scale as well as local conformational motions of the proteins might be predetermined already at the level of their tertiary structures. In particular, the determining factor might be the specific fold of the alpha-helixes. Thus functionally-relevant in vivo dynamics of the investigated proteins might be evolutionally formed by means of natural selection at the level of the spatial topology. PMID:23705506

  11. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Tucher Guilherme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  12. Density-functional study of photoinduced water splitting

    We investigate the dynamics of water splitting on dye-sensitized metal (Ti, Cu) oxide surfaces, induced by direct sunlight excitation. In this study, we will consider the typical photoexcitation-followed-by-injection scheme, treating electron-injection and water splitting dynamics as independent events. The simultaneous modeling of the molecular motion and the quantum nonadiabatic transitions is achieved via the computation of the low-lying electronic states along several alternative reaction paths. Electronic structure calculations are based on a B3LYP-DFT Hamiltonian. The proposed approach combines an atomistic description of the reactants and of the immediate region of the surface, while the vibrational dynamics of the substrate is modeled as an effective bath leading to dissipation effects. The use of density-functional theory to solve the many- body electronic problem allows investigating the atomic motion of the water molecules and of a representative part of the substrate, thereby providing a theoretical and computational model capable to account simultaneously for the molecular character of the dye molecule and for the bulk properties of the surface. Furthermore, the insight emerging from this fundamental modeling can be used to optimize the chemical composition of the system to attain high incident-photon-flux-to-hydrogen-yield ratios. (full text)

  13. Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.

    Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

  14. Nonlinear Brownian motion - mean square displacement

    W.Ebeling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic dynamics of self-propelled Brownian particles is studied by means of the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck approach. We model the driving by a nonlinear friction function which has a negative part at small velocities, leading to active Brownian motion of the particles. The mean square displacement is estimated analytically and compared with numerical simulations.

  15. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    provide a guideline for a sustainable exploration of groundwater resources within the investigated regions, relating to population movements and potential of aquifers. To achieve these objectives a) groundwater samples are collected and analyzed (microbiologically, chemically and physically) from all types of water points, boreholes and "protected" springs, during rainy, dry and intermediate seasons, b) a network of piezometers is being installed for monitoring groundwater level, and comparison with available rainfall data will define groundwater balance. During these steps results are compared with the population's displacement and density in order to quantify the consequences towards the groundwater resources. Preliminary results after microbiological analysis show the inadequacy of traditional "protected" springs in providing safe water. Feacal pollution is observed in "protected" springs even though it was not being observed before and during rehabilitation. It is mainly due to recent population concentration around the available water resources and the lack of comprehensive hydrogeological study of the functioning of the near surface aquifers. Accordingly all operations concerning spring rehabilitation are on hold. No evidence regarding microbiological contamination was found from borehole water samples. However, high concentration in ferrous iron and total iron was found in several boreholes. Concentrations in the water of weathered bedrock are expected and specific treatment is necessary.

  16. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  17. Control of DNA Strand Displacement Kinetics Using Toehold Exchange

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-01-01

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions...

  18. Displacing the patient

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    target groups for which information can be standardized. In the latter approach (market orientation), the patient is also a resource for organizational development. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure that makes it possible to streamline the organization's care...... in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on situational analysis of internal documents, the paper gives an empirical account of the work of strategic documents and explores how the documents organize patient communication through displacements of the patient. This paper shows that the hospital’s patient...... communication is not only about disease treatment, but also about ‘information treatment’ for the purpose of increasing patient satisfaction at the hospital. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses both a care-oriented approach to the patient and also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous...

  19. Displacing the Patient

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... 2005) the analysis examines how the hospital’s patient communication is not just about disease treatment, but rather about information treatment of the patient in order to attain a high level of patient satisfaction. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses care-oriented understandings of the patient...

  20. Displacing the patient

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2012-01-01

    a care-oriented approach to the patient and also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardized. In the latter approach (market orientation), the patient is also a resource for organizational development. Overall, the strategy presents an......This analysis is based on an empirical study of a Danish hospital‟s communication programme entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper explores how strategic documents of the programme organize the communication work through situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological...... elements from situational analysis (Clarke 2005) the analysis examines how the hospital‟s patient communication is not only about disease treatment, but rather about information treatment of the patient in order to attain a high level of patient satisfaction. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses both...

  1. Strategies for displacing oil

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  2. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Nanying Shentu; Qing Li; Xiong Li; Renyuan Tong; Nankai Shentu; Guoqing Jiang; Guohua Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic el...

  3. Nitrate decontamination through functionalized chitosan in brackish water.

    Appunni, Sowmya; Rajesh, Mathur P; Prabhakar, Sivaraman

    2016-08-20

    N, N, N-Triethyl ammonium functionalized cross-linked chitosan beads (TEACCB) was prepared by alkylation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads to remove nitrate from brackish water. Physico-chemical characteristics of TEACCB were analyzed using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, TGA, DTA, BET surface area, swelling ratio and pHzpc. The maximum nitrate removal capacity of TEACCB was 2.26meq/g and is higher than other reported chitosan based adsorbents. Nitrate removal ratio in the presence and absence of common anions like chloride and sulphate demonstrated the selectively of TEACCB towards nitrate. The kinetic data of nitrate removal fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that nitrate removal could be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. TEACCB was reused with 100% efficiency after regenerating with 0.05N HCl. Column study was carried out to remove nitrate from brackish water. These results are very significant to develop TEACCB based nitrate removal technology with great efficiency. PMID:27178960

  4. Modeling Non-aqueous Phase Liquid Displacement Process

    Yang Zhenqing; Shao Changjin; Zhou Guanggang; Qiu Chao

    2007-01-01

    A pore-network model physically based on pore level multiphase flow was used to study the water-non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) displacement process, especially the effects of wettability, water-NAPL interfacial tension, the fraction of NAPL-wet pores, and initial water saturation on the displacement. The computed data show that with the wettability of the mineral surfaces changing from strongly water-wet to NAPL-wet, capillary pressure and the NAPL relative permeability gradually decrease, while water-NAPL interfacial tension has little effect on water relative permeability, but initial water saturation has a strong effect on water and NAPL relative permeabilities. The analytical results may help to understand the micro-structure displacement process of non-aqueous phase liquid and to provide the theoretical basis for controlling NAPL migration.

