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1

Protein-water displacement distributions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The statistical properties of fast protein-water motions are analyzed by dynamic neutron scattering experiments. Using isotopic exchange, one probes either protein or water hydrogen displacements. A moment analysis of the scattering function in the time domain yields model-independent information such as time-resolved mean square displacements and the Gauss-deviation. From the moments, one can reconstruct the displacement distribution. Hydration water displays two dynamical components, related to librational motions and anomalous diffusion along the protein surface. Rotational transitions of side chains, in particular of methyl groups, persist in the dehydrated and in the solvent-vitrified protein structure. The interaction with water induces further continuous protein motions on a small scale. Water acts as a plasticizer of displacements, which couple to functional processes such as open-closed transitions and ligand exchange.

Doster W; Settles M

2005-06-01

2

Water displacement mercury pump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

1985-01-01

3

Combining solvent thermodynamic profiles with functionality maps of the hsp90 binding site to predict the displacement of water molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intermolecular interactions in the aqueous phase must compete with the interactions between the two binding partners and their solvating water molecules. In biological systems, water molecules in protein binding sites cluster at well-defined hydration sites and can form strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with backbone and side-chain atoms. Displacement of such water molecules is only favorable when the ligand can form strong compensating hydrogen bonds. Conversely, water molecules in hydrophobic regions of protein binding sites make only weak interactions, and the requirements for favorable displacement are less stringent. The propensity of water molecules for displacement can be identified using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IFST), a statistical mechanical method that decomposes the solvation free energy of a solute into the contributions from different spatial regions and identifies potential binding hotspots. In this study, we employed IFST to study the displacement of water molecules from the ATP binding site of Hsp90, using a test set of 103 ligands. The predicted contribution of a hydration site to the hydration free energy was found to correlate well with the observed displacement. Additionally, we investigated if this correlation could be improved by using the energetic scores of favorable probe groups binding at the location of hydration sites, derived from a multiple copy simultaneous search (MCSS) method. The probe binding scores were not highly predictive of the observed displacement and did not improve the predictivity when used in combination with IFST-based hydration free energies. The results show that IFST alone can be used to reliably predict the observed displacement of water molecules in Hsp90. However, MCSS can augment IFST calculations by suggesting which functional groups should be used to replace highly displaceable water molecules. Such an approach could be very useful in improving the hit-to-lead process for new drug targets. PMID:24070451

Haider, Kamran; Huggins, David J

2013-10-15

4

Displacement functions for diatomic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al2O3, and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al2O3) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 105 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

1979-01-31

5

Water displacement during sparging under perched water-table conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The feasibility of using sparging to purposefully displace perched water in silt loam soils was evaluated at a field site in northwestern Oklahoma. Soils and groundwater are contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, trichloroethene (TCE), and vinyl chloride. During sparging, a transient response in water level measurements was observed in observation wells which is attributed to water displacement. Evidence of water displacement was manifested by water-table collapse upon the cessation of sparging

1995-01-01

6

Crustal displacements due to continental water loading  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of long-wavelength (>100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (?rM) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994-1998 as large as 8 mm, with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare ?rM with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (?rO) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the ?rO time series are adjusted by ?rM, their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the ?rM. Of the ?rO time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the ?rM. The ?rM time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or postglacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years.

van Dam, T.; Wahr, J.; Milly, P. C. D.; Shmakin, A. B.; Blewitt, G.; Lavallée, D.; Larson, K. M.

7

Qualitative Evaluation of Water Displacement in Simulated Analytical Breaststroke Movements  

Science.gov (United States)

One purpose of evaluating a swimmer is to establish the individualized optimal technique. A swimmer’s particular body structure and the resulting movement pattern will cause the surrounding water to react in differing ways. Consequently, an assessment method based on flow visualization was developed complimentary to movement analysis and body structure quantification. A fluorescent dye was used to make the water displaced by the body visible on video. To examine the hypothesis on the propulsive mechanisms applied in breaststroke swimming, we analyzed the movements of the surrounding water during 4 analytical breaststroke movements using the flow visualization technique.

