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1

The estimation of oil water displacement functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of the equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefor...

Savioli, G. B.; Ferna?ndez-berdaguer, E. M.

2007-01-01

2

The estimation of oil water displacement functions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of t [...] he equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefore, the estimation problem is carried out over a set of parameters which are functions. The parameter is inferred from measurements of saturation at different spatial points as a function of time. The estimation procedure is carried out linearizing the solution of the direct model with respect to the parameter and then computing the least-squares solution in functional spaces. The sensitivity equations are derived. We test the algorithm with several numerical experiments.

Savioli, G. B.; Fernández-Berdaguer, E. M..

3

Combining solvent thermodynamic profiles with functionality maps of the Hsp90 binding site to predict the displacement of water molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermolecular interactions in the aqueous phase must compete with the interactions between the two binding partners and their solvating water molecules. In biological systems, water molecules in protein binding sites cluster at well-defined hydration sites and can form strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with backbone and side-chain atoms. Displacement of such water molecules is only favorable when the ligand can form strong compensating hydrogen bonds. Conversely, water molecules in hydrophobic regions of protein binding sites make only weak interactions, and the requirements for favorable displacement are less stringent. The propensity of water molecules for displacement can be identified using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IFST), a statistical mechanical method that decomposes the solvation free energy of a solute into the contributions from different spatial regions and identifies potential binding hotspots. In this study, we employed IFST to study the displacement of water molecules from the ATP binding site of Hsp90, using a test set of 103 ligands. The predicted contribution of a hydration site to the hydration free energy was found to correlate well with the observed displacement. Additionally, we investigated if this correlation could be improved by using the energetic scores of favorable probe groups binding at the location of hydration sites, derived from a multiple copy simultaneous search (MCSS) method. The probe binding scores were not highly predictive of the observed displacement and did not improve the predictivity when used in combination with IFST-based hydration free energies. The results show that IFST alone can be used to reliably predict the observed displacement of water molecules in Hsp90. However, MCSS can augment IFST calculations by suggesting which functional groups should be used to replace highly displaceable water molecules. Such an approach could be very useful in improving the hit-to-lead process for new drug targets. PMID:24070451

Haider, Kamran; Huggins, David J

2013-10-28

4

Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene  

Science.gov (United States)

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

Wershaw, R. L.; Aiken, G. R.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Goldberg, M. C.

1994-01-01

5

Monitoring Changes in Soil Water Content Using Subsurface Displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Closing the water balance is important in many research and water resource applications, but it can be difficult to accomplish due to a variety of factors. A new technique that measures vertical displacement of soil in order to estimate the change in mass of water stored in overlying material is being developed. The measurement technique uses an extensometer that functions as a lysimeter, and we refer to the technique as Displacement Extensometry for Lysimetric Terrain Analysis (DELTA). DELTA extensometers are 2-m-long devices deployed by creating a friction fit with intact soil below a cased borehole. The instrument measures small displacements (better than 10 nm resolution) in response to changes of mass in the overlying soil, or other factors. The instrument averages over a region that scales with the depth of installation (the radius of influence is approximately 2x the depth). The spatial averaging of this instrument extends over regions representative of agricultural fields, hydrologic model grid blocks, and small watersheds. Five DELTA extensometers have been deployed at a field site near Clemson, SC at depths of 3, 6, and 9 m within saprolite derived from biotite gneiss. Barometric pressure, precipitation, and soil moisture are being measured along with displacement. Signals from the co-located extensometers are remarkably similar, demonstrating reproducibility of the technique. Rainfall causes soil compression, and at 6 m depth there is approximately 200 nm of compression per 1 mm of rainfall. There is gradual expansion, which ranges from 0.15 to 1.75 ?m/day, following rainfall. The gradual unloading of the soil is interpreted as water loss due to evapotranspiration. Superimposed on the signal are diurnal fluctuations of 0.5 to 1 ?m, which correlate to changes in barometric pressure. Four DELTA extensometers were recently deployed in hard, clayey sediments at two field locations south of Amarillo, TX. The instruments will compliment current research on groundwater recharge in playas. Two other extensometers were deployed in loess at a field site near Holdredge, NE, where they will be used to help characterize water cycling beneath irrigated agriculture. Calibration data has been obtained and the instruments appear to be functioning properly. The preliminary data suggest that the DELTA technique should be applicable in a variety of soil types.

Thrash, C. J.; Miller, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L. N.; Gates, J. B.; Volkmer, A.; Weinburg, A.

2013-12-01

6

Influence functions of the displacement discontinuity method for anisotropic bodies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the boundary element equations are obtained from the influence functions of a displacement discontinuity in an anisotropic elastic medium. For this purpose, Kelvin fundamental solutions for anisotropic media on infinite and semi-infinite planes are used to form dipoles from singular loads. Various combinations of these dipoles are used to obtain the influence functions of the displacement discontinuity. Boundary element equations are then derived analytically by the integration of these influence functions on a constant element which results in a linear system for unknown displacement discontinuities. The boundary integrals are calculated in closed form over constant elements. The obtained formulation is applied to a number of classical engineering problems.

Kimençe, B.; Ergüven, M. E.

2005-11-01

7

Functional outcome in conservatively treated non-displaced scaphoid fractures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: This study evaluated the functional outcome after conservative treatment of non-displaced scaphoid fractures using an international validated outcome scale (DASH). Methods and materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 60 patients with a non-displaced scaphoid fracture were included. When a patient visited the emergency department and was clinically suspected of a scaphoid fracture radiography was performed. If no fracture was diagnosed with this modality a CT or MRI-scan both in combination ...

Tessa Drijkoningen; Beeres, Frank J. P.; Leerdam, Roderick H.; Daan Ootes; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Marleen Otoide-Vree; Rhemrev, Steven J.

2012-01-01

8

Displacing oil with a PAV (surface active substance) water solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article considers the results of researching oil displacement and absorption properties of nonionogienic PAV. The results indicate that concentrations of solvents in PAV leads to a significant increase in the rate of movement for the front of concentration. During an extensive period of water injection following PAV treatment, a full absorption of the PAV is achieved in the rock surface.

Nasrtdinov, M.N.; Adadurov, Yu.N.; Maksimova, T.N.; Obzhelyanskaya, L.M.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

1980-01-01

9

Wave function collapse implies divergence of average displacement  

CERN Document Server

We show that propagating a truncated discontinuous wave function by Schr\\"odinger's equation, as asserted by the collapse axiom, gives rise to non-existence of the average displacement of the particle on the line. It also implies that there is no Zeno effect. On the other hand, if the truncation is done so that the reduced wave function is continuous, the average coordinate is finite and there is a Zeno effect. Therefore the collapse axiom of measurement needs to be revised.

Marchewka, A

2005-01-01

10

Functional outcome in conservatively treated non-displaced scaphoid fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the functional outcome after conservative treatment of non-displaced scaphoid fractures using an international validated outcome scale (DASH. Methods and materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 60 patients with a non-displaced scaphoid fracture were included. When a patient visited the emergency department and was clinically suspected of a scaphoid fracture radiography was performed. If no fracture was diagnosed with this modality a CT or MRI-scan both in combination with bonescintigraphy was performed. Patients with scaphoid fractures diagnosed with CT/MRI and bonescintigraphy were treated with a six-week scaphoid forearm cast. Within 1 year after cast removal patients filled in the DASH questionnaire. Results: Sixty (80% patients returned the DASH questionnaire at 12 months after treatment. Thirty-eight (63.3% were male and the mean age was 35 (range 11 - 83. Forty-four (73.3% patients had a mid-waist fracture of the scaphoid, 13 (21.7% had a fracture of the distal pole and three (0.05% had a proximal fracture. Median DASH score at one year after the trauma was 6 (range 3 - 15 for patients with a distal pole fracture and 5 (range 0 - 21.5 for mid-waist fractures (p = 0.7, table 2. For the three patients with a proximal scaphoid fracture the DASH scores appeared higher and were 83, 82 and 30 respectively. Conclusion: Conservative treatment for six weeks with a below the elbow cast is sufficient for the majority of patients with an occult distal or mid-waist scaphoid fracture and results in a good functional outcome according to the DASH questionnaire.

Tessa Drijkoningen

2012-12-01

11

DENSE: Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes in Cardiac Functional MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) was developed for high-resolution myocardial displacement mapping. Pixel phase is modulated by myocardial displacement and data spatial resolution is limited only by pixel size. 2D displacement vector maps were generated for the systolic action in canines with 0.94 × 1.9 mm nominal in-plane resolution and 2.3 mm/? displacement encoding. A radial strain of 0.208 was measured across the free left ventricular wall over 105 ms during systole. DENSE displacement maps require small first-order gradient moments for encoding. DENSE magnitude images exhibit black-blood contrast which allows for better myocardial definition and reduced motion-related artifacts.

Aletras, Anthony H.; Ding, Shujun; Balaban, Robert S.; Wen, Han

1999-03-01

12

On the use of NURBS functions for displacement derivatives measurment by digital image correlation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose to investigate the potential improvement of using Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) functions for displacement measurements by digital image correlation (DIC). The aim is at improving the performance of DIC to capture with low uncertainty and low noise levels not only the displacement field but also its derivatives. Indeed, when the displacement field is used to feed constitutive law identification procedures, displacement derivatives are required and thus may be...

Re?thore?, Julien; Elguedj, Thomas; Simon, Pierre; Coret, Michel

2010-01-01

13

Dynamical modes of a graphite surface, on top and in the middle- by unfolding the observed temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function  

Science.gov (United States)

Making use of the unfolding technique to determine the phonon frequency distribution function (FDF) from the temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function suggested by the authors, the experimentally observed displacement-displacement auto-correlation functions of a graphite surface located either at the top or in the middle of the crystal have been unfolded. The final unfolded FDF shows marked differences for the two cases, exhibiting the potentiality of the unfolding technique to accurately determine the dynamics and hence the difference in the FDF of the two layers, located at different sites in a crystal.

Tewari, S. P.; Silotia, Poonam; Saxena, Aditya

2005-01-01

14

Dynamical modes of a graphite surface, on top and in the middle- by unfolding the observed temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Making use of the unfolding technique to determine the phonon frequency distribution function (FDF) from the temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function suggested by the authors, the experimentally observed displacement-displacement auto-correlation functions of a graphite surface located either at the top or in the middle of the crystal have been unfolded. The final unfolded FDF shows marked differences for the two cases, exhibiting the potentiality of the unfolding technique to accurately determine the dynamics and hence the difference in the FDF of the two layers, located at different sites in a crystal

2005-01-31

15

Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1991-12-31

16

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-12-31

17

Isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity in proximal humerus: does the direction of displacement influence functional outcome? An analysis of displacement in greater tuberosity fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and aim of the work: The treatment of isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus is still debated, especially in the case of minimally dispaced fractures. Differently from other proximal humerus fractures this kind of injury frequently affects young patients with high functional request. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of patients treated conservatively for greater tubero-sity isolated fractures, comparing the clinical results in patients with different direction of fracture displacement. Methods: 38 patients with isolated fracture of greater tuberosity participated to the study and were evaluated at 17 months (10-26) of follow up using Constant Murley Score and DASH Score. Patients were divided in groups with different direction of displacement (10 no displacement, 13 postero-superior, 6 antero-superior and 9 antero-inferior displacement). Results: Patients with no displaced fractures had a mean Constant Murley Score of 82 and a mean DASH Score of 15; those with postero-superior displacement had a mean a Constant Murley Score of 61 and a mean DASH Score of 43; for antero-superior displacement the mean Constant Murley Score was 76 and the mean DASH Score of 18; for the antero-inferiorly displaced the mean Constant Murley Score was 83 and the DASH Score 16. Conclusion: Data suggest that postero-superior displacement leads to poorer outcomes than undisplaced or displaced in other directions fractures treated conservatively. PMID:24458167

Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Aliani, Davide; Pellegrini, Andrea; Baudi, Paolo; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Ceccarelli, Francesco

2013-12-01

18

Influence functions for stress and displacement discontinuity elements in an anisotropic medium  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence functions, that permit us to determine stresses and displacements at an arbitrary point in an infinite, homogeneous, linear elastic, anisotropic medium due to different three-dimensional (3-D) stress or displacement discontinuities distributed on infinite, flat, band-type elements, are presented. Any straight-line segment on the band, which is perpendicular to its infinite side, has the same distribution of the discontinuities. Along with the functions, their Taylor series approximations are also provided. The last can be useful to analyse stresses and displacements at points distant from the elements. The functions allow us to avoid procedures of numerical integration in the Indirect Boundary Element Method and/or the Displacement Discontinuity Method computer codes that are able to solve complete plane-strain problems with 3-D boundary conditions for an elastic, anisotropic medium.

Kayupov, M. A.; Sakurai, S.; Kuriyagawa, M.

1997-09-01

19

Study of the synergistic effect of alkaline-silicate solutions when displacing oil with water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solutions of alkali and its mixtures with silicate substantially lower the amount of surface tension on the boundary with oil of level I of the Kyurovdag field. Adding silicate to the alkali gives the mixtures a substantial water-obsorbing capacity; i.e., given a drop of oil there is observed complete wetting of the plate surface by the water. The greatest increase in the coefficient (22%) is observed with displacement of the oil of level I of the Kyurovdag fields by 0.1% solutions of alkali with silicate. Above and below this concentration, the coefficient of displacement of oil by water declines to 5-6%. Solutions of alkali and silicate in the Kurinsk water increase the displacement factor of level 1 oil by 9.0 and 6.0%, respectively.

Musaev, R.A.; Abdullaev, M.I.; Dzhabrialova, T.K.; Khalilov, E.G.; Tairov, N.D.

1981-01-01

20

Analysis of occupational and displacive disorder using the atomic pair distribution function a systematic investigation  

CERN Document Server

Many disordered crystalline materials show chemical short range order andrelaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtainedby analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF). The viability ofreverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations to extract quantitative information aboutchemical ordering as well as displacements is investigated. The method has beenapplied to simulated PDFs of disordered structures showing chemical disorderalone as well as in combination with displacements.

Proffen, T

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Sequential strand displacement beacon for detection of DNA coverage on functionalized gold nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functionalizing nanomaterials for diverse analytical, biomedical, and therapeutic applications requires determination of surface coverage (or density) of DNA on nanomaterials. We describe a sequential strand displacement beacon assay that is able to quantify specific DNA sequences conjugated or coconjugated onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Unlike the conventional fluorescence assay that requires the target DNA to be fluorescently labeled, the sequential strand displacement beacon method is able to quantify multiple unlabeled DNA oligonucleotides using a single (universal) strand displacement beacon. This unique feature is achieved by introducing two short unlabeled DNA probes for each specific DNA sequence and by performing sequential DNA strand displacement reactions. Varying the relative amounts of the specific DNA sequences and spacing DNA sequences during their coconjugation onto AuNPs results in different densities of the specific DNA on AuNP, ranging from 90 to 230 DNA molecules per AuNP. Results obtained from our sequential strand displacement beacon assay are consistent with those obtained from the conventional fluorescence assays. However, labeling of DNA with some fluorescent dyes, e.g., tetramethylrhodamine, alters DNA density on AuNP. The strand displacement strategy overcomes this problem by obviating direct labeling of the target DNA. This method has broad potential to facilitate more efficient design and characterization of novel multifunctional materials for diverse applications. PMID:24848126

Paliwoda, Rebecca E; Li, Feng; Reid, Michael S; Lin, Yanwen; Le, X Chris

2014-06-17

22

Mortality displacement as a function of heat event strength in 7 US cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality rates increase immediately after periods of high air temperature. In the days and weeks after heat events, time series may exhibit mortality displacement-periods of lower than expected mortality. We examined all-cause mortality and meteorological data from 1980 to 2009 in the cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Seattle, Washington; and St. Louis, Missouri. We modeled baseline mortality using a generalized additive model. Heat waves were defined as periods of 3 or more consecutive days in which the apparent temperature exceeded a variable percentile. For each heat wave, we calculated the sum of excess and deficit mortality. Mortality displacement, which is the ratio of grand sum deficit to grand sum excess mortality, decreased as a function of event strength in all cities. Displacement was close to 1.00 for the weakest events. At the highest temperatures, displacement varied from 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.55) to 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.97). We found strong evidence of acclimatization across cities. Without consideration of displacement effects, the net impacts of heat-wave mortality are likely to be significant overestimations. A statistically significant positive relationship between the onset temperature of nondisplaced heat mortality and mean warm-season temperature (R(2) = 0.78, P < 0.01) suggests that heat mortality thresholds may be predictable across cities. PMID:24264293

Saha, Michael V; Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M

2014-02-15

23

Experimental study of displacement of viscous oil in pipes by water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is specifically concerned with the understanding of real restart procedure that is very crucial for prediction of oil-water columns displacement after un-expected shut down at water-viscous crude oil transportation. This issue gets more important for subsea pipeline which is generally located in ups and downs topology and in average cold medium. At subsea pipelines the risk of formation of oil-water columns is high and in addition the viscosity of crude oil gets higher due to heat ...

Kazemihatami, Milad

2013-01-01

24

A computational chemical study of penetration and displacement of water films near mineral surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on organic–water mixtures near mineral surfaces. These simulations show that, in contrast to apolar compounds, small polar organic compounds such as phenols can penetrate through thin water films to adsorb on these mineral surfaces. Furthermore, additional simulations involving demixing of an organic–water mixture near a surfactant-covered mineral surface demonstrate that even low concentrations of adsorbed polar compounds can induce major changes in mineral surface wettability, allowing sorption of apolar molecules. This strongly supports a two-stage adsorption mechanism for organic solutes, involving initial migration of small polar organic molecules to the mineral surface followed by water film displacement due to co-adsorption of the more apolar organic compounds, thus converting an initial water-wet mineral system to an organic-covered surface. This has profound implications for studies of petroleum reservoir diagenesis and wettability changes.

Larter Steve R

2001-08-01

25

Evaluation of upper-extremity function following surgical treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to assess the functional outcome of children treated with elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for displaced proximal humerus fractures using the short version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand outcome questionnaire (Quick DASH). Fifty-eight consecutive children with displaced proximal humerus fractures were treated with ESIN. Fifty-two children (89.7%) were available for follow-up and responded to the questionnaire after hardware removal. Average age at time of injury was 11.1 ± 2.8 years (range, 4-15.9). Among the 52 patients available for evaluation, 37 had a Quick DASH score of 0 (71.1%), seven a score of 2.3 (13.5%), four a score of 4.5 (7.7%), and four a score of 6.5 (7.7%). Shoulder and elbow ranges of motion were comparable with the noninjured side. No skin irritation or local infections were observed. There was no radiographic evidence of delayed union, refracture, hardware migration, or secondary displacement. Mean follow-up was 18.3 ± 8.3 months (range, 6-39.5). Our study reports good functional outcomes in children with closed isolated fractures, both physeal and metaphyseal, of the proximal humerus treated with ESIN. The use of a standardized rating scale is recommended to homogeneously compare functional outcome and may facilitate the comparison of clinical outcome in different patient populations. PMID:24172646

Canavese, Federico; Athlani, Lionel; Marengo, Lorenza; Rousset, Marie; Rouel-Rabiau, Nadege; Samba, Antoine; Andreacchio, Antonio

2014-03-01

26

Using the Aesop's Fable Paradigm to Investigate Causal Understanding of Water Displacement by New Caledonian Crows  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm – in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward – to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5–7 year old children.

Jelbert, Sarah A.; Taylor, Alex H.; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Gray, Russell D.

2014-01-01

27

Using the Aesop's fable paradigm to investigate causal understanding of water displacement by New Caledonian crows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm--in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward--to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5-7 year old children. PMID:24671252

Jelbert, Sarah A; Taylor, Alex H; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S; Gray, Russell D

2014-01-01

28

[Distal radius fracture with dorsal displacement: correlation between functional score, reduction quality and fixation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate treatment for fractures of the distal radius with dorsal displacement remains a subject of debate. Intrafocal pinning is the most widely used technique in France. Plate fixation has been developed to avoid secondary displacement and stiffness sometimes observed after pinning. We compared three osteosynthesis techniques for the same type of fracture (extra-articular with dorsal displacement). Sixty-two consecutive patients underwent osteosynthesis using the following techniques successively: posterior plates (20 patients mean age 59.9 years [range 25-87 years]), intra- and extrafocal pinning (22 patients mean age 55.6 years [range 17-83 years]), the anterior plate (20 patients mean age 57.1 years [range 17-78 years]). An independent operator evaluated all patients using the Herzberg, Gartland and Werley and Dash scores. The radial slope in the frontal plane, sagittal tilt, and ulnar variance were measured and compared between the preoperative and last follow-up values. Kruskall-Wallis or ANOVA were applied as appropriate for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for non-continuous variables. Psyloid process rather than its base. For these extra-articular fractures, pinning can provide good functional results like anterior plating but each treatment has advantages that functional analysis detected. PMID:21087886

Huard, S; Leclerc, G; Sergent, P; Serre, A; Gasse, N; Lepage, D; Jeunet, L; Garbuio, P; Obert, L

2010-12-01

29

Water-oil displacements from porous media utilizing transient adhesion-tension alterations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increases in oil recovery from unconsolidated sands effected by hexylamine injection during water displacement are the result of formation and propagation of large continuous oil masses under favorable wettability gradients. Oil-mass formation, and increased oil recovery, are not observed if the oil saturation in the medium undergoing transient adhesion-tension alterations is at its irreducible minimum value. Hence, early injection of amine favors increased oil recovery. Oil-mass formation, and increased oil recovery, are favored with more viscous oils, and the increase in oil recovery seems to be proportional to the square root of the oil-water viscosity ratio. Oil- mass formation appears to take place primarily during amine desorption, as the medium is returned from oil-wet to water- wet conditions. The importance of capillary forces in oil-mass formation and propagation is reflected to the increase in oil recovery with decreasing hydraulic permeability.

Michaels, A.S.; Porter, M.C.

1965-07-01

30

An image displacement correction algorithm for functional MRI using phase differences in k-space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In functional MRI (fMRI) examinations using Echo-planar Imaging (EPI) sequences, brain displacement in the reconstructed images occurs due to physiological motion artifacts and static magnetic field drift. We have developed a new reordering technique to correct for such displacement. This reordering technique is based on the principle that the displacement can be reduced when using an EPI sequence by removing first-order phase shift along the k-space axes; that is, by using a phase-mapping technique. We applied the reordering technique to an fMRI data set to confirm its effectiveness. The fMRI data set was acquired with a 1.5-T MRI system (MRH1500AD, Hitachi Medial Corporation) using a multislice interleaved EPI sequence (4 slices, 8 shots per slice, FOV=240 x 240 mm, slice thickness=6 mm, matrix size=128 x 128, TR/TE=1250/10 ms, FA=60deg). We used the first image of each slice as the reference image. The inclination angles along the k-space axes were calculated with the least-squares method. The signal-to-noise ratio will affect the precision of the inclination angles, so we tried to optimize the data-selection parameters by varying the number of data points from the origin in k-space (±10 to 30 points), and by varying the threshold value (1% to 5% of the signal intensity of the origin in k-space). After correcting for displacement, we made error images of each imaging plane to estimate the accuracy of the selection methods. All error images before the correction had high error value regions. We compared the error values in the regions for various parameter values and found that setting the threshold value at 1% could achieve the most accurate correction. We conclude that this reordering technique using phase maps can be used to accurately correct an fMRI data set taken from an EPI sequence. (author)

1997-12-01

31

Stresses and Displacements in Functionally Graded Materials of Semi-Infinite Extent Induced by Rectangular Loadings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM) caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over...

2012-01-01

32

STRESS, STRAIN AND DISPLACEMENT OF A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED THICK SPHERICAL VESSEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aims at the determination of the displacements, strains, and stresses from the general analytical solution of a functionally graded thick spherical vessel with the consideration that theproperties of the material i.e. modulus of elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity, vary with the power-law of radius and Poisson’s ratio remains constant. With the third kind thermal boundary conditions, with steady-state unidirectional radial heat conduction and general mechanical boundary conditions, the equilibrium equation reduces to Navier equation. A study of the equivalent stress is made to check whether yielding occurs.

P NAYAK,

2011-04-01

33

Energy displacement function as a signature for octupole deformation in excited states  

CERN Document Server

Energies for three positive and three negative parity bands predicted by the extended coherent states model (ECSM) in sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra are calculated and used to point out new signatures for octupole deformation in ground as well as in beta and gamma bands. A beat pattern is found by using a new displacement energy function which is more appropriate for a spectrum which exhibits large deviation from a linear J(J+1) dependence. The stability against octupole deformation is revisited from a new point of view. (authors)

Raduta, A A; Ursu, I I

2003-01-01

34

Nozzle optimization for water jet propulsion with a positive displacement pump  

Science.gov (United States)

In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

Yang, You-sheng; Xie, Ying-chun; Nie, Song-lin

2014-06-01

35

Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction  

CERN Document Server

We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on th...

Jung, Youngeui

2013-01-01

36

Estimating multiphase flow functions in porous media from dynamic displacement experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure from the data of dynamic displacement experiments was investigated. These properties are used extensively to predict the behavior of petroleum reservoirs. A new implicit method (i.e., based on matching experimental data with simulated values) was developed, which address the functional aspects of the implicit estimation problem. Using this regression-based method, those functional bias errors resulting from the specification of a finite dimensional representation for a infinite dimensional function can be recognized and essentially eliminated. The relative permeability and capillary pressure functions are represented with B-splines. Provided a sufficient number of knots is allowed, spline functions of a fixed order can be used to approximate any smooth function to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The adjustable coefficients in the B-spline representation are chosen by minimizing a nonlinear weighted-least-squares objective function. A descent method in which the step vector is calculated using a trust-region strategy was used for this minimization. A modular design facilitated the investigation of estimates obtained from both the analytical noncapillary model and the finite difference solution to the model equations including capillary pressure effects. A linearized covariance analysis was used to investigate the accuracy of relative permeability estimates when capillary pressure was specified, and to investigate the accuracy of simultaneously estimated relative permeability and capillary pressure functions.

Richmond, P.C.

1988-01-01

37

Non-surgical functional treatment for displaced olecranon fractures in the elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of a consecutive cohort of patients aged > 70 years with a displaced fracture of the olecranon, which was treated non-operatively with early mobilisation. We identified 28 such patients (27 women) with a mean age of 82 years (71 to 91). The elbow was initially immobilised in an above elbow cast in 90° of flexion of the elbow for a mean of five days. The cast was then replaced by a sling. Active mobilisation was encouraged as tolerated. No formal rehabilitation was undertaken. At a mean follow-up of 16 months (12 to 26), the mean ranges of flexion and extension were 140° and 15° respectively. On a visual analogue scale of 1 (no pain) to 10, the mean pain score was 1 (0 to 8). Of the original 28 patients 22 developed nonunion, but no patients required surgical treatment. We conclude that non-operative functional treatment of displaced olecranon fractures in the elderly gives good results and a high rate of satisfaction. PMID:24692623

Gallucci, G L; Piuzzi, N S; Slullitel, P A I; Boretto, J G; Alfie, V A; Donndorff, A; De Carli, P

2014-04-01

38

Stresses and Displacements in Functionally Graded Materials of Semi-Infinite Extent Induced by Rectangular Loadings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over the distributed loaded area. The loaded area is discretized into 200 small equal-sized rectangular elements. The numerical integration is carried out with the regular Gaussian quadrature. Weak and strong singular integrations encountered when the field points are located on the loaded plane, are resolved with the classical methods in boundary element analysis. The numerical integration results have high accuracy.

Zhong-Qi Yue

2012-01-01

39

Systematic treatment of displacements, strains and electric fields in density-functional perturbation theory  

CERN Multimedia

The methods of density-functional perturbation theory may be used to calculate various physical response properties of insulating crystals including elastic, dielectric, Born charge, and piezoelectric tensors. These and other important tensors may be defined as second derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic-displacement, electric-field, or strain perturbations, or as mixed derivatives with respect to two of these perturbations. The resulting tensor quantities tend to be coupled in complex ways in polar crystals, giving rise to a variety of variant definitions. For example, it is generally necessary to distinguish between elastic tensors defined under different electrostatic boundary conditions, and between dielectric tensors defined under different elastic boundary conditions. Here, we describe an approach for computing all of these various response tensors in a unified and systematic fashion. Applications are presented for two materials, wurtzite ZnO and rhombohedral BaTiO3, at zero temperatur...

Wu, X; Hamann, D R; Wu, Xifan; Vanderbilt, David

2005-01-01

40

An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

2013-12-15

 
 
 
 
41

An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

2013-12-01

42

Top end support for water displacement rod guides of pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a top end support for rod guides disposed in closely spaced, parallel axial relationship in an inner barrel assembly of a pressurized water reactor vessel. The inner barrel assembly occupies a central portion of the vessel and is of a vertical height extending from a first plate of lower elevation to a second plate of higher elevation within the vessel. Each of the rod guides has a thin sidewall portion of elongated configuration and of an axial length corresponding substantially to the vertical height of the inner barrel assembly and having a generally square cross-section. Each rod guide accommodating in axial, sliding relationship therewithin a respectively associated cluster of elongated rods interconnected to extend in parallel axial relationship

1987-01-01

43

COMPARISON OF ABSOLUTE VOLUME CALCULATION METHODS WITH WATER-DISPLACEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR Mimosa scabrella BENTHAM .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The observed volumes obtained by several volume calculation methods for the bole and sections of the bole of Mimosa scabrella trees were compared with theirs respective true volumes obtained by measurements in xylometer (water-displacement technique. Fifty four sample trees were felled and measured into several municipal districts of the Curitiba Metropolitan Region, in the Paraná State. The sample trees presented DBH from 7,2 to 29,5cm and were gruped in 4 DBH classes. The treatments statistically analysed were the xylometer (control; four absolute volume calculation procedures (Smalian, Huber, Newton and Centroid, each one with three different section lengths (1m, 2m and 4m; the four DBH classes configured the blocks for the statistical analysis. All the treatments presented significant statistic difference related to the xylometer. Amongst the absolute volume calculation procedures the Huber’s formula seems to be the most accurate, although having presented significant statistic difference related to the true volume.

Sebastião do Amaral Machado , ,, ,

2006-09-01

44

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Theory of Displaced Harmonic Oscillators with Differing Curvatures: A Correlation Function Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a theory for a bath model in which we approximate the adiabatic nuclear potential surfaces on the ground and excited electronic states by displaced harmonic oscillators that differ in curvature. Calculations of the linear and third-order optical response functions employ an effective short-time approximation coupled with the cumulant expansion. In general, all orders of correlation contribute to the optical response, indicating that the solvation process cannot be described as Gaussian within the model. Calculations of the linear absorption and fluorescence spectra resulting from the theory reveal a stronger temperature dependence of the Stokes shift along with a general asymmetry between absorption and fluorescence line shapes, resulting purely from the difference in the phonon side band. We discuss strategies for controlling spectral tuning and energy-transfer dynamics through the manipulation of the excited-state and ground-state curvature. Calculations of the nonlinear response also provide insights into the dynamics of the system-bath interactions and reveal that multidimensional spectroscopies are sensitive to a difference in curvature between the ground- and excited-state adiabatic surfaces. This extension allows for the elucidation of short-time dynamics of dephasing that are accessible in nonlinear spectroscopic methods.

Fidler, Andrew F.; Engel, Gregory S.

2013-10-01

45

Near-Infrared Studies of Glucose and Sucrose in Aqueous Solutions: Water Displacement Effect and Red Shift in Water Absorption from Water-Solute Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration up to our highest concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compare.

Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

2013-02-01

46

FEL gain as a function of phace displacements induced by undulator intersection gaps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gain characteristics are analytically considered for FEL based on a multisection undulator with short intersection gaps. It is shown that small phase displacements between laser beam and electron beam respectively caused by the above intersection gaps can seriously change the gain resonance frequency as well as gain curve shape. This effect is different from that of OK and can be used for fast undulator tuning or for its tapering. Gain characteristics are analitically considered for FEL based on a multisection undulator with short intersection gaps. It is shown that small phase displacements between laser beam and electron beam respectively caused by the above intersection gaps can seriously change the gain resonance frequency as well as gain curve shape. This effect is different from that of OK and can be used for fast undulator tuning or for its tapering.

Varfolomeev, A.A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

47

Oil saturation on the oil-water displacement front in fissured-viscular reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relationships are derived that make it possible to determine the oil saturation on the displacement front and at any point in the stratum. Actual coefficients of oil saturation for the conditions of the upper Cretaceous beds are found. It is demonstrated that when solving design problems and analyzing the mining of beds with fissured-vescular reservoirs, it is necessary to evaluate the possible value of the change in the filtration resistances.

Chizhov, S.I.; Postash, N.F.

1980-01-01

48

Identification of a functional water channel in cytochrome?P450?enzymes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are monooxygenases that contain a functional heme b group linked to a conserved cysteine with a thiolate bond. In the native state, the central iron atom is hexacoordinated with a covalently bound water molecule. The exclusion of solvent molecules from the active site is essential for efficient enzymatic function. Upon substrate binding, water has to be displaced from the active site to prevent electron uncoupling that results in hydrogen peroxide or water. In contrast...

Oprea, Tudor I.; Hummer, Gerhard; Garci?a, Angel E.

1997-01-01

49

Modelling the relationship between water level and vertical displacements on the Yamula Dam, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of The Yamula Dam under certain change in the reservoir level conditions during to the first filling period. Three different deformation analysis techniques, namely static, kinematic and dynamic, were used to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical displacements of nine object points established on the Dam and six reference points surrounding of it, to see whether the rising reservoir level have a role in the vertical deformations during the first filling period. The largest vertical displacements were in the middle of the dam. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. A dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

T. Bayrak

2007-01-01

50

Stress and displacement fields for a propagating crack in a linear functionally gradient material along X direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress and displacement fields for a propagating crack in a Functionally Gradient Material (FGM) which has shear modulus as ?=?0(1+?X) are derived. The equations of motion in FGM which is nonhomogeneous material are different form those of homogeneous material. The stress intensity factors in stress fields have influence on odd terms of ?n/2-1(n=1,3,5,...,) but stress at crack tip only retains term of ?-1/2, where the ? is a radius of cylindrical coordinates centered at crack tip. When the FGM constant ? is zero or ??0, the fields for FGM are almost same as the those for isotropic material

2002-09-01

51

Displacement of water masses and remineralization rates off the Iberian Peninsula by nutrient anomalies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and CO2 data obtained in the areas west and north of the Iberian Peninsula have been analyzed. We assume that the composite parameters such as Broecker's “NO” and “PO” and our own “CAO” and “SiO” are conservative for our water mass analysis. We demonstrate that the observations can be well represented by mixing between five end-members and estimate the relative proportions of these end-members in waters between 40N and 47N. Furthermore,...

Pe?rez, Fiz F.; Mourin?o, C.; Fraga, Fernando; Ri?os, Aida F.

1993-01-01

52

Effect of a Selected Physical Exercise on the Development of Displacement Movement Skills in Highly Functional Autistic Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on the development of displacement skills in High Function Autistic (HFA children. Materials and Methods: In this research, 10 children (7.9±1.4 years among of 33 children with HFA in Sahr-e-Kord city (in Iran based on their pre-test scores randomly were selected. The measuring tool was Test of Gross Motor Development-2000 (TGMD-2. Selected motor program (SPARK motor program in this research includes motor strengthening activities, games and sports for children that were performed for 12 sessions by our subjects. Normal distribution of data checked by K-S test and appropriate statistical Levine's and ANOVA tests (dependent and independent types were used for compare mean values (?=0.05. Results: Twelfth sessions of selected physical exercises training in experiment group made significant differences in some research variables but it was not the case for the control group. There were significant differences in running (p=0.002, trotting (p=0.08, jumping (p=0.002 and gliding (p=0.004 and there were non-significant differences in hop (p=0.035 and leaping (p=0.02. Conclusion: According to the results of this research we suggest that the selected physical exercise programs that derived from SPARK motor program can improve displacement motor skills in children with HFA.

Fatemeh Keyhani

2014-09-01

53

Effective electron displacements: a tool for time-dependent density functional theory computational spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We extend our previous definition of the metric ?r for electronic excitations in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory [C. A. Guido, P. Cortona, B. Mennucci, and C. Adamo, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 3118 (2013)], by including a measure of the difference of electronic position variances in passing from occupied to virtual orbitals. This new definition, called ?, permits applications in those situations where the ?r-index is not helpful: transitions in centrosymmetric systems and Rydberg excitations. The ?-metric is then extended by using the Natural Transition Orbitals, thus providing an intuitive picture of how locally the electron density changes during the electronic transitions. Furthermore, the ? values give insight about the functional performances in reproducing different type of transitions, and allow one to define a "confidence radius" for GGA and hybrid functionals. PMID:24628146

Guido, Ciro A; Cortona, Pietro; Adamo, Carlo

2014-03-14

54

Effective electron displacements: A tool for time-dependent density functional theory computational spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

We extend our previous definition of the metric ?r for electronic excitations in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory [C. A. Guido, P. Cortona, B. Mennucci, and C. Adamo, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 3118 (2013)], by including a measure of the difference of electronic position variances in passing from occupied to virtual orbitals. This new definition, called ?, permits applications in those situations where the ?r-index is not helpful: transitions in centrosymmetric systems and Rydberg excitations. The ?-metric is then extended by using the Natural Transition Orbitals, thus providing an intuitive picture of how locally the electron density changes during the electronic transitions. Furthermore, the ? values give insight about the functional performances in reproducing different type of transitions, and allow one to define a "confidence radius" for GGA and hybrid functionals.

Guido, Ciro A.; Cortona, Pietro; Adamo, Carlo

2014-03-01

55

Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and "1"5N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D_2O, bromide and ["1"5N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers

1999-02-01

56

A retrocopy of a gene can functionally displace the source gene in evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The e(y)2 gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the ubiquitous evolutionarily conserved co-activator of RNA polymerase II that is involved in transcription regulation of a high number of genes. The Drosophila e(y)2b gene, paralogue of the e(y)2 has been found. The analysis of structure of the e(y)2, e(y)2b and its orthologues from other species reveals that the e(y)2 gene derived as a result of retroposition of the e(y)2b during Drosophila evolution. The mRNA-derived retrogenes lack introns or regulatory regions; most of them become pseudogenes whereas some acquire tissue-specific functions. Here we describe the different situation: the e(y)2 retrogene performs the general function and is ubiquitously expressed, while the source gene is functional only in a small group of male germ cells. This must have resulted from retroposition into a transcriptionally favorable region of the genome. PMID:16314324

Krasnov, Aleksey N; Kurshakova, Maria M; Ramensky, Vasily E; Mardanov, Pavel V; Nabirochkina, Elena N; Georgieva, Sofia G

2005-01-01

57

Micromodel Study of Influence of Pore Geometry on Water-Oil Displacement with and without Surfactant  

Science.gov (United States)

Using oil-wet Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic micromodels, we studied the effect of pore geometry on water-oil drainage efficiency. The porosity and permeability of micromodels are 0.19 and about 200md, respectively; the size of the micromodels is 3 cm by 3 mm, with the longer dimension aligned with the flow direction. The pore geometries compared include a random network of uniformly sized channels (6 ?m), a network with a channel size distribution (4-8 ?m), and a geometry with large vugs (200-300 ?m) embedded in a network of uniformly sized channels (8 ?m); the last one was designed to simulate the vuggy texture of oil-wet carbonate rocks. Regular patterns with periodically arranged squares and hexagons were also made. Water saturations were measured at the point of water breakthrough as well as at intervals of 0.5 pore volume injection up to a total of three pore volumes. We found that both pore size distribution and vugs decreased the drainage efficiency. In addition, while application of surfactant (5000 ppm ethoxylated alcohol) increased the drainage efficiency in all geometries by increasing the Capillary number, the gain was less for geometries with vugs. From videos, we noted withdrawal of non-wetting fluid from channels while the vugs were filled due to disparity in the capillary pressure. The preference for the non-wetting fluid to fill the vugs caused early breakthrough and trapping of the wetting fluid that is difficult to remove even at increased Capillary numbers.

Yin, X.; Xu, W.; Ok, J.; Neeves, K.

2012-12-01

58

Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope effects on nucleophilic displacement by water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic deuterium isotope effects (k/sub H_2O//k/sub D_2O/) have been measured for nucleophilic attack by water at primary alkyl carbon [S-methylthiophenium ion (MeTh+), methyl trifluoromethane-sulfonate (MeOTf), methyl and ethyl perchlorate (MeOClO_3, EtOClO_3)] in aprotic solvents [acetonitrile (MeCN) and tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-dioxide (TMSO_2; solfolane)] and L_2O. In L_2O solvent k/sub H_2O//k/sub D_2O/ is significantly greater than unity while it is reduced to near unity in aprotic solvents. The oxygen-18 isotope effect has also been observed to be 1.002 +- 0.004 for the reaction of MeTh"+ with dilute H_2O in TMSO_2 at 35"0C. For the reaction of MeTh"+ and MeOClO_3 in aprotic solvents the chemical reaction kinetics are discussed

1981-01-01

59

Complications and functional outcome after internal fixation of dorsally displaced distal radial fractures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Recently there has been an increasing interest in open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures. Even so further studies are still needed. Purpose: To document the functional outcome and identify complica- tions among patients treated with a volar locking plate (DVR-locking plate, DePuy Orthopaedics) newly introduced in our department. Methods: The study was designed as a historical cohort study. 37 females and 6 males with a mean (CI) age of 72,6 (69,5-75,6) were included. 35 received 6 months follow up (median 6,4) and 30 received 1 year follow up (median 14,0). Outcome measures included the Dis- ability of the Arm, shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, grip strength, active wrist and forearm range of motion and radiographic parameters. Findings: The mean DASH score was 15,5 (10,5- 20,6) at 6 months and 6,3 (2,5-10) at 1 year. There were at 1 year statistical significant differ- ence between thefractured and non-fractured wrist for flexion, extension and grip strength but not for supination and pronation. X-rays showed an improvement from preoperative to postoperative in dorsal angulation (17,7 degrees), inclination (6,6 degrees) and radial length (4,8 mm). A total of 10 major complications were identified: 4 had screws in the joint, 2 tendon ruptures, 2 plates were removed, 1 carpal tunnel syn- drome, 1 lacking radiological healing. There were no association between major complications and the surgeons experience level (> 10 operations). Evaluation of the X-ray images showed 14 cases of too radi- al plate placement and 1 one forgotten tower. Conclusion: The literature describes an overall complication frequency between 0 and 27%, with a lower frequency of secondary procedures compared to this study. There is still a need for further studies

Bove, Jeppe; Viberg, Bjarke

60

The effect of vapor margins and the rate of pumping unheated water on the oil displacement factor from a layered, nonuniform stratum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results are presented of studies of the effect of the size of the vapor margin and the rate of pumping water for advancing the thermal margin on the oil displacement factor. The results were acquired through calculations using a technique for a model of a layered, nonuniform stratum.

Kopanev, S.V.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Influence of a Paint Coating and Water Displacing Corrosion Inhibitor (WDCI) Application on the Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Behavior of Aluminum 7075 Alloy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of a low chromate and a high chromate paint system and a water displacing corrosion inhibitor (WDCI) on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of an aluminum 7075-T651 alloy was investigated. Bolt-loaded double cantilever beam specimens were te...

H. F. Dejong W. A. J. Moonen

1986-01-01

62

Effect of the Rate of Adsorption at Oil-Water Interface Upon the Displacement of Residual Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was undertaken to determine the rate of adsorption of surfactant at oil-water interfaces by measuring interfacial tension as a function of time. It was found that the popular spinning drop interfacial tensiometer cannot be trusted to measure equi...

J. C. Slattery

1982-01-01

63

Elastic chain in a random potential simulation of the displacement function $\\widehat{l}$ (u(r)-u(0))$^{2}$ $\\widehat{r}$ and relaxation  

CERN Multimedia

We simulate the low temperature behaviour of the displacement correlation function g(r). We find that g(r)\\sim r^{2\\eta} with \\eta\\simeq3/4 at short distances and \\eta\\simeq1/2 in the long distance region. The average square displacement W=\\langle(u(x)-\\overline{u} )^2\\rangle scales with system size as W\\sim L^{2\\chi} with \\chi\\simeq2/3 in accordance with the exact continuum solution. The distribution of nearest distances between pinning wells and chain-particles is found to develop forbidden regions.

Spencer, S; Spencer, Steven; Jensen, Henrik Jeldoft

1994-01-01

64

Accurate assessment of breast volume: a study comparing the volumetric gold standard (direct water displacement measurement of mastectomy specimen) with a 3D laser scanning technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preoperative assessment of breast volume could contribute significantly to the planning of breast-related procedures. The availability of 3D scanning technology provides us with an innovative method for doing this. We performed this study to compare measurements by this technology with breast volume measurement by water displacement. A total of 30 patients undergoing 39 mastectomies were recruited from our center. The volume of each patient's breast(s) was determined with a preoperative 3D laser scan. The volume of the mastectomy specimen was then measured in the operating theater by water displacement. There was a strong linear association between breast volumes measured using the 2 different methods when using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.95, P < 0.001). The mastectomy mean volume was defined by the equation: mastectomy mean volume = (scan mean volume × 1.03) -70.6. This close correlation validates the Cyberware WBX Scanner as a tool for assessment of breast volume. PMID:21587046

Yip, Jia Miin; Mouratova, Naila; Jeffery, Rebecca M; Veitch, Daisy E; Woodman, Richard J; Dean, Nicola R

2012-02-01

65

The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. PMID:17374909

Le Bihan, Denis

2007-04-01

66

The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

2007-04-07

67

Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effec...

Thirunavu S. R.; Neale G. H.

2006-01-01

68

Displaced Supersymmetry  

CERN Multimedia

The apparent absence of light superpartners at the LHC strongly constrains the viability of the MSSM as a solution to the hierarchy problem. These constraints can be significantly alleviated by R-parity violation (RPV). Bilinear R-parity violation, with the single operator L H_u, does not require any special flavor structure and can be naturally embedded in a GUT while avoiding constraints from proton decay (unlike baryon-number-violating RPV). The LSP in this scenario can be naturally long-lived, giving rise to displaced vertices. Many collider searches, particularly those selecting b-jets or leptons, are insensitive to events with such detector-scale displaced decays owing to cuts on track quality and impact parameter. We demonstrate that for decay lengths in the window ~1-1000 mm, constraints on superpartner masses can be as low as ~450 GeV for squarks and ~40 GeV for LSPs. In some parts of parameter space light LSPs can dominate the Higgs decay width, hiding the Higgs from existing searches. This framewor...

Graham, Peter W; Rajendran, Surjeet; Saraswat, Prashant

2012-01-01

69

The swelling of SS AISI 316L under dual beam irradiation as function of the displacement rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The displacement rate dependence of swelling of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L under dual beam irradiation was measured at T=898 K. For irradiation 25 keV He+ and 300 keV Ni+ ions were used. The material was investigated in the solution annealed state. Specimens were examined by TEM. Under all applied conditions bimodal cavity distributions were observed. After accounting for the cavity denuded zone of about 30 nm below the irradiated surface the results are free of any surface influence. Swelling was found to increase distinctly with decreasing displacement rate. This behaviour is due to the enhanced nucleation rate of small cavities at the higher displacement rates leading to a lower growth rate of the large cavities. Applying a model for cavity growth the bias of dislocations could be calculated to 15.4±3.3%. The capture efficiencies of cavities for defects had to be taken into account. Because of the cavity preference for interstitials this leads to a lower effective bias in the equation for cavity growth. This effective bias depends on the cavity size. (orig.)

1988-07-01

70

Displacement cascades in diatomic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one.

Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

1981-01-01

71

Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

2004-07-01

72

Assessment of HAM and PEM to Find Analytical Solution for Calculating Displacement Functions of Geometrically Nonlinear Prestressed Cable Structures with Concentrated Mass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two powerful analytical methods, called He’s Parameter-Expanding Methods (PEM and Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM are used to calculating displacement functions of geometrically nonlinear prestressed cable structures. In this study, the results of two methods are compared and it is shown that one term in series expansions is sufficient to obtain a solution by using the PEM. Comparison of the obtained solutions with those obtained using numerical method shows that two methods are effective and convenient for solving this problem. These two methods introduce a capable tool for solving this kind of nonlinear problems.

M. Ghasempour

2009-01-01

73

Molecular Density Functional Theory of Water  

CERN Multimedia

Three dimensional implementations of liquid state theories offer an efficient alternative to computer simulations for the atomic-level description of aqueous solutions in complex environments. In this context, we present a (classical) molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water that is derived from first principles and is based on two classical density fields, a scalar one, the particle density, and a vectorial one, the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric constants. It has to be complemented by a solute-solvent three-body term that reinforces tetrahedral order at short range. The approach is shown to provide the correct three-dimensional microscopic solvation profile around various molecular solutes, possibly possessing H-bonding sites, at a computer cost two-three orders of magnitude lower tha...

Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Borgis, Daniel; 10.1021/jz301956b

2013-01-01

74

Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

Good, Daniel W

2012-08-01

75

Restricted and anisotropic displacement of water in healthy cat brain and in stroke studied by NMR diffusion imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in cat brain was used as an experimental stroke model to investigate the physical basis of the recently reported lowered diffusion constant of water in acute infarcted brain tissue (Moseley et al., Magn. Reson. Med. 14, 330, 1990). The original findings were confirmed in this study of 12 animals investigated with the diffusion-sensitized stimulated echo sequence. The following additional results were obtained: First, the onset of significant lowering of the diffusion constant in the stroke area varied significantly (up to 2.5 h depending on the animal). Second, the affected area is much more clearly outlined in diffusion-weighted images than in T2-weighted images, even in the period between 3 to 12 h following occlusion. Third, for diffusion times between 50 and 2000 ms. the diffusion constant of water is independent of diffusion time in healthy tissue, as well as in the stroke area. Fourth, the diffusion anisotropy is similar in healthy and in stroke area and remains similar regardless of the diffusion time used. PMID:1881322

Moonen, C T; Pekar, J; de Vleeschouwer, M H; van Gelderen, P; van Zijl, P C; DesPres, D

1991-06-01

76

Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:17927413

Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

2007-09-01

77

Functioning and utilization of rural water supplies in Sarawak, Malaysia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-sectional survey of 976 households in 41 villages covered by the Rural Health Improvement Scheme in Sarawak was carried out to determine the state of functioning and utilization of rural water supplies. The survey was carried out by inspection and interview. About one-third of the systems were functioning well, one-third imperfectly, and the remainder were no longer functioning. The coverage of households by water supply varied with the type of water supply, the overall coverage being...

Kiyu, A.; Hardin, S.

1992-01-01

78

Temperature dependence of mean square displacement by IN13: a comparison between trehalose and sucrose water mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis in terms of elastic scans of the neutron intensity in mixtures of homologues disaccharides (i.e., trehalose and sucrose)/D2O as a function of temperature has been carried out. The study provides an effective way for characterizing the dynamical behavior, furnishing a set of parameters characterizing the 'flexibility' and the 'rigidity' that justifies the better cryptobiotic effect of trehalose in respect to sucrose. Elastic scans make evident a non-Gaussian behavior of the intensity profiles which is more marked for sucrose, with a dynamical transition at T?253 K and T?250 K for trehalose/D2O and sucrose/D2O mixtures, respectively

2003-08-01

79

Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

2001-01-30

80

Aqueous displacement of oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This improved process for producing oil consists of injecting an aqueous, flooding liquid into the oil-bearing formation, through a well therein so as to displace oil. The aqueous liquid and displaced oil are produced through one or more production wells. The improvement consists of incorporating in solution in the flooding liquid, in micelle-forming concentration (1.5 to 0.01 M), a first compound selected from the group consisting of the calcium salts of fatty acids, the calcium salts of alkyl sulfonic acids, and the calcium salts of alkyl sulfates (wherein the alkyl group contains from 8 to 18 carbon atoms), and a second compound, an alkali metal salt of the same group member and having the same number of carbon atoms as the first compound in a concentration in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 g per 100 g of water in the flooding liquid. The 2 compounds are added to the flooding liquid before injection. (13 claims)

Harvey, R.R.; Craighead, E.M.

1965-02-23

 
 
 
 
81

Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

1979-01-01

82

Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

1982-11-17

83

No difference in the long term final functional outcome after nailing or cast bracing of high energy displaced tibial shaft fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cast bracing (CB has been a well established method of treating tibial shaft fractures. Majority of the recent literature on treatment of tibial shaft fractures have upheld intramedullary nailing (IMN as the treatment of choice. Most of these studies are from the west, in public funded health set ups and in hospitals with very low rates of infection. This has lead to bewilderment in the minds of surgeons wishing to opt for conservative treatment in countries with scarcity of health resources. We therefore undertook this study to compare the two modalities in the scenario of the developing world. Material and methods Sixty-eight consecutive patients were treated alternately with CB and IMN for high energy, displaced, closed and Gustilo Grade 1 open fractures of the tibial shaft, between 1995 and 2001. Results An average follow up at 4.3?years revealed no statistical difference in the final functional outcome as per Johner and Wruhs' criteria with modification to Indian lifestyle. IMN group had a slightly shorter time to fracture union (mean 21.3?weeks versus 23.1?weeks for CB, p?>?0.05, (b lesser time off work (mean 17.6?weeks versus 25.6?weeks for CB, p Conclusion Treating tibial shaft fracture either with IMN or CB provided equally gratifying results with no statistical difference in final functional outcome. The economic cost to the patient in Indian conditions is significantly less with CB and therefore stands as an equally reliable treatment option, especially in countries with fewer resources.

Batta Vineet

2012-06-01

84

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment. PMID:24697459

Krebs, Eric J; Schulte, Jeff B; Roundy, David

2014-03-28

85

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment

2014-03-28

86

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment.

Krebs, Eric J.; Schulte, Jeff B.; Roundy, David

2014-03-01

87

Functional bionetworks from nanoliter water droplets.  

Science.gov (United States)

We form networks from aqueous droplets by submerging them in an oil/lipid mixture. When the droplets are joined together, the lipid monolayers surrounding them combine at the interface to form a robust lipid bilayer. Various protein channels and pores can incorporate into the droplet-interface bilayer (DIB), and the application of a potential with electrodes embedded within the droplets allows ionic currents to be driven across the interface and measured. By joining droplets in linear or branched geometries, functional bionetworks can be created. Although the interfaces between neighboring droplets comprise only single lipid bilayers, the structures of the networks are long-lived and robust. Indeed, a single droplet can be "surgically" excised from a network and replaced with a new droplet without rupturing adjacent DIBs. Networks of droplets can be powered with internal "biobatteries" that use ion gradients or the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. Besides their interest as coupled protocells, the droplets can be used as devices for ultrastable bilayer recording with greatly reduced electrolyte volume, which will permit their use in rapid screening applications. PMID:17571891

Holden, Matthew A; Needham, David; Bayley, Hagan

2007-07-11

88

Displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor comprises a sectioned substantially hollow low neutron absorbing metal rod capable of displacing reactor coolant without absorbing a high amount of neutrons. The tubular sections can be made of stainless steel or Zircaloy tubing and may contain pellets for weighting the displacer rod

1984-01-01

89

A study for biofilm removing and antimicrobial effects by microbubbled tap water and other functional water, electrolyzed hypochlorite water and ozonated water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the biofilm removing and antimicrobial effects of microbubbled tap water and other functional water. The biofilm removal test showed that the activity of microbubbled tap water against the biofilm of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of ordinary tap water (p<0.01). When the antimicrobial activities of two types of functional water were compared, the activity of electrolyzed hypochlorite water was significantly stronger than that of the ozonated water (p<0.01). The antimicrobial effect of the electrolyzed hypochlorite water was increased in the microbubbled form, and was stronger than microbubbled tap water. The same results were obtained not only for biofilms, but also for planktonic microbes. Our results demonstrated that the microbubbled water showed strong biofilm removing effects. Moreover, the application of functional water, such as electrolyzed hypochlorite microbubbled water was effective for both removing and sterilizing biofilms. PMID:22864222

Ozaki, Miwa; Ohshima, Tomoko; Mukumoto, Mio; Konishi, Hirokazu; Hirashita, Ayao; Maeda, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yoshiki

2012-01-01

90

Abomasal displacement in cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Left abomasal displacement can be treated among other techniques also with the rolling technique accompanied with a percutaneus paramedian abomasopexy using toggle pin fixators of cornel wood. This method is reliable, quick and cheap.

Zemlji? Borut

2003-01-01

91

Effects of wettability and pore-level displacement on hydrocarbon trapping  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a three-dimensional mixed-wet random network model representing Berea sandstone to extend our previous work on relative permeability hysteresis during water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection cycles [Suicmez, VS, Piri, M, Blunt, MJ, 2007, Pore-scale simulation of water alternate gas injection, Transport Porous Med 66(3), 259-86]. We compute the trapped hydrocarbon saturation for tertiary water-flooding, which is water injection into different initial gas saturations, Sgi, established by secondary gas injection after primary drainage. Tertiary water-flooding is continued until all the gas and oil is trapped. We study four different wettability conditions: water-wet, weakly water-wet, weakly oil-wet and oil-wet. We demonstrate that the amounts of oil and gas that are trapped show surprising trends with wettability that cannot be captured using previously developed empirical trapping models. We show that the amount of oil that is trapped by water in the presence of gas increases as the medium becomes more oil-wet, which is opposite from that seen for two-phase flow. It is only through a careful analysis of displacement statistics and fluid configurations that these results can be explained. This illustrates the need to have detailed models of the displacement processes that represent the three-phase displacement physics as carefully as possible. Further work is needed to explore the full range of behavior as a function of wettability and displacement path.

Suicmez, V. Sander; Piri, Mohammad; Blunt, Martin J.

2008-03-01

92

Water distribution function across the curved lipid bilayer: SANS study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron scattering length density across the membrane is simulated on the basis of fluctuated model of lipid bilayer. The use of a separated form factors method has been applied for the identification of the structural features of the polydispersed unilamellar DMPC vesicle system. The hydration of vesicle is described by sigmoid distribution function of the water molecules. The application of the model to the obtained SANS spectra allow the determination of the main parameters of the system, such as the average vesicle radius (and its polydispersity), the membrane thickness, the thickness of hydrocarbon chain region, the number of water molecules located per lipid molecule, and the phospholipid surface area. Moreover the approach allow the calculation of some relevant parameters connected with the water distribution function across the bilayer system. The main features of the obtained results furnish an explanation of why lipid membrane is easily penetrated by the water molecules of the solution

2008-04-18

93

Functional Tests in the Study of Water-Salt Exchange and Renal Function in Cosmonauts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alteration in the water-salt exchange and renal activities of cosmonauts in polonged space flight was studied. The factors influencing these functions are considered. Tabulated results are presented and include the following: (1) electrolyte content, ...

Y. V. Natochin G. I. Kozyrevskaya A. I. Grigoryev

1973-01-01

94

Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes "on water".  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are exfoliated and functionalized into small bundles and individuals by vigorous stirring "on water" in the presence of a substituted aniline and an oxidizing agent. This is an example of an "on water" reaction that leads to functionalized SWNTs, and it represents a "green", or environmentally friendly, process. A variety of reaction conditions were explored. The products were analyzed with Raman, UV-vis-NIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, and thermogravimetric analysis. PMID:17002385

Price, B Katherine; Tour, James M

2006-10-01

95

Investigation of large transverse displacements of hollow cylinders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an experimental test program designed to characterize large transverse deformations of hollow steel cylinders are presented. The data are organized according to dimensional analysis, with displacement evaluated as a function of seven independent parameters. Both static and dynamic formulas governing large transverse displacements are included. Permanent and maximum displacements are both considered

1976-04-25

96

Desirability function method for assessing water quality by periphyton composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water quality generalized index according to periphyton community obtained by the method of desirability function has been used to estimate the Moscow River pollution. To reveal the indicator species by this method one-year observation period is required. The indicator species list presented here can be recommended for the calculation of generalized index according to the periphyton data for the Moscow River.

Maksimov, V.N.; Goridchenko, T.P.

1985-01-01

97

Characterization of silica-functionalized carbon nanotubes dispersed in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to enhance the strength, toughness, and multifunctional ability of composite materials. However, suitable dispersion and interfacial bonding remain as key challenges. Composites that are formed by reactions with water, like Portland cement concrete and mortar, pose a special challenge for dispersing the inherently hydrophobic nanotubes. The hydration of Portland cement also offers a specific chemical framework for interfacial bonding. In this study, nanoscale silica functional groups are covalently bonded to CNTs to improve their dispersion in water while providing interfacial bond sites for the proposed matrix material. The bond signatures of treated nanotubes are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In situ dispersion is characterized using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and point of zero charge (PZC) measurements. At the nanoscale, interparticle spacing was greatly increased. A slight increase in the PZC after treatment indicates the importance of steric effects in the dispersion mechanism. Overall, results indicate successful functionalization and dramatically improved dispersion stability in water.

Stynoski, Peter, E-mail: pstynos2@illinois.edu; Mondal, Paramita, E-mail: pmondal@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Wotring, Erik, E-mail: erik.wotring@usace.army.mil; Marsh, Charles, E-mail: charles.p.marsh@usace.army.mil [US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (United States)

2013-01-15

98

Optical displacement sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2008-04-08

99

Bidirectional reflectance function in coastal waters: modeling and validation  

Science.gov (United States)

The current operational algorithm for the correction of bidirectional effects from the satellite ocean color data is optimized for typical oceanic waters. However, versions of bidirectional reflectance correction algorithms, specifically tuned for typical coastal waters and other case 2 conditions, are particularly needed to improve the overall quality of those data. In order to analyze the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of case 2 waters, a dataset of typical remote sensing reflectances was generated through radiative transfer simulations for a large range of viewing and illumination geometries. Based on this simulated dataset, a case 2 water focused remote sensing reflectance model is proposed to correct above-water and satellite water leaving radiance data for bidirectional effects. The proposed model is first validated with a one year time series of in situ above-water measurements acquired by collocated multi- and hyperspectral radiometers which have different viewing geometries installed at the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO). Match-ups and intercomparisons performed on these concurrent measurements show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the algorithm currently in use at all wavelengths.

Gilerson, Alex; Hlaing, Soe; Harmel, Tristan; Tonizzo, Alberto; Arnone, Robert; Weidemann, Alan; Ahmed, Samir

2011-10-01

100

Effects of Bridge Functions on Radial Distribution Functions of Liquid Water  

CERN Multimedia

In this report the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of liquid water are calculated on the basis of the classical density functional theory combined with the reference interaction site model for molecular liquids. The bridge functions, which are neglected in the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation, are taken into account through the density expansion for the Helmholtz free energy functional up to the third order. A factorization approximation to the ternary direct correlation functions in terms of the site-site pair correlation functions is then employed in the expression of the bridge functions, thus leading to a closed set of integral equations for the determination of the RDFs. It is confirmed through numerical calculations that incorporation of the oxygen-oxygen bridge function substantially improves the poor descriptions by the HNC approximation at room temperature, e.g., for the second peak of the oxygen-oxygen RDF.

Tanaka, Shigenori

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

2011-01-01

102

Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology.