  5. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  6. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  7. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  8. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  9. Measurement of Relative Permeability Curve for the Volcanic-Rock by Unsteady-State Water Displacement by Gas%非稳态气驱水法火山岩相对渗透率曲线实验

    徐子健; 杨双春; 佟乐; 王云

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic-rock reservoir belongs to extremely low permeability gas reservoir.However,as with natural holes and rifts,it can be for industrial development.Relative permeability curve is an important data for dynamic analysis and numerical simulate of gas reservoir development.It illustrated by the case of a Jilin Province's volcanic-rock gas reservoir,and measured the relative permeability curve by unsteady-state water displacement by gas.The results show:It had a high bound water saturation,residual gas saturation and water saturation in isotonic point;it also had a low relative permeability in isotonic point and a low water relative permeability in endpoint;confining pressure and displacement pressure had a significant impact to the results;volcanic-rock reservoir had a serious heterogeneity.%火山岩储层属于特低渗透率气藏,但是由于具有较多的天然气孔,裂缝发育,因此可进行工业化开发。气水相对渗透率曲线在气藏开发的动态分析和数值模拟中是一项重要的参考资料。以吉林某火山岩气藏岩心为例,使用非稳态气驱水法,测定并绘制了火山岩岩心的气水相对渗透率曲线。结果表明,束缚水饱和度、残余气饱和度及等渗点处含水饱和度均较高,等渗点处相对渗透率较低,端点处水相相对渗透率较低;围压及驱替压差对结果有重要影响;火山岩储层非均质性严重。

  10. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  11. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  12. Box girder vertical displacement monitoring for Xujiawan continuous rigid aqueduct water filling test%徐家湾连续刚构渡槽充水试验箱梁竖向位移监测

    张健; 钟伟

    2016-01-01

    为了检验徐家湾连续刚构渡槽箱梁的安全性能,经过近42天5级加载充水试验,监测结果表明:徐家湾渡槽箱梁竖向位移与设计理论值一致,渡槽施工质量良好,结构安全。其成果可供类似连续刚构渡槽充水试验参考。%In order to check the safety of box girder of Xujiawan continuous rigid aqueduct,5-grade loading water filling test was conducted for nearly 45 days. The results of monitoring demonstrate the vertical displacement is identical with the design value,the construction quality is good,and the structure is safe. The results also can be reference for water filling test of similar rigid aqueduct.

  13. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Hong Yao; Zhen You; Bo Liu

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biologi...

  14. NMR visualization of displacement correlations for flow in porous media.

    Khrapitchev, A A; Stapf, S; Callaghan, P T

    2002-11-01

    The temporal correlations of velocities for both water and a water-glycerol mixture flowing through a random packings of monodisperse spherical particles have been investigated using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. By combining various flow rates, fluid viscosities, and bead sizes, a wide range of flow parameters has been covered, the dimensionless Peclet number ranging from 100 to 100 000. The velocity exchange spectroscopy (VEXSY) technique has been employed to measure the correlation between velocities during two intervals separated from each other by a mixing time tau(m). This time is made both large and small compared with the time constant tau(c), required for a fluid element possessing the average flow velocity to cover a distance equal to the characteristic size in the system, the bead diameter. The two-dimensional conditional probability of displacement resulting from the VEXSY method reveals the existence of different "subensembles" of molecules, including a slow moving pool whose displacement is dominated by Brownian motion, an intermediate ensemble whose velocities change little over the mixing time, and a fast flowing ensemble which loses correlation due to mechanical dispersion. We find that that the approach to asymptotic dispersion, as tau(c)/tau(m) increases, depends strongly on the Peclet number, the deviation of the velocity autocorrelation function from a monoexponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process becoming more pronounced with increasing Peclet number. PMID:12513475

  15. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  16. The management of climate displacement

    Scott Leckie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of those who have fought against displacement now find themselves being advocates for resettlement and relocation. Knowing that displacements will occur as a result of climate change,the humanitarian community will need to work pre-emptively with communities identified as likely to be threatened on the land-based solutions that may be available to them.

  17. A displacement-doubling prism

    A novel prism has been devised which can be used in place of the ‘flag’ in an optical shadow-sensing type of displacement sensor, for example. In this way, theoretically the displacement sensitivity of the sensor can be doubled. Such a prism has been manufactured, and its displacement-doubling property has been verified. - Highlights: • A new type of glass prism doubles linear displacement of optical beams. • Optical operation has been verified. • Light beams enter and exit at normal incidence to prism's windows. • Optical path length through prism remains constant, as prism is moved. • Designed to double the displacement sensitivity of knife-edge shadow sensors

  18. Ultrasonography for non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children

    ZHANG Jing-dong; CHEN Hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children.Methods: Nine children aged 2-9 years with non-displaced or mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures were examined by high-resolution ultrasonography.The fracture line through the joint surface was visualized by ultrasonography in 6 case,in which closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was performed on 3 patients and other 3 patients did not receive the treatment because of patients' or their parents'refusal.In the remaining 3 children,ultrasonography did not reveal the cartilaginous trochle involvement at the joint surface and conservative treatment was adopted.Results: The average follow-up period was 8 months.The sonographic findings were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging in one child who received conservative treatment and another child who received percutaneous pinning.The elbow function and fractttre healing were good in cases received closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.Among the three cases who refused to receive closed reduction and internal f'txation,re-displacement occurred in 1 case and delayed union in 1 case.All three cases receiving conservative treatment had good results both in elbow function and fracture healing.Conclusion: High-resolution ultrasonography enable to reveal non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures as well as to ascertain whether the cartilaginous trochlea humeri was involved.For these cases,arthrography or magnetic resonance imaging is unnecessary.