Martens, Jonas; Daly, Daniel

2012-01-01

8

Ceramide selectively displaces cholesterol from ordered lipid domains (rafts): implications for lipid raft structure and function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ceramide is a membrane lipid involved in a number of crucial biological processes. Recent evidence suggests that ceramide is likely to reside and function within lipid rafts; ordered sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich lipid domains believed to exist within many eukaryotic cell membranes. Using lipid vesicles containing co-existing raft domains and disordered fluid domains, we find that natural and saturated synthetic ceramides displace sterols from rafts. Other raft lipids remain raft-associated in the presence of ceramide, showing displacement is relatively specific for sterols. Like cholesterol-containing rafts, ceramide-rich "rafts" remain in a highly ordered state. Comparison of the sterol-displacing abilities of natural ceramides with those of saturated diglycerides and an unsaturated ceramide demonstrates that tight lipid packing is critical for sterol displacement by ceramide. Based on these results, and the fact that cholesterol and ceramides both have small polar headgroups, we propose that ceramides and cholesterol compete for association with rafts because of a limited capacity of raft lipids with large headgroups to accommodate small headgroup lipids in a manner that prevents unfavorable contact between the hydrocarbon groups of the small headgroup lipids and the surrounding aqueous environment. Minimizing the exposure of cholesterol and ceramide to water may be a strong driving force for the association of other molecules with rafts. Furthermore, displacement of sterol from rafts by ceramide is very likely to have marked effects upon raft structure and function, altering liquid ordered properties as well as molecular composition. In this regard, certain previously observed physiological processes may be a result of displacement. In particular, a direct connection to the previously observed sphingomyelinase-induced displacement of cholesterol from plasma membranes in cells is proposed.

Megha; London E

2004-03-01

9

Ceramide selectively displaces cholesterol from ordered lipid domains (rafts): implications for lipid raft structure and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramide is a membrane lipid involved in a number of crucial biological processes. Recent evidence suggests that ceramide is likely to reside and function within lipid rafts; ordered sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich lipid domains believed to exist within many eukaryotic cell membranes. Using lipid vesicles containing co-existing raft domains and disordered fluid domains, we find that natural and saturated synthetic ceramides displace sterols from rafts. Other raft lipids remain raft-associated in the presence of ceramide, showing displacement is relatively specific for sterols. Like cholesterol-containing rafts, ceramide-rich "rafts" remain in a highly ordered state. Comparison of the sterol-displacing abilities of natural ceramides with those of saturated diglycerides and an unsaturated ceramide demonstrates that tight lipid packing is critical for sterol displacement by ceramide. Based on these results, and the fact that cholesterol and ceramides both have small polar headgroups, we propose that ceramides and cholesterol compete for association with rafts because of a limited capacity of raft lipids with large headgroups to accommodate small headgroup lipids in a manner that prevents unfavorable contact between the hydrocarbon groups of the small headgroup lipids and the surrounding aqueous environment. Minimizing the exposure of cholesterol and ceramide to water may be a strong driving force for the association of other molecules with rafts. Furthermore, displacement of sterol from rafts by ceramide is very likely to have marked effects upon raft structure and function, altering liquid ordered properties as well as molecular composition. In this regard, certain previously observed physiological processes may be a result of displacement. In particular, a direct connection to the previously observed sphingomyelinase-induced displacement of cholesterol from plasma membranes in cells is proposed. PMID:14699154