Karan Ram

2012-02-01

103

DISPLACEMENT-DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION BASED ON SOLIDIFICATION FLOATING ORGANIC DROP TRACE AMOUNTS OF LEAD IN WATER SAMPLE PRIOR TO FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY DETERMINATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, a novel method using displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop in complicated samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination was developed. This method involves two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid m [...] icroextraction based on solidification. In step I, Zn(II) ions reacted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio carbamate (APDC) to form Zn-APDC complex and was extracted with the solidified floating organic drop microextraction procedure using 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) and ethanol (dispersive solvent). In step II, after centrifugation and solidification, the separated drop was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) and then dispersed into the sample solution containing lead ion and another dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification procedure was carried out. Due to the greater stability of Pb-APDC, Pb displaces Zn from the pre-extracted Zn-APDC and preconcentration of Pb was achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 4-700 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.7 ng mL-1(3a b). The relative standard deviation of ±1.6% was obtained (n=7) and the enrichment factor was found to be 35.0.

DARYOUSH, AFZALI; MARYAM, FAYAZI; ALIMOSTA, FAVI.

104

Thermalized Displaced Squeezed Thermal States  

CERN Document Server

In the coordinate representation of thermofield dynamics, we investigate the thermalized displaced squeezed thermal state which involves two temperatures successively. We give the wavefunction and the matrix element of the density operator at any time, and accordingly calculate some quantities related to the position, momentum and particle number operator, special cases of which are consistent with the results in the literature. The two temperatures have diffenent correlations with the squeeze and coherence components. Moreover, different from the properties of the position and momentum, the average value and variance of the particle number operator as well as the second-order correlation function are time-independent.

Lu, W F

2000-01-01

105

Toilets, Tears and Transcendence: The Postmodern (Dis-)Placement of, and in, Two Water-Based Examples of Australian Sound Art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water has enjoyed an enduring place as subject matter in western musical works for centuries. And what Douglas Kahn calls “discursive” water has streamed in ‘traditional’ musical works from Handel’s Water Music from 1717 through Romanticism, “albeit in the harmonic gushes that repulsed Cage”. In the ‘experimental’ genres, the early to middle parts of the twentieth century were splattered by various engagements with water and sound, with Percy Grainger’s Free Music innovati...

Linda Kouvaras

2009-01-01

106

Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

107

Functional brain studies with O-15 water and PET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) with intravenous injection of O-15 water allows regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) images to be obtained repeatedly within a short period of time. Since increased electrical activity in a specific brain region is followed by an abrupt increase in rCBF, the technique with O-15 water and PET is suitable for functional stimulation-activation studies. In general, the images are analyzed by making a subtraction image (activation minus baseline) and then identifying the activated areas on anatomical structures. This approach is widely applicable, ranging from simple stimulation to highly integrated tasks. The detectability and amplitude of the responsive area depend on the PET system and methodology. In this article, we mainly describe the methodological aspects of activaiton analysis and review some of PET data for exploring higher cognitive functions. (author) 43 refs

1994-04-01

108

Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins will be formed close to the SFR-1. The catchment to this former lake constitutes the inner model area that is studied in more detail. The landscape evolution in this area is also illustrated as a time series of digital maps in Power Point format 'Elevinre.ppt'. The sea bottom directly above SFR-1 will start to drain approximately 2400 AD and will be completely dry approximately 3500 AD. The inner model area will be without brackish water approximately 5000 AD and at least 20 new basins (>10000 m2 )will be formed within this area. Most of them will be shallow basins and will therefore quickly be transformed into peat or bogs. When the inner model area is drained of brackish water approximately 75% of the area will be bedrock or wave washed till and 25% peat, bog or lake

1999-01-01

109

Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins will be formed close to the SFR-1. The catchment to this former lake constitutes the inner model area that is studied in more detail. The landscape evolution in this area is also illustrated as a time series of digital maps in Power Point format 'Elev{sub i}nre.ppt'. The sea bottom directly above SFR-1 will start to drain approximately 2400 AD and will be completely dry approximately 3500 AD. The inner model area will be without brackish water approximately 5000 AD and at least 20 new basins (>10000 m{sup 2} )will be formed within this area. Most of them will be shallow basins and will therefore quickly be transformed into peat or bogs. When the inner model area is drained of brackish water approximately 75% of the area will be bedrock or wave washed till and 25% peat, bog or lake.

Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

1999-12-15

110

Displacement cascades in polyatomic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a continuous-slowing-down, random amorphous material model, we have studied displacement cascades in a number of diatomic materials. This paper reviews a number of previous results that elucidate the effects of atomic mass, recoil energy, displacement energy, capture energy and material stoichiometry on the numbers of displacements in a cascade. The displacement cascade reveals a complex structure that is dependent on the type of irradiation and the material properties. Conclusions related to damage analysis for fusion reactors are given

1982-10-28

111

Second Order Darboux Displacements  

CERN Multimedia

The potentials for a one dimensional Schroedinger equation that are displaced along the x axis under second order Darboux transformations, called 2-SUSY invariant, are characterized in terms of a differential-difference equation. The solutions of the Schroedinger equation with such potentials are given analytically for any value of the energy. The method is illustrated by a two-soliton potential. It is proven that a particular case of the periodic Lame-Ince potential is 2-SUSY invariant. Both Bloch solutions of the corresponding Schroedinger equation equation are found for any value of the energy. A simple analytic expression for a family of two-gap potentials is derived.

Samsonov, B F; Negro, J; Nieto, L M

2003-01-01

112

Synthesis of finite displacements and displacements in continental margins  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of the project is the analysis of displacement-rate fields in the transitional regions between cratonal and oceanic lithospheres over Phanerozoic time (last 700 ma). Associated goals are an improved understanding of range of widths of major displacement zones; the partition of displacement gradients and rotations with position and depth in such zones; the temporal characteristics of such zones-the steadiness, episodicity, and duration of uniform versus nonunifrom fields; and the mechanisms and controls of the establishment and kinematics of displacement zones. The objective is to provide a context of time-averaged kinematics of displacement zones. The initial phase is divided topically among the methodology of measurement and reduction of displacements in the lithosphere and the preliminary analysis from geologic and other data of actual displacement histories from the Cordillera, Appalachians, and southern North America.

Speed, R. C.; Elison, M. W.; Heck, F. R.; Russo, R. M.

1988-01-01

113

Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

2008-12-01

114

Nonlinear Brownian motion - mean square displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stochastic dynamics of self-propelled Brownian particles is studied by means of the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck approach. We model the driving by a nonlinear friction function which has a negative part at small velocities, leading to active Brownian motion of the particles. The mean square displacement is estimated analytically and compared with numerical simulations.

W.Ebeling

2004-01-01

115

Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor with New Reflectivity Compensation Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a fiber optic displacement sensor with a new reflectivity compensation method is presented. The proposed compensation method is based on two light receiving channels with characteristic displacement sensitivities. The sensitivity characteristic for each channel is achieved by using fibers with different numerical apertures. The ratio of the intensity values of the two receiving channels is a function of the object displacement and fairly independ...

Ansgar Wego; Gundolf Geske

2013-01-01

116

Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska  

CERN Document Server

The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

2014-01-01

117

Variable displacement blower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blower having a stationary casing for rotatably supporting a rotor assembly having a series of open ended chambers arranged to close against the surrounding walls of the casing. Pistons are slidably mounted within each chamber with the center of rotation of the pistons being offset in regard to the center of rotation of the rotor assembly whereby the pistons reciprocate in the chambers as the rotor assembly turns. As inlet port communicates with the rotor assembly to deliver a working substance into the chamber as the pistons approach a top dead center position in the chamber while an outlet port also communicates with the rotor to exhaust the working substance as the pistons approach a bottom dead center position. The displacement of the blower is varied by adjusting the amount of eccentricity between the center of rotation of the pistons and the center of rotation of the rotor assembly.

Bookout, Charles C. (Niskayuna, NY); Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY); Waring, Douglass R. (Ballston Spa, NY); Folsom, Lawrence R. (Ohain, BE)

1986-01-01

118

Displacements, mean-squared displacements, and codisplacements for the calculation of nonequilibrium properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study two situations in which nonequilibrium phenomena can be efficiently calculated using displacements, mean-squared displacements, or codisplacements instead of accumulating velocities or currents. The flow velocity profile for a fluid confined within a pore can be expressed as a sum of displacements within slabs from a molecular dynamics trajectory. In this form, an accurate flow profile is obtained from very sparse sampling of the trajectory. We also recast the linear response theory expression for the flow velocity profile in terms of mean codisplacements and demonstrate that this provides an efficient route for estimating the Green-Kubo expression for the velocity profile. Finally, we calculate the ionic contribution to the frequency-dependent electric susceptibility using dipolar displacements, instead of the conventional current-current correlation function. We expect these methods to be useful for generating transport properties from stored trajectories in very large systems or systems where relaxation times are long. PMID:24791611

Agnihotri, Mithila V; Chen, Si-Han; Beck, Corey; Singer, Sherwin J

2014-07-17

119

Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

Nanying Shentu

2014-05-01

120

Truncation Effects of Shift Function Methods in Bulk Water Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A reduction of the cost for long-range interaction calculation is essential for large-scale molecular systems that contain a lot of point charges. Cutoff methods are often used to reduce the cost of long-range interaction calculations. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations can be accelerated by using cutoff methods; however, simple truncation or approximation of long-range interactions often offers serious defects for various systems. For example, thermodynamical properties of polar molecular systems are strongly affected by the treatment of the Coulombic interactions and may lead to unphysical results. To assess the truncation effect of some cutoff methods that are categorized as the shift function method, MD simulations for bulk water systems were performed. The results reflect two main factors, i.e., the treatment of cutoff boundary conditions and the presence/absence of the theoretical background for the long-range approximation.

Kazuaki Z. Takahashi

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Asymmetry in Reproductive Character Displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A commonly held view in studies of character displacement is that character states of both speciesare shifted in areas of sympatry. This view has been confirmed in an overwhelming number of cases for ecologicalcharacter displacement. Excluding species pairs in which one of the two interacting species is found onlywithin the distribution of the other species and species displaying gynogenesis, the pattern of reproductivecharacter displacement is asymmetrical in that the shift in character stat...

2008-01-01

122

Atomic displacements in multicomponent alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of computer simulation was used to analyze radiation induced atomic displacements in metallic substitutional solid solutions. The compound close to Fe-Ni-Cr stainless steel in composition was taken to demonstrate that in substitutional solid solutions the growth of threshold energy of atomic displacement (as compared to single-component materials) is observed for all crystallographic directions. The change of elementary cells with the interstitial atom being displaced is shown to be the prevailing mechanism of atomic displacement. Calculations of threshold energy values were accomplished for the following impurities: C, Mo, Si, B, Mn, S, P. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

1996-02-01

123

Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

2011-01-01

124

Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rmal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

1982-01-01

125

Dispossession and displacement in Libya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inability to access pre-displacement housing, land and property poses a significant obstacle to the achievement of durable solutions for most IDPs in Libya. Displacement and dispossession cannot be separated from the legacy of the Gaddafi era.

Rhodri C Williams

2012-06-01

126

Displacement effect in multicomponent chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of interference effects is of fundamental importance in understanding multicomponent chromatography. In this paper a displacement effect is examined and shown to be able to explain the dominating interference effects in three major modes of chromatography - frontal, elution, and displacement - involving competitive isotherms. It is concluded that the concentration profile of a component usually becomes sharper due to the displacement effect from another component, while the concentration front of the displacer is usually diffused. Five factors that escalate the displacement effect in multicomponent elution were investigated. A binary elution with a competing modifier in the mobile phase was also discussed. This study was carried out using computer simulations based on a general nonlinear multicomponent rate equation model that considers axial dispersion, external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion, and Langmuir isotherms. The use of the general model helps the visualization of the multicomponent interactions in chromatography under mass transfer conditions.

Gu, T.; Tsao, G.T.; Tsai, G.J.; Ladisch, M.R. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (US))

1991-08-01

127

Method for Measuring the Volume-Scattering Function of Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater affects visibility, remote sensing properties, in-water light propagation, lidar performance, and the like. Currently, it s possible to measure only small forward angles of VSF, or to use cumbersome, large, and non-autonomous systems. This innovation is a method of measuring the full range of VSF using a portable instrument. A single rapid-sensing photosensor is used to scan a green laser beam, which delivers the desired measurement. By using a single sensor, inter-calibration is avoided. A compact design is achieved by using drift-free detector electronics, fiber optics, and a new type of photomultiplier. This provides a high angular resolution of 1 or better, as well as the ability to focus in on a VSF region of particular interest. Currently, the total scattering of light is measured as a difference from the other two parts of the light budget equation. This innovation will allow the direct calculation of the total scattering of light by taking an integral of the VSF over all angles. This directly provides one of the three components of the light budget equation, allowing greater versatility in its calculation.

Agrawal, Yogesh C.

2009-01-01

128

Mathematic Model of Green Function with Two-Dimensional Free Water Surface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adopting complex number theory, a mathematic model of Green function is built for two dimension free water surface, and an analytic expression of Green function is obtained by introducing two parameters. The intrinsic properties of Green function are discussed on vertical line and horizontal line. At last, the derivation expression of Green function is obtained from the formula of Green function.

Sujing Jin

2013-07-01

129

Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi [Nihon Univ. Tokyo (Japan); Raggi, L. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

1996-12-31

130

Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

1983-01-01

131

Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle fractures is based on the notion of elevated intraarticular contact pressures with lateral displacement. To diagnose these injuries, we presumed that in patients with a fibular fracture with at least...

2010-01-01

132

OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

Ivanka Juttner

1997-12-01

133

Photosynthetic water oxidation : the function of two extrinsic proteins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solar energy accumulated by photosynthesis over billions of years is the sole source of energy available on Earth. Photosystem II (PSII) uses the sunlight to split water, an energetically unfavorable reaction where electrons and protons are extracted from water and oxygen is released as a by-product. Understanding this process is crucial for the future development of clean, renewable and unlimited energy sources, which can use sunlight to split water and produce hydrogen and electricity. ...

Shutova, Tatiana

2007-01-01

134

Crack embrittlement displacement fields  

Science.gov (United States)

When using precracked fracture toughness specimens to study liquid metal embrittlement is has been necessary to estimate the crack length and applied load as a function of time. These parameters are sometimes difficult to obtain and accuracy is often questionable. Further, these data provide the basis for calculating crack growth rate (d a/d t) as a function of applied stress intensity factor KI. This paper presents an approach based on use of moiré interferometry in conjunction with fracture toughness specimens and acoustic emission techniques to study liquid mercury amalgam embrittlement of 6061-T 6 aluminum. Moiré interferometry provides a unique method for obtaining KI, at the crack tip, without requiring knowledge of crack length and load. This paper describes the approach and provides an evaluation based on test results.

Epstein, J. S.; Reuter, W. G.; Keiser, D. D.

135

Interferometric calibration of a capacitance displacement sensor over short displacement ranges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capacitance displacement sensors, which are widely used to measure and control the extension of piezoelectric actuators, have to be calibrated, if they are to be used for measurement purposes. We have investigated the calibration of a capacitance displacement sensor for short displacement ranges of approximately 1 {mu}m. A linear function appears to be the most reasonable relationship of the sensor output voltage on the displacement as measured by an optical heterodyne interferometer. A complicated error structure introduced by the limited resolution and the polarization mixing of the interferometer, the phase offset between the capacitance sensor and the interferometer signal and the non-linearity of the capacitance sensor, does not lead to a significant dependence on the selected fitting procedure. However, the polarization mixing introduces a significant bias of the sensor's sensitivity. The reproducibility, the polarization mixing and the Abbe errors constitute the major contribution to the combined relative measurement uncertainty of the sensitivity to the capacitance displacement sensor of 0.078%. (orig.)

Koening, R.; Dixson, R.; Fu, J.; Vorburger, T.V. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Hsinchu (Taiwan); Peng, G.-S. [Center for Measurement Standards, ITRI, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2000-01-01

136

Clavicle fracture with intrathoracic displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clavicle fractures are common, and most are isolated injuries. Injury to the nearby subclavian vessels and brachial plexus have classically been described as potential complications of clavicle fractures. However, in the setting of a substantially displaced clavicle fracture, concomitant thoracic trauma is relatively frequent. Injury to the thorax can be difficult to identify on physical examination, and advanced imaging modalities may be required for diagnosis. The evaluation, workup, and management of a patient with intrathoracic displacement of a clavicle fracture are described. Despite the significant fracture displacement and associated pneumothorax, the injury severity was not clinically obvious. Imaging, including a screening chest radiograph and subsequent axial computed tomography, played an important role in diagnosis and management. The patient underwent successful open reduction and plate fixation. A thoracostomy tube was not required at any point during the hospitalization. The patient recovered uneventfully and returned to full work duty by 3 months postoperatively. Including the current report, only 3 cases of intrathoracic displacement of the clavicle have been published in the English literature. All involved fractures of the middle third of the clavicle. The severity of displacement was not obvious in any patient, and diagnosis was dependent on additional imaging. Given the frequency of associated chest trauma and limitations of physical examination, chest radiography should be considered in the evaluation of patients with substantially displaced clavicle fractures. PMID:23937761

Lohse, Grant R; Lee, Donald H

2013-08-01

137

Charge-displacement analysis for excited states  

Science.gov (United States)

We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

Ronca, Enrico; Pastore, Mariachiara; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Tarantelli, Francesco

2014-02-01

138

Charge-displacement analysis for excited states.  

Science.gov (United States)

We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place. PMID:24511925

Ronca, Enrico; Pastore, Mariachiara; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Tarantelli, Francesco

2014-02-01

139

Examples of oil cavitation erosion in positive displacement pumps  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of cavitation flow on piston type, positive displacement, hydraulic pumps are discussed. The operating principles of the pump and the components which are most subject to erosion effects are described. The mechanisms of cavitation phenomena are identified from photographic records. Curves are developed to show the solubility of air in water, oil-water emulsion, and industrial hydraulic oil.

Halat, J. A.; Ellis, G. O.

1974-01-01

140

Urea transporter UT3 functions as an efficient water channel. Direct evidence for a common water/urea pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

A family of molecular urea transporters (UTs) has been identified whose members appear to have an exceptionally high transport turnover rate. To test the hypothesis that urea transport involves passage through an aqueous channel, osmotic water permeability was measured in Xenopus oocytes expressing UTs. The UT3 class of urea transporters functioned as efficient water channels. Quantitative measurement of single channel water permeability (pf) using epitope-tagged rat UTs gave pf (in cm3/s x 10(-14)) of 0.14 +/- 0.11 (UT2) and 1.4 +/- 0.2 (UT3), compared with 6.0 and 2.3 for water channels AQP1 and AQP3, respectively. Relative single channel urea permeabilities (purea) were 1.0 (UT2), 0.44 (UT3), and 0.0 (AQP1). UT3-mediated water and urea transport were weakly temperature-dependent (activation energy 75% by the urea transport inhibitor 1,3-dimethylthiourea, but not inhibited by the water transport inhibitor HgCl2. To test for a common water/urea pore, the urea reflection coefficient (sigmaurea) was measured by independent induced osmosis and solvent drag methods. In UT3-expressing oocytes, the time course of oocyte volume in response to different urea gradients (induced osmosis) gave sigmaurea approximately 0.3 for the UT3 pathway, in agreement with sigmaurea determined by the increase in uptake of [14C]urea during osmotic gradient-induced oocyte swelling (solvent drag). In oocytes of comparable water and urea permeability coexpressing AQP1 (permeable to water, not urea) and UT2 (permeable to urea, not water), sigmaurea = 1. These results indicate that UT3 functions as a urea/water channel utilizing a common aqueous pathway. The water transporting function and low urea reflection coefficient of UT3 in vasa recta may be important for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent exchange in the kidney. PMID:9545259

Yang, B; Verkman, A S

1998-04-17

 
 
 
 
141

The Reconstruction of Functioning of the Water Supply System in Ferrari's Garden in Štanjel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The graduation thesis describes the reconstruction of functioning of the water supply system in Ferrari’s garden in Štanjel. The first part of thesis deals with methods and devices for detecting waterwork elements and losses on water supply systems. Further on are described different modes of functioning of devices and methods, interpretation of results and how was each method used at the water supply system reconstruction. The second part describes the course of reconstruction in fieldwor...

Andoljs?ek, Andrej

2006-01-01

142

Water quality and functioning of a microbiological community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept ''water quality'' defined by a complex of hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological processes, has become widespread in connection with intense anthropogenic pollution of water objects. Biological communities, utilizing compounds arriving from without, form the water quality. Models that take into account the multicomponent character of the substrates and the heterogeneous composition of the biomass permits solving more complex problems and as a result leads to an understanding of the mechanism of bilogical processes, according to the author of this article. In investigations, considerable attention is devoted to measuring the ratio of production to the biomass. A system of differential equations describing the growth of heterogeneous biomass under conditons of its renewal is examined. It is shown that processes of biological treatment, self-purification in rivers, and eutrophication of water bodies despite substantial differences have a common fundamental regularity. When these characteristics change, the composition of the biological community changes and accordingly the water quality also changes.

Vavilin, V.A.

1986-07-01

143

Displaced clavicle fractures in adolescents: facts, controversies, and current trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing trend toward stabilization and fixation of markedly displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adolescents. Recent studies in the adult literature have shown a greater prevalence of symptomatic malunion, nonunion, and poor functional outcomes after nonsurgical management of displaced fractures. Fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures can restore length and alignment, resulting in shorter time to union. Symptomatic malunion after significantly displaced fractures in adolescents may be more common than previously thought. Adolescents often have high functional demands, and their remodeling potential is limited. Knowledge of bone biology and the effects of shortening, angulation, and rotation on shoulder girdle mechanics is critical in decision making in order to increase the likelihood of optimal results at skeletal maturity. Selection of fixation is dependent on many factors, including fracture type, patient age, skeletal maturity, and surgeon comfort. PMID:22855852

Pandya, Nirav K; Namdari, Surena; Hosalkar, Harish S

2012-08-01

144

Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labe...

2012-01-01

145

Woody plant willow in function of river water protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavi? in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trep?a industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 ?g of lead, 20.09 ?g of cadmium and 22.89 ?g of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 ?g/dm3 of lead, 29.21 ?g/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 ?g/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals from the river water are 19.01 ?g of lead, 21.85 ?g of cadmium and 23.96 ?g of zinc in grams dry matter. The obtained results indicate that the willow can contribute to the decontamination of moderately contaminated river water from Pb, Cd and Zn.

Babincev Ljiljana M.

2011-01-01

146

Thermodynamic properties, gradients and functions for saturated steam and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tables presented in this report were produced to provide steam and water properties required in dynamic simulations of steam/water systems. In addition to the usual thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid and vapour at saturation, the tables provide certain partial derivatives of one thermodynamic property with respect to another, covering the pressure range from 0.1 to 22.0 MPa. Also tabulated are surface tension, acoustic velocities and isentropic expansion exponents for dry and wet saturated steam, shown only graphically, or not at all, in conventional steam tables. (author)

1977-01-01

147

Eddy-shape signature in Thorpe's displacement profiles : advances in characterization of turbulent overturns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection of inversions in density profiles is commonly used to find locations of vigorous mixing in the ocean. When turbulence, induced by shear or internal wave breaking, is strong enough to overturn the isopycnals, dense water masses can come upon less dense water, leading to an unstable configuration and to mixing. Thorpe (1977) has proposed to compute the local displacement of fluid parcels by adiabatically sorting the density profile, and the variance of this so-called Thorpe's displacement is used as an estimate of the size of turbulent eddies. Thorpe's displacement is also related, via the Ozmidov scale, to the turbulent eddy diffusity and the turbulent dissipation rate, using the formulas from Dillon (1982). Still, little is known about the precise scenario leading to the observed inversions. Thorpe (1977) suggests that internal wave breaking or Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities can produce inversions. We wanted to see if more information about the dynamics of the overturn could be retrieved from the displacement profile itself. When displayed as function of z, the displacement points d(z) reveals a characteristic zig-zag shape. The zig-zag itself consists of branches with different slopes. Using model-overturns, we show that the inner slope equals 1/2 for a half-turn solid body rotation, while a more sophisticated Rankine vortex overturn model, here employed on half a turn in the vertical, has slopes slightly larger then 1/2 in the interior and larger than 1 along the sides. Also, when the vortex advecttion is longer than half a turn, the Z shape splits itself in different subsets, but still with the same slopes as for a half-turn. In the case of a mixed layer, possibly observed after mixing has occured, displacement points fill a parallelogram with side-edges having a slope of 1. The models are used to interpret overturn shapes in NE-Atlantic Ocean data from moderately deep, turbulent waters above Rockall Bank (off Ireland) and from deep, weakly-stratified waters above Mount Josephine (off Portugal). Dynamically, most overturns are found to resemble the Rankine vortex model overturn and very few a solid body rotation. Thorpe, S. A. Turbulence and Mixing in a Scottish Loch Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions Series A, 1977, 286, 125-181 Dillon, T. M. Vertical Overturns: A Comparison of Thorpe and Ozmidov Length Scales J. Geophys. Res., AGU, 1982, 87, 9601-9613 H. van Haren and L. Gostiaux. Characterizing turbulent overturns in CTD-data. Submitted to Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans.

Gostiaux, Louis; van Haren, Hans

2014-05-01

148

Measurements of Scattering Function of sea water in Southern Baltic  

Science.gov (United States)

The Volume Scattering Functions (VSF) were measured in Southern Baltic area. The instrument used to this aim allow to measure in full range of angles and for four wavelengths. Obtained characteristics create the set of data which is need to solve the radiative transfer equation. Measured functions were compared with Petzold Average-Particle Phase Function. Spectral variations of measured scattering coefficients and backscattering coefficients are presented. Furthermore the instability of measured scattering ratios is discussed in this paper. Such instability have not been mentioned in the literature before.

Freda, W.; Król1, T.; Martynov, O. V.; Shybanov, E. B.; Hapter, R.

2007-05-01

149

Nomarski imaging interferometry to measure the displacement field of MEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose to use a Nomarski imaging interferometer to measure the out-of-plane displacement field of MEMS. It is shown that the measured optical phase arises both from height and slope gradients. Using four integrating buckets a more efficient approach to unwrap the measured phase is presented, thus making the method well suited for highly curved objects. Slope and height effects are then decoupled by expanding the displacement field on a functions basis, and the inverse tr...

Amiot, Fabien; Roger, Jean Paul

2006-01-01

150

Linear displacement measurement with a grating and speckle pattern illumination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a study of the variations of a speckle pattern passing through a grating that can be displaced. This study is described theoretically by a simple model based on the scalar diffraction theory in the Fresnel zone. The intensity correlation of the modified speckle as a function of the grating displacement is obtained and compared with experimental results.The possibilities of metrological applications in optical encoders are suggested

2006-07-10

151

Globally Optimal Displacement Fields Using Local Tensor Metric  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for regularizing displacement fields in image registration. The method uses the local structure tensor and gradients of the displacement field to impose a local metric, which is then used optimizing a global cost function. The method allows for linear operators, such as tensors and differential operators modeling the underlying physical anatomy of the human body in medical images. The algorithm is tested using output from the Morphon image registrat...

Johansson, Gustaf; Forsberg, Daniel; Knutsson, Hans

2012-01-01

152

Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ? The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ? High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior

2013-05-15

153

Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ? The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ? High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior.

Tripathi, Bijay P., E-mail: bijayptripathi@yahoo.com [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Dubey, Nidhi C. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Chemistry, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Stamm, M., E-mail: stamm@ipfdd.de [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Chemistry, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2013-05-15

154

Particle displacement tracking for PIV  

Science.gov (United States)

A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

Wernet, Mark P.

1990-01-01

155

Evaluation of Parametric Pedotransfer Functions for Estimating Soil Water Characteristic Curve in Fars Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil water characteristic curve shows the relationship between soil water content and matric suction, which has an important role in water movement in the soil. The measurement of this curve is expensive and time-consuming in laboratory; therefore, many methods have been proposed for its estimation including pedotransfer functions. By using the pedotransfer functions, soil water characteristic curve can be estimated based on other easily measured soil physicochemical properties. Parametric pedotransfer functions have been offered for parameters of the existing soil water characteristic curve models. In this study, 12 internal and external parametric pedotransfer functions of Brooks and Corey, Campbell and van Genuchten models were used and evaluated for 30 top soil samples in Fars province. To this end, the soil water characteristic curve and other necessary soil properties were measured, and then all soils according to the texture were divided into three groups of fine, medium and course textures. The results showed that the parametric pedotransfer functions of van Genuchten model were better than the other models, beacause of the better fit of this model to the measured data. Also, the results demonstrated that the parametric pedotransfer functions of Wosten et al. were the most appropriate method for estimating the soil water characteristic curve for the selected soils in Fars province, and that internal pedotransfer functions were not appropriate

H. R. Fooladmand

2012-03-01

156

Cost Structure of the Portuguese Water Industry: a Cubic Cost Function Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main scope of this paper is to confirm, or otherwise, the idea usually presented in national reports and strategic programmes for the water sector that the Portuguese water market is a natural monopoly. Based on a multi-product approach (considering the m3 of potable water delivered and wastewater collected as the outputs) we use a cubic functional specification to estimate water utilities cost function, and then to look for the presence of economies of scale and of scope. The estimated r...

Martins, Rita; Fortunato, Adelino; Coelho, Fernando

2006-01-01

157

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

2003-07-15

158

Displacement in a fragile Iraq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The post-Saddam Iraqi state enjoys only limited support fromthe population, excludes significant sections of its people frompower, suppresses the opposition and does not protect citizensfrom arbitrary arrests, and corruption is rampant. There is a directrelationship between these failures and displacement in Iraq.

Ali A K Ali

2013-05-01

159

Functionalized gold nanoparticles for the detection of arsenic in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold nanoparticles are attractive as sensing materials because of their size and shape are related with their optical properties. The color change produced by the aggregation of functionalized AuNPs allows the detection of arsenic at low levels. A simple, cheap and fast analytical procedure to perform arsenic determination using functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and VIS spectrometry as a detection technique is studied. Three different synthesis procedures to obtain the AuNPs and two different functionalization modes were studied. AuNPs functionalized with GSH-DTT-CYs-PDCA were selected as the most adequate. The correlation between the decrease in the absorbance signal and the arsenic concentration was good in the 2-20 µg l(-1)interval. Repeatability, expressed as average of RSD (%), obtained for the different arsenic concentrations studied was 0.6%. The average value of the analytical recovery was 99.7%. The detection and quantifications limits were 2.5 and 8.4 µg l(-1) respectively. These limits are sufficient to detect World Health Organization's guideline value of 10 µg l(-1). PMID:24274297

Domínguez-González, R; González Varela, L; Bermejo-Barrera, P

2014-01-01

160

Selective removal of copper (II) from natural waters by nanoporous sorbents functionalized with chelating diamines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Copper has been identified as a pollutant of concern by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of its widespread occurrence and toxic impact in the environment. Three nanoporous sorbents containing chelating diamine functionalities were evaluated for Cu2+ adsorption from natural waters -- ethylenediamine functionalized self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (EDA-SAMMS®), ethylenediamine functionalized activated carbon (AC-CH2-EDA), and 1,10-Phenanthroline functionalized ...

Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Shin, Yongsoon; Davidson, Joseph; Samuels, William D.; Lafemina, Nikki H.; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Yantasee, Wassana

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Adsorption of pesticides from water by functionalized organobentonites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Replacement of natural inorganic cations of clay minerals with organic cations has been proposed as a strategy to improve the adsorptive capacity of clay minerals for organic compounds, including pesticides. The organic cations most commonly used for this purpose have been quaternary ammonium ions containing alkyl or aryl chains without specific functional groups. In this work, we evaluated the ability of two bentonites (SWy-2 and SAz-1) exchanged with four natural organic cations containing diverse functional groups (L-carnitine, L-cysteine ethyl ester, L-cystine dimethyl ester, and thiamine) as adsorbents of pesticides varying in their chemical structures (simazine, hexazinone, triadimefon, alachlor, carbaryl, and imazethapyr). For comparison purposes, the adsorptive properties of two "classical" organobentonites, hexadecyltrimethylammonium- and phenyltrimethylammonium-exchanged bentonites, were also determined. Most organobentonites displayed higher affinity for the pesticides than the untreated bentonites, but the improvement in adsorption capacity varied depending on the characteristics of the pesticide and the interlayer organic cation. Triadimefon, carbaryl, and imazethapyr displayed the highest affinity for carnitine (K(f) = 229-2377)-, thiamine (K(f) = 83-354)-, and cystine (K(f) = 96-100)-treated bentonites, respectively, whereas alachlor was adsorbed similarly by all organobentonites. In general, pesticide adsorption-desorption hysteresis was greater for adsorbents with the highest adsorption capacities. The results demonstrate that selective modification of smectitic clay minerals with natural organic cations containing appropriate functional groups can be a useful strategy to improve their performance for the removal of specific pesticides from the environment. PMID:16159179

Cruz-Guzmán, Marta; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, M Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Cornejo, Juan

2005-09-21

162

Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis. PMID:24734643

Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

2014-05-01

163

Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

2009-01-01

164

Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of abrupt compression and gradual extension of the soil corresponding to periods of rainfall and evaporation respectively. ET estimates based on local, historic, pan evaporation data range from about 1 to 4 mm/da, and estimates of ET based on the Sand-X data track within 25% of these averages for the first half of 2012. Daily ET averages reveal periods of ET at double the monthly average during the rainy season consistent with the increased availability of soil water for evaporation. In addition to ET, the Sand-X is sensitive to changes in barometric pressure and infiltration of soil water. For example, diurnal barometric variations create a signal that is more than 10 times greater than the sensor resolution. We have developed a poroelastic model to characterize the effect of barometric loading. This analysis is used to remove the effect of barometric fluctuations and improve the resolution of hydrologic processes. Other applications for the instrument include characterizing the accumulation or removal of sediments, snow, ice, biomass, etc.

Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

2012-12-01

165

Residual value and production function approaches to valuation of irrigation water in sugar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of the study was to estimate non-market value of irrigation water as an input in sugar cane production in the Lowveld of Swaziland. This study used two independent approaches to non-market valuation, the residual value and production function approaches, to calculate the value that sugar cane farmers in the Lowveld region of Swaziland attach to irrigation water. The former estimated the average value of water, while the latter estimated the marginal value. Th...

Sacolo, Thabo Thandokuhle

2013-01-01

166

Relationship of dietary iodide and drinking water disinfectants to thyroid function in experimental animals.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of dietary iodide on the reported hypothyroid effect of drinking water disinfectants on thyroid function was investigated. Previous studies have also showed differences in the relative sensitivity of pigeons and rabbits to chlorinated water. Pigeons and rabbits were exposed for 3 months to diets containing high (950 ppb) or low (300 ppb) levels of iodide and to drinking water containing two levels of chlorine. Results showed that the high-iodide diet prevented the hypothyroid e...

Revis, N. W.; Mccauley, P.; Holdsworth, G.

1986-01-01

167

Radionuclide migration as a function of the quality of irrigation water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The depth migration of radionuclides (137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co) and their different chemical forms available as a function of the quality of the irrigation water were investigated in two types of soils. The notion of irrigation water quality should be introduced in order to assess the potential radioactive contamination of soils

1974-01-01

168

Integrated control and health monitoring capacitive displacement sensor development task. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a miniature multifunction turbomachinery shaft displacement sensor using state-of-the-art non-contract capacitive sensing technology is described. Axial displacement, radial displacement, and speed are sensed using a single probe within the envelope normally required for a single function. A survey of displacement sensing technology is summarized including inductive, capacitive, optical and ultrasonic techniques. The design and operation of an experimental triple function sensor is described. Test results are included showing calibration tests and simultaneous dynamic testing of multiple functions. Recommendations for design changes are made to improve low temperature performance, reliability, and for design of a flight type signal conditioning unit.

Collamore, Frank N.

1989-01-01

169

Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

170

Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and Spain, provide an excellent experimental network to study the water dynamics and community functioning in natural ecosystems of high ecological value. To fulfill the main objective, a stable isotope approach (leaf ?13C and xylem+water sources ?18O) was used as a tool to assess physiological performance and water strategies integrated in spatio-temporal water dynamics. Plant functional groups' water use was characterized in a water changing situation (at different seasons) in a climatic gradient. We evaluated stress sensitivity of the functional groups to seasonal changes in water availability in different communities and tried to understand their water use strategy.

Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

2014-05-01

171

Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

P. Bohmann

1997-09-01

172

Functional groups in North Chilean desert shrub species, based on the water sources used  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary productivity and vegetation structure in arid ecosystems are determined by water availability. In studies conducted in the coastal dry land of North Central Chile (29 degrees 43'S; 71degrees 14'0, 300m), the mechanisms to use different water sources by shrubs species, in two contrasting rainfall years were compared. Information on pheno logical studies, root architecture and water sources used by shrubs through the use of stable isotopes is are discussed. Six functional groups based on water uptake and water use are recognized. The functional groups were defined based on their habits (deciduous and evergreen), their root systems, (shallow, dimorphic and deep), and their ability to use different water sources (surficial and/or deep). Because of the differential impact of the goat overgrazing on different functional groups, this would result on a lower utilization of surficial waters. A management and/or restoration plan should maximize the use of all water sources available to recover the primary productivity and the system stability

1999-01-01

173

Point spread function of water slab and metal plate in portal imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The point spread functions (PSFs), which show the spread of signal in water slabs and metal plates (Al, Cu and W), were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. The parameters were the energy of monoenergetic incident photons (1?20 MeV), the slab thicknesses (10-30 cm for water slabs and 0.5-5 mm for metal plates), and the air gaps in case of water slabs (0-100 cm). The scatter-to-primary ratios of water slabs and the conversion factors of metal plates are calculated using the calculated results. (author)

2004-02-01

174

Design of Nafion actuator with enhanced displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

A new actuator system has been developed. This actuator uses Nafion, a solid electrolyte, in combination with Platinum Copper (Pt-Cu) electrodes and mobile ions of Cu2+ to create much larger actuation displacement at smaller levels of applied voltage (1V or less). This actuator provides bending deformation. Large deformation is provided by electrode reaction of copper. Since this reaction is reversible, Cu electrode is not consumed by using polarity change of applied voltage. This actuation mechanism is different from others. Because the induction of the large deflection of Nafion, the large number of the mobile cations is essential. Although it is possible to induce a large deflection by applying a higher electric field as alternative way, this would introduce the electrolysis of water that is not desired unless the device is always submerged in water. To convert bending deformation to liner actuation, we designed a device using a pair of Nafion actuator, which is termed as loop actuator. This loop actuator can be designed into the device with large force by making parallel array. Solid polymer electrolyte-metal composite actuator contains water inside. Therefore coating that prevents water from evaporation is needed for its use in dry condition.

Uchida, Mikio; Xu, Chunye; Le Guilly, Marie; Taya, Minoru

2002-07-01

175

Double Displacement: an Improved Bioorthogonal Reaction Strategy for Templated Nucleic Acid Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quenched autoligation probes have been employed previously in a target-templated nonenzymatic ligation strategy for detecting nucleic acids in cells by fluorescence. A common source of background signal in such probes is undesired reaction with water and other cellular nucleophiles. Here we describe a new class of self-ligating probes, double displacement (DD) probes, that rely on two displacement reactions to fully unquench a nearby fluorophore. Three potential double displacement architectu...

Kleinbaum, Daniel J.; Miller, Gregory P.; Kool, Eric T.

2010-01-01

176

A multi-decadal meridional displacement of the Subpolar Front in the Newfoundland Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Observations since the 1950s show a multi-decadal cycle of a meridional displacement of the Subpolar Front (SPF) in the Newfoundland Basin (NFB) in the North Atlantic. The SPF displacement is associated with corresponding variations in the path of the North Atlantic Current. We use the ocean general circulation model MPIOM with enhanced horizontal and vertical resolutions and forced with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to study the relation of the SPF displacement to Labrador Sea Water (LSW...

Nu?n?ez-riboni, I.; Bersch, M.; Haak, H.; Jungclaus, J. H.

2011-01-01

177

Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel filters and heavy-metal specific adsorption materials. Decentralised compact pressurised membrane biobooster (MBR), was able to remove up to 99.99% of the inlet Escherichia coli and 98.52% of total coliforms. E. coli was completely removed from irrigation water in 53% of the samples by the last MBR prototype version. In 2008, 100% of samples fulfilled WHO standards (1989) and Global Gap requirement for faecal contamination. MBR removed from inlet flow in the average 82% of arsenic, 82% of cadmium, 97% of chromium, 93% of copper and 99% of lead. Boron and manganese were not removed from permeate. The field treatment system (FTS) proved to be effective against faecal contamination when applied with its complete set up including UV treatment. The sole gravel filter and heavy metal removal device (HMR) cannot provide sufficient and steadily treatment for microbial contamination. Nevertheless, gravel filter can remove up to 60% of E. coli but the removal process was not stable nor predictable. FTS removed 76% of arsenic, 80% of cadmium and copper, 88% of chromium and lead, and up to 97% of zinc. Like the MBR, boron and manganese were not removed from the irrigation water. Gravel filter directly fed with secondary treated wastewater was found able to remove 41% of arsenic, 36% of cadmium and lead, 48% of chromium and 46% of copper. The residual heavy metals concentration after the gravel filter was further reduced by the HMR: 35% for arsenic, 22% for cadmium, 25% for chromium, 33% for copper and 53% for lead.

Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele

2010-01-01

178

Fixture for Linearly Variable Displacement Transducers  

Science.gov (United States)

Original point of interest on shear panel tracked throughout loading. Technique and fixture measure out-of-plane displacements on shear panel using linearly variable displacement transducers (LVDT's) while tracking original panel location. Technique adaptable to any size shear panel.

Farley, G. L.; Baker, D. J.

1985-01-01

179

State fragility, displacement and development interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development approach to displacement brings advantages notonly in addressing the needs of refugees, IDPs and host communitiesbut also in helping societies tackle the underlying aspects of fragility that may have caused the displacement.

Yonatan Araya

2013-05-01

180

International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Correlation of particle-induced displacement damage in silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of displacement damage caused in several types of silicon bipolar transistors by protons, deuterons, helium ions, and by 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons are considered. Measurements are compared to calculations of the nonionizing energy deposition in silicon as a function of particle type and energy. Measurements were made of displacement damage factors for 2N2222A and 2N2907A switching transistors, and for 2N3055, 2N6678, and 2N6547 power transistors, as a function of collector current using 3.7-175-MeV protons, 4.3-37-MeV deuterons, and 16.8-65-MeV helium ions. Long-term ionization effects on the value of the displacement damage factors were taken into account. In calculating the energy dependence of the nonionizing energy deposition, Rutherford, nuclear elastic, and nuclear inelastic interactions, and Lindhard energy partition were considered.

Summers, G. P.; Dale, C. J.; Burke, E. A.; Wolicki, E. A.; Marshall, P. W.

1987-12-01

182

Electromagnetic device of linear displacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced

1985-01-29

183

Comparison of implicit and explicit methods for interpreting displacement data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Johnson-Bossler-Naumann (JBN) and related methods for interpreting displacement experiments provide explicit, or pointwise, estimates of relative permeability that must be interpolated or smoothed when entire relative permeability functions are desired. In this paper, the authors compare relative permeability functions obtained with an implicit (regression-based) method with those estimated with explicit values. The authors show that the functions obtained with the regression-based method are most consistent with the measured data.

Richmond, Peyton C. (Bryan Res. and Engineering, Bryan, TX (US)); Watson, A.T. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA))

1990-08-01

184

Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

2013-12-01

185

Displacement damage in silicon carbide irradiated in fission reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors

2004-05-01

186

Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide Irradiated in Fission Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events1. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors

2004-01-01

187

Displacement damage in silicon carbide irradiated in fission reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors.

Heinisch, H.L. E-mail: hl.heinisch@pnl.gov; Greenwood, L.R.; Weber, W.J.; Williford, R.E

2004-05-01

188

Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide Irradiated in Fission Reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events1. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors.

Heinisch, Howard L.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Weber, William J.; Williford, Rick E.

2004-04-05

189

Morphology and functions of astrocytes cultured on water-repellent fractal tripalmitin surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the brain, astrocytes play an essential role with their multiple functions and sophisticated structure, as surrounded by a fractal environment which has not been available in our traditional cell culture. Water-repellent fractal tripalmitin (PPP) surfaces can imitate the fractal environment in vivo, so the morphology and biochemical characterization of astrocytes on these surfaces are examined. Water-repellent fractal PPP surface can induce astrocytes to display sophisticated morphology with smaller size of cell area, longer and finer filopodium-like processes, and higher morphological complexity. The super water-repellent fractal PPP surface with water contact angle of 150°?160° produces the maximal effects compared with other surfaces at lower water contact angles. The trends of characteristic protein expression, including that of nestin, vimentin, GFAP and glutamine synthetase, for astrocytes cultured on super water-repellent fractal PPP surfaces approximate more to in vivo pattern. The super water-repellent PPP surface also render astrocytes to perform more pronounced promotion of neurogenesis by increasing the release of nerve growth factor in a co-culture system. Altogether, our results suggest that the super water-repellent fractal PPP surface facilitates the astrocytes to mimic their in vivo performance, thus provides a closer-to-natural culture environment for experimental assessment of glial structure and functions. PMID:24894646

Hu, Wei-Wei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiangnan; Lei, Qun-Fang; Park, Hyun-Joo; Fang, Wen-Jun; Chen, Zhong

2014-08-01

190

Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC â?¥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log[-Ï?], where Ï? is the soil water matric potential in centimeters of H2O) plot, with linear increase in WR from the moisture content where WR first occurs during drying to the maximum WR at pFWR-max, and a linear decrease from pFWR-max until ambient air-dried conditions. The van Genuchten soil water retention model was used to convert WR-θ (where θ is the volumetric water content) to WR-pF. The TRWR model fitting parameters, slopes, and intercepts, were all highly correlated with SOC (R2 > 0.8). The TRWR model was tested against an independent data set for five soils with 2 to 12% SOC and predicted well the measured WR-θ and WR-pF relations. For high-SOC surface soils, the TRWR model seems promising to predict WR from fully wettable to ambient air-dried conditions, i.e., within the interval where WR-induced fingered water flow probably occurs. Finally, our data imply that clay saturation by SOC (quantified by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model was developed to predict the soil water repellency across the entire range of water content from air dryness to complete wetness.

Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per

2010-01-01

191

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

Farah, J.

1999-04-06

192

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

Farah, J.

1995-05-30

193

Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships.

Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

2014-01-01

194

Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits-productivity relationships. PMID:24967072

Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

2014-05-01

195

Effect of temperature on capillary displacement of oil by alkali solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of alkali concentration contained in a porous medium of clay and temperature on the direct-flow capillary displacement of oil during alkali flooding is revealed. It has been established for the first time that with an increase in alkali concentration in the water to a definite limit, capillary displacement of oil is improved, and then deteriorates, remaining the entire time greater as compared to distilled water. It is shown that regardless of the alkali concentration in the water, capillary displacement of oil by solutions is improved with an increase in temperature.

Tairov, N.D.; Baryakina, M.A.; Kerimova, F.G.; Vezirov, D. Sh.

1981-01-01

196

General copper-catalyzed transformations of functional groups from arylboronic acids in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and general copper-catalyzed method has been developed for transformations of various functional groups (-I, -N(3), -SO(2)R, -OH, -NH(2), and -NO(2)) on aromatic rings from arylboronic acids in water under air. The protocol uses cheap and readily available inorganic salts (KI, NaN(3), NaSO(2)R, NaOH, NaNO(2)) and aqueous ammonia as the functional-group sources, simple Cu(2)O/NH(3) as the catalyst system, environmentally friendly water as the solvent, and oxygen in air as the oxidant. Importantly, the copper catalyst system in water was recyclable. This study should provide a useful strategy for interconversions of the functional groups on aromatic rings. PMID:21480407

Yang, Haijun; Li, Yong; Jiang, Min; Wang, Junmei; Fu, Hua

2011-05-01

197

Glucosamine hydrochloride functionalized water-soluble conjugated polyfluorene: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel glucosamine hydrochloride functionalized water-soluble conjugated polyfluorene was easily synthesized through Cu(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne "click" ligation and Suzuki coupling polymerization. The water-solubility and biocompatibility of the polymer were improved after grafting glucosamine hydrochloride to the side chains of the conjugated polymer. As a fluorescent model system of chitosan, its interaction with single-stranded DNA was studied by spectrofluorometric titration. PMID:21638433

Chen, Qi; Cheng, Qian-Yi; Zhao, Yan-Chao; Han, Bao-Hang

2009-10-01

198

Flood Reduction Function of Paddy Rice Fields under Different Water Saving Irrigation Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is conducted to investigate the function of paddy fields for flood reduction under different water saving irrigation techniques. A daily water balance component data including rainfall, percolation, and overflow through the paddy field levee were collected from experimental paddy rice fields during rainy season cultivation. Results show that paddy field was very effective in flood reduction. More than 40% of rainfall could be stored in the paddy fields. However, the effectiveness o...

Joko Sujono

2010-01-01

199

International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

2009-01-01

200

Nonlinear programming using an expanded Lagrangian function : a water resources management case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A special form of potential function called the Expanded Lagrangian Function was combined with the trust region algorithm to solve large-scale optimization problems regarding water resource management at large hydro-power plants. The proposed algorithm can be used to determine a feasible descent direction using a linear combination of an inexact Newton`s direction and a steepest descent direction. A bi-dimensional trust region scheme is used to obtain fast convergence. The proposed method was successfully tested on real data from the Great Lakes water resources problem.

Sadjadi, S.J.

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
201

Low-frequency dynamics of water absorbed in Nafion membranes as a function of the temperature.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We performed a neutron scattering study to investigate the dynamical behavior of water absorbed in Nafion at low hydration level (?=6, ? = moles of water/moles of sulfonic acid sites) as a function of temperature in the range 200K-300K. To single out the signal of the confined water the measurements were done on samples hydrated with both H2O and D2O in the same temperature range. Due to the strong incoherent scattering cross section of hydrogen atoms with respect to deu...

2007-01-01

202

q-exponential distribution in time correlation function of water hydrogen bonds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a series of molecular dynamics simulations we analyzed structural and dynamics properties of water at different temperatures (213 K to 360 K), using the Simple Point Charge-Extended (SPC/E) water. We detected a q-exponential behavior in the history-dependent bond correlation function of hydrogen [...] bonds. We found that q increases with T -1 below approximately 300 K and is correlated to the increase of the tetrahedral structure of water and the subdiffusive motion of the molecules.

M. G., Campo; G. L., Ferri; G. B., Roston.

203

QSPR with TAU Indices: Water Solubility of Diverse Functional Acyclic Compounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topochemically arrived unique (TAU scheme, developed in valence electron mobile (VEM environment, is unique in that it unravels specific contributions of functionality, branching, shape and size factors to the physicochemical property or biological activity while most other indices give mainly a global contribution of the molecule. QSPR/QSAR studies with TAU indices on different physicochemical properties/biological activities of diverse functional compounds will explore the usefulness of TAU indices in modeling studies. The present communication attempts to correlate water solubility, ln S, of 193 diverse functional acyclic compounds with different TAU indices, namely T, TR, F, B, NV, NP, NI, NX, and NY. Sometimes, TAU relations have been improved further upon inclusion of suitable indicator or integer variables. The statistical quality of the QSPR model has been judged by statistical parameters such as predicted variance Q2, explained variance Ra2, correlation coefficient R, and variance ratio F. This study shows that TAU indices, along with appropriate indicator variables, can predict up to 91.4% and explain 91.9% of the variance of water solubility. The relations can unravel specific contributions of molecular bulk (size, functionality, branching and shape parameters to the water solubility of diverse functional compounds. In general, water solubility increases with increase in functionality and branching, and decreases with increase in molecular bulk. Further, halocarbons and hydrocarbons specifically show reduced water solubility. Some of the hydrocarbons and halogen compounds act as outliers. The TAU index is an important tool in exploring structure-property relationships in view of its potential to unravel specific contributions of different structural parameters like molecular bulk, shape factors, branching, functionality and carbon skeletal structure.

Kunal Roy

2003-07-01

204

Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries  

Science.gov (United States)

Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined.

Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

2012-01-01

205

Steering of H{sup -} ion beamlet by aperture displacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focussing of multibeamlets produced from a large accelerator grid is a key issue of ion beam application to the neutral beam injector (NBI) of fusion devices. Another issue is highlighted in a case of negative ion based NBI to compensate beamlet deflection inside the extractor, where magnetic field is applied for suppression of electron extraction. Steering of H{sup -} beamlet was carried out by displacing apertures in an electrostatic extractor/accelerator composed of four grids, where the beam energy was in the range of {approx}50 keV. Out of a few combination of grid displacement, displacement of ESG (3rd grid) and/or GRG (4th grid) was found to be successful: (1) The beamlet steering angle of 50 mrad was obtained by displacing the apertures of 9 mm dia. up to 3 mm. It was confirmed that the steering angle was proportional fairly well to the displacement. The characteristic of the steering, i.e., the steering angle as a function of displacement, agrees well with the analysis based on the linear optics theory. (2) Neither significant divergence growth nor the beam interception were observed in the steered beams over a wide range of operation. The H{sup -} beams, of which divergent angle was 5 mrad, was obtained even under the beamlet steering. Thus the steering by displacement is suitable for the focusing of negative ion beam generated from multi-aperture grids. (3) It was found that the steering angle was independent of the magnetic field direction in the present extractor structure. This is an advantage of the steering technique for compensation of the beam deflection inside the extractor by magnetic field. (author)

Inoue, Takashi; Miyamoto, Kenji; Okumura, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Suzuki, Yasuo [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-09-01

206

Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

2010-10-10

207

Effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis) growth and functional quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extreme shifts in water availability linked to global climate change are impacting crops worldwide. The present study examines the direct and interactive effects of water availability and pest pressures on tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae) growth and functional quality. Manipulative greenhouse experiments were used to measure the effects of variable water availability and pest pressures simulated by jasmonic acid (JA) on tea leaf growth and secondary metabolites that determine tea quality. Water treatments were simulated to replicate ideal tea growing conditions and extreme precipitation events in tropical southwestern China, a major centre of tea production. Results show that higher water availability and JA significantly increased the growth of new leaves while their interactive effect was not significant. The effect of water availability and JA on tea quality varied with individual secondary metabolites. Higher water availability significantly increased total methylxanthine concentrations of tea leaves but there was no significant effect of JA treatments or the interaction of water and JA. Water availability, JA treatments or their interactive effects had no effect on the concentrations of epigallocatechin 3-gallate. In contrast, increased water availability resulted in significantly lower concentrations of epicatechin 3-gallate but the effect of JA and the interactive effects of water and JA were not significant. Lastly, higher water availability resulted in significantly higher total phenolic concentrations but there was no significant impact of JA and their interaction. These findings point to the fascinating dynamics of climate change effects on tea plants with offsetting interactions between precipitation and pest pressures within agro-ecosystems, and the need for future climate studies to examine interactive biotic and abiotic effects. PMID:24790117

Ahmed, Selena; Orians, Colin M; Griffin, Timothy S; Buckley, Sarabeth; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Stratton, Anne Elise; Stepp, John Richard; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Kennelly, Edward J

2014-01-01

208

Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

1999-03-29

209

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

HOFMAYER,C.H.

1999-03-29

210

Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

Connell, John W. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (inventor)

1995-01-01

211

Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

2001-01-01

212

Phytoplankton functional groups and harmful algae species in anthropogenically impacted waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phytoplankton assemblages were analysed by multivariate analysis techniques in highly modified waterbodies (harbours) of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea over an annual cycle. The phytoplankton functional groups that characterise these anthropogenically impacted waters were identified and related to HAB events. Four functional groups can be distinguished from the analysis: (1) bloom-forming dinoflagellates, (2) winter diatoms, (3) summer-autumn diatoms, and (4) large dinoflagellates and elo...

Vila, Magda; Maso?, Mercedes

2005-01-01

213

Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins  

CERN Document Server

We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R

2013-01-01

214

General Displaced SU (1,1) number states-revisited  

CERN Multimedia

The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation(IREP) of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated to the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder- Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the...

Dehghani, A

2014-01-01

215

Laboratory imaging of stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to physically investigate the processes governing stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures. Experiments were performed on two scales: meter-scale in a 1500 cm{sup 2} sand pack and core-scale in a 65 cm{sup 2} API linear conductivity cell. High-resolution light transmission imaging was employed at the meter-scale to visualize and quantify processes governing fluid displacement. For comparison, complimentary tests were performed using an API conductivity cell under ambient test conditions and at elevated closure stress. In these experiments viscous fingering and gravity drainage were identified as the dominant processes governing fluid displacement. Fluid viscosity was found to dictate the relative importance of the competing displacement processes and ultimately determine the residual liquid saturation of the sand pack. The process by which fluid displacement occurs was seen to effect the shape of both the gas and liquid phase relative permeability functions. Knowledge of such viscosity/relative permeability relationships may prove useful in bounding predictions of post-stimulation recovery of gels from the fracture pack.

Tidwell, V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, M. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

216

Water on TiO2 studied by work function change: adsorption in cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of water adsorption on TiO2(110) rutile surface attracts a lot of attention for quite some time. In spite of the considerable experimental and theoretical efforts a lot of details remain unclear. We have been using work function study to follow the adsorption of water on TiO2 at room temperature, and interpreted the results in terms of fast dissociative adsorption on bridging oxygen vacancies (BOV) and much slower non-dissociative adsorption on Ti5f rows. Additionally, we concluded that water from Ti5f rows efficiently desorbs at room temperature which is not the case for BOV adsorption sites. Here we propose a novel experimental approach which consists of monitoring in real-time the work function change during cycles of water adsorption. Since desorption at BOVs does not take place at room temperature, this method allows us to resolve the adsorption dynamics on the two adsorption sites. The first results changed our understanding of the phenomenon: we show that both, adsorption on BOVs and Ti5f are both very fast. Additionally, slow exponential decay of the work function is observed, which is not directly related to water adsorption. The possible explanation of the third slow contribution could be related to the migration of hydrogen atoms along the bridging oxygen rows.

2013-03-01

217

Who's hot and who's not: ocean warming alters species dominance through competitive displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Species interactions have received little attention in climate-change studies, yet these interactions are fundamental to the functioning of ecosystems. Milazzo et al. (2013) combined field surveys and controlled experiments to show how increasing abundance of a range-extending species and ocean warming interactively affect the habitat occupancy of two co-occurring species with similar habitat preferences. The authors found that in warmer conditions the 'cool-water' species is competitively displaced from preferred algal habitat to sub-optimal seagrass habitat, but only at higher densities of the warm-water species. Their results provide an important first step for unravelling how simple species interactions can create novel communities. PMID:24438456

Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

2013-03-01

218

CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle Function Gayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan4 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

219

Molecular Density Functional Theory of Water describing Hydrophobicity at Short and Long Length Scales  

CERN Document Server

We present an extension of our recently introduced molecular density functional theory of water [G. Jeanmairet et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 619, 2013] to the solvation of hydrophobic solutes of various sizes, going from angstroms to nanometers. The theory is based on the quadratic expansion of the excess free energy in terms of two classical density fields, the particle density and the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input a molecular model of water and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities. The fine three-dimensional water structure around small hydrophobic molecules is found to be well reproduced. In contrast the computed solvation free-energies appear overestimated and do not exhibit the correct qualitative behavior when the hydrophobic solute is grown in size. These shortcomings are corrected, in the spirit of the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory, by complementing the functional ...

Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Borgis, Daniel

2013-01-01

220

Eulerian calculus for the displacement convexity in the Wasserstein distance  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we give a new proof of the (strong) displacement convexity of a class of integral functionals defined on a compact Riemannian manifold satisfying a lower Ricci curvature bound. Our approach does not rely on existence and regularity results for optimal transport maps on Riemannian manifolds, but it is based on the Eulerian point of view recently introduced by Otto-Westdickenberg and on the metric characterization of the gradient flows generated by the functionals in the Wasserstein space.

Daneri, Sara

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A Metal-free, Three-component Manifold for the C2-Functionalization of 1-Substituted Imidazoles Operating "On Water"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A metal-free, three-component process for the C2-functionalization of N-alkylated imidazoles is reported The multicomponent manifold operates under ‘on water' conditions through the formation of a water-stable (permanent) nucleophilic imidazole carbene (imidazolium ylide). Whereas the incorporated vinyl ether functionality is a convenient handle for further chemical manipulation of the functionalized heterocycle (complexity generation), the use of water as the reaction media gives it a bonu...

Cruz-acosta, Fabio; Armas, Pedro; Garci?a-tellado, Fernando

2010-01-01

222

Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

2007-07-01

223

Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1) random spreading (PN), (2) multiple-OCDMA (MO), and (3) PN/OCDMA (PN/O). For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement) and improved (with displacement) systems, as well as for systems based ...

2004-01-01

224

Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1) random spreading (PN), (2) multiple-OCDMA (MO), and (3) PN/OCDMA (PN/O). For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement) and improved (with displacement) systems, as well as for systems b...

2004-01-01

225

Permeability anisotropy induced by a shear displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The permeability anisotropy that results from a shear displacement 'u' between the complementary self-affine walls of a rough fracture is investigated. Experiments in which a dyed fluid displaces a transparent one as it is radially injected into a transparent fracture exhibit a clear anisotropy in the presence of shear displacements, and allow us to estimate the ratio of the permeabilities for flows parallel and perpendicular to 'u'. A simple model which accounts for the dev...

Auradou, H.; Drazer, G.; Hulin, J. P.; Koplik, J.

2004-01-01

226

Fabrication of amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles for water treatment processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by a one pot water based process using N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine (TRIS) as surfactant. The prepared functionalised nanoparticles are characterised by BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, zeta potential measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The results clearly show the presence of TRIS on the surface of the nanoparticles. XPS analysis indicates the presence of very small amounts of maghemite on the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles. Water treatment test shows that the prepared nanoparticles are capable to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from natural water samples. The removal of NOM by the prepared particles is characterized by analysing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) after the treatment of the water samples at various doses and treatment times.

2012-03-01

227

Fabrication of amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles for water treatment processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by a one pot water based process using N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine (TRIS) as surfactant. The prepared functionalised nanoparticles are characterised by BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, zeta potential measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The results clearly show the presence of TRIS on the surface of the nanoparticles. XPS analysis indicates the presence of very small amounts of maghemite on the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles. Water treatment test shows that the prepared nanoparticles are capable to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from natural water samples. The removal of NOM by the prepared particles is characterized by analysing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV{sub 254}) after the treatment of the water samples at various doses and treatment times.

Chan, Candace C. P. [University of South Australia, Ian Wark Research Institute (Australia); Gallard, Herve [Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau (LCME)-UMR CNRS 6008 (France); Majewski, Peter, E-mail: peter.majewski@unisa.edu.au [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering (Australia)

2012-03-15

228

Pressure effects on the reduced partition function ratio for hydrogen isotopes in water  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a simple, yet accurate theoretical method for calculating the reduced isotope partition function ratio (RIPFR) for hydrogen of water at elevated pressures. This approach requires only accurate equations of state (EOS) for pure isotopic end-members (H 2O and D 2O), which are available in the literature. The effect of pressure or density on the RIPFR of water was calculated relative to that of ideal-gas water at infinitely low pressure for the temperature range from 0 to 527 °C. For gaseous and low-pressure (ca. ?15 MPa) supercritical phases of water, the RIPFR increases slightly (1-1.3‰) with pressure or density in a fashion similar to those of many other geologic materials. However, in liquid and high-pressure (>20 MPa) supercritical phases, the RIPFR of water decreases (0.5-6‰) with increasing pressure (or density) to 100 MPa. This rather unique phenomenon is ascribed to the inverse molar volume isotope effects (MVIE) of liquid and high-density supercritical waters, V (D 2O) > V (H 2O), while other substances including minerals show the normal MVIE. These theoretical predictions were experimentally confirmed by Horita et al. [Horita, J., Cole, D.R., Polyakov, V.B., Driesner, T., 2002. Experimental and theoretical study of pressure effects on hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system brucite-water at elevated temperatures. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta66, 3769 - 3788.] for the system brucite-water. Although the P-T ranges for the EOS of normal and heavy waters are rather limited, our modeling indicates that the RIPFR of water continues to decrease with pressure above 100 MPa. The method developed here can be applied to any other geologic fluids, if accurate EOS for their isotopic end-members is available. These results have important implications for the interpretation of high-pressure isotopic partitioning in the Earth, the outer planets, and their moons.