  19. Hot functional testing of the pressurized heavy water reactor plant Atucha II with light water

    The two pressurized heavy water reactors PHWR Atucha I (designed and built by S/KWU, now AREVA), and Atucha II (designed by S/KWU and plant construction now completed by NA-SA) are owned by Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA). Atucha II was designed in the 1980'ies in parallel to the two most recent S/KWU PWR generations Prekonvoi and Konvoi. Its basic design has been updated and optimized including also backfitting of components and systems for severe accident management. The gross electric power of the plant is 745 MWe. Construction and commissioning of Atucha II has been resumed by NA-SA after a work stop in the 1990'ies and is now almost completed. Hot functional testing HFT was performed in two phases in September and October 2013 and in March and April 2014. Hot functional testing was performed with light water and the fuel assemblies loaded. The chemistry program for the HFT was derived from practices and experience gathered at other S/KWU designed PWRs during HFTs and consisted of the following main targets and requirements: (1) Low chloride and sulfate concentrations close to normal operation values specified in the VGB water chemistry guideline for power operation of PWR plants; (2) Thorough oxygen removal during heat-up and reducing conditions through N2H4 dosing; (3) High pH value (target range 1.5 to 2 ppm Li); (4) Passivation treatment of the nuclear steam supply system NSSS at temperatures of at least 260°C for a time period of at least 120 hours; (5) Zinc addition at a constant rate of 20 g Zn per day throughout the various HFT phases. Zinc dosing was begun during the first heat-up of the plant at temperatures above approx. 150°C. Daily measurement of the zinc concentration for process control was not necessary and not required due to the elaborated zinc application procedure. The main results of the chemistry program for the HFT of plant are described and evaluated in this contribution. Data shows that all chemistry targets were met

  20. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; A. K. Chapagain

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of water used from domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the coun...

  1. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of wat

  2. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle fractures is based on the notion of elevated intraarticular contact pressures with lateral displacement. To diagnose these injuries, we presumed that in patients with a fibular fracture with at least ...

  3. New Methods of Fitting the Membership Function of Oceanic Water Masses

    LI Fengqi; XIE Jun; LI Yao

    2004-01-01

    After reviewing the analytical theories of T-S curve, some methods of T-S relationship, and fuzzy sets for studying water masses, new methods of fitting the membership function of oceanic water masses are presented based on the characteristics of T-S curve family of oceanic water masses. The membership functions of oceanic Subsurface Water Mass with high salinity and Intermediate Water Mass with low salinity are fitted and discussed using the new methods. The proposed methods are useful in analyzing the mixing and modifying processes of these water masses, especially in tracing their sources.The principles and formulae of the new methods and examples are given.

  4. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    10B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH)4-) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10B and 11B

  5. Impact of electrically activated water fractions on functional and processing properties of beef and pork

    Віннікова, Людмила Григорівна; Пронькіна, Ксенія Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the influence of electrically activated water on functional and processing properties of beef and pork. It determines the dependence of pH, water-binding capacity, and losses during heating of test items on induced mixture of electrically activated water fractions. The article establishes that using electrically activated water fractions within ratio range of 30/70 – 100 % catholyte allows to purposefully change the active acidity of minced beef and pork; to change water-bin...

  6. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Heather Rae

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  7. Measurement of chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave

    Li, Hui; Lv, Hao; Jiao, Teng; Lu, Guohua; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhao; Liu, Miao; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of chest wall displacement is an important approach for measuring mechanics of chest wall, which has considerable significance for assessing respiratory system and diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, existing optical methods for measuring chest wall displacement are inconvenient for some specific patients such as the female patients and the patients with bandaged chest. In this letter, we proposed a method for measuring chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave and established corresponding mathematic model and set up a terahertz measurement system. The main advantages of this method are that it can measure the chest wall displacement of the subjects without taking off clothes or arranging any markers. To validate this method and assess the performance of the terahertz system, in vitro, the displacement of a water module driven by a linear guide rail was measured by the terahertz system and compared with the actual displacement of the water module. The results showed that the waveforms measured with two methods have a good agreement, and the relative error is less than 5% and sufficiently good for measurement demands. In vivo, the synchronous experiment was performed on five human volunteers with the terahertz system and a respiratory belt transducer. The results demonstrate that this method has good performance and promising prospects for measuring chest wall displacement.

  8. A novel linear displacement sensor

    Yang, Ji-sen; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xi-hou; Zhang, Tian-heng

    2011-12-01

    With development of time grating technology in the past 10 years, the theory of using time to measure spatial displacement has been completed greatly. In the study of time grating, one novel linear displacement sensor is proposed based on the measurement principles of time grating. The measurement principles of linear displacement are similar to that of angular displacement. Both of them need one endless coordinate with uniform velocity. The theory of linear AC motor is used, and the three-phase winding with equal division space of 120° and three-phase exciting signal with uniform time are utilized to generate the endless moving coordinate with uniform velocity. The magnetic traveling wave arises from the left endpoint and disappears in the right endpoint, and it travels pole pitch distance of W during the periodic time of T with the uniform velocity. When magnetic traveling wave passes by the static probe and the moving probe, the electric signals will be induced on the winding, respectively. Therefore, the linear displacement can be achieved by comparing the phase between the two output induced signals from he static probe and the moving probe. Furthermore, in order to improve the machining technique, four kinds of winding framework are designed to employ. The experimental results show that advantages and disadvantages both exist in the design methods and the precision of experiment results reaches +/-2µm. The next study plan is to choose the most excellent design method through further experiments and improve the precision of displacement sensor greatly.

  9. Density Functional Theory Study of the Complexation of the Uranyl Dication with Anionic Phosphate Ligands with and without Water Molecules

    Jackson, Virgil E.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Dixon, David A.

    2013-09-12

    The structures, vibrational frequencies and energetics of anhydrous and hydrated complexes of UO2 2+ with the phosphate anions H2PO4 −, HPO4 2−, and PO4 3− were predicted at the density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 molecular orbital theory levels as isolated gas phase species and in aqueous solution by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The geometries and vibrational frequencies of the major binding modes for these complexes are compared to experiment where possible and good agreement is found. The uranyl moiety is nonlinear in many of the complexes, and the coordination number (CN) 5 in the equatorial plane is the predominant binding motif. The phosphates are found to bind in both monodentate and bidentate binding modes depending on the charge and the number of water molecules. The SCRF calculations were done with a variety of approaches, and different SCRF approaches were found to be optimal for different reaction types. The acidities of HxPO4 3‑x in HxPO4 3‑x(H2O)4, x = 0−3 complexes were calculated with different SCRF models and compared to experiment. Phosphate anions can displace water molecules from the first solvation shell at the uranyl exothermically. The addition of water molecules can cause the bonding of H2PO4 − and HPO4 2− to change from bidentate to monodentate exothermically while maintaining CN 5. The addition of water can generate monodentate structures capable of cross-linking to other uranyl phosphates to form the types of structures found in the solid state. [UO2(HPO4)(H2O)3] is predicted to be a strong base in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. It is predicted to be a much weaker acid than H3PO4 in the gas phase and in solution.