Megha; London, Erwin

2003-12-29

10

Functional outcome in conservatively treated non-displaced scaphoid fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the functional outcome after conservative treatment of non-displaced scaphoid fractures using an international validated outcome scale (DASH). Methods and materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 60 patients with a non-displaced scaphoid fracture were included. When a patient visited the emergency department and was clinically suspected of a scaphoid fracture radiography was performed. If no fracture was diagnosed with this modality a CT or MRI-scan both in combination with bonescintigraphy was performed. Patients with scaphoid fractures diagnosed with CT/MRI and bonescintigraphy were treated with a six-week scaphoid forearm cast. Within 1 year after cast removal patients filled in the DASH questionnaire. Results: Sixty (80%) patients returned the DASH questionnaire at 12 months after treatment. Thirty-eight (63.3%) were male and the mean age was 35 (range 11 - 83). Forty-four (73.3%) patients had a mid-waist fracture of the scaphoid, 13 (21.7%) had a fracture of the distal pole and three (0.05%) had a proximal fracture. Median DASH score at one year after the trauma was 6 (range 3 - 15) for patients with a distal pole fracture and 5 (range 0 - 21.5) for mid-waist fractures (p = 0.7, table 2). For the three patients with a proximal scaphoid fracture the DASH scores appeared higher and were 83, 82 and 30 respectively. Conclusion: Conservative treatment for six weeks with a below the elbow cast is sufficient for the majority of patients with an occult distal or mid-waist scaphoid fracture and results in a good functional outcome according to the DASH questionnaire.

Tessa Drijkoningen; Frank J. P. Beeres; Roderick H. van Leerdam; Daan Ootes; Diana C. Grootendorst; Marleen Otoide-Vree; Steven J. Rhemrev

2012-01-01

11

Total and net displacement functions for polyatomic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a continuous-slowing-down, random amorphous material model in which displacement and recombination processes are determined by sharp displacement thresholds and capture energies, we have studied displacement cascades in a number of diatomic materials and a few triatomic materials. The results obtained are presented here in terms of a set of displacement efficiencies for each material which correlate the calculated number of net displacements with the damage energies, displacement thresholds, and stoichiometry of the material. Materials for which the ratio of heavy to light mass is less than about four (Type 1) show somewhat different displacement cascade characteristics than those for which the mass ratio is greater than four (Type 2). In addition, for each material the dependence of the cascades on the energy of the primary has different properties in two different energy ranges. In Region I, extending from the lowest displacement threshold to about 1 keV for Type-1 materials and to about 100 keV for Type-2 materials, the displacement efficiencies show strong dependence on energy and on the atom type of the primary. In Region 2 (energies higher than Region 1) the displacement efficiencies are nearly independent of energy and of the type of the primary. Cascades in Type-1 materials can show strong dependence on the capture probability for atoms on sites of unlike type; thisdependence is discussed, as is the dependence of cascade structure on displacement threeshold. Rather strong nonstoichiometric behavior is demonstrated for certain Type-2 materials. Comparisons are made with a few previous calculations for diatomic materials.

Parkin, D.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Coulter, C.A. (Alabama Univ., University (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1981-10-01

12

Neuronal activity significantly reduces water displacement: DWI of a vital rat spinal cord with no hemodynamic effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in the diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) signal were observed to be correlated with neuronal activity during chemically induced brain activity, epileptic seizures, or visual stimulation. These changes suggest a possible reduction in water displacement that accompanies neuronal activity, but were possibly affected by other physiological mechanisms such as blood oxygenation level and blood flow. We developed an imaging experiment of an excised and vital newborn rat spinal cord to examine the effect of neuronal function on the displacement of water molecules as measured by DWI signal. This approach provides a DWI experiment of a vital mammalian CNS tissue in the absence of some of the systemic sources of noise. We detected a significant and reproducible drop with an average value of 19.5 ± 1.6% (mean ± SE) upon activation. The drop repeated itself in three orthogonal directions. ADC values corresponded to an oblate anisotropy. This result was validated by high resolution DWI of a fixed tissue, imaged with an ultra-high field MRI. The results support our working hypothesis that water displacement is affected by neuronal activation. These results further imply that water displacement might serve as a potential marker for brain function, and that, although commonly viewed as wholly electrochemical, neuronal activity includes a significant mechanical dimension that affects water displacement.