Polyakov, V. B.; Horita, J.; Cole, D. R.

2006-04-01

229

Density-modified displacement for dense nonaqueous-phase liquid source-zone remediation: density conversion using a partitioning alcohol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entrapped and pooled dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) often persist in aquifers and serve as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. To address the problematic nature of DNAPL remediation, a surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) technology, density-modified displacement (DMD), has been developed which significantly reduces the risk of downward migration of displaced DNAPLs. The DMD method is designed to accomplish DNAPL density conversion through the introduction of a partitioning alcohol, n-butanol (BuOH), in a predisplacement flood using conventional horizontal flushing schemes. Subsequent displacement and recovery of the resulting LNAPL is achieved by flushing with a low-interfacial tension surfactant solution. The objective of this study was to investigate density conversion of two representative DNAPLs, chlorobenzene (CB) and trichloroethene (TCE). A series of batch experiments was performed to assess changes in NAPL composition, density, and phase behavior as a function of BuOH mole fraction. Experimental results were used to develop contaminant/BuOH/water ternary phase diagrams and to elucidate regions of contrasting NAPL density. UNIQUAC calculations are presented to support measured compositional and phase behavior data. Density conversion of CB and TCE, relative to water, occurred at NAPL BuOH mole fractions of 0.38 and 0.50, respectively. Significant incorporation of water into the organic phase was observed at relatively high BuOH mole fractions and was shown to limit changes in NAPL composition and density. Interfacial tensions between CB-NAPL and TCE-NAPL and a 6% (by wt) BuOH aqueous solution were found to decrease with increasing NAPL BuOH mole fraction, although in both cases the measured values remained above 2.5 dyn/cm. Total trapping number calculations suggest that, in most aquifer formations, density conversion can be achieved without premature NAPL displacement using a 6% (by wt) BuOH aqueous solution. PMID:12026997

Ramsburg, C Andrew; Pennell, Kurt D

2002-05-01

230

Removal of metals from aqueous solution and sea water by functionalized graphite nanoplatelets based electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present wok, we have demonstrated the simultaneous removal of sodium and arsenic (pentavalent and trivalent) from aqueous solution using functionalized graphite nanoplatelets (f-GNP) based electrodes. In addition, these electrodes based water filter was used for multiple metals removal from sea water. Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by acid intercalation and thermal exfoliation. Functionalization of GNP was done by further acid treatment. Material was characterized by different characterization techniques. Performance of supercapacitor based water filter was analyzed for the removal of high concentration of arsenic (trivalent and pentavalent) and sodium as well as for desalination of sea water, using cyclic voltametry (CV) and inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic characteristics were studied for the simultaneous removal of sodium and arsenic (both trivalent and pentavalent). Maximum adsorption capacities of 27, 29 and 32 mg/g for arsenate, arsenite and sodium were achieved in addition to good removal efficiency for sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium from sea water. PMID:20933328

Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Ramaprabhu, S

2011-01-15

231

The Planck-Benzinger thermal work function in the condensation of water vapor  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the Planck-Benzinger thermal work function using Chun's method, the innate temperature-invariant enthalpy at 0 K, ?H0(T0), for the condensation of water vapor as well as the dimer, trimer, tetramer, and pentamer form in the vapor phase, was determined to be 0.447 kcal mol-1 for vapor, 1.127 for the dimer, 0.555 for the trimer, 0.236 for the tetramer, and 0.079 kcal mol-1 for the pentamer using ?G(T) data reported by Kell et al. in 1968 and Kell and McLaurin in 1969. These results suggest that the predominant dimeric form is the most stable of these n-mers. Using Nemethy and Scheraga's 1962 data for the Helmholtz free energy of liquid water, the value of ?H0(T0) was determined to be 1.21 kcal mol-1. This is very close to the value for the energy of the hydrogen bond EH of 1.32 kcal mol-1 reported by Nemethy and Scheraga, using statistical thermodynamics. It seems clear that very little energy is required for interconversion between the hypothetical supercooled water vapor and glassy water at 0 K. A hypothetical supercooled water vapor at 0 K is apparently almost as highly associated as glassy water at that temperature, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium between vapor and liquid. This water vapor condensation is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of sequence-specific pairwise (dipeptide) hydrophobic interaction, except that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at ?Ts?, the thermal setpoint for vapor condensation, where T?S = 0, occurs at a considerably lower temperature, 270 K (below 0°C) compared with ?350 K. The temperature of condensation ?Tcond? at which ?G(T) = 0, where water vapor begins to condense, was found to be 383 K. In the case of a sequence-specific pairwise hydrophobic interaction, the melting temperature, ?Tm?, where ?G(Tm) = 0 was found to be 460 K. Only between two temperature limits, ?Th? = 99 K and ?Tcond? = 383 K, where ?G(Tcond) = 0, is the net chemical driving force favorable for polymorphism of glassy water and hypothetical supercooled water vapor. Analysis of the water vapor condensation process based on the Planck-Benzinger thermal work function confirms that a thermodynamic molecular switch occurs at 10 K, wherein a change of sign in [?Cp(T)]cond leads to a true negative minimum in the Gibbs free energy of vapor condensation, and hence a maximum in the related equilibrium constant, Kcond.

Chun, Paul W.

232

Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.

F. Duan

2000-04-25

233

Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10-5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

2000-01-01

234

Artificial photosynthesis - functional devices for light driven water splitting with photoactive anodes based on molecular catalysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoactive anodes consisting of Ru(bpy)3 type photosensitizer and molecular catalysts and on nanostructured TiO2 have been assembled in functional devices for successful light driven water splitting. From their performance measurements we found that the photoanode TiO2( + ) in which the molecular ruthenium catalyst and the phosphonate anchoring group are linked by a flexible -CH2CH2CH2- chain showed a significantly higher photocurrent density than the photoanode TiO2( + ) with only -CH2- linkage. The possible reasons for the different water splitting performance of otherwise identical devices are discussed. PMID:24658163

Gao, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Ding, Xin; Sun, Licheng

2014-05-28

235

Multi-functional manipulations of microobjects based on electrolysis of water  

Science.gov (United States)

The micromanipulation technology still faces some challenges. Direct rotary step-driving of a microobject has not been realized by physical means. The implementation of 3-D attitude adjustment of a microobject usually involves a complicated driving and controlling system. The capability and controllability of releasing sticky microobjects from a probe is still limited. In this paper, we demonstrate a strategy to use hydrogen bubbles generated by electrolysis of water to manipulate microobjects in water on a substrate surface. Manipulation functions implemented by this strategy include direct rotary step-driving and attitude adjustment of a single microparticle, and controlled release of a single sticky microparticle.

Li, Ning; Hu, Junhui

2013-09-01

236

Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

2012-10-15

237

Analysis of Stresses and Displacements Around Underground Excavations: An Application of the Displacement Discontinuity Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the displacement continuity method for solving certain problems in solid mechanics. It is based on the analytic solution to the problem of a constant displacement discontinuity, or dislocation, over a finite line segment in an elasti...

S. L. Crouch

1976-01-01

238

Use of InSAR to identify land-surface displacements caused by aquifer-system compaction in the Paso Robles area, San Luis Obispo County, California, March to August 1997  

Science.gov (United States)

The population in San Luis Obispo County has grown steadily during the 1990s, and some land use has been converted from dry farming to grazing to irrigated vineyards and urban areas. Because insufficient surface-water supplies are available to meet the growing demand, ground-water pumpage has increased and the resulting water-level declines have raised concern that this water resource may become overstressed. One particular concern is whether the larger ground-water basins within the county function as large individual basins or whether subsurface structures divide these large basins into smaller subbasins, as differences in ground-water-level data suggest. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is used in locating land-surface displacement, which may indicate subsurface structures in ground-water basins by determining seasonal and historical land-surface changes. Owing to the high spatial detail of InSAR imagery, the InSAR-derived displacement maps can be used with ground-water-level data to reveal differential aquifer-system compaction related to the presence of geological structures or the distribution of compressible sediments that may define subbasin boundaries. This report describes InSAR displacement maps of the Paso Robles area of San Luis Obispo County and compares them to maps of seasonal changes in ground-water levels to detect the presence of aquifer-system compaction.

Valentine, David W.; Densmore, Jill N.; Galloway, Devin L.; Amelung, Falk

2001-01-01

239

Displacement of Monolithic Rubble-Mound Breakwater Crown-Walls  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper evaluates the validity of a simple one-dimensional dynamic analysis as well as a Finite-Element model to determine the sliding of a rubble-mound breakwater crown-wall. The evaluation is based on a case example with real wave load time-series and displacements measured from two-dimensional physical model tests. The outcome is a more reliable evaluation of the applicability of simple dynamic calculations for the estimation of displacement of rubble-mound superstructures. The case example clearly demonstrates that a simplified one-dimensional sliding model provides a safe estimate of the accumulated sliding distance of crown-wall superstructures, which is in contrast to findings from previous similar studies on caisson breakwaters. The calculated sliding distance is approximately three times larger than the measured one when using the original one-dimensional model suggested in previous studies on caisson breakwaters, but correction terms are suggested in the present paper to obtain almost equal measured and estimated displacements. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble-mound crown-walls are subjected to increasing wave loads due to rising sea water level from climate changes. Reliable and safe estimates are needed to determine whether displacements of crown wall superstructures during extreme situations would be acceptable or whether they lead to total failure of the structures.

Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

2012-01-01

240

What Can Density Functional Theory Tell Us about Artificial Catalytic Water Splitting?  

Science.gov (United States)

Water splitting by artificial catalysts is a critical process in the production of hydrogen gas as an alternative fuel. In this paper, we examine the essential role of theoretical calculations, with particular focus on density functional theory (DFT), in understanding the water-splitting reaction on these catalysts. First, we present an overview of DFT thermochemical calculations on water-splitting catalysts, addressing how these calculations are adapted to condensed phases and room temperature. We show how DFT-derived chemical descriptors of reactivity can be surprisingly good estimators for reactive trends in water-splitting catalysts. Using this concept, we recover trends for bulk catalysts using simple model complexes for at least the first-row transition-metal oxides. Then, using the CoPi cobalt oxide catalyst as a case study, we examine the usefulness of simulation for predicting the kinetics of water splitting. We demonstrate that the appropriate treatment of solvent effects is critical for computing accurate redox potentials with DFT, which, in turn, determine the rate-limiting steps and electrochemical overpotentials. Finally, we examine the ability of DFT to predict mechanism, using ruthenium complexes as a focal point for discussion. Our discussion is intended to provide an overview of the current strengths and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art DFT methodologies for condensed-phase molecular simulation involving transition metals and also to guide future experiments and computations toward the understanding and development of novel water-splitting catalysts. PMID:24694041

Mavros, Michael G; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Kowalczyk, Tim; McIsaac, Alexandra; Wang, Lee-Ping; Voorhis, Troy Van

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent

1975-09-05

242

Analysis by radiochemical displacement: determination of EDTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new radiochemical displacement method was developed for the determination of EDTA. The displacement of labelled zinc from Zn:PAN complex by EDTA at pH 5.5 in borate buffers can be conveniently utilized for the determination of 50-150 ?g of EDTA. Effects of diverse ions on the determination were also tested. (author)

1987-02-16

243

Surface displacement of a neutron on reflection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that on reflection of a neutron, for example, from a vacuum-medium boundary, a surface displacement of the neutron should be observed. An analytical expression for the surface displacement is obtained. The reflection of ultracold neutrons from walls during storage in closed vessels is discussed.

Seregin, A.A.

1981-05-01

244

Determination of palladium by radiochemical displacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of determination of microgram quantities of palladium by radiochemical displacement of labelled Zn from Zn: 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol complex was explored. Conditions for quantitative displacement, a calibration in the range of 40-140 ?g of palladium and the effects of diverse ions are reported. (author)

1987-04-01

245

[Removal of chrysoidine from water by functionalized mesoporous material SBA-16].  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of functionalized SBA-16 were synthesized and subsequently oxidized into sulfonic functionalized mesoporous silica mixing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (TMMPS), with triblock copolymers pluronic (F127) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMABr) served as the mixing template by combination of hydrothermal and co-condensation method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption and SEM. The results show that the resulting functional materials belong to mesoporous materials when n(TEOS): n(TMMPS) is 3-8. The removal of Chrysoidine from water reaches the highest by functionalized mesoporous material when n(TEOS): n(TMMPS) is 7. Compared with different pH values, when the pH value ranges from 4-5 the adsorption reaches the highest. PMID:20698269

Wei, Shi-Hui; He, Yan; Li, Feng-Ting; Xu, Ran

2010-06-01

246

[Functional characteristics of bacterioplankton with reference to its aggregation in water bodies of different types].  

Science.gov (United States)

The functional characteristics of bacterioplankton have been studied with reference to its aggregation in water bodies of different types. Several methods were used for calculation of the total numbers of bacteria and proportion of aggregated cells. Analysis of the experimental data has shown a relationship between the functional characteristics of bacterioplankton, such as bacterial production, destruction of organic matter, and energy coefficient, and the proportion of aggregated bacteria. It has been shown that as this proportion increases, the production per cell and energy coefficients also increase. PMID:12400376

Shchur, L A; Aponasenko, A D; Lopatin, V N; Makarskaia, G V

2002-01-01

247

Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years’ experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ...

Aleksandrovic?, Marko; Radovanovic?, Dragan; Okic?ic?, Tomislav; Madic?, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

2011-01-01

248

Evaluation of radionuclide transfer functions from drainage basins of fresh water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide transfer functions, defined as the amount of radionuclide flowing per unit time from an upstream drainage basin to a water body following a single pulse deposition of radioactive substance, were evaluated using contamination data collected by some European Laboratories in the rivers Po, Pryptiat, Dnieper, Teterev, Uzh and Rhine following the Chernobyl accident. The data analysed here allow detection of two main exponential decay components. The order of magnitude of the short term effective decay constant calculated here is 10-7 s-1 (radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr and 103Ru). The geometric means of the effective decay constants of the long term component are 1.5 x 10-8 s-1 (137Cs) and 4.9 x 10-9 s-1 (90Sr). A significant non-linearity of 90Sr transfer functions with respect to the water flow through the drainage basin was detected. (author)

1995-01-01

249

Displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop of trace amounts of palladium in water and road dust samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drop was developed for separation and preconcentration of Pd(ll) in road dust and aqueous samples. This method involves two steps of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification. In Step 1, Cu ions react with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to form Cu-DDTC complex, which is extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a solidification procedure using 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) and ethanol (dispersive solvent). In Step 2, the extracted complex is first dispersed using ethanol in a sample solution containing Pd ions, then a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a solidification procedure is performed creating an organic drop. In this step, Pd(ll) replaces Cu(ll) from the pre-extracted Cu-DDTC complex and goes into the extraction solvent phase. Finally, the Pd(ll)-containing drop is introduced into a graphite furnace using a microsyringe, and Pd(ll) is determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Several factors that influence the extraction efficiency of Pd and its subsequent determination, such as extraction and dispersive solvent type and volume, pH of sample solution, centrifugation time, and concentration of DDTC, are optimized. PMID:24000764

Ghanbarian, Maryam; Afzali, Daryoush; Mostafavi, Ali; Fathirad, Fariba

2013-01-01

250

Inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters with biogeochemical implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the aquatic environment, particles can be broadly separated into phytoplankton (PHY), non-algal particle (NAP) and dissolved (or very small particle, VSP) fractions. Typically, absorption spectra are inverted to quantify these fractions, but volume scattering functions (VSFs) can also be used. Both absorption spectra and VSFs were used to calculate particle fractions for an experiment in Chesapeake Bay. A complete set of water inherent optical properties was measured using a suite of co...

Zhang, X.; Huot, Y.; Gray, D. J.; Weidemann, A.; Rhea, W. J.

2013-01-01

251

Density functional treatment of water-carbon dioxide van der Waals complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LCGTO-LSD and LCGTO-NLSD methods have been tested for the study of water-carbon dioxide weakly bound binary complex. Different local and nonlocal exchange-correlation energy functionals and many grid radial points have been used. Results show that both nonlocal corrections and a large number of radial points in the grid are mandatory for well reproducing then experimental data. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abashkin, Y.; Mele, F.; Russo, N.; Toscano, M. [Universita della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

1994-12-31

252

Mountain border area of eastern Serbia in the function of the spring zones of surface water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Border mountain area of eastern Serbia has a distinct potential and importance in the function of surface water sources, which are characterized by range of geographical and environmental characteristics and similarities determined by mountainous character of the territory. For the purposes of this paper, border area of Serbia towards Bulgaria is provisionally determined by iso-border of 25 km. On the defined area of eastern Serbia there are 11 individual territories allocated in the fu...

Milin?i? Miroljub; Mihajlovi? Bojana; Šabi? Dejan; ?ur?i? Nina

2012-01-01

253

Pedotransfer functions related to spatial variability of water retention attributes for lowland soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The estimation of non available soil variables through the knowledge of other related measured variables can be achieved through pedotransfer functions (PTF) mainly saving time and reducing cost. Great differences among soils, however, can yield non desirable results when applying this method. This study discusses the application of developed PTFs by several authors using a variety of soils of different characteristics, to evaluate soil water contents of two Brazilian lowland soils. Compariso...

2010-01-01

254

Estimating marginal value of water for irrigated olive grove with the production function method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic valuation of irrigation water is done through the use of production functions for the case of the olive grove. In order to do so the integration of an agronomic model (based on the production function) and an economic model linked to the profitability of the crop (the ratio of revenue and operating costs) in the area under study is proposed. The study case encompasses the Guadalbullon River Sub-basin area, belonging to the Guadalquivir River Hydrologic Demarcation (Southern Spain). Within the overall deficit of the Guadalquivir River basin, the Guadalbullon River poses a special problem as it is unregulated and there are important irrigated fields on its banks, most of them olive groves. Net marginal value of water obtained (having deducted the variable costs of production including harvesting and irrigation) is Euros 0.60 m{sup 3} for the allocation of 1,000 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 and Euros 0.53 m{sup 3} for the water right allowance of 1,500 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 (average for period 2005/2008). The results obtained support the recommendation by other authors suggesting the use of deficit irrigation in olive, additionally the high value of water estimated contributes to explain the substantial increase in irrigated olive area in Andalucia. (Author) 37 refs.

Mesa-Jurado, M. A.; Berbel, J.; Orgaz, F.

2010-07-01

255

Surface displacement and hydraulic connectivity in Bangkok plain inferred from persistent scatterer interferometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Land subsidence induced by the compaction of overdrafted aquifer systems have occurred in a lot of cities all over the world and have induced severe damage to buildings and infrastructures. In recent decades, some cities have taken measures to mitigate severe ground subsidence caused by groundwater extraction by, for instance, implementing artificial water injection schemes or regulating groundwater pumping, and surface rebound in these regions has been reported. Previously, SAR interferometry and persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) has been successfully used as a monitoring tool for the uplifting event and we can also use the data to infer the extension of unrecognized fault and geological boundary as well as the elastic property of the aquifer. In this study, we first estimated recent ground displacement by using PSI analysis of ALOS/PALSAR images obtained during November 2007 and December 2010, focusing on the Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand. In this region, ground subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping had been reported previously, however, we detected ground uplift from 0.5 to 3.0 cm during ALOS observation period. The estimated displacement time-series are consistent with those obtained from surface settlement measurement points in monitoring wells. Since groundwater usage has decreased in Bangkok due to the regulation of groundwater pumping, and groundwater level at productive aquifer has been rising at the estimated uplift area after the regulation, this uplift can be attributed to the increase in the hydraulic head due to the preceding depression in pore pressure. And then, we estimated the lateral connectivity of aquifer as well as the aquifer elastic properties using a temporal model. We considered seasonal factor by a sinusoidal function with a period of one year, and the non-seasonal factor by an exponential function. As a result, we found that non-seasonal uplift occurred uniformly over the whole area at the rate of 0.5-1.5 cm/year, whereas seasonal displacement was not found in all areas, and the time shift of the seasonal displacement differed even in those areas where it occurred. This result demonstrates lateral hydraulic connectivity within individual aquifers of the multi-aquifer system under the Bangkok plain. Moreover, the magnitude of the decay coefficient of the exponential function describing the secular uplift might reflect floodplain changes or the subsidence history. Our results demonstrate that the temporal model interpretation would be useful to investigate aquifer structure which cannot be easily inferred.

Ishitsuka, K.; Fukushima, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Yamada, Y.; Matsuoka, T.

2013-12-01

256

The effect of precordial lead displacement on ECG morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inaccurate electrode placement and differences in inter-individual human anatomies can lead to misinterpretation of ECG examination. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of precordial electrodes displacement on morphology of the ECG signal in a group of 60 patients with diagnosed cardiac disease. Shapes of ECG signals recorded from precordial leads were compared with signals interpolated at the points located at a distance up to 5 cm from lead location. Shape differences of the QRS and ST-T-U complexes were quantified using the distribution function method, correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and normalized RMSE. The relative variability (RV) index was calculated to quantify inter-individual variability. ECG morphology changes were prominent in all shape parameters beyond 2 cm distance to precordial leads. Lead V2 was the most sensitive to displacement errors, followed by leads V3, V1, and V4, for which the direction of electrodes displacement plays a key role. No visible changes in ECG morphology were observed in leads V5 and V6, only scaling effect of signal amplitude. The RV ranged from 0.639 to 0.989. Distortions in ECG tracings increase with the distance from precordial lead, which are specific to chosen electrode, direction of displacement, and for ECG segment selected for calculations. PMID:24142562

Kania, Micha?; Rix, Hervé; Fereniec, Ma?gorzata; Zavala-Fernandez, Heriberto; Janusek, Dariusz; Mroczka, Tomasz; Stix, Günter; Maniewski, Roman

2014-02-01

257

Sensorimotor synchronization: the impact of temporally displaced auditory feedback.  

Science.gov (United States)

When subjects are asked to tap in synchrony to a regular sequence of stimulus events (e.g., clicks), performance is not perfect in that, usually, an anticipation of the tap is observed. The present study examines the influence of temporally displaced auditory feedback on the size of this anticipatory error. Whereas earlier studies have shown that this asynchrony exhibits a linear increase in size as a function of an increasing delay in such additional auditory feedback, this study compared the impact of shifting feedback forward in time (i.e., feedback presented before the tap) with that of delayed auditory feedback. Results showed that the impact of feedback displacement on the amount of asynchrony differed for positive and negative displacements. Delayed feedback led to an increase in asynchrony, whereas negative displacements had (almost) no effect. This finding is related to a model assuming that the various feedback components arising from the tap (tactile, kinesthetic, auditory) are integrated to form one central representation, and that the timing of this central representation arises from a linear combination of the components involved. PMID:10769938

Mates, J; Aschersleben, G

2000-03-01

258

Silicon Application Increases Drought Tolerance of Kentucky Bluegrass by Improving Plant Water Relations and Morphophysiological Functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800?mg?L?1) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400?mg?L?1 significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

Saud, Shah; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun

2014-01-01

259

Displacement chromatography of isomers and therapeutic compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Displacement chromatography was successfully used to separate a binary isomer mixture, epirubicin and doxorubicin, on Kromasil KR100-10 C18 250x4.6 mm I.D. (10 microm) column. Displacement parameters such as the types and the concentrations of displacer, the composition and the flow rate of the mobile phase were critically examined in this study. The displacer employed was 30 mg/ml benzethonium chloride. Loading of feed at lower initial organic level of mobile phase coupled with displacement at higher organic level was found to give efficient separation. A 30-mg amount of binary isomer mixture was separated on an analytical column. The purification of epirubicin from the closely related impurities present in raw product solution by displacement chromatography was also investigated. The purity of epirubicin required was greater than 99% with a recovery of 60%. The results have indicated that this process made good use of the high feed load, low solvent costs, and high resolution characteristics of displacement chromatography and offered the chromatographic engineer a powerful tool for the preparative purification of therapeutic compounds. PMID:12141564

Qi, Yan; Huang, Junxiong

2002-06-14

260

Displaced proximal humeral fractures: an Indian experience with locking plates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly, remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome of locking plate used for fixation of these fractures after open reduction. We also attempted to evaluate the complications and predictors of loss of fixation for such an implant. Methods Over two and a half years, 56 patients with an acute proximal humerus fracture were managed wi...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore foraging behaviour. In this paper, the robustness of these results is examined with respect to the assumption about the (metabolic) feeding efficiency function, changing it from a fixed to a plastic respo...

2005-01-01

262

Displacement field and elastic constants in nonideal crystals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work a periodic crystal with point defects is described in the framework of linear-response theory for broken-symmetry states using correlation functions and Zwanzig-Mori equations. The main results are microscopic expressions for the elastic constants and for the coarse-grained density, point-defect density, and displacement field, which are valid in real crystals, where vacancies and interstitials are present. The coarse-grained density field differs from the small wave-vector limit...

2010-01-01

263

Water  

Science.gov (United States)

... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ... you probably need more water. What about bottled water? top Some people like bottled water for its ...

264

Pressure Effects on the Reduced Partition Function Ratio for Hydrogen Isotopes in Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a simple, yet accurate theoretical method for calculating the reduced isotope partition function ratio (RIPFR) for hydrogen of water at elevated pressures. This approach requires only accurate equations of state (EOS) for pure isotopic end-members (H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O), which are available in the literature. The effect of pressure or density on the RIPFR of water was calculated relative to that of ideal-gas water at infinitely low pressure for the temperature range from 0 to 527 C. For gaseous and low-pressure (ca. {<=}15 MPa) supercritical phases of water, the RIPFR increases slightly (1--1.3{per_thousand}) with pressure or density in a fashion similar to those of many other geologic materials. However, in liquid and high-pressure (>20 MPa) supercritical phases, the RIPFR of water decreases (0.5--6{per_thousand}) with increasing pressure (or density) to 100 MPa. This rather unique phenomenon is ascribed to the inverse molar volume isotope effects (MVIE) of liquid and high-density supercritical waters, V (D{sub 2}O) > V (H{sub 2}O), while other substances including minerals show the normal MVIE. These theoretical predictions were experimentally confirmed by Horita et al. [Horita, J., Cole, D.R., Polyakov, V.B., Driesner, T., 2002. Experimental and theoretical study of pressure effects on hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system brucite-water at elevated temperatures. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3769 -- 3788.] for the system brucite-water. Although the P-T ranges for the EOS of normal and heavy waters are rather limited, our modeling indicates that the RIPFR of water continues to decrease with pressure above 100 MPa. The method developed here can be applied to any other geologic fluids, if accurate EOS for their isotopic end-members is available. These results have important implications for the interpretation of high-pressure isotopic partitioning in the Earth, the outer planets, and their moons.

Polyakov, Dr. V. B. [Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow, Russia; Horita, Juske [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2006-01-01

265

Percutaneous calcaneoplasty in displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ideal treatment for displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures is still under debate. Open reduction and internal fixation is the most popular surgical procedure; however, wound complications, hardware failure and infection remain a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of a new minimally-invasive surgical procedure: closed reduction technique combined with balloon-assisted fracture augmentation with cement or calcium phosphate (minimally-invasive percutaneous calcaneoplasty). We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients that sustained Sander's type II and III calcaneal fractures treated in our institution from January 2008 to June 2010. The same approach and technique was utilized in all cases. Conventional X-rays and CT scan have been performed pre- and post-operatively. The average follow-up was 24 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle/hindfoot score has been utilized for clinical evaluation and Bohler's angle to assess bone reduction. All cases obtained bony union in 2/3 months, with average Bohler's angle of 22.97° (from 14.21° to 32.83°). No skin complications or adverse reactions were observed, with only one patient complaining of residual pain in the hindfoot. Minimally-invasive percutaneous calcaneoplasty can represent an alternative to open reduction internal fixation in the treatment of calcaneal fractures, allowing stable reduction without plating, early function recovery and short hospital stay. PMID:23744105

Biggi, Francesco; Di Fabio, Stefano; D'Antimo, Corrado; Isoni, Francesco; Salfi, Cosimo; Trevisani, Silvia

2013-12-01

266

Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C. Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

Kardassis Dimitris

2009-07-01

267

Application of EBIC to displacement energy determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of the EBIC (Electron Beam Induced Conductivity) signal has been used to detect the occurrence of displacement damage in Si devices and has shown that the threshold voltage is about 140 kV; the resulting displacement energy is 12 eV. This new method, performed in a high voltage STEM on thin and bulk specimens, is estimated to be more sensitive than the usual TEM method by at least a factor of 1000; in addition it may be used to derive the displacement cross-section of semiconductors. (author)

1979-09-06

268

PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or multiple frequency RGB monitor (EGA or better), a math co-processor, and a pointing device. The printers supported by the graphical analysis routines are the HP Laserjet+, Series II, and Series III with at least 1.5 MB memory. The data acquisition routines require the EPIX 4-MEG video board and optional 12.5MHz oscillator, and associated EPIX software. Data can be acquired from any CCD or RS-170 compatible video camera with pixel resolution of 600hX400v or better. PDT is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. Due to the use of required proprietary software, executable code is not provided on the distribution media. Compiling the source code requires the Microsoft C v5.1 compiler, Microsoft QuickC v2.0, the Microsoft Mouse Library, EPIX Image Processing Libraries, the Microway NDP-Fortran-386 v2.1 compiler, and the Media Cybernetics HALO Professional Graphics Kernal System. Due to the complexities of the machine requirements, COSMIC strongly recommends the purchase and review of the documentation prior to the purchase of the program. The source code, and sample input and output files are provided in PKZIP format; the PKUNZIP utility is included. PDT was developed in 1990. All trade names used are the property of their respective corporate owners.

Wernet, M. P.

1994-01-01

269

Ecosystem function in waste stabilisation ponds: Improving water quality through a better understanding of biophysical coupling  

Science.gov (United States)

Wastewater stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly productive systems designed to treat wastewater using only natural biological and chemical processes. Phytoplankton, microbial communities and hydraulics play important roles for ecosystem functionality of these pond systems. Although WSPs have been used for many decades, they are still considered as 'black box' systems as very little is known about the fundamental ecological processes which occur within them. However, a better understanding of how these highly productive ecosystems function is particularly important for hydrological processes, as treated wastewater is commonly discharged into streams, rivers, and oceans, and subject to strict water quality guidelines. WSPs are known to operate at different levels of efficiency, and treatment efficiency of WSPs is dependent on physical (flow characteristics and sludge accumulation and distribution) and biological (microbial and phytoplankton communities) characteristics. Thus, it is important to gain a better understanding of the role and influence of pond hydraulics and vital microbial communities on pond performance and WSP functional stability. The main aim of this study is to investigate the processes leading to differences in treatment performance of WSPs. This study uses a novel and innovative approach to understand these factors by combining flow cytometry and metabolomics to investigate various biochemical characteristics, including the metabolite composition and microbial community within WSPs. The results of these analyses will then be combined with results from the characterisation of pond hydrodynamics and hydraulic performance, which will be performed using advanced hydrodynamic modelling and advanced sludge profiling technology. By understanding how hydrodynamic and biological processes influence each other and ecosystem function and stability in WSPs, we will be able to propose ways to improve the quality of the treatment using natural processes, with less reliance on chemical treatment. This will in turn contribute to the reduction in the cost of operation, but more importantly reduce the impact on the environment (i.e., discharge, GHGs), and increase water quality and the potential for water reuse worldwide.