  10. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  11. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  12. Density functional theory study of water interactions on Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We studied geometric and electronic effects of water interactions on 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface through a spin-polarized DFT + U approach. • Water molecular and dissociative interactions were favored on Mn dopant compared to those on Ce sites. • Surface oxygen vacancies formation was not promoted by water adsorption. • OH species could attach on surface O-hole (left by surface oxygen remotion) causing important structural atomic relaxations, but without changing the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations. - Abstract: Spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT + U) periodic calculations have been performed to study water adsorption and dissociation on the 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface. Our results indicated that Mn cation is the surface active site for water adsorption and dissociation reactions. The H2O molecule preferably adsorbs on a Mn cation, causing some relaxation of the surface O-layer and, thus, facilitating the bonding of one of the HH2O with the nearest oxygen atom. After overcoming an energy barrier of 0.46 eV, the water molecule could dissociate into OH and H species. The latter configuration is about 50% more exothermic than the molecular one, suggesting the Ce0.875Mn0.125O1.9375(1 1 1) surface would be easily hydroxylated under reaction conditions. In addition, the calculations showed that water adsorption on the Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface did not favor the creation of surface oxygen vacancies as it has been reported for pure CeO2(1 1 1). On the other hand, we created a surface oxygen defect in the slab with structural oxygen vacancies and computed water interactions on the reduced surface. Although, the adsorption of OH species in the O-hole caused many surface and subsurface atomic displacements, no changes in the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations were detected

  13. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavić in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trepča industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 μg of lead, 20.09 μg of cadmium and 22.89 μg of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 μg/dm3 of lead, 29.21 μg/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 μg/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals

  14. Water homeostasis, frailty and congnitive function in the nursing home

    The goal of this study is to develop and test a practical clinical method to assess frailty in nursing homes and to investigate the relationship between cognitive status of the elderly and the balance between water compartments of their body composition. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted a...

  15. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications

    Tripathi, Bijay P., E-mail: bijayptripathi@yahoo.com [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Dubey, Nidhi C. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Chemistry, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Stamm, M., E-mail: stamm@ipfdd.de [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Chemistry, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ► The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ► High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior.

  16. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications.

    Tripathi, Bijay P; Dubey, Nidhi C; Stamm, M

    2013-05-15

    A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior. PMID:23557682

  17. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications

    Highlights: ► LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ► The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ► High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior

  18. A relative permeability model to derive fractional-flow functions of water-alternating-gas and surfactant-alternating-gas foam core-floods

    Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front. (paper)

  19. Boiling water reactor stability analysis by stochastic transfer function identification

    The univariate and the bivariate ARMA models are proposed as the stochastic transfer function models for the identification of BWR systems. This technique has been developed as a new method for on-line system identification, optimum control, and malfunction monitoring of nuclear power plants. The relationships between the stochastic transfer function model and the differential equation model are derived. The estimation algorithms are developed through the related covariance functions and Green's function by the least squares method. It has been shown that the stochastic models can also be used for fitting the stochastic data which are contaminated with sinusoidal waves. Both the univariate and the bivariate modeling are applied in the BWR system identification and stability analysis. The univariate modeling is applied to decompose the pressure dynamics from the neutron data. From both of the normal operation data and the perturbation experiment data, the reactor dynamics are consistently estimated. The dynamics of the reactor core are estimated as a second order mode with a natural frequency of 0.4 Hz and a damping ratio of 0.1. The univariate modeling is also applied to monitor the local performance of the coolant channel in the reactor. The transfer functions between system's variables are obtained by use of bivariate modeling. The obtained transfer functions are closely related to the stability analysis of thermal-hydraulics in the reactor. The transition of the system dynamics from normal operation to the perturbation experiment are observed

  20. Functionalized Cellulose Networks for Efficient Oil Removal from Oil–Water Emulsions

    Paul, Uttam C.; Despina Fragouli; Ilker S. Bayer; Athanassia Athanassiou

    2016-01-01

    The separation of oil from water in emulsions is a great environmental challenge, since oily wastewater is industrially produced. Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient method to separate oil from water in non-stabilized emulsions, using functionalized cellulose fiber networks. This is achieved by the modification of the wetting properties of the fibers, transforming them from oil- and water-absorbing to water-absorbing and oil-proof. In particular, two diverse layers of polymeric coatings, ...

  1. Studies on astrocyte function : potential roles in brain water homeostasis and neuroprotection

    Song, Yutong

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are essential in brain homeostasis and function, including maintenance of water and ion balance. Astrocytes express the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), implicated in both physiological functions and injury processes associated with brain edema, a common consequence of brain diseases. As part of the tripartite synapse astrocytes are tightly coupled to normal brain function via neuron-astrocyte interactions and by providing metabolic support to neurons as well as con...

  2. Formation around planetary displaced orbit

    GONG Sheng-ping; LI Jun-feng; BAOYIN He-xi

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the relative motion around the planetary displaced orbit. Several kinds of displaced orbits for geocentric and martian cases were discussed. First, the relative motion was linearized around the displaced orbits. Then, two seminatural control laws were investigated for each kind of orbit and the stable regions were obtained for each case. One of the two control laws is the passive control law that is very attractive for engineering practice. However, the two control laws are not very suitable for the Martian mission. Another special semi-natural control law is designed based on the requirement of the Martian mission. The results show that large stable regions exist for the control law.

  3. Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

    Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

    2014-01-01

    Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrop...

  4. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  5. Structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha in supercooled water.

    Thompson, J. S.; Gehring, H; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    The spectral and enzymatic characteristics of chromophoric derivatives of carboxypeptidase A alpha (EC 3.4.17.1) have been examined at subzero temperatures in supercooled water-in-oil emulsions. Substrate and temperature dependencies of enzyme kinetics indicated the existence of a solution-like enzyme phase that greatly extends the temperature range (greater than 60 degrees C) over which the activity of this enzyme can be measured. The emulsion spectra were virtually identical to those of sol...