Ghadouani, Anas; Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Coggins, Liah X.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Zhou, Wenxu; Laurion, Isabelle; Chua, Andrew

2014-05-01

270

Determination of bromacil transport as a function of water and carbon content in soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the significance of bromacil transport as a function of water and carbon content in soils and to explore the implications of neglecting sorption when making assessments of travel time of bromacil through the vadose zone. Equilibrium batch sorption tests were performed for loamy sand and sandy soil added with four different levels of powdered activated carbon (PAC) content (0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1%). Column experiments were also conducted at various water and carbon contents under steady-state flow conditions. The first set of column experiments was conducted in loamy sand containing 1.5% organic carbon under three different water contents (0.23, 0.32, and 0.41) to measure breakthrough curves (BTCs) of bromide and bromacil injected as a square pulse. In the second set of column experiments, BTCs of bromide and bromacil injected as a front were measured in saturated sandy columns at the four different PAC levels given above. Column breakthrough data were analyzed with both equilibrium and nonequilibrium (two-site) convection-dispersion equation (CDE) models to determine transport and sorption parameters under various water and carbon contents. Analysis with batch data indicated that neglect of the partition-related term in the calculation of solute velocity may lead to erroneous estimation of travel time of bromacil, i.e. an overestimation of the solute velocity by a factor of R. The column experiments showed that arrival time of the bromacil peak was larger than that of the bromide peak in soils, indicating that transport of bromacil was retarded relative to bromide in the observed conditions. Extent of bromacil retardation (R) increased with decreasing water content and increasing PAC content, supporting the importance of retardation in the estimation of travel time of bromacil even at small amounts of organic carbon for soils with lower water content. PMID:17562461

Kim, Song-Bae; On, Han-Sang; Kim, Dong-Ju; Jury, William A; Wang, Zhi

2007-01-01

271

Natural disasters and indigenous displacement in Bolivia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Those seeking to understand and address the reasons for growing numbers of displaced indigenous people in Bolivia should consider the relationship between traditional knowledge and the impacts of climate change.

Ludvik Girard

2012-12-01

272

Making work safe for displaced women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Displaced women need opportunities to make a living for themselves and their families but these opportunities should not increase their vulnerability. Understanding risk factors and protection strategies allows practitioners to ensure appropriate programme design and implementation.

Dale Buscher

2012-12-01

273

Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

2013-02-01

274

Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model  

Science.gov (United States)

Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated.

Ghamsari, A. K.; Jin, Y.; Zegeye, E.; Woldesenbet, E.

2013-02-01

275

Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

Vasili? Rastko

2012-01-01

276

Density functional theory study of water adsorption on FeOOH surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with an on-site Coulomb repulsion term, we study the composition, stability, and electronic properties of the most common FeOOH surfaces goethite(101), akaganeite(100), and lepidocrocite(010), and their interaction with water. Despite the differences in surface structure, the trends in surface stability of these FeOOH polymorphs exhibit remarkable similarities. We find that the reactivity and the binding configuration of adsorbates depend strongly on the coordination of surface iron: at the fourfold coordinated Fe2 site water is chemisorbed, whereas at the fivefold coordinated Fe1 water is only loosely bound with hydrogen pointing towards the surface. Our results show that the oxidation state of surface iron can be controlled by the surface termination where ferryl (Fe4 +) species emerge for oxygen terminated surfaces and ferrous iron (Fe2 +) at iron and water terminations leading to a reduced band gap. In contrast, the fully hydroxylated surfaces, identified as stable surface configurations at standard conditions from the surface phase diagram, show electronic properties and band gaps closest to bulk FeOOH with ferric surface iron (Fe3 +). Only in the case of goethite(101), a termination with mixed surface hydroxyl and aquo groups is stabilized.

Otte, Katrin; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.; Pentcheva, Rossitza

2012-11-01

277

Effect of pressure on the anomalous response functions of a confined water monolayer at low temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a coarse-grained model for a water monolayer that cannot crystallize due to the presence of confining interfaces, such as protein powders or inorganic surfaces. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and mean field calculations, we calculate three response functions: the isobaric specific heat CP, the isothermal compressibility KT, and the isobaric thermal expansivity ?P. At low temperature T, we find two distinct maxima in CP, KT, and |?P|, all converging toward a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) with increasing pressure P. We show that the maximum in CP at higher T is due to the fluctuations of hydrogen (H) bond formation and that the second maximum at lower T is due to the cooperativity among the H bonds. We discuss a similar effect in KT and |?P|. If this cooperativity were not taken into account, both the lower-T maximum and the LLCP would disappear. However, comparison with recent experiments on water hydrating protein powders provides evidence for the existence of the lower-T maximum, supporting the hypothesized LLCP at positive P and finite T. The model also predicts that when P moves closer to the critical P the CP maxima move closer in T until they merge at the LLCP. Considering that other scenarios for water are thermodynamically possible, we discuss how an experimental measurement of the changing separation in T between the two maxima of CP as P increases could determine the best scenario for describing water.

Mazza, Marco G.; Stokely, Kevin; Stanley, H. Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo

2012-11-01

278

High Precision Displacement Measurement Using Fiber Optics  

CERN Document Server

We describe laboratory experiments with a fiber-optic sensor employing a chirped laser that detects, with 20-30 micrometer accuracy, displacements of a remote reflective target at distance of 200-500 mm. The requirements of chirp linearity and laser coherence in order to achieve this sensitivity are elaborated. This sensor can be employed for remotely sensing minute displacements of objects in harsh environments, including cryo-magnets in particle accelerators.

Berkovic, G; Scandale, Walter; Shafir, E; Todesco, Ezio

2002-01-01

279

Explanation of Displacement Current in a Vacuum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is considered that the time derivative of the electric intensity in the Maxwell-Ampere law (displacement current) denotes that a change of electric field generates a magnetic field. This paper shows that there is no reason to think a change of electric field generates a magnetic field and the displacement current term has a different meaning. It is necessary to be aware of distant conductors and their magnetic fields.

Slechta, Petr

2006-01-01

280

Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = -0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

Moeys, J.; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L.; Brown, C. D.; Coquet, Y.; Jarvis, N. J.

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Water Plasma Functionalized CNTs/MnO2 Composites for Supercapacitors  

Science.gov (United States)

A water plasma treatment applied to vertically-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition gives rise to surface functionalization and purification of the CNTs, along with an improvement of their electrochemical properties. Additional increase of their charge storage capability is achieved by anodic deposition of manganese dioxide lining the surface of plasma-treated nanotubes. The morphology (nanoflower, layer, or needle-like structure) and oxidation state of manganese oxide depend on the voltage window applied during charge-discharge measurements and are found to be key points for improved efficiency of capacitor devices. MnO2/CNTs nanocomposites exhibit an increase in their specific capacitance from 678?Fg?1, for untreated CNTs, up to 750?Fg?1, for water plasma-treated CNTs.

Hussain, Shahzad; Jover, Eric; Bertran, Enric

2013-01-01

282

Electrical properties of tuff from the ESF as a function of water saturation and temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrical properties of partially saturated tuff provide information about the microstructure of the matrix and how water is distributed within the pore space as the material undergoes saturation and desaturation cycles. Understanding electrical properties as a function of saturation and temperature is also important because the determination of water saturation during field tests and laboratory experiments depends of reliable laboratory data. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of moisture content in the rock mass in the repository horizontal is one of the most important parameters needed in order to understand coupled TMHC processes. Geophysical methods are required to determine the moisture content in rock masses during thermal tests. These data are currently used in the inversion of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at the LBT, SHT, and the DST tests. This paper contains a description of the experimental procedure, sample preparation, data collection and data analyses for tuff samples from the ESF.

Roberts, J.J.; Carlberg, E.; Lin, W.

1998-01-01

283

Steel corrosion in concrete: Determinist modeling of cathodic reaction as a function of water saturation degree  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prediction of the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete structures involved in the nuclear waste storage requires the assessment and the modeling of the corrosion processes of steel reinforcement. This paper deals with the modeling of the cathodic reaction that is one of the main mechanisms of steel rebar corrosion. This model takes into account oxygen reduction and oxygen diffusion through a diffusion barrier (iron oxide and/or carbonated concrete) as a function of water saturation degree. It is demonstrated that corrosion rate of reinforcement embedded in concrete with water saturation degree as low as 0.9 could be under oxygen diffusion control. Thus, transport properties of concrete (aqueous and gaseous phase, dissolved species) are key parameters that must be taken into account to model electrochemical processes on the reinforcement

2007-04-01

284

Photochemical degradation of phenanthrene as a function of natural water variables modeling freshwater to marine environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photolysis rates of phenanthrene as a function of ionic strength (salinity), oxygen levels and humic acid concentrations were measured in aqueous solution over the range of conditions found in fresh to marine waters. Photolysis followed first order kinetics, with an estimated photodegradation half-life in sunlight in pure water of 10.3 ± 0.7 h, in the mid-range of published results. Photolysis rate constants decreased by a factor of 5 in solutions with humic acid concentrations from 0 to 10 mg C L?1. This decrease could be modeled entirely based on competitive light absorption effects due to the added humics. No significant ionic strength or oxygen effects were observed, consistent with a direct photolysis mechanism. In the absence of significant solution medium effects, the photodegradation lifetime of phenanthrene will depend only on solar fluxes (i.e. temporal and seasonal changes in sunlight) and not vary with a freshwater to marine environment.

2012-03-01

285

Iterated function system fractal image code on instability of vapor-water two-phase flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method is put forward for studying the instability of vapor-water two-phase flow. This method combines data compression and denoising based on wavelet analysis with the iterated function system (IFS) fractal image code techniques. Firstly, the experiment data are compressed and denoised by wavelet and the data signals can be expressed by the low and high main frequency coefficients of wavelet, and then the fractal codes are abstracted from the compressed experiment data based on IFS. The fractal codes can be divided into low and high frequency parts automatically. The farther studies on the instability of vapor-water two-phase flow can be carried out based on these fractal codes. (authors)

2006-01-01

286

Flood Reduction Function of Paddy Rice Fields under Different Water Saving Irrigation Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the function of paddy fields for flood reduction under different water saving irrigation techniques. A daily water balance component data including rainfall, percolation, and overflow through the paddy field levee were collected from experimental paddy rice fields during rainy season cultivation. Results show that paddy field was very effective in flood reduction. More than 40% of rainfall could be stored in the paddy fields. However, the effectiveness of paddy fields in flood reduction was highly depends on the WSI technique used. Semi dry cultivation technique was the most effective one in terms of flood reduction. It retained the rainfall up to 55.7% (365 mm of the total rainfall (636 mm without reducing the yield. In terms of flood volume reduction, the alternate wetting and drying performed similarly with traditional continuous flooding, i.e., 37.2% and 40.8%, respectively.

Joko Sujono

2010-06-01

287

Study on optical fiber based displacement sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic sensor is commonly used in control and monitoring system for material deformation, strain, temperature, pressure and other industrial process parameters. Fiber optic displacement sensor based on intensity modulation can be designed by using the transmission technique where the intensity gradually changes due to change of detected laser intensity. Previous optical fiber based displacement sensors are constructed using two fibers along with a mirror arrangement or a single optical fiber acting as both transmitter and receiver such as 2X1 fiber couplers. The reported resolution of the system was in the range of 5 ?m-10 ?m. In our present study the displacement sensor composed of a laser source, optical fiber cable, microscope objective and power meter is designed. As in source-fiber coupling geometry, the microscope objective focuses the laser light onto a multimode glass fiber. The other end of the fiber is coupled to a power meter. As the fiber is displaced towards the focused spot, the detected power changes. The displacement resolution of 5 ?m is obtained with this simple setup. In the present paper, the results of theoretical analysis and experimental study of such a simple optical fiber based displacement sensor are presented.

Chakraborty, B.; Sinha, B. K.

2011-10-01

288

A critical review of displacement ventilation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews several aspects of the performance of displacement ventilation: temperature distribution, flow distribution, contaminant distribution, comfort, energy and cost analysis, and design guidelines. Ventilation rate, cooling load, heat source, wall characteristics, space height, and diffuser type have major impacts on the performance of displacement ventilation. Some of the impacts can be estimated by simple equations, but many are still unknown. Based on current findings, displacement ventilation systems without cooled ceiling panels can be used for space with a cooling load up to 13 Btu/(h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}) (40 W/m{sup 2}). Energy consumed by HVAC systems depends on control strategies. The first costs of the displacement ventilation system are similar to those of a mixing ventilation system. The displacement system with cooled ceiling panels can remove a higher cooling load, but the first costs are higher as well. The design guidelines of displacement ventilation developed in Scandinavian countries need to be clarified and extended so that they can be used for US buildings. This paper outlines the research needed to develop design guidelines for US buildings.

Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1998-10-01

289

Solvent isotope effects on nucleophilic displacement reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The kinetic solvent isotope effect, KSIE, (k/sub H/sub 2/O//k/sub D/sub 2/O/), at 25.0/sup 0/C and ionic strength, I, equal to 0.20 +- 0.02 M was measured for the nucleophilic displacement of iodine ion from iodomethane, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetate ion, thiophene from S-Methylthiophenium ion, and tosylate ion from methyl tosylate by bromide ion, chloride ion, acetate ion, hydroxide ion, water, ammonia, ethylenediamine, n-butylamine, piperazine, piperidine, quinuclidine, and 1,4-Diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (DABCO), and the monoprotonated cations of ethylenediamine, piperazine, and DABCO. By means of solvent partition measurements at 25.0/sup 0/C and I = 0.02 M between H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O and a common immiscible organic solvent, the ground state activity coefficients in D/sub 2/O, the solution in H/sub 2/O being chosen as the reference state, were determined for the nitrogen-containing nucleophiles (except ammonia) and the substrates methyl tosylate, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetic acid. The solubilities at 25.0/sup 0/C of the picrate and tetraphenylborate salts of the monoprotonated cationic forms of ethylenediamine, piperazine, and DABCO were measured to determine the activity coefficients in D/sub 2/O of these ions relative to an H/sub 2/O reference state. Applying the Eyring equation, the activity coefficients of the transition states in D/sub 2/O, reference state H/sub 2/O, were calculated.

Spiegel, G.W.

1981-01-01

290

Variational approach of displacement discontinuity method and application to crack problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with a variational approach of the displacement discontinuity method. This method is an indirect boundary element technique which uses the double layer potential representation of displacements and stresses. The variational approach presented here is based upon the theorem of minimum potential energy in elasticity. In the numerical procedure, the global shape function used to approximate the displacement discontinuity distribution is the continuous piecewise linear function. Regular displacements and resultant force expressions are obtained from these shape functions and these expressions are used to build the system of linear equations. The method is applied to crack problems in both infinite and finite bodies. The stress intensity factors are then calculated and high accurate numerical results are obtained.

Yin, H. P.; Ehrlacher, A.

1993-09-01

291

Crossover from Fingering to Fracturing in Fluid-fluid Displacement in Deformable Granular Media: Theory and Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting and, possibly, controlling the morphology of gas invasion in porous media is critical in many natural and engineered processes like enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, methane venting from organic-rich sediments, and filter design. Here, we study fluid-fluid displacement in a deformable granular medium by means of laboratory experiments, computer simulations and scaling analysis. Experimentally, we inject air into a water-saturated glass beads packed in a slender cylindrical container, and record the evolution of the invasion pattern. We have three control variables: the injection rate, the bead size, and the confining stress. Under large confinement, when the granular pack behaves as a rigid medium, the invasion pattern experiences a transition from viscous to capillary fingering by decreasing the injection rate, in agreement with classical results [1]. We show, however, that for a fixed injection rate the system exhibits a crossover from fingering to "fracturing" as the bead size is decreased or the level of confinement is reduced. Thus, fracture opening is the dominant gas invasion mechanism in fine, soft sediments. Our mechanistic model and scaling analysis allow us to rationalize the different regimes of fluid displacement as a function of the properties of the fluids (interfacial tension and viscosity) and solid particles (particle size and stiffness), pore-scale disorder, injection rate and external confinement. We identify two dimensionless groups that describe the interplay between capillarity, viscosity and elasticity, and control the mode of fluid displacement [2].

Holtzman, R.; Szulczewski, M.; Darby, J.; Juanes, R.

2011-12-01

292

Water  

Science.gov (United States)

... drinking water by consuming only bottled water or water from a filtration system that has been certified by an independent ... 15 ppb, CDC recommends using bottled water or water from a filtration system that has been certified by an independent ...

293

Simulation of viscous instabilities in miscible and immiscible displacement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study includes modeling of viscous instabilities at both miscible and immiscible displacement. Oil recovery of heavy oil leads to unstable displacement for adverse mobility ratio for both miscible and immiscible displacement.

Gilje, Eli

2008-01-01

294

Attempts to prevent displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevention has become a strategy increasingly adopted by the humanitarian community in addressing forced displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as responding to immediate emergency needs for families displaced or at risk of displacement.

Karim Khalil

2012-12-01

295

Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of a physical relevance (meaning of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However, unlike the findings for simple fluids, the loci of the response function extrema exhibit density/pressure dependence quite different from that of the percolation line. The only potential coincidence between the loci of the extrema of a thermodynamic property and a detectable structural change is found for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility and Voronoi neighbors distribution skewness maximum.

J. Škvor

2012-06-01

296

Aryl-derivatized, water-soluble functionalized carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The functionalization of very-thin multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VT-MWNTs) with an aniline derivative, via the protocol of in situ generated aryl diazonium salts results, upon acidic deprotection of the terminal BOC group, on the formation of the water-soluble positively charged ammonium functionalized VT-MWNTs-NH3+ material. The new materials have been structurally and morphologically characterized by infra-red (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantitative calculation of the grafted aryl units onto the skeleton of VT-MWNTs has been estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while the quantitative Kaiser test showed the amine group loaded onto VT-MWNTs-NH3+ material. The aqueous solubility of this material has allowed the performance of some initial toxicological in vitro investigations

2008-08-25

297

Nanoparticle-based indicator-displacement assay for pyrophosphate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silica nanoparticles functionalized with a Zn(II) -dipicolylamine derivative are used as the receptor component of a sensing ensemble for an indicator-displacement assay. The nano-ensemble system, constructed with pyrocatechol violet as an indicator, selectively senses pyrophosphate over other anions including hydrogen phosphate, thus showing a visible blue-to-yellow color change and the corresponding absorption spectral changes in a buffer solution of pH 7. A distinct recognition behavior--the nano-ensemble does not sense hydrogen phosphate that was sensed by the traditional ensemble with the same molecular receptor--is explained by an incomplete-displacement model in the case of the integrated receptor system. The present work demonstrates that the nanoparticle-based competition assay is as effective as the traditional approach with molecular receptors. Furthermore, such an integrated receptor system can provide distinct recognition behavior from its molecular receptor. PMID:21598403

Oh, Dong Ju; Kim, Kyung Mi; Ahn, Kyo Han

2011-08-01

298

Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, P. V. : Nickel, J. : Baron, D. J. G. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation. Submitted for ROOMVENT 2004, Air Distribution in Rooms, 5 - 8 September 2004, Coimbra , Portugal ABSTRACT The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow is obtained and a semi-analytical expression for the velocity level in the occupied zone is given. It is shown that the flow has a constant velocity level independent of the distance from the diffuser and that the thickness or length scale of the stratified flow has a tendency to be constant everywhere in the flow. The thickness and the velocity are functions of the Archimedes number

Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.

2004-01-01

299

Analysis of displacement damage effects on MOS capacitors  

Science.gov (United States)

Displacement damage effect on MOS capacitors is analyzed in this work with the aid of TCAD simulations. A noticeable capacitance reduction in the accumulation mode is observed in the High Frequency C-V characteristic curve after a 24 GeV proton irradiation. This effect is clearly distinguishable from ionizing damage effects, otherwise negligible under the specific conditions of the experiment. The capacitance reduction is identified with the increase of the substrate resistivity, due to the modification of its effective doping concentration. Supported on a well-established traps model, the expected displacement damage defects are simulated as a function of the fluence, allowing the identification of donor trap levels as the responsible of the phenomenon for p-type substrate MOS capacitors.

Fernández-Martínez, P.; Palomo, F. R.; Hidalgo, S.; Fleta, C.; Campabadal, F.; Flores, D.

2013-12-01

300

Topographic effects on surface displacement during dike propagation and fault displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Deformation of a volcano landscape during faulting and hydro-fracturing is influenced by its topography. This is particularly relevant if magmatic or tectonic sources are shallow. Although the high spatial resolution of InSAR data enables us to detect and identify such "topographic effects", most of the related modeling approaches still rely on a flat free surface in a half-space. To include these topographic effects in models, we develop a method based on triangular dislocation elements (TDE). TDE's have similar accuracies as their rectangular counterparts, however, are much more flexible during discretization of complex surfaces (magmatic sources and topography). Here we first present a way to solve the problem of singularities along the sides or beneath the vertices of TDEs. Utilizing the method we can simulate open and closed surfaces of any complex geometry. Second we apply this approach to develop a code based on the displacement discontinuity method as an indirect boundary element method (BEM), with constant dislocation shape functions. We apply this code to study topographic effects during dike intrusion and dike propagation, together with fault displacements. In systematic tests, we explore the mutual interaction of the topography and the source location, illustrated in synthetic SAR interferograms. We furthermore show that the existence of deep craters and valleys strongly affect the geometric and physical properties of a dike as well as its corresponding surface deformation. Finally, we use this approach for modeling magmatic sources beneath real volcanoes, such as on Galapagos and elsewhere. By comparison to half-space solutions we demonstrate that topographic effects and the interactions with the sources located inside the body of a volcano have an important contribution to the signals and proper interpretation of the shapes and pressure changes at magmatic reservoirs of any shape.

Nikkhoo, M.; Walter, T. R.; Acocella, V.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Water cluster anions studied by the long-range corrected density functional theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-range corrected density functional theory (LC-DFT) is applied to a series of small water cluster anions(n= 2-6) to compute their vertical detachment energies (VDEs). The LC scheme is shown to eliminate an unphysical overestimation of the electron-water attraction in the hybrid functional by properly accounting for the long-range exchange repulsions. It is shown that a correct correlation energy behavior for a rapidly varying density is also important for describing a spatially extent, excess electron. The one-parameter progressive (OP) correlation functional, which satisfies this condition, leads to a remarkable improvement in the calculated VDE over the conventional one. The LC-BOP method produces highly accurate VDEs with a mean absolute deviation of 13.8 meV from the reference CCSD(T) results, reducing the error of B3LYP by more than 15 times. LC-BOP is found to be more accurate than MP2 which yields an excess electron underbound by 43.6 meV. The effect of basis sets on the calculated VDE is also examined. The aug-cc-pVDZ basis set with an extra diffuse function is found to be more accurate and reliable than the extended Pople-type basis sets used in the previous works. The extrapolation of the calculated VDE of different electron binding motifs is compared with the VDEs of experimentally observed three isomers (Verlet, J. R. R.; Bragg,A. E.; Kammrath, A.; Cheshnovsky, O.; Neumark, D. M. Science 2005, 307, 93). PMID:18778041

Yagi, Kiyoshi; Okano, Yuko; Sato, Takeshi; Kawashima, Yukio; Tsuneda, Takao; Hirao, Kimihiko

2008-10-01

302

Functional evaluation of the field capacity concept for water balance analysis under climatic seasonality conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Some types of hydrologic models, such as the bucket model, rely on the concept of field water capacity, ?FWC. In this study, the techniques traditionally proposed for determining this parameter have been critically analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in computing soil water budget. Two basic aspects of the problem will be presented: (i) to set up techniques for a suitable parameterization of hydrologic models, (ii) to implement simulation models that describe the various processes with different levels of complexity and compare their results. The following models are considered: the Richards equation based model and the simplified bucket-type model. Soil water content at the condition of field capacity has been determined for both uniform and layered soil profiles by using the numerical model developed by Romano et al. (1998) and verified by Brunone et al. (2003). This model solves the Richards equation with the Crank-Nicolson finite difference technique and uses a numerical algorithm specifically designed in case of layered soils for calculating the hydraulic conductivity at the layer interface. For layered soil profiles, which actually represent the rule rather than an exception, soil layer sequence and the reciprocal differences in the soil hydraulic properties (soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions) strongly influence the attainment of the field capacity condition. Simulations of soil water balance using the Richards-based model or the bucket-type model have been compared. It is shown that climatic seasonality typical of the Mediterranean environments exerts some influence on the dynamics of surficial water contents in soil and this influence can be kept only in part by the bucket model if not parameterized adequately. Rainfall variability during the vegetative season and that one evolving during the quiescent phase is responsible for different transpiration conditions and for evolutions of the water content in the soil characterized by specific trends. During the vegetative season, major controlling factors are the transpiration trend with respect to rainfall which assumes low values. During the quiescent season, on the other hand, the main controlling factor is rainfall trend.

Ceres, Francesca; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Romano, Nunzio

2010-05-01

303

Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme ?-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. ?-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for ?-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

2013-10-18

304

Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average. According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18% patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82% patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36% patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18% patients, good in 4 (18.18% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54% patients, good in 7 (31.81% patients and moderate in 3 (13.63% patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

Milenkovi? Saša

2011-01-01

305

Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model)4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs), the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error at both sites. All of the GMFs exhibit a negative bias in the retrieved wind speed. In order to understand the reason for this bias, all SAR-retrieved wind speeds are separated into two categories: onshore wind (blowing from sea to land) and offshore wind (blowing from land to sea). Only offshore winds were found to exhibit the large negative bias, and short fetches from the coastline may be a possible reason for this. Moreover, it is clarified that in both the unstable and stable conditions, CMOD5.N has atmospheric stability effectiveness, and can keep the same accuracy with CMOD5 in the neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch.

Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo

2013-01-01

306

Dielectric constant and density of water as a function of pressure at constant temperature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to simulate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on protein folding/unfolding it is necessary to accurately describe the behavior of the dielectric constant and the density of the solvent (water), in the range of pressures (between 0.1 MPa and 2.0 GPa) and temperatures (below 75 ° C) require [...] d for pressure-induced unfolding. A simple equation of the form X = X (T, Pi) + a0 ln (a i+ P)/(a i + Pi) [were X is the property, Pi (in MPa) is the reference pressure and a i are coefficients adjusted to fit experimental values] is proposed to describe both properties as function of pressure, at constant temperatures. The equation reproduces available data for dielectric constant and density of water to an accuracy of 0.1%. Because of its simplicity and accuracy, the proposed equation is useful for simulation studies and for any other problem where the knowledge of those properties as a function of pressure is needed.

Wely Brasil, Floriano; Marco Antonio Chaer, Nascimento.

307

Interface structure and reactivity of water-oxidation Ru-polyoxometalate catalysts on functionalized graphene electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We combine classical empirical potentials and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to characterize the catalyst/electrode interface of a promising device for artificial photosynthesis. This system consists of inorganic Ru-polyoxometalate (Ru-POM) molecules that are supported by a graphitic substrate functionalized with organic dendrimers. The experimental atomic-scale characterization of the active interface under working conditions is hampered by the complexity of its structure, composition, as well as by the presence of the electrolyte or solvent. We provide a detailed atomistic model of the electrode/catalyst interface and show that the catalyst anchoring is remarkably dependent on water solvation. A tight host-guest binding geometry between the surface dendrimers and the Ru-POM catalyst is predicted under vacuum conditions. The solvent destabilizes this geometry, leads to unfolding of the dendrimers and to their flattening on the graphitic surface. The Ru-POM catalyst binds to this organic interlayer through a stable electrostatic link between one POM termination and the charged terminations of the dendrimers. The calculated dynamics and mobility of the Ru-POM catalyst at the electrode surface are in fair agreement with the available high-resolution transmission electron microscopy data. In addition, we demonstrate that the high thermodynamic water-oxidation efficiency of the Ru-POM catalyst is not affected by the binding to the electrode, thus rationalizing the similar electrochemical performances measured for homogeneous and heterogeneous Ru-POM catalysts. PMID:24496469

Ma, Changru; Piccinin, Simone; Fabris, Stefano

2014-03-21

308

Complex electrical properties of shale as a function of frequency and water content  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to analyze the change in complex electrical permittivity of shale as a function of water content. An experimental research program has been initiated to investigate the electrical properties of swelling shales, shales that have been exposed to water and are therefore expanding, across a wide frequency range, 5 Hz to 1.3 GHz. This range spans the spectrum of the commonly used down-hole logging measurements from the deep laterologs to the microwave dielectric tools. Two distinct measurement techniques have been used to span the range: four-electrode with balanced bridge for the low frequencies, and open-ended coaxial probe with network analyzer at the high end. The probe technique is simple to use, potentially enabling field measurements of complex permittivity to be taken, although some accuracy is sacrificed. The effects of swelling are most pronounced at the lowest frequencies. This investigation discovered a phenomenon of shale: it will generate a direct electrical current under stress that has a potential for a wellbore diagnostic tool. Also the best fluid for shale preservation was found to be Isopar M TM, a mineral oil saturated with deionized water.

Adisoemarta, Paulus Suryono

1999-10-01

309

High energy-density water: density functional theory calculations of structure and electrical conductivity.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the properties of water is essential for correctly describing the physics of shock waves in water as well as the behavior of giant planets. By using finite temperature density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/super-ionic/electronic liquid). There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm{sup 3} while electronic conduction dominates at temperatures above 6000 K. We predict that the fluid bordering the super-ionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Earlier work instead has the super-ionic phase bordering an insulating fluid, with a transition to metallic fluid not until 7000 K and 250 GPa. The tools and expertise developed during the project can be applied to other molecular systems, for example, methane, ammonia, and CH foam. We are now well positioned to treat also complex molecular systems in the HEDP regime of phase-space.

Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

2006-03-01

310

The surface energy of water: functional implications of hexagonal/cuboidal transformations in the surface arrays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyde's scientific book The Language of Shape has emphasized the importance of minimum surfaces in the structure of biological membranes. Minimum surfaces can be visualized as the property which brings many droplets of liquids to spherical bubbles, since a sphere has the minimum surface to volume ratio. Thus, a sphere with a surface of 4pir2 and volume of 4/3pir3 has a surface to volume ratio of 3/r, that is, the ratio is dependent upon the reciprocal of the radius. The chemistry of water as dihydrides of the electronegative element oxygen is fundamentally dependent upon its polar properties and particularly the delta positive charges on the hydrogen atoms and the double delta negative charge on the larger oxygen atom, which from its mass (16 Da) is regarded as the centre of the water molecules. The cohesion of water as a liquid or as semi-crystal like structures in the surface depends upon electrostatic forces that are comparable in strength to covalent bonds. This review discusses the functional implications of some unexpected properties which have been evinced by model building and illustrated as a Poster in the 4th World Congress of Cellular and Molecular Biology. PMID:17543223

Widdas, W F

2006-01-01

311

Study of the technology of decontamination of water which has been regenerated from the liquid products of human vital functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Decontamination of water during its regeneration from products of the vital functions of man is considered. It has been shown that the starting products may contain a large quantity of microflora. In order to guarantee decontamination of the regenerated water the following technological procedures have been developed: conservation of urine, filtration of condensate of water through sorbents, and preparation of components of a system from materials which have antimicrobial properties.

Kryuchkov, V. A.; Rogatina, L. N.

1973-01-01

312

Correlation effects among atomic thermal displacements in oscillatory diffuse neutron scattering of ZnSe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron scattering measurements have been performed on powder ZnSe at 15, 150 and 300 K. The temperature dependence of diffuse scattering is observed. Oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity is clearly observed at 150 and 300 K. The diffuse scattering theory including correlation effects among atomic thermal displacements is used as background function in the Rietveld analysis. The oscillatory diffuse neutron scattering intensity is explained by including the correlation effects among atomic thermal displacements of first, second and third nearest neighboring atoms. The inter-atomic distance and temperature dependence of the values of correlation effects among atomic thermal displacements are discussed.