  6. Linear displacement measurement with a grating and speckle pattern illumination

    We present a study of the variations of a speckle pattern passing through a grating that can be displaced. This study is described theoretically by a simple model based on the scalar diffraction theory in the Fresnel zone. The intensity correlation of the modified speckle as a function of the grating displacement is obtained and compared with experimental results.The possibilities of metrological applications in optical encoders are suggested

  7. Linear displacement measurement with a grating and speckle pattern illumination

    Perez-Quintián, Fernando; Lutenberg, Ariel; Rebollo, María A.

    2006-07-01

    We present a study of the variations of a speckle pattern passing through a grating that can be displaced. This study is described theoretically by a simple model based on the scalar diffraction theory in the Fresnel zone. The intensity correlation of the modified speckle as a function of the grating displacement is obtained and compared with experimental results. The possibilities of metrological applications in optical encoders are suggested.

  8. Non-affine displacements in flexible polymer networks

    Basu, Anindita; Wen, Qi; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T. C.; Janmey, Paul A.; Yodh, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the affine assumption in model flexible polymer networks is explored. To this end, the displacements of fluorescent tracer beads embedded in polyacrylamide gels are quantified by confocal microscopy under shear deformation, and the deviations of these displacements from affine responses are recorded. Non-affinity within the gels is quantified as a function of polymer chain density and cross-link concentration. Observations are in qualitative agreement with current theories of ...

  9. Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets

    The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method

  10. Additional longitudinal displacement for contaminant dispersion in wetland flow

    Fu, Xudong; Gao, Ran; Wu, Zi

    2016-01-01

    When there is a sudden and uniform release of contaminant over the depth of wetland, the centroid of resulted solute cloud will travel downstream at the cross-sectional mean velocity of the flow. However, if the initial release is not uniform, there will be an additional longitudinal displacement of the centroid, which is important for predicting the concentration distribution but cannot be revealed by the classical one-dimensional Taylor dispersion model. For the most typical case of an initial point source release at the free-water-surface of the wetland, an idealized case modeling accidental leakage of toxic chemicals in waters, in the present paper we analytically deduce the longitudinal displacement by the method of concentration moment. The result is then incorporated in the analytical solutions of concentration distribution, which are further verified by our numerical simulations. The effects of the longitudinal displacement on the concentration distribution are analyzed in detail. It is shown that without considering the displacement, for vertical planes close to the edges of the contaminant cloud, the analytical solution can over- or under-estimate the vertical distribution of concentration for over 20% of the maximum concentration in the plane even at a large dimensionless time of t∗ = 5 . The longitudinal displacement is shown to decrease with the increase of the important damping factor α, which characterizes the effects of vegetation in wetlands. A simple application is given at the end of this paper to illustrate the evolution of the additional longitudinal displacement.

  11. Development of functionalized nanostructured polymeric membranes for water purification

    Altintas, Zeynep; Chianella, Iva; Da Ponte, Gabriella; Paulussen, Sabine; Gaeta, Soccorso; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals specific molecularly imprinted polymers nanoparticles (MIPNPs) were synthesized and applied onto the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes previously subjected to the plasma treatment. Diclofenac-, metoprolol- and vancomycin-MIPs were applied onto the membranes and scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize MIPNPs on the membrane. After functionalization of the membranes with target-specific MIPs the molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) affinity against their ...

  12. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Loay A. Elalfy; Wael N. Akl; Hassan, Walid M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs) to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that ex...

  13. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    Karunarathna, A. K.; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, K.;

    2010-01-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...... by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  14. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  15. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and...... technologies which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial...

  16. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. PMID:27074674

  17. A method to calculate displacement factors using SVM

    Li Peixian; Tan Zhixiang; Yan Lili; Deng Kazhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of mining subsidence prediction,a mathematical model using Support Vector Machine (SVM) was established to calculate the displacement factor.The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of factors affecting the displacement factor,such as mechanical properties of the cover rock,the ratio of mining depth to seam thickness,dip angle of the coal seam and the thickness of loose layer.Data of 63 typical observation stations were used as a training and testing sample set.A SVM regression model of the displacement factor and the factors affecting it was established with a kernel function,an insensitive loss factor and a properly selected penalty factor.Given an accurate calculation algorithm for testing and analysis,the results show that an SVM regression model can calculate displacement factor precisely and reliable precision can be obtained which meets engineering requirements.The experimental results show that the method to calculation of the displacement factor,based on the SVM method,is feasible.The many factors affecting the displacement factor can be considered with this method.The research provides an efficient and accurate approach for the calculation of displacement in mining subsidence prediction.

  18. A method for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings in central Florida by using a simple water-balance/transfer-function model

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method is needed that provides estimates of transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings that can be incorporated into other hydrologic models. Deep water-table settings are areas where the water table is below the reach of plant roots and virtually all water that is not lost to surface runoff, evaporation at land surface, or evapotranspiration in the root zone eventually becomes ground-water recharge. Areas in central Florida with a deep water table generally are high recharge areas; consequently, simulation of recharge in these areas is of particular interest to water-resource managers. Yet the complexities of meteorological variations and unsaturated flow processes make it difficult to estimate short-term recharge rates, thereby confounding calibration and predictive use of transient hydrologic models. A simple water-balance/transfer-function (WBTF) model was developed for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings. The WBTF model represents a one-dimensional column from the top of the vegetative canopy to the water table and consists of two components: (1) a water-balance module that simulates the water storage capacity of the vegetative canopy and root zone; and (2) a transfer-function module that simulates the traveltime of water as it percolates from the bottom of the root zone to the water table. Data requirements include two time series for the period of interest?precipitation (or precipitation minus surface runoff, if surface runoff is not negligible) and evapotranspiration?and values for five parameters that represent water storage capacity or soil-drainage characteristics. A limiting assumption of the WBTF model is that the percolation of water below the root zone is a linear process. That is, percolating water is assumed to have the same traveltime characteristics, experiencing the same delay and attenuation, as it moves through the unsaturated zone. This assumption is more accurate if

  19. Microeconomics of Deficit Irrigation and Subjective Water Response Function for Intensive Olive Groves

    Alfonso Expósito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the economics of deficit irrigation based on the use of subjective estimates of the crop yield–water relationship to determine water supply in irrigated olive groves. Interviewed farmers were asked to give three estimates for the yield-water relationship as a function of water supply (full irrigation, usual deficit irrigation and extreme deficit irrigation. Those responses are contrasted with the actual irrigation dose and the results appear to support the hypothesis that a majority of farmers use deficit irrigation as a strategy that maximizes the value of limited water input rather than the conventional microeconomic behavior of maximizing the return to land.