2009-02-21

313

Structure and functions of water-membrane interfaces and their role in proto-biological evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the most important developments in proto-biological evolution was the emergence of membrane-like structures. These are formed by spontaneous association of relatively simple amphiphilic molecules that would have been readily available in the primordial environment. The resulting interfacial regions between water and nonpolar interior of the membrane have several properties which made them uniquely suitable for promoting subsequent evolution. They can (1) selectively attract organic material and mediate its transport, (2) serve as simple catalysts for chemical reactions, and (3) promote the formation of trans-membrane electrical and chemical gradients which could provide energy sources for proto-cells. Understanding the structure of interfaces, their interactions with organic molecules and molecular mechanisms of their functions is an essential step to understanding proto-biological evolution. In our computer simulation studies, we showed that the structure of water at interfaces with nonpolar media is significantly different from that in the bulk. In particular, the average surface dipole density points from the vapor to the liquid. As a result, negative ions can approach the interface more easily than positive ions. Amphiphilic molecules composed of hydrocarbon conjugated rings and polar substituents (e.g., phenol) assume at the interface rigid orientations in which polar groups are buried in water while hydrocarbon parts are located in the nonpolar environment. These orientational differences are of special interest in connection with the ability of some of these molecules to efficiently absorb photons. Flexible molecules with polar substituents often adopt at interfaces conformations different from those in the bulk aquaeous solution and in the gas phase. As a result, in many instances both specificity and kinetics of chemical reactions in which these molecules can participate is modified by the presence of surfaces. Of special interest is the mechanism by which polar molecules are transferred across interface between water and a nonpolar medium. Our recent study showed that simple ionophores bind ions by the same mechanisms as ion channels and carriers from modern cells.

Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

1991-01-01

314

Structure and functions of simple membrane-water interfaces. [Abstract only  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and functions of the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells are focal points in studies of the origin of life. Probably the first cell-like structures were vesicles - closed, spheroidal structures with aqueous medium trapped inside. The membranous walls of vesicles were most likely bilayers composed of simple amphiphilic material available on early earth. The membrane studied was composed of glycerol 1-monooleate (GMO). Glycerol forms the polar head group and the oily tail contains 18 carbon atoms. All head groups have been found to be located in two narrow regions at the interfaces with water. The membrane interior, formed by the hydrophobic tails, is quite fluid with chain disorder increasing towards the center of the bilayer. These results are in agreement with x-ray and neutron scattering data from related bilayers. The width of the membrane is not constant, but fluctuates in time and space. Occasional thinning defects in the membrane, observed during the course of the simulations, may have a significant influence on rates of passive transport of small molecules across membranes. It has been found that water penetrates the head group region but not the oily interior of the membrane. Water molecules near the interface are oriented by dipoles of the head groups. The resulting electrostatic potential across the interface, determined in our simulations, has been found to be markedly larger than across the water-oil interface. This quantity has been implicated as the source of selectivity, with respect to the sign of the charge, as an ion approaches the interface and during transport of hydrophobic ions across membranes.

Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M. A.

1994-01-01

315

Water Storage Dynamics of Saturated and Unsaturated Zones and its Function in Hydrological Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Subsurface water storage for hydrological processes can be divided into unsaturated soil moisture and saturated water storage (a shallow groundwater aquifer). Surface layer moisture content is a state variable that is either simulated or required as input in many hydrological models. The high or low of the shallow groundwater reservoir fast or slow of saturated flow and flow discharges from the catchment outlet. As a result of heterogeneity of soil properties, topography, land cover, evapotranspiration and precipitation, the soil moisture content and the shallow groundwater reservoir is highly variable in three-dimensional space and time (Engman, 1974; Wood et al., 1992). Expression of heterogeneity of soil moisture content and the shallow groundwater storage is critical for hydrological model development and success in hydrological simulation. In this study, we developed a new hydrological model with functions of water storage dynamics of saturated and unsaturated zones. A mathematical expression of topographic and soil controlled spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture holding capacity was derived in terms of Van Genuchten model and topographical index. The subsurface store and storage-discharge process is expressed by a horizontal Boussinesq equation with a power law hydraulic conductivity profile (Rupp and Selker, 2005). The "top-down" approach according to unsaturated accounting and the "bottom-up" approach according to baseflow separation were used to integrate both storage dynamics for developing the new model. The top-down and bottom-up methods enable the model parameters to be determined according to watershed soil, topography and flow discharge. Model testing was carried out in a number of nested sub-basins of a watershed (Huangnizhuang River in Huaihe basin) in the humid region in China. Simulation results show that the model is capable of describing spatial and temporal variations of water balance components, including soil moisture content, shallow groundwater storage, evapotranspiration and runoff, over the watershed. References: Engman, E.T., Rogowski, A.S. 1974. A partial area model for storm flow synthesis. Water Resources Research, 10: 464 - 472. Rupp D R, Selker J S. 2005. Drainage of a horizontal Boussinesq aquifer with a power law hydraulic conductivity profile.Water Resource Research, 41, W11422, doi:10.1029/2005WR004241. Wood, E.F., Lettenmaier, D.P., Zatarian, V.G. 1992. A land surface hydrology parameterization with subgrid variability for general circulation models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97: 2717 - 2728.

Chen, X.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, M.; Song, Q.

2012-12-01

316

Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most widespread yet manageable pressures we impose on the seabed is disturbance of the substrate by towed demersal fishing gear (bottom trawling and dredging). Over the past forty to fifty years, many studies have been conducted specifically aiming to understand the impacts of such fishing gear on the seabed communities. Their outcomes have demonstrated dramatic effects of bottom trawling on the structure of marine ecosystems although impacts tend to be wide-ranging, depending upon the gear, intensity, spatial area and the nature of the seabed habitats. However, understanding the functional impacts of this activity (as opposed to impacts on the structure of benthic assemblages) has only recently been attempted. Advances in the application of biological traits analysis (BTA) wherein the assemblages are described in terms of their life history, behavioural and morphological characteristics, have allowed us to better understand the interactions between the benthic fauna and their environment at a functional level. We present the initial findings of work conducted under the auspices of the EU-funded project â??BENTHISâ?? which aims to improve our understanding of the impacts of trawling on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal trait composition and environmental variables (depth, sediment granulometry); ii) determine the relationship between traits and habitat type (EUNIS level 4); and iii) assess the relationships between trawling pressure (using data derived under BENTHIS; see Eigaard et al., this volume) and traits composition

Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew

317

Water  

...the Private Water Supplies Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1994. The Drinking Water Inspectorate:regulates drinking water quality in Northern Ireland for public and private suppliesassesses drinking water quality against...

318

Modified Newmark method involving excess pore pressure to express unlimited landslide displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Newmark method is the most popular approach to assess the displacement of landslides induced by earthquakes using seismic acceleration, slope inclination, and friction parameters. However, this method always shows limited shear displacement no matter how the acceleration is large and duration is long. This is partly because it does not include any pore pressure, especially excess pore water pressure generated under long shear displacement. As shown by series of earthquake wave-form loading undrained ring shear tests by Disaster Prevention Research Institute of Kyoto University, grain crushing or soil skelton collapse can contribute to generation of high excess pore pressure and let the soil to reach liquefaction state ("Sliding surface liquefaction"). Many of unlimited landslide displacement have been revealed that this phenomena must be the key mechanism. In the test series of mixture of silica sands and dry-ice pellets (frozen carbon-dioxide), for studying the mechanism of the gasification of methane hydrates in the submarine landslides which likely to trigger large scale submarine landslides, authors have found linear relationship between log of excess pore pressure ratio (generated pore pressure / initial effective normal stress) and log of shear displacement. By embedding this relation into the Newmark method, unlimited shear displacement can appear under certain slope inclination and exaggerated acceleration. Authors show there is critical slope inclination for unlimited displacement when given acceleration waveform.

Fukuoka, H.; Tsukui, A.

2012-12-01

319

Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes. PMID:20132270

Meertens, Donny

2010-04-01

320

New laminated displacement-discontinuity program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A displacement-discontinuity program incorporating a frictionless, laminated overburden with `homogeneous stratifications` has recently been developed. This program LAMODEL, simulates the overburden as a stack of homogeneous isotropic layers with frictionless interfaces, and with each layer having the identical elastic modulus, Poisson`s Ratio, and thickness. The program calculates stresses and displacements at the seam level and at requested locations in the overburden or at the surface. As part of the initial investigation and validation of this new laminated formulation, the program is used to model the underground stresses and displacements, the topographic stresses and the inter-seam interactions from two field studies. The results from the model are compared with the field measurements and with previous results from an elastic homogeneous isotropic analysis. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Heasley, K.A.; Salamon, M.D.G. [US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
321

Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE) in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal inconti [...] nence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years) were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3?min) was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1), and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2), 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges) for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16) and 27.5 (21) min, respectively (P = 0.10)]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

V.P.I., Fernandes; M.C.L., Lima; E.E., Camargo; E.F., Collares; J.M., Bustorff-Silva; E.A., Lomazi.

2013-03-15

322

Photon-added and photon-subtracted displaced Fock states and their non-classical properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new kind of quantum optical state, photon-added and -subtracted displaced Fock states, is introduced by applying the inverse of bosonic creation and annihilation operators to displaced Fock states. The quantum statistical properties of these states are investigated by numerical methods. Numerical results indicate that these states reveal some interesting non-classical properties, such as anti-bunching effects, sub-Poisson distributions and negativities of their Wigner functions. (classical areas of phenomenology)

2009-11-01

323

Ultrasonic Tracking of Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Displacements in Homogeneous Media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of ultrasonic methods to track the tissue deformation generated by acoustic radiation force is subject to jitter and displacement underestimation errors, with displacement underestimation being primarily caused by lateral and elevation shearing within the point spread function (PSF) of the ultrasonic beam. Models have been developed using finite element methods and Field II, a linear acoustic field simulation package, to study the impact of focal configuration, tracking frequency, and...

Palmeri, Mark L.; Mcaleavey, Stephen A.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

2006-01-01

324

General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.

Dehghani, A., E-mail: alireza.dehghani@gmail.com, E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-04-15

325

A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs

1996-01-01

326

Modelling of displacement washing of packed bed of fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The mechanism of displacement washing of packed bed of porous, compressible and cylindrical particles, e.g., fibers, is presented with the help of an axial dispersion model involving Peclet number (Pe) and Biot number (Bi). Bulk fluid concentration, intra-pore solute concentration and concentration [...] of solute adsorbed on the fiber surface are taken to be the function of washing time and position in the bed. Concentration of solute adsorbed on the fiber surface and intra-pore solute concentration are related by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Experiments have been performed on pulp beds formed from unbeaten, unbleached kraft fibers. Displacement washing has been simulated using a laboratory washing cell. Model equations are solved by using orthogonal collocation on finite elements (OCFE). Model predicted values are compared with the experimental values and key industrial parameters such as displacement ratio and efficiency are expressed in terms of exit and average solute concentrations.

S., Arora; F., Pot& #367; & #269; ek.

327

Energy dependence of proton displacement damage factors for bipolar transistors  

Science.gov (United States)

Displacement damage factors, K(p), have been measured as a function of collector current for proton irradiations of 2N2222A (npn) and 2N2907A (pnp) switching transistors and 2N3055 (npn) power transistors over the energy range 5.0 to 60.3 MeV. The measurements of K(p) were made on specially selected lots of devices and were compared to values of the neutron damage factors, K(n), for 1-MeV displacement damage equivalent neutrons made on the same devices. The results show that, so far as device operation is concerned, the nature of the displacement damage produced by high energy protons and by fission neutrons is essentially the same. Over the energy range studied, protons were found to be more damaging than neutrons. For 5.0 MeV protons Kp/Kn was about 8.5 compared to about 1.8 for 60.3 MeV protons.

Summers, Geoffrey P.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Dale, Cheryl J.; Wolicki, Eligius A.; Marshall, Paul

1986-12-01

328

A displacement spindle in a micro/nano level  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents two micro/nano level displacement sensors, which consist of a mini LDGI (linear diffraction grating interferometer) and a focus probe. These two sensors are integrated into the spindle system of a micro/nano-CMM. This micro/nano spindle system is fixed on a rectangular granite bridge to achieve the z-axis function. The motion of the spindle is driven by an ultrasonic motor on a precision cross-roller slide. Its displacement is fed back by the LDGI. A DVD pick-up head is modified with its S-curve principle as the non-contact focus probe. Mounting the probe onto the spindle head, it is possible to achieve a large displacement and nanoresolution measuring spindle system with a feedback nanomotion control scheme. After accuracy calibration and error compensation, the spindle motion to 10 mm can perform 10 nm positioning accuracy and 30 nm measurement accuracy. Experiments on some ultraprecision profiles have shown the capability of this spindle system.

Fan, Kuang-Chao; Lai, Zi-Fa; Wu, Peitsung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chen, Yejin; Jäger, Gerd

2007-06-01

329

Field measurement of relative ground displacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of existing structures is a major requirement during underground nuclear blasts detonated as part of the Plowshare Program. Instrumental arrays to record ground motion are routinely established prior to blasts. These provide data on particle motions during the event but do not provide direct information concerning ground strains and relative displacements which may effect bridges, buildings, irrigation channels and other structures with large plan dimension. An experimental technique which was hastily developed and deployed to measure relative displacements during the Rio Blanco event of May 17, 1973 is described. The work was performed in anticipation of the Project Wagon Wheel in an area of Wyoming with many concrete lined irrigation channels

1975-06-18

330

Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductor orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit and the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical application (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

Hristoforou, E. (NCSR Demokritos Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece). Inst. of Material Science); Reilly, R.E. (King' s College London (United Kingdom). Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.)

1994-09-01

331

Integrated surveying and observation of strata displacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reports on a comprehensive series of measurements to monitor surface subsidence above moving, winning faces and displacement and deformation of underworked strata against time. Measurements are taken by special mine survey teams on the surface and at fixed datum points in overlying roadways and supported by surface and underground observations at the start of the winning face and after subsidence is complete. Results of measurements of strata displacement, convergence, zones of bearing pressure and floor lift taken at the Stepnaya coal mine in the Pavlogradugol' production association are analyzed and graphs shown depicting strata behavior.

Lisitsa, I.G.; Larchenko, V.G.

1986-06-01

332

The relationship of the displacement capacity of CO/sub 2/ slugs to the oil saturation in sandstones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coefficients for the water and carbon dioxide slug displacement of oil are determined for various degrees of oil saturation. Slugs of CO/sub 2/ with the dimension 0.15 V /SUB n/ increase the displacement coefficient by 0.046-0.048. Iterative slugs of CO/sub 2/ with the dimensions 0.22-0.25 V /SUB n/ fully increase the displacement coefficient by 0.043-0.058. The cumulative effect of the injection of two slugs of CO/sub 2/ with a general volume of 0.37-0.4 V /SUB n/ was expressed in the increase of the displacement coefficient by 0.090-0.106. It is indicated that the coefficient for oil displacement determines the size of the carbon dioxide slug and does not depend upon the water saturation of the porous space if this saturation is found to be within the limits of 12-78%.

Khakimov, A.M.; Panteleev, V.G.; Skutina, T.V.

1980-01-01

333

Transepidermal water loss for probing full-thickness skin barrier function: correlation with tritiated water flux, sensitivity to punctures and diverse surfactant exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin barrier function is a key parameter to consider when performing in vitro percutaneous absorption studies. Whilst tritiated water flux measurements were often used to assess skin integrity, recent decades have witnessed the emergence of the more rapid and user-friendly transepidermal water loss (TEWL) approach. Yet to date, the nature of the correlation between TEWL and skin barrier function in vitro has still not been comprehensively established. In this study, a novel TEWL device, operating on a cold-induced vapour sink principle, was used to probe the barrier function of full-thickness porcine skin. The method was sufficiently sensitive to show the influence of punctures on barrier function although the observed non-linear pattern suggested tissue swelling processes and/or capillary action could be occurring. The results of various surfactant application experiments strongly suggested that TEWL was indeed largely predictive of skin sample integrity. A key finding was that basal TEWL was linearly correlated with basal tritiated water flux (r(2)=0.80, n=63). Thus, a dedicated TEWL method can be used as a good alternative to water flux measurements for assessing full-thickness skin barrier function. PMID:19577629

Elmahjoubi, Eman; Frum, Yakov; Eccleston, Gillian M; Wilkinson, Simon C; Meidan, Victor M

2009-10-01

334

Surface-functionalized diatom microcapsules for drug delivery of water-insoluble drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Naturally available and biocompatible materials are potential substitutes for synthetic mesoporous materials as suitable drug carriers for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems. This work investigates the application of a porous silica material derived from diatoms, also known as diatomaceous earth. The aim is to explore the surface functionalization of diatom microcapsules and their impact on the drug loading and release characteristics of water-insoluble drugs. Indomethacin was used as the model for poorly soluble drug. The surface modification on diatoms was performed with two organosilanes; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine and phosphonic acids (2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid and 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid) providing organic surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Extensive characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry was performed to confirm covalent grafting of monolayer aminosilane and phosphonic acid on the diatom surfaces. Differences in loading capacity of diatoms (15-24%) and release time (6-15 days) were observed which is due to the presence of different functional groups on the surface. It was found that 2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine render diatom surfaces hydrophilic, due to polar carboxyl functional group (COOH) and active amine species (NH and NH2) that favor drug adsorption; better encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release of drugs, over the hydrophobic surface created by 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid. This work demonstrates diatom porous silica as a promising drug carrier, with possibility to further improve their performances by tailoring their surface functionalities to achieve the required drug loading and release characteristics for different therapeutic conditions. PMID:22457043

Aw, Moom Sinn; Bariana, Manpreet; Yu, Yang; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

2013-08-01

335

Changes in T-lymphocyte function of mice induced by internal exposure to tritiated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The change in transformation function of T lymphocytes and their capacity to secrete interleukin-2 (IL-2) were observed in mice exposed to various doses of tritiated water (HTO) by a lymphocyte transformation test and a technique for measuring IL-2. The results showed that the relationship between the dosage of HTO (x, 1.0-8.0 Gy) and the ratio of transformed lymphocytes (y, %) can be expressed by y = 166.6-162.61 gx (r = -0.992), and that there is little influence on secretion of IL-2 when internal doses of HTO are from 1.0 to 4.0 Gy, but 8.0 Gy can significantly inhibite IL-2 secretion (p < 0.05)

1989-01-01

336

Effect of heavy water on structure-function relationship of lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural and functional behaviour of lactate dehydrogenase purified from Lactobacillus casei was compared in H_2O and heavy water (D_2O). The enzyme showed reduced activity in D_2O, being only 45% of that observed in H_2O. The modulations of the enzyme caused by the substrate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate examined at varying pH and pD values indicated decreased cooperativity in D_2O. The elution profiles of the enzyme on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of the substrate and fructose 1, 6-diphosphate at varying pD values showed a shift towards lower molecular weight species. At pD 5,4 fructose diphosphate did not cause any further shift in the elution pattern which was otherwise observed in H_2O. (author)

1980-08-01

337

Water Extract of Acer tegmentosum Reduces Bone Destruction by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stem of Acer tegmentosum has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of hepatic disorders. In this study, we investigated the bone protective effect of water extract of the stem of Acer tegmentosum (WEAT. We found that WEAT inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine for osteoclast differentiation. In osteoclast precursor cells, WEAT inhibited RANKL-induced activation of JNK, NF-?B, and cAMP response element-binding protein, leading to suppression of the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, key transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation. In addition, WEAT inhibited bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, the oral administration of WEAT reduced RANKL-induced bone resorption and trabecular bone loss in mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that WEAT possesses a protective effect on bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

Hyunil Ha

2014-04-01

338

Solubility products, thermodynamic functions and stability constants for the praseodymium and ytterbium fluoride - water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solubility products and thermodynamic functions for the praseodymium and ytterbium fluoride-water systems were measured using different analytical techniques for comparison among the measured values and literature data. Although there is not much difference among the values obtained by potentiometric, conductometric and radiometric methods, the values for PrF3 disagree with at least two of the reported values. The standard enthalpy and free energy changes for the dissolution of both fluorides were found to be positive although the enthalpy for YbP3 is about twice as high as that for PrF3. The standard entropy change for PrF3 is negative, but that for YbF3 is positive. The overall stability constants for the mono- and difluoride complexes of both Pr and Yb were measured potentiometrically. (author) 23 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

1989-01-01

339

Graphene on ferromagnetic surfaces and its functionalization with water and ammonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In this article, an angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, and density-functional theory (DFT investigations of water and ammonia adsorption on graphene/Ni(111 are presented. The results of adsorption on graphene/Ni(111 obtained in this study reveal the existence of interface states, originating from the strong hybridization of the graphene ? and spin-polarized Ni 3d valence band states. ARPES and XAS data of the H2O (NH3/graphene/Ni(111 system give an information regarding the kind of interaction between the adsorbed molecules and the graphene on Ni(111. The presented experimental data are compared with the results obtained in the framework of the DFT approach.

Voloshina Elena

2011-01-01

340

Use of continuous electrical capacitance and transepidermal water loss measurements for assessing barrier function in neonatal rat skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A vital function of the skin is to oppose the loss of water to the environment. In this study, two complementary methods, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and continuous electrical capacitance under occlusion, were used to assess epidermal barrier function in a developmental animal model, the neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat. TEWL monitors barrier function directly while the increase in capacitance under occlusion is related to both the skin's barrier function and to its water holding capacity. Serial tape stripping of the stratum corneum on 1-day-old rat pups led to a significant increase in both TEWL and continuous capacitance measurements. Anatomic site heterogeneity and the effects of surface temperature were also studied. The ventral skin surface exhibited an increase in the continuous capacitance measurements, an effect possibly due to the thinner stratum corneum on the ventral side. Both TEWL and continuous capacitance values were directly correlated with ambient temperatures within the physiological range. PMID:7488394

Wickett, R R; Nath, V; Tanaka, R; Hoath, S B

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

An Assessment of Relationship Between Arsenic in Drinking Water, Health Status and Intellectual Functioning of Children in District Kasur  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study determination of arsenic (As) contamination in the drinking water and urine of children along with its effect on their health status and intellectual functioning was assessed. The study was carried out in order to determine any correlation between intake of arsenic and intellectual functioning level of the children. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM) was administered on children of (8-15) years of age to assess their intellectual functioning and their health status was ch...

2012-01-01

342

Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, October 1, 1975--June 30, 1976  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on the following research projects: characterization of functional groups of running water organisms, particularly macroconsumers; studies on relationship of functional groups to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of organic inputs to stream ecosystems; studies on relationship of functional groups to thermal regimes; and dimensioning the control of feeding and growth by temperature and food quality and quantity and determining the extent of compensatory action of each. (HLW)

Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

1976-07-01

343

Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs, the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error at both sites. All of the GMFs exhibit a negative bias in the retrieved wind speed. In order to understand the reason for this bias, all SAR-retrieved wind speeds are separated into two categories: onshore wind (blowing from sea to land and offshore wind (blowing from land to sea. Only offshore winds were found to exhibit the large negative bias, and short fetches from the coastline may be a possible reason for this. Moreover, it is clarified that in both the unstable and stable conditions, CMOD5.N has atmospheric stability effectiveness, and can keep the same accuracy with CMOD5 in the neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch.

Merete Badger

2013-04-01

344

Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max?: 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ? a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). However, heat accumulation or dissipation (forearm skin blood flow and sweat rate) were not improved by salt ingestion. In contrast, both salt trials maintained cardiac output (? 1.3 ± 1.4 L/min; P < 0.05) and stroke volume (? 10 ± 11 mL/beat; P < 0.05) above CON after 120 min of exercise. Furthermore, the salt trials equally improved time-trial performance by 7.4% above CON (? 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Our data suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of salt plus water maintains higher plasma volume during dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance. PMID:23253191

Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

2014-06-01

345

Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): A density-functional theory study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SrTiO3 is a technological oxide, with applications as photo-catalyst, gas-sensor or as substrate for film growth. In many of these applications the surface of SrTiO3 is deliberately or unintended in contact with water molecules. Aiming for the atomic-scale details of this interaction we perform density-functional theory calculations addressing the adsorption of H2O on both regular terminations of the SrTiO3(001) surface. We find that the binding energetics is crucially controlled by long-range surface relaxations. Using this energetics to construct a thermodynamic phase diagram we obtain a different propensity for hydroxylation of the two terminations that is consistent with recent experiments by Iwahori et al. Around room temperature the SrO-termination becomes hydroxylated already at lowest background humidity, whereas the TiO2-terminated domains stay practically water-free in the range of low and moderate H2O vapor pressures.

2010-03-21

346

Multihydroxy dendritic upconversion nanoparticles with enhanced water dispersibility and surface functionality for bioimaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) as a new class of imaging agent is gaining prominence because of its unique optical properties. An ideal UCNP for bioimaging should simultaneously possess fine water dispersibility and favorable functional groups. In this paper, we present a simple but effective method to the synthesis of a UCNP-based nanohybrid bearing a multihydroxy hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) shell by the combination of a "grafting from" strategy with a ring-opening polymerization technique. The structure and morphology of the resulting UCNP-g-HPG nanohybrid were characterized in detail by Fourier transform infrared, (1)H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The results reveal that the amount of grafted HPG associated with the thickness of the HPG shell can be well tuned. UCNP-g-HPG shows high water dispersibility and strong and stable upconversion luminescence. On the basis of its numerous surface hydroxyl groups, UCNP-g-HPG can be tailored by a representative fluorescent dye rhodamine B to afford a UCNP-g-HPG-RB nanohybrid that simultaneously presents upconversion and downconversion luminescence. Preliminary biological studies demonstrate that UCNP-g-HPG shows low cytotoxicity, high luminescent contrast, and deep light penetration depth, posing promising potential for bioimaging applications. PMID:24749852

Zhou, Li; He, Benzhao; Huang, Jiachang; Cheng, Zehong; Xu, Xu; Wei, Chun

2014-05-28

347

Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slabs. The pathway for water-gas-shift reaction on both terminations has been carefully studied where the most favorable reaction path precedes the redox mechanism, namely the reaction takes place as follows: CO + H2O --> CO + OH + H --> CO + O + 2H --> CO2 + H-2. The most likely reaction candidates for the formate species HCOO formation is the surface CO2 reaction with H as a side reaction of CO2 desorption on S-termination with 50% S coverage. The formed HCOO species will react further with adsorbed hydrogen yielding H2COO followed by breaking its C-O bond to form the surface CH2O and O species.

Wang, Shengguang

2009-01-01

348

Improving the density functional theory description of water with self-consistent polarization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a comprehensive set of results for water, a case study of a hydrogen-bonded system, using the self-consistent polarization density functional theory (SCP-DFT). With minimal parametrization, SCP-DFT is found to give good results for the interaction energy of the dimer; the geometries, cohesion energies, and harmonic frequencies of larger clusters; and the structure and enthalpy of the liquid, as compared to accurate theoretical and experimental benchmarks. We also compared our SCP-DFT potential to the base DFT BLYP potential and also to a simpler dispersion-supplemented potential, BLYP-D. Using the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (with a DFT description of monomers), the BLYP, BLYP-D, and SCP-DFT water dimer potentials were analyzed into their physically interpretable components. Comparison with the benchmark SAPT(DFT) components showed reasonable agreement for all the four components of electrostatics, exchange, induction, and dispersion energies. This procedure enhances understanding and can suggest further improvements. Thus, the SCP-DFT approach holds promise as a fast, efficient, and accurate method for performing ab initio dynamics that include additional polarization and dispersion interactions for large, complex systems involving solvation and bond breaking.

Murdachaew, Garold; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.

2010-04-30

349

PSF dedicated to estimation of displacement vectors for tissue elasticity imaging with ultrasound  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates a new approach devoted to displacement vector estimation in ultrasound imaging. The main idea is to adapt the image formation to a given displacement estimationmethod to increase the precision of the estimation. The displacement is identified as the zero crossing of the phase of the complex cross-correlation between signals extracted from the lateral direction of the ultrasound RF image. For precise displacement estimation, a linearity of the phase slope is needed as well as a high phase slope. Consequently, a particular point spread function (PSF) dedicated to this estimator is designed. This PSF, showing oscillations in the lateral direction, leads to synthesis of lateral RF signals. The estimation is included in a 2-D displacement vector estimation method. The improvement of this approach is evaluated quantitatively by simulation studies. A comparison with a speckle tracking technique is also presented. The lateral oscillations improve both the speckle tracking estimation and our 2-D estimation method. Using our dedicated images, the precision of the estimation is improved by reducing the standard deviation of the lateral displacement error by a factor of 2 for speckle tracking and more than 3 with our method compared to using conventional images. Our method performs 7 times better than speckle tracking. Experimentally, the improvement in the case of a pure lateral translation reaches a factor of 7. Finally, the experimental feasibility of the 2-D displacement vector estimation is demonstrated on data acquired from a Cryogel phantom.

Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2007-01-01

350

Positive displacement pumps - a brief survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief survey of positive displacement (PD) pumps is presented. Types of reciprocating pumps included are piston, plunger, and diaphragm types. The discussion of rotary pumps highlights gearpumps for lubricating liquids, sliding van pumps, gearpumps for non-lubricating liquids, flexible impeller pumps, helical rotor pumps, and peristaltic pumps. Broad hydraulic characteristics of the various pumps are presented diagrammatically.

Marshal, P.

1985-10-01

351

Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

Filipe Pais

2012-01-01

352

Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

Filipe Pais

2012-12-01

353

Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

Han, Sang Bo [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

354

Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO3 and KTaO3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

1994-01-01

355

Displacement Gage for the Rock Mechanics Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gage for measuring displacements has been developed for use in the rock mechanics laboratory and in the field. The gage consists of a support ring that holds an LVDT (liner variable differential transformer), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The gag...

D. J. Holcomb M. J. McNamee

1984-01-01

356

Gage for Measuring Displacements in Rock Samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting...

D. J. Holcomb M. J. McNamee

1985-01-01

357

Displaced Iraqis – caught in the maelstrom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By the time Saddam Hussein’s regime collapsed in April 2003, thirty years of state-directed displacement had created over a million refugees and IDPs. As the insurgency continues, the occupation authorities, provisional government and the international community are unable to facilitate orderly return.

David Romano

2005-01-01

358

Liquid Propellant Gun, Positive Displacement Single Valve.  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved bi-propellant injection system for a liquid propellant gun includes a valve which is positively opened at the start of the injection of the fuel and oxidizer into the gun chamber and held at a predetermined displacement to provide a constant s...