  20. Theory of Metallic Work Functions Between Metals and Layers of Exclusion Zone Ordered Water

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the work function to bring an electron from a metal into the exclusion zone water layer making hydrophilic contact with the metallic interface is theoretically computed. The agreement with recent experimental measurements is satisfactory.

  1. Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin

    Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2009-01-01

    Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

  2. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  3. Effects of Displacement in Children Exposed to Disasters.

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Van Horn, Richard L; Houston, J Brian

    2016-08-01

    The literature on children's responses to disasters is well developed with increasing attention to the confounding experiences of displacement. This paper presents an overview of the emotional and behavioral effects of displacement on children and adolescents and describes their educational adjustment in terms of both academic achievement and school behavior. A summary of family effects elucidates how children's functioning is influenced through the family system in which they are embedded. The psychosocial impact of displacement reflects the myriad social losses that children and their families may face. Information from this review of the current literature on the effects of displacement may inform the design and delivery of support and intervention services for children and families following disasters. PMID:27287465

  4. β-Cyclodextrin functionalized carbon quantum dots as sensors for determination of water-soluble C60 fullerenes in water.

    Cayuela, Angelina; Laura Soriano, M; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-04-25

    A selective photoluminescence method based on Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) functionalized with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin for the direct determination of water-soluble C60 fullerene has been developed. CQDs were synthesized using a top-down methodology from multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and further functionalized with N-Boc-ethylenediamine to confer monoprotected amine groups onto their surface. Once amine-functionalized CQDs were obtained after deprotection, an amidation reaction with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin cavitands was achieved and the obtained fluorescent β-cyclodextrin functionalized Carbon Quantum Dots (cd-CQDs) were investigated for the inclusion complexation of water-soluble C60. Quenching of their fluorescence was observed owing to the non-covalent self-assembly of cd-CQDs and C60, making possible the quantification of C60. A method to determine water-soluble C60 is then proposed with detection and quantification limits of 0.525 and 1.751 μg mL(-1), respectively. The method was validated by determining soluble C60 fullerene in spiked river water. One added value of the paper is the fact that it can be ascribed to the "Third Way in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology". PMID:26870854

  5. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours

    Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-01-01

    tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity...

  6. ENSIS, Pollution inventory, pollution budget model, water quality model and scenario handling. Functional specification

    Bakken, T.H.; Bjørkenes, A.; Dagestad, K

    2003-01-01

    This is the functional specification of a complete pollution budget model for water. A crucial improvement of this model is implementation of new pollution sources and modification of existing sources. The specification of a water quality model, based on the results from the pollution budget model is also included. The document is intended to give a cost and time estimate of the programming of the functionality it describes, and will be the guideline for implementation of the specified functi...

  7. Catchment water quality: the inconvenient but necessary truth of fractal functioning

    Neal, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This commentary concerns catchment water quality functioning in relation to environmental impact assessment, with a view to proposing that much more emphasis be placed on issues of within-catchment complexity and its manifestation within stream water chemistry: fractal dynamics. The commentary is based, with closure, on my long-term research. Encouragement is given for new avenues to be pursued, including dealing with the complexities of within-stream biological functioning, and their integra...

  8. Functionalized carbon nanotube thin-film nanocomposite membranes for water desalination applications

    Chan, Wai-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective purification and desalination of water is a global challenge. Reverse osmosis (RO), the current method of choice, requires high pressure drops across the membranes in order to achieve acceptably high flow rates. Conventional polymer membranes are limited in their performance by a trade-off between water permeability and water/salt selectivity. Biofilm fouling is another critical problem in RO applications. Recent simulations and experiments suggest that properly functionalized ...

  9. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien; Bouchard, Maryse F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated mangan...

  10. Ukrainian scientists’ advances in plants’ water regime research: the historical and functional aspects

    T. E. Khristova; O. E. Pyurko

    2006-01-01

    Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in advances of plants’ water regime research from the standpoint of historical and functional aspects are represented. It is shown that they made essential contribution to the different developments of this problem: creation and improvement of material and technical resources, elaboration and using of modern methods of plants’ water regime research, gain of important information in theoretical and practical contexts.

  11. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew; Garcia, Clement;

    on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal...

  12. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  13. Polymeric nanospheres as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Zhang, Julien

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of using nanoscale polyacrylamide-based spheres (nanospheres) as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Coreflood experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of nanospheres and its concentration dispersed in model formation water on oil recovery during a tertiary oil recovery process. The coreflood results showed that nanospheres can enhance residual oil recovery in the sandstone rock samples and its concentration showed a significant impact into incremental oil. By evaluating the contact angle, it was observed that wettability alteration also might be involved in the possible oil displacement mechanism in this process together with fluid behavior and permeability to water that might divert injected fluid into unswept oil areas and enhance the residual oil recovery. These investigations promote nanospheres aqueous disperse solution as a potential displacement fluid in EOR.

  14. PHASE CONVERTER OF COMPOSING DISPLACEMENT

    SMIRNOV YU.S.; Lysov, A. N.; E.V. Yurasova; SAFRONOV V.V.; VSTAVSKAYA E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Minimax strategy of mechatronic converters efficiency improving relative to error decrease with velocity increase at the same time provides common dataware level rise. The analysis of usage possibilities of different type position transducers (PT) gives the advantages of resolvers. The subsequent processing of their output signals is performed by “Resolver-to-Digit” Converter (RDC) which provides displacement digital equivalent and digital or analog signals specifying its velocity and acceler...

  15. Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.

    Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and

  16. Integrated control and health monitoring capacitive displacement sensor development task. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program

    Collamore, Frank N.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a miniature multifunction turbomachinery shaft displacement sensor using state-of-the-art non-contract capacitive sensing technology is described. Axial displacement, radial displacement, and speed are sensed using a single probe within the envelope normally required for a single function. A survey of displacement sensing technology is summarized including inductive, capacitive, optical and ultrasonic techniques. The design and operation of an experimental triple function sensor is described. Test results are included showing calibration tests and simultaneous dynamic testing of multiple functions. Recommendations for design changes are made to improve low temperature performance, reliability, and for design of a flight type signal conditioning unit.