S. E. Ayler J. W. Holtrop

1978-01-01

359

Education: protecting the rights of displaced children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

Suba Mahalingam

2002-10-01

360

Are fire, soil fertility and toxicity, water availability, plant functional diversity, and litter decomposition related in a Neotropical savanna?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how biodiversity and ecosystem functioning respond to changes in the environment is fundamental to the maintenance of ecosystem function. In realistic scenarios, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning path may account for only a small share of all factors determining ecosystem function. Here, we investigated the strength to which variations in environmental characteristics in a Neotropical savanna affected functional diversity and decomposition. We sought an integrative approach, testing a number of pairwise hypotheses about how the environment, biodiversity, and functioning were linked. We used structural equation modelling to connect fire frequency, soil fertility, exchangeable Al, water availability, functional diversity of woody plants, tree density, tree height, and litter decomposition rates in a causal chain. We found significant effects of soil nutrients, water availability, and Al on functional diversity and litter decomposition. Fire did not have a significant direct effect on functional diversity or litter decomposition. However, fire was connected to both variables through soil fertility. Functional diversity did not influence rates of litter decomposition. The mediated effects that emerged from pairwise interactions are encouraging not only for predicting the functional consequences of changes in environmental variables and biodiversity, but also to caution against predictions based on only environmental or only biodiversity change. PMID:24748157

Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique; Batalha, Marco Antônio; Silva, Igor Aurélio; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Petchey, Owen L

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Korean red ginseng water extract restores impaired endothelial function by inhibiting arginase activity in aged mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease is the prime cause of morbidity and mortality and the population ages that may contribute to increase in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Arginase upregulation is associated with impaired endothelial function in aged vascular system and thus may contribute to cardiovascular disease. According to recent research, Korean Red Ginseng water extract (KRGE) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular system health. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms contributing to age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and to determine whether KRGE improves these functions in aged mice. Young (10±3 weeks) and aged (55±5 weeks) male mice (C57BL/6J) were orally administered 0, 10, or 20 mg/mouse/day of KRGE for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and the aortas were removed. Endothelial arginase activity, nitric oxide (NO) generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling, vascular tension, and plasma peroxynitrite production were measured. KRGE attenuated arginase activity, restored nitric oxide (NO) generation, reduced ROS production, and enhanced eNOS coupling in aged mice. KRGE also improved vascular tension in aged vessels, as indicated by increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and improved phenylephrine-stimulated vasoconstriction. Furthermore, KRGE prevented plasma peroxynitrite formation in aged mice, indicating reduced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest KRGE exerts vasoprotective effects by inhibiting arginase activity and augmenting NO signaling and may be a useful treatment for age-dependent vascular diseases. PMID:24757370

Choi, Kwanhoon; Yoon, Jeongyeon; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

2014-04-01

362

Aquaporins in Saccharomyces: Characterization of a second functional water channel protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome database contains two ORFs with homology to aquaporins, AQY1 and AQY2. Aqy1p has been shown to be a functional aquaporin in some strains, such as Sigma1278b. AQY2 is disrupted by a stop codon in most strains; however, Sigma1278b has an intact ORF. Because Sigma1278b Aqy2p has an intracellular localization in Xenopus oocytes and in yeast, other strains of yeast were examined. Aqy2p from Saccharomyces chevalieri has a single amino acid in the third transmembrane domain (Ser-141) that differs from Sigma1278b Aqy2p (Pro-141). S. chevalieri Aqy2p is a functional water channel in oocytes and traffics to the plasma membrane of yeast. The Sigma1278b parental strain, the aqy1-aqy2 double null yeast, and null yeast expressing S. chevalieri Aqy2p were examined under various conditions. Comparison of these strains revealed that the aquaporin null cells were more aggregated and their surface was more hydrophobic. As a result, the aquaporin null cells were more flocculent and more efficient at haploid invasive growth. Despite its primary intracellular localization, Sigma1278b Aqy2p plays a role in yeast similar to Aqy1p and S. chevalieri Aqy2p. In addition, Aqy1p and Aqy2p can affect cell surface properties and may provide an advantage by dispersing the cells during starvation or during sexual reproduction. PMID:11158584

Carbrey, J M; Bonhivers, M; Boeke, J D; Agre, P

2001-01-30

363

Development of a Positive Displacement Micro-Hydro Turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to develop an efficient turbine that can be used to extract micro hydropower potential of a water supply system. For the case of high head and critical low flow rate range of micro hydropower resources, it requires very low specific speed turbines which are lower than conventional impulse turbines’ specific speed. For this purpose, we develop a new Positive Displacement Turbine (PDT). In order to reveal the performance characteristics of the new turbine, one conventional impulse turbine, which is used for automatic water faucet system, was tested for comparison. The test results show that the PDT was much more efficient than a conventional turbine and it can sustain high efficiency under the wide range of operating conditions. In addition, the efficiency of the PDT is much improved when reducing its side clearance. The pressure pulsations at the inlet and outlet of the PDT can be considerably minimized by using simple dampers.

Phommachanh, Dousith; Kurokawa, Junichi; Choi, Young-Do; Nakajima, Noboru

364

Investigation of a complex rock slope displacement at Brenda Mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The history and analysis of a structurally complex open-pit rock slope displacement are described. The failure involved part of the only haulage access to a major ore zone. The ongoing movement was monitored using an electric distance-measuring device and a continuous electric system specifically designed for the problem. A major fault, infilled with a thick clay gouge, and intersected by other structural features, resulted in the transfer of weight to a rock mass acting as a buttress in the lower regions. Movements were affected by blasting vibrations and ground-water conditions. Remedial measures included limiting blasting levels and lowering the water table, following which mining was successfully resumed in the area. (7 refs.)

Calder, P.N.; Blackwell, G.

1980-08-01

365

Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A recent extensive study has investigated how various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals treat hydrogen bonds in water hexamers and has shown traditional generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functionals used in density-functional (DF) theory to give the wrong dissociation-energy trend of low-lying isomers and van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces to give key contributions to the dissociation energy. The question raised whether functionals that incorporate vdW forces implicitly into the XC functional predict the correct lowest-energy structure for the water hexamer and yield accurate total dissociation energy is here answered affirmatively for the vdW-DF [M. Dion , Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 246401 (2004)].

Kelkkanen, Kari André; Lundqvist, Bengt

2009-01-01

366

Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy of a lateral displacement. However, for displacement vector measurements to describe complex tissue motions (eg, cardiac motion, if the axial coordinate corresponds to the depth direction in the target tissue, an ideal steering angle will be 45°. A two-dimensional echo simulation shows that for the block-matching methods, LM yields more accurate displacement vector measurements than ASTA, whereas with MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting and 1D methods, ASTA yields more accurate lateral displacement measurements than LM. The block-matching method requires fewer calculations than the moving average method; however, a lower degree of accuracy is obtained. As with LM, multidimensional measurement methods yield more accurate measurements with ASTA than the corresponding 1D measurement methods. Summarizing, for displacement vector measurements or lateral displacement measurements using the multidimensional measurement methods, the ranking of the degree of measurement accuracy and stability is ASTA with a mirror setting > LM with a moving average > LM with block matching > ASTA with block matching. Because every tissue has its own motion (heart, liver, etc and occasionally obstacles, such as bones, interfere with the measurements, the target tissue will determine the selection of the proper beamforming method with a choice between LM and ASTA. As for use with LM previously clarified, an appropriate displacement measurement method should also be selected for use with ASTA according to the echo signal-to-noise ratio, a required spatial resolution and a required calculation speed. ASTA, together with LM, can potentially enable the utilization of new aspects of displacement measurements.Keywords: a steering angle, lateral modulation, displacement vector measurement, lateral displacement measurement

Chikayoshi Sumi

2010-09-01

367

Do displacement activities help preschool children to inhibit a forbidden action?  

Science.gov (United States)

Displacement activities are commonly recognized as behavioral patterns, mostly including self-directed actions (e.g., scratching, self-touching), that often occur in situations involving conflicting motivational tendencies. In ethology, several researchers have suggested that displacement activities could facilitate individuals in dealing with the stress experienced in a frustrating context. In child developmental research, some authors have assessed whether distraction strategies could help children to inhibit a dominant response during delay of gratification tasks. However, little is known about the displacement activities that young children may produce in such situations. This study was aimed at investigating whether displacement activities had an effect on preschool children's ability to postpone an immediate gratification (i.e., interacting with an attractive toy, a musical box), thereby functioning as regulators of their emotional state. To this end, we administered 143 2- to 4-year-olds with a delay maintenance task and related their performance with displacement activities they produced during the task and with actions with an external object. Children's latency to touch the musical box was positively related to their rate of displacement activities. However, the rate of displacement activities increased progressively as long as the children were able to inhibit the interaction with the musical box. In addition, the rate of displacement activities during the first 1min of test did not predict the ability of children to inhibit the interaction with the box. These results suggest that displacement activities represented a functionless by-product of motivational conflict rather than a strategy that children used to inhibit their response to an attractive stimulus. PMID:24907630

Pecora, Giulia; Addessi, Elsa; Schino, Gabriele; Bellagamba, Francesca

2014-10-01

368

Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration  

CERN Multimedia

Precise centroid estimation plays a critical role in accurate astrometry using telescope images. Conventional centroid estimation fits a template point spread function (PSF) to the image data. Because the PSF is typically not known to high accuracy due to wavefront aberrations and uncertainties in optical system, a simple Gaussian function is commonly used. PSF knowledge error leads to systematic errors in the conventional centroid estimation. In this paper, we present an accurate centroid estimation algorithm by reconstructing the PSF from well sampled (above Nyquist frequency) pixelated images. In the limit of an ideal focal plane array whose pixels have identical response function (no inter-pixel variation), this method can estimate centroid displacement between two 32$\\times$32 images to sub-micropixel accuracy. Inter-pixel response variations exist in real detectors, {\\it e.g.}~CCDs, which we can calibrate by measuring the pixel response of each pixel in Fourier space. The Fourier transforms of the inter...

Zhai, Chengxing; Goullioud, Renaud; Nemati, Bijan

2011-01-01

369

FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Online Displacement Measurements Using a Heterodyne Interferometer  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application.

Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Serroukh, Ibrahim; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

2011-01-01

370

An ecohydrological framework for grass displacement by woody plants in savannas  

Science.gov (United States)

the past several decades, woody plants have been encroaching into grasslands around the world. This transition in plant dominance is often explained as a state shift in bistable ecosystem dynamics induced by fire-vegetation feedbacks. These feedbacks occur when woody plants are able to displace grasses because of their better access to soil water and light. On the other hand, grasses can displace woody plants because of their ability to increase fire frequency and of the higher susceptibility of woody plants to fire-induced mortality. In this study, we present an ecohydrological framework to investigate the displacement of grasses by woody plants. Considering the effect of lateral root spread and of soil water and light limitations, we found that woody plant encroachment can substantially suppress grass production even without the presence of grazers. Bistable dynamics emerge as a result of the grass-fire feedback for a wide range of rainfall conditions, fire susceptibility, and woody plant growth rates.

Yu, Kailiang; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-03-01

371

Present Situation Research on Axial Flow Displacement Theory During Cementing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that displacing drilling fluid effectively is the premise to obtain good cementing quality. During cementing axial flow is the major way to displace annular drilling fluid. So we put emphasis on the research of axial flow displacement theory. At present axial flow displacement theory mainly focuses on three aspects: displacement theory study based on wall shear stress; displacement theory study based on the numerical simulation technique for the displacement interface stability; displacement theory study based on laboratory experiments. In this paper, we analyzes the present research situation and their respective advantages and defects of the above mentioned three aspects in displacement theory. We put forward that infinitesimal mechanical analysis for displacement interface and numerical simulation technology for the interface stability should combine organically. In order to achieve good cementing effect, we should stress on the research and measurement of profile displacement efficiency and put the interface moving steadily as a prerequisite. As a result, our research can lay a fundamental the future development of axial flow displacement theory.Key words: Axial flow; Displacement theory; Wall shear stress; Interface stability; Displacement efficiency

AI Chi

2014-01-01

372

Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.  

Science.gov (United States)

Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region. PMID:21590557

Mowafi, Hani

2011-01-01

373

Measurement on liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacements meter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate details of the fascinating nonlinear phenomena of gas-liquid interface in micro- and mini-channels, high spatial temporal knowledge of the interface in gas-liquid two-phase flows is essential. This paper presents a new method for measuring interface of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter(LFD). The purpose of the study was to clarify the effectiveness the new method for obtaining detailed information of interface displacement, especially in the case of thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. In the test, water and nitrogen gas were used as working fluids. To eliminate the signal of tube wall disturbing that of gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; whose refraction index was the same as one of water. With this method, accurate measurements of the interface of liquid film, in real time, with sensitivity of 0.1 ?m and 1 kHz, were achieved. The error caused by the refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated theoretically and experimentally. The formulated theoretical equation can derive the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 ?m -2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm in I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. Simultaneous measurement on the interface in a fluorocarbon tube of 0.5 and 1 mm in I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed camera movie with a microscope was carried out. It showed that the LFD could measure the interface of liquid film in high spatially and temporally in annular, slug and piston flow regions and clarified the existence of thin liquid film thinner than 1 ?m in thickness in slug and annular regions. (author)

2003-04-20

374

Dip determination by statistical combination of displacements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed are a process and a system which relate to well logging, to converting logs to dips of subsurface formations and to producing a new type of a map record of dips. The map record conforms to a plane which is transverse to the borehole and contains a number of map line representations the position of each of which conforms to a range of dips consistent with the displacement between two similar reflections on respective well logging signals. The displacements relate to reflections on logging signals at borehole depths within an interval which is small as compared to the depth of the entire borehole, and the predominant locus of intersections of such line representations on the map record determines a likely dip of a subsurface feature which is in the borehole depth interval of interest.

Vincent, P.

1982-02-16

375

Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other; however, this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe's radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

Allen, William L; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P

2014-01-01

376

Planar Displacement Detection with Point Feature Matching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel planar displacement detection method is implemented using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT point feature matching on a calibrated optical grating-vision measuring platform. SIFT is a method for extracting and describing image key-points, which are robustly invariant to scale, rotation and translation as well as robust to illumination changes and limited changes of viewpoint. The platform is moved along its x axis step by step and a series of images are captured with corresponding grating sensor values. SIFT feature points are extracted and matched between the successive images through a K-Dimension Tree (KD-Tree based feature matching algorithm to detect the displacement of each step. The detected values are compared with the corresponding grating sensor values. Experimental results prove that the accuracy of the method is less than 10 ?m in this environment.

Chen Feng-Dong

2009-01-01

377

Selfhood and Exile : Displacement, Worldliness, Trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Victims of traumatic events such as torture or life threatening assault often turn to a specific set of metaphors when trying to explain what it is like to be in the world afterwards. Spatial descriptions such as displacement, exile, homelessness and alienation occur repeatedly as significant terms for how living now differs from what it was like before. These spatial metaphors regularly occur in such first-person narratives along with descriptions of what can be called disturbances of the self: it seems that the feeling of being a self, of being this someone, suffers with such displacement. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between spatiality and selfhood by way of how it feels when it is disrupted, or, in other words, to make sense of the claim raised by trauma survivors that they are exiled and that their selves are shattered

Christensen, Gry Ardal

2010-01-01

378

Two-dimensional computational simulation of eccentric annular cementing displacements  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider a two-dimensional Hele-Shaw type model for displacement flows occurring in the primary cementing of an oil well. The fluids are visco-plastic and may get stuck in the annulus if a critical pressure gradient is not exceeded. The model consists of solving a nonlinear elliptic variational inequality equation for the stream function, coupled to an equation for interface advection, or alternatively a concentration equation for the mass fraction of each fluid. The key difficulty is to accurately compute yielded and unyielded zones of the wellbore fluids, which we accomplish by use of an augmented Lagrangian method to solve the stream function equation. We validate the accuracy of our method against analytical solutions for stable steady-state displacements. We study the convergence of the interface to the steady state, showing that the apparent meta-stability is illusory. We then explore the effects of increasing eccentricity, showing that although the interface may remain stable it becomes unsteady. Initially fully mobile flows are found, but as the eccentricity increases further the narrow side fluids fail to move in the far field. The narrow side interface can progress slowly through the static fluids by a burrowing motion, but for still larger eccentricities even the interface becomes static and a narrow-side mud channel forms.

Pelipenko, S.; Frigaard, I. A.

2004-12-01

379

Localization for the random displacement model  

CERN Document Server

We prove spectral and dynamical localization for the multi-dimensional random displacement model near the bottom of its spectrum by showing that the approach through multiscale analysis is applicable. In particular, we show that a previously known Lifshitz tail bound can be extended to our setting and prove a new Wegner estimate. A key tool is given by a quantitative form of a property of a related single-site Neumann problem which can be described as "bubbles tend to the corners".

Klopp, Frédéric; Nakamura, Shu; Stolz, Gunter

2010-01-01

380

Mirror displacement energies and neutron skins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A gross estimate of the neutron skin [0.80(5)$(N-Z)/A$ fm] is extracted from experimental proton radii, represented by a four parameter fit, and observed mirror displacement energies (CDE). The calculation of the latter relies on an accurately derived Coulomb energy and smooth averages of the charge symmetry breaking potentials constrained to state of the art values. The only free parameter is the neutron skin itself. The Nolen Schiffer anomaly is reduced to small deviations...

Duflo, J.; Zuker, A. P.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Spectroscopy with random and displaced random ensembles  

CERN Document Server

The average energies and variances at fixed angular momentum $J$ for random two-body Hamiltonians are shown to provide yrast energy patterns close to the exactly calculated ones. The variance turns out to be a robust quantity that reflects the dominance of J=0 ground states and the odd-even staggering of the mass surfaces. Displaced (attractive) random ensembles lead to rotational spectra with strongly enhanced $BE2$ transitions.

Velázquez, V

2002-01-01

382

Spectroscopy with random and displaced random ensembles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the time reversal invariance of the angular momentum operator J^2, the average energies and variances at fixed J for random two-body Hamiltonians exhibit odd-even-J staggering, that may be especially strong for J=0. It is shown that upon ensemble averaging over random runs, this behaviour is reflected in the yrast states. Displaced (attractive) random ensembles lead to rotational spectra with strongly enhanced BE2 transitions for a certain class of model spaces. It is...

Vela?zquez, V.; Zuker, A. P.

2001-01-01

383

Efficient classical density-functional theories of rigid-molecular fluids and a simplified free energy functional for liquid water  

CERN Document Server

Classical density-functional theory provides an efficient alternative to molecular dynamics simulations for understanding the equilibrium properties of inhomogeneous fluids. However, application of density-functional theory to multi-site molecular fluids has so far been limited by complications due to the implicit molecular geometry constraints on the site densities, whose resolution typically requires expensive Monte Carlo methods. Here, we present a general scheme of circumventing this so-called inversion problem: compressed representations of the orientation density. This approach allows us to combine the superior iterative convergence properties of multipole representations of the fluid configuration with the improved accuracy of site-density functionals. Next, from a computational perspective, we show how to extend the DFT++ algebraic formulation of electronic density-functional theory to the classical fluid case and present a basis-independent discretization of our formulation for molecular classical de...

Sundararaman, Ravishankar

2014-01-01

384

Development of A Continuous Process for Displacement Dewatering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of this contract was to investigate the viability of a new process for dewatering paper called displacement pressing. The term “displacement pressing” was coined in the 1980s by researchers to describe a paper dewatering process where air is blown through a sheet of paper while it is being pressed. It was shown at that time that the combination of air and low pressing force could dramatically increase both sheet bulk and sheet solids which in theory would translate into huge savings in energy and fiber consumption. But there was a catch. Although the research results were dramatic, no one could figure out a commercially viable process to carry out displacement pressing. All research work had been done with batch processes, and there was no obvious way to convert these processes into a continuous process. By the end of the early1990’s no one was researching in this area because no continuous process existed. Recently we proposed a new method to carry out displacement pressing. Our process uses special pressing fabrics and a special 4 roll press that we call a “Beck Cluster Press” or BCP. The BCP provides a pressurized atmosphere that acts on a moving web of paper and fabrics. The special fabrics designed for this process use this atmosphere to press the sheet and at the same time, these special fabrics force air through the sheet to carry out displacement pressing. 1 Because of the complexity and cost of building the first functioning BCP, a simple simulator was built to confirm and study the process. Although results from this simulator were extremely favorable, financial times were hard in the paper industry. We are grateful for the DOE contract that allowed us to continue research that showed the tremendous benefits of displacement pressing. Specifically, accomplishments from the DOE contract are as follows: 1. A narrow (5” wide sheet) lab Beck Cluster Press (BCP) was started up, and made operational. This press accepts hand sheets and displacement presses them at conditions that duplicate commercial conditions for dwell time, and pressure. 2. The lab BCP machine was used to verify simulator results. Results showed the lab BCP gave paper dryness that exceeded simulator results for dryness. 3. Sheet samples were obtained for several paper grades. These samples were pressed conventionally (shoe and roll presses) and with the lab BCP. Results showed significant gains in bulk (5-48%) compared to commercially pressed sheets while producing similar or higher dryness. These results verified the predictions of the earlier research papers. 4. Sheet bulk exceeded the Agenda 2020 goal a 7% increase. This increase in bulk was reported by Agenda 2020 as being worth about 3 billion dollars per year in fiber savings. Potential energy savings due to dryness savings could be worth $1 billion per year. However energy savings and fiber savings are inter-related so while savings are likely in both energy and fiber at the same time, increasing one will cause the other to decrease. 5. Based on the significant results of small-scale BCP trials, a 1m pilot BCP press stand was built to determine scalability of the process. 6. 1m pilot press stand was started up. This machine was shown to hold design pressure. Drive issues however prevented operation at operating speed and pressure during the contact period. Improvements to the drive system since the end of the DOE contract have allowed us to reach operating pressure and speed. 7. The last DOE objective of passing paper through the 1m BCP was not reached due to drive issues and the desire to study and qualify sealing systems. All other original objectives and the added objective (by contract revision) of this ambitious project have been met. 8. Several paper companies have showed interest in helping us commercialize this process. Interest is so high that these companies appear willing to invest in further development.

Dave Beck

2006-10-30

385

The Theme of Displacement in Contemporary Art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article examine les images et idées de dislocation dans des œuvres d'art récentes. Le thème du déplacement ou de la dislocation est traité dans le contexte de l'aspect globalisant de l'art contemporain, considéré lui-même comme un reflet de la mondialisation. Les principaux textes théoriques qui influencent et informent les pratiques en matière de conservation sont abordés, entre autres les écrits de Giorgio Agamben, Nicolas Bourriaud et Rex Butler. Le thème de la dislocation dans l'art contemporain est analysé au travers des œuvres de nombreux artistes, tels que Francis Alÿs, Bill Fontana, Allan Sekula, Chen Chieh-jen, Ai Wei Wei, Rosemary Laing, Mike Parr, Santiago Sierra, Rebecca Belmore et Tracey Moffatt.This essay considers images and ideas of displacement in recent works of art. The theme of displacement is examined in the context of the globalist aspect of contemporary art, itself a reflection of globalisation. Influential theoretical texts informing curatorial practice and the discourse of contemporary art theory are discussed, including the writings of Girogio Agamben, Nicolas Bourriaud and Rex Butler. The theme of displacement in contemporary art is analysed with regard to the work of many artists, including Francis Alÿs, Bill Fontana, Allan Sekula, Chen Chieh-jen, Ai Wei Wei, Rosemary Laing, Mike Parr, Santiago Sierra, Rebecca Belmore and Tracey Moffatt.

John POTTS

2012-03-01

386

International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows. PMID:21319721

Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

2011-01-01

387

Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

Vanhaverbeke Frederik

2004-01-01

388

Displacement measurement with over-determined interferometer  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a concept combining traditional displacement incremental interferometry with a tracking refractometer following the fluctuations of the refractive index of air. This concept is represented by an interferometric system of three Michelson-type interferometers where two are arranged in a counter-measuring configuration and the third one is set to measure the changes of the fixed length, here the measuring range of the overall displacement. In this configuration the two counter-measuring interferometers have identical beam paths with proportional parts of the overall one. The fixed interferometer with its geometrical length of the measuring beam linked to a mechanical reference made of a high thermal-stability material (Zerodur) operates as a tracking refractometer monitoring the atmospheric refractive index directly in the beam path of the displacement measuring interferometers. This principle has been demonstrated experimentally through a set of measurements in a temperature controlled environment under slowly changing refractive index of air in comparison with its indirect measurement through Edlen formula. With locking of the laser optical frequency to fixed value of the overall optical length the concept can operate as an interferometric system with compensation of the fluctuations of the refractive index of air.

Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Hrabina, Jan; Buchta, Zden?k.; ?íp, Ond?ej; Oulehla, Jind?ich

2012-01-01

389

A reference material for dynamic displacement calibration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Calibration of displacement and strain measurement systems is an essential step in providing traceability and confidence in stress and strain distributions obtained from experiment and used to validate simulations employed in engineering design. Reference materials provide a simple, well-defined distribution of the measured quantity that can be traced to an international standard and can be used to assess the uncertainty associated with the measurement system. Previous work has established a reference material and procedure for calibrating optical systems for measuring static, in-plane strain distributions and also demonstrated its use. A new effort is in progress to extend this work to the measurement of three-dimensional displacement distributions induced by cyclic and dynamic loading, including transients and large-scale deformation. The first step in this effort has been to define both the essential and desirable attributes of a reference material for calibrating systems capable of measurements of dynamic displacement and strain. An international consortium of research laboratories, system designers, manufacturers and end-users has identified a list of attributes and members of the experimental mechanics community have been asked to weight the importance of these attributes. The attributes are being utilised to evaluate candidate designs for the reference material which have been generated through a series of brain-storming sessions within the consortium.

Whelan M.

2010-06-01

390

Impaired free water excretion in child C cirrhosis and ascites: relations to distal tubular function and the vasopressin system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Background: Water retention in advanced cirrhosis and ascites may involve disturbances in renal distal tubular function and in the vasopressin system. Methods: Twelve patients with Child B cirrhosis and ascites were compared with 11 patients with Child C cirrhosis and ascites. The subjects were studied during a 400 ml/h oral water load. Results: Child C patients had a lower baseline glomerular filtration rate (32 vs 63 ml/min, P<0.001) and a lower urinary flow rate (V(u)) (0.86 vs 1.95 ml/min, P<0.001) than the Child B patients. However, the free water clearance () did not differ (-0.60 vs -0.21 ml/min, P=0.20). After the water loading, plasma vasopressin (AVP) decreased significantly in both the groups (P<0.05). The Child B patients had increased V(u) (1.95-3.24 ml/min, P<0.001) and (-0.21-1.21 ml/min, P<0.01) and distal fractional water excretion (10.5 vs 0% in Child C, P=0.01) and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) (P<0.058) after water loading. In contrast, the Child C patients did not have increased V(u) and in response to the water and the decrease in AVP. Furthermore, the markers of distal tubular water regulation, AQP2 excretion and distal fractional water excretion, were unaltered. Conclusion: In Child C cirrhosis, ascites and mild hyponatraemia, there is an impaired ability to excrete solute-free water. The patients are characterised by a low glomerular filtration rate, a low distal tubular flow and an inability to increase free water clearance during water loading. This may be related to a vasopressin-independent production of AQP2.

Krag, Aleksander; Møller, Søren

2010-01-01

391

Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

ShigekazuKusumoto

2014-05-01

392

Fabrication of distilled water-soluble chitosan/alginate functional multilayer composite microspheres.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polysaccharides-based functional microspheres were fabricated under mild conditions. Firstly, magnetic alginate microspheres were prepared by emulsification/internal gelation and acted as substrates. Then the multilayer composite microspheres (MCM) were obtained through the layer-by-layer assembly of the distilled water-soluble chitosan and alginate. The components, morphology, and size distribution of the microspheres were characterized by element analysis (EA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer (LPSA). Both EA and XPS analysis results indicated that alternate immersion was an effective method for preparing MCM. Vibrating sample magnetometer, SEM and LPSA results showed that the microspheres had good dispersion, uniform particle size and were superparamagnetic. In addition, in vitro drug release behaviors of the microspheres were investigated by using hemoglobin (HB) and Coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBB) as model drugs. It was found that the release rates of both HB and CBB from the composite microspheres were slower than those from the substrates. PMID:24053815

Xiao, Congming; Sun, Fei

2013-11-01

393

A theoretical study of the kernel function for resistivity prospecting with a Sclilumherger apparatus in water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the basis of already known theoretical results concerning the use of the geoelectrical sounding method with the a p p a r a t us immersed in water, in t h e present paper we i n d i v i d u a t e the kernel f u n c t i on of t h e p a r t i c u l a r geometry of t h e problem. The s t u d y of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e kernel function allows a b e t t e r understanding of the possibilities of a p p l i c a t i o n of the new method. The theoretical results t h a t we describe must be regarded, among other things, as t h e basis for t h e derivation of a direct q u a n t i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n method.

D. SCHIAVONE

1974-06-01

394

Facile synthesis and functionalization of water-soluble gold nanoparticles for a bioprobe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we report the size tunable synthesis of water-dispersed gold nanoparticles by using octadecylamine (ODA) as the reducing agent, that electrostatically complexes with the chloroaurate ions, reduces them, and subsequently caps the gold nanoparticles. Amine-capped gold nanoparticles, thus formed, were subsequently coordinated with a secondary monolayer of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOT) which helps in providing sufficient hydrophilicity to the gold nanoparticles. Functionalized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, IR spectrophotometric, dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopic techniques, which demonstrated high stability of gold nanoparticles in aqueous media, indicating stabilization via bilayers of ODA and AOT. The gold nanoparticles were further conjugated with a protein (bovine serum albumin) and the interaction was investigated by circular dichroism studies as well as by measuring the fluorescence quenching of the tryptophan residues of protein molecules after the binding of nanoparticles to specific sites of the protein. The binding constant and the stoichiometry values indicated that the particles with larger core size are less site-specific but show higher binding affinity with protein molecules. The use of a bio-compatible synthetic process and the stabilization of the gold nanoparticles by ODA and AOT are interesting from the point of view of making bioprobes for life science applications. PMID:18267151

Wangoo, Nishima; Bhasin, K K; Boro, Robin; Suri, C Raman

2008-03-01

395

Development of Protein-Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Application in Water Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The treatment of water to make it safe for human consumption is a problem of immense concern, both in developing and developed countries. However, the production of clean water with chemicals as coagulants has several drawbacks associated with cost, health risks and complexity in sludge management. The application of nanotechnology in water treatment is a fast growing discipline proposed as an efficient alternative that will combat these hurdles. The aim of this thesis is to develop new water...

Okoli, Chuka

2012-01-01

396

Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity lev...

2012-01-01

397

Water  

... +1 252 328 5578 Website: http://core.ecu.edu/geology/ODriscoll/ODriscoll/home.html E-Mail: odriscollm@ecu.edu Interests: surface water/groundwater interactions; stable ...Bjornlund Interests: water management; water policy; economic instruments; impact assessment; water markets; irrigation; sustainable irrigation Prof. Dr. Maria ... +1 252 328 5578 Website: http://core.ecu.edu/geology/ODriscoll/ODriscoll/home.html Interests: surface water/groundwater interactions; stable isotope hydrology; human impacts ... +33 (0)1 6908 6650; Fax: +33 (0)1 6908 8261 Interests: liquids; water; aqueous solutions; neutron scattering; X ray scattering; colloids; membranes; hydration; porous materials; fractals ...

398

Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G protein-coupled receptors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane {alpha}-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A2A-adenosine, {beta}1- and {beta}2-adrenergic receptors, permits comparative analysis of features common to these and likely all GPCRs. We provide an analysis of the distribution of water molecules in the transmembrane region of these GPCR structures and find conserved contacts with microdomains demonstrated to be involved in receptor activation. Colocalization of water molecules associating with highly conserved and functionally important residues in several of these GPCR crystal structures supports the notion that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, in the absence of large conformational changes in rhodopsin after photoactivation, we propose that ordered waters contribute to the functional plasticity needed to transmit activation signals from the retinal-binding pocket to the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin and that fundamental features of the mechanism of activation, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors.

Angel, T.; Chance, M; Palczewski, K

2009-01-01

399

Study of fast neutron scattering. The displacement cross-section (1962)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a method for calculating the biological efficiency of fast neutrons emitted by in-pile fission sources. This method justifies the empirical theory of Albert and Welton. In making simple assumptions concerning the cross-sections, we have supposed that the propagation can ben reduced to a mono-kinetic problem. A system of orthonormal functions is then set up making it possible to calculate the flux leaving a planar source. This method generalises the results obtained by Platzek to the case where the elastic cross-sections are not isotropic, and make it possible in particular to define a displacement cross-section: extension of the diffusion coefficient. This method can be generalised to the case of neutron diffraction as a function of time, and to the study of slowing-down. Numerical results are given in an appendix for the following: H2O, D2O, Fe, Be, Pb, CH, CH2. These cross-sections have been verified experimentally in water and in graphite for neutrons of 2.5 and 14 MeV using a SAMES accelerator and a 2 MeV Van De Graaff. (author)

1962-01-01

400

HIV and the internally displaced: Burundi in focus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Special attention should also be given to the prevention of contagious and infectious diseases, including AIDS, among internally displaced persons." (Guiding Principles on InternalDisplacement, 19.3)

2003-01-01