  17. Soil water retention function hysteresis determined by ground-penetrating radar

    Leger, E.; Saintenoy, A. C.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, represented by the soil water retentionθ and hydraulic conductivity K(h) functions, dictate waterflow in the vadose zone, as well as partition between infiltrationand runoff. Those functions can be described by several mathematicalexpressions, such as the Mualem-van Genuchten (M-vG) function. Thedetermination of the parameters defining the van Genuchten soil waterretention function is usually done using laboratory experiments, suchas the hanging water column method.For a few decades Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been known to be anaccurate geophysical method to measure water content variations insoils. The work presented here is based on mono-offset detection ofhysteresis on the soil water retention curve with on-ground surfaceGPR.Soil surface GPR measurements were acquired above a large column ofsand (40 cm high and 60 cm diameter), using a 1600 MHz antenna, forvariable ground water table depths at hydraulic equilibrium. Weinverted the GPR data to obtain the M-vG parameters consideringhysteresis on the soil water retention curve, using the ShuffledComplex Evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm. The method is presented onsynthetic examples and on laboratory experiments. Modeling of thewater dynamics were made using Hydrus-1D, GPR data were computed usingGprMax suite programs. The estimated parameters were compared to thoseobtained from hanging water column experiments.

  18. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  19. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  20. Displacement of Monolithic Rubble-Mound Breakwater Crown-Walls

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;

    2012-01-01

    studies on caisson breakwaters, but correction terms are suggested in the present paper to obtain almost equal measured and estimated displacements. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble-mound crown-walls are subjected to increasing wave loads due to rising sea water level from...

  1. Heavy water effects on the structure, functions and behavior of biological systems

    The H2O substitution for D2O either in environment or in the culture medium of the living systems generates changes in their main functions and composition. In this paper some of the heavy water effects in biological systems such as structural and functional changes were reviewed: normal cell architecture alterations, cell division and membrane functions disturbance, muscular contractility and the perturbations of biological oscillators such as circadian rhythm, heart rate, respiratory cycle, tidal and ultradian rhythm. (authors)

  2. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  3. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    P. Bohmann

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  4. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve is 8.485 billion yuan, while the function of water conservation is a small fraction of ecological service function, indicating that there is great ecological value in service function of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve, that is, Gongbo Nature Reserve has vital ecological value.

  5. Molecular Density Functional Theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. With this correction, molecular density functional theory gives, at a modest computational cost, quantita...

  6. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  7. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  8. Modulation of morpho-functional characteristics of astrocytes using chemically-functionalized water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Gottipati, Manoj K.

    In this thesis, I report the use of chemically functionalized water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes (ws-SWCNTs) for the modulation of morpho-functional characteristics of astrocytes. When added to the culturing medium, ws-SWCNTs were able to make astrocytes larger and stellate/mature, changes associated with the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity. Thus, ws-SWCNTs could have more beneficial effects at the injury site than previously thought; by affecting astrocytes, they could provide for a more comprehensive re-establishment of the brain computational power. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, graft copolymers, astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein.

  9. Fabrication of magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide for high-efficiency water remediation

    Hu, Lihua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xuefei; Wang, Yaoguang; Cui, Limei; Wei, Qin; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite (MWHPO-GO) was successfully prepared and applied to water remediation in this paper. MWHPO-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetization curve, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses. MWHPO-GO exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of synthetic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) and heavy metal (Pb(II)). Moreover, MWHPO-GO could be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation. The pseudo-second order equation and the Langmuir model exhibited good correlation with the adsorption kinetic and isotherm data, respectively, for these three pollutants. The thermodynamic results (ΔG remediation.

  10. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Loay A. Elalfy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  11. Technology and Structural Unemployment: Reemploying Displaced Adults.

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report concentrates on problems of displaced blue-collar and nonprofessional white-collar workers. Chapter 1 is a summary. Chapter 2 discusses policy issues and options focused on helping people prepare for worklife changes and helping workers to cope if displacement occurs. A definition and description of worker displacement are offered in…

  12. 25 CFR 700.59 - Displaced person.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displaced person. 700.59 Section 700.59 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.59 Displaced person. Displaced person means a member of the... residing within the area partitioned to the Hopi Tribe who must be relocated pursuant to the Act. This...

  13. Proof nets for the Displacement calculus

    Moot, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a proof net calculus for the Displacement calculus and show its correctness. This is the first proof net calculus which models the Displacement calculus directly and not by some sort of translation into another formalism. The proof net calculus opens up new possibilities for parsing and proof search with the Displacement calculus.

  14. Displaced Children: The Psychological Implications.

    Joshi, Paramjit T; Fayyad, John A

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people across the world have been displaced or live in exile and/or as refugees largely as a consequence of wars, acts of terrorism, and catastrophic natural disasters. There are serious psychological consequences as a result of these extremely difficult life circumstances. Adults often can express their needs and have them be heard, whereas children are unable to do so. The children may be provided food, shelter, and clothing and have their medical needs attended to, but their emotional and psychological needs go unrecognized and unmet, with dire and monumental long-term consequences. PMID:26346385

  15. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced

  16. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment

    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-01

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  17. Generalized atomic displacements in crystallographie structure analysis

    An attempt is made to summarize both theoretical and experimental aspects of generalized atomic displacement parameters (ADP's) in crystalline matter. Generalized displacement parameters are used to describe the weakening of Bragg intensities via the anharmonic (static or thermal) Debye-Waller factor (DWF) and its real-space counterpart, the generalized atomic probability density function (p.d.f.). The lattice dynamical base of the harmonic and anharmonic thermal DWF is discussed. It is pointed out that the static DWF frequently contains higher-order terms. The mathematical case for an experimental determination of generalized ADP's is given. The most popular current formulations (one-particle potential and statistical approaches) are reviewed and their individual limitations are discussed. Likewise the demands put on the quality and extent of experimental data are assessed. Some aids to the interpretation of generalized ADP's established by crystallographic least-squares procedures are given and a Monte-Carlo method for the calculation of errors in p.d.f. maps is presented. Finally, some prospects for future work are outlined and a more frequent comparison of theoretical calculations and experimental determinations of generalized ADP's is advocated. (orig.)

  18. Importance of NPA motifs in the expression and function of water channel aquaporin-1

    JIANG Yong; MA TongHui

    2007-01-01

    The asparagine-proline-alanine sequences (NPA motifs) are highly conserved in aquaporin water channel family. Crystallographic studies of AQP1 structure demonstrated that the two NPA motifs are in the narrow central constriction of the channel, serving to bind water molecules for selective and efficient water passage. To investigate the importance of the two NPA motifs in the structure, function and biogenesis of aquaporin water channels, we generated AQP1 mutations with NPA1 deletion, NPA2 deletion and NPA1,2 double deletion. The coding sequences of the three mutated cDNAs were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1 to form expression plasmids. We established stably transfected CHO cell lines expressing these AQP1 mutants. Immunofluorescence indicated that all the three mutated AQP1 proteins are expressed normally on the plasma membrane of stably transfected CHO cells, suggesting that deletion of NPA motifs does not influence the expression and intracellular processing of AQP1. Functional analysis demonstrated that NPA1 or NPA2 deletion reduced AQP1 water permeability by 49.6% and 46.7%, respectively, while NPA1,2 double deletion had little effect on AQP1 water permeability. These results provide evidence that NPA motifs are important for water per-meation but not essential for the expression, intracellular processing and the basic structure of AQP1 water channel.

  19. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Elidiane da Silva; Nilton Curi; Mozart Martins Ferreira; Margarete Marin Lordelo Volpato; Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos; Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva

    2015-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field c...

  20. Ukrainian scientists’ advances in plants’ water regime research: the historical and functional aspects

    T. E. Khristova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in advances of plants’ water regime research from the standpoint of historical and functional aspects are represented. It is shown that they made essential contribution to the different developments of this problem: creation and improvement of material and technical resources, elaboration and using of modern methods of plants’ water regime research, gain of important information in theoretical and practical contexts.

  1. Soil attributes functionality and water eutrophication in the surrounding area of Itaparica Reservoir, Brazil

    José C. de Araújo Filho; Günter Gunkel; Maria C. M. Sobral; Martin Kaupenjohann; Helio L. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    In semi-arid areas of Brazil, climate and geological conditions are important factors that restrict the availability of soils and water for sustainable irrigated agriculture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate functionalities of physical and chemical attributes of soils and to provide information about irrigation water quality in the margins of the Itaparica Reservoir aiming the sustainable land use. Available data of 44 representative soil profiles comprising 21 profiles of Are...

  2. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping,; Tong ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilm...

  3. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    Tang, Jia; Fang, Jiang-ping; Li, Ping; Guo, Jian-bin; Lu, Jie; Yuan, Qing-juan

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ec...

  4. Functioning of Water Users Associations or Pani Panchayat in Orissa: Principle, Procedure, Performance and Prospects

    Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra

    2007-01-01

    The current paper deals with an evaluation of water management through community participation and emergence of Pani Panchayat (PP) in a case study of the Vir Bajrang Bali Pani Panchayat under Lift Irrigation Project of the Hirakud Command Area (HCA), Orissa state in Eastern India . The broad objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of Water User Association (WUA) or Pani Panchayat promoted by the State and the local traditional irrigation institutions in the HCA, Orissa and to e...

  5. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  6. Determination of water storage and permeability functions for oil sands tailings

    Fredlund, Delwyn G.; Stone, Jeff; Stianson, Jason [Golder Associates Ltd. (Canada); Sedgwick, Andrea [Total EandP Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Mining projects in the Alberta oil sands produce tailings in a slurry form with high water content and that makes it difficult to characterize the unsaturated soil property functions. This paper discusses the determination of water storage and permeability functions for oil sands tailings. The objective is to describe a way to conduct a conventional soil-water characteristic curve test and use it with an independently measured shrinkage curve to determine the proper unsaturated soil property functions for numerically modeling the drying process. A lab procedure for measuring and interpreting shrinkage behavior of oil sands tailings is given with the results. To obtain a closed-form equation for the shrinkage curve, a regression curve-fitting analysis was used. The saturated coefficient of permeability is combined with the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) to compute hydraulic properties for the oil sands tailings. From the results it can be concluded that the volumetric water content is essential to computing the water storage characteristics of oil sands tailings.

  7. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  8. A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors

    Xiong Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.

  9. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  10. Zinc modulation of water permeability reveals that aquaporin 0 functions as a cooperative tetramer.

    Németh-Cahalan, Karin L; Kalman, Katalin; Froger, Alexandrine; Hall, James E

    2007-11-01

    We previously showed that the water permeability of AQP0, the water channel of the lens, increases with acid pH and that His40 is required (Németh-Cahalan, K.L., and J.E. Hall. 2000. J. Biol. Chem. 275:6777-6782; Németh-Cahalan, K.L., K. Kalman, and J.E. Hall. 2004. J. Gen. Physiol. 123:573-580). We have now investigated the effect of zinc (and other transition metals) on the water permeability of AQP0 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and determined the amino acid residues that facilitate zinc modulation. Zinc (1 mM) increased AQP0 water permeability by a factor of two and prevented any additional increase induced by acid pH. Zinc had no effect on water permeability of AQP1, AQP4 or MIPfun (AQP0 from killifish), or on mutants of AQP1 and MIPfun with added external histidines. Nickel, but not copper, had the same effect on AQP0 water permeability as zinc. A fit of the concentration dependence of the zinc effect to the Hill equation gives a coefficient greater than three, suggesting that binding of more than one zinc ion is necessary to enhance water permeability. His40 and His122 are necessary for zinc modulation of AQP0 water permeability, implying structural constraints for zinc binding and functional modulation. The change in water permeability was highly sensitive to a coinjected zinc-insensitive mutant and a single insensitive monomer completely abolished zinc modulation. Our results suggest a model in which positive cooperativity among subunits of the AQP0 tetramer is required for zinc modulation, implying that the tetramer is the functional unit. The results also offer the possibility of a pharmacological approach to manipulate the water permeability and transparency of the lens. PMID:17938229