Tirosh N; Nevo U

2013-08-01

13

Direct observation of oil displacement by water flowing toward an oil nanogap  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluorescence microscope and a light microscope were employed to observe the phenomenon of water flowing toward an oil nanogap between two solid surfaces. It was found that water was able to displace hexadecane in the nanogap confinement, which contradicted previous viewpoints. An increase in water flow speed contributed to entrainment of water into the contact region, due to inadequate oil supply. Surface energy was found to be another factor that influenced the displacement phenomenon. It was easier for water to enter the contact region on the surface with a greater surface energy, since less energy is required to separate the contact of hexadecane and solid surface and to form water's own contact.

Xiao, Huaping; Guo, Dan; Liu, Shuhai; Xie, Guoxin; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun; Luo, Jianbin

2011-08-01

14

Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1991-12-31

15

Dynamical modes of a graphite surface, on top and in the middle- by unfolding the observed temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Making use of the unfolding technique to determine the phonon frequency distribution function (FDF) from the temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function suggested by the authors, the experimentally observed displacement-displacement auto-correlation functions of a graphite surface located either at the top or in the middle of the crystal have been unfolded. The final unfolded FDF shows marked differences for the two cases, exhibiting the potentiality of the unfolding technique to accurately determine the dynamics and hence the difference in the FDF of the two layers, located at different sites in a crystal.

2005-01-31

16

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-12-31

17

Question of the mechanism for displacement of condensate by contour water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination is made of the mechanism for formation of equilibrium saturation of a gas condensate bed by liquid hydrocarbons and subsequent displacement of them by the contour water. On some gas-condensate fields with elastic-water pressure regime, a margin of liquid hydrocarbons is formed in front of the displacement front. Recent studies make it possible to hypothesize that the margin is represented by a mixture of condensate and liquid hydrocarbons which are in the formation before the beginning of working, and are also displaced during operation into the pore space and the collectors from the impermeable intercalations. The flushing of liquid hydrocarbons by water and the formation of a hydrocarbon margin before the displacement front has been experimentally proven by now. However, the mechanism for displacement of the liquid hydrocarbons in working gas-condensate fields is not clear, and its study has a more theoretical value. A plan is presented for displacement of the margin of the condensate by the contour water.

Petrenko, V.I.

1982-01-01

18

Effects of mobile water on multiple-contact miscible gas displacements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the effects of mobile water on multiple-contact miscible displacements under water- and oil-wet conditions. Tests were conducted in 8-ft (244-cm) water- and oil-wet Berea cores in which CO/sub 2/ and water were injected both separately and simultaneously to displace a reservoir oil. The data presented focus on effects of water in the oil-moving zone (OMZ) where the CO/sub 2/ is generating miscibility with the oil and mobilizing residual oil to waterflooding. Special emphasis is placed on understanding the effect of mobile water saturation on the oil-displacement efficiency and the component transfer between phases necessary to develop miscibility in the CO/sub 2//reservoir-oil system. This study demonstrates that reservoir wettability is a key factor in the performance of AGWIP. Gas/water injection can, under certain conditions, have adverse effects on characteristics of the OMZ. These effects are in part caused by the water trapping portions of the oil and solvent. It was observed that mobile water did not change the mass transfer process by which miscibility develops in a multiple-contact miscible displacement.

Tiffin, D.L.; Yelling, W.F.

1983-06-01

19

Pyridinium-based tripodal chemosensor in visual sensing of AMP in water by indicator displacement assay (IDA).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple pyridinium-based tripodal chemosensor, 1, effectively recognizes AMP over ATP and ADP through indicator displacement assay (IDA) technique in water at pH 6.4. The good recognition of 1 is due to the better accommodation of AMP at the core of 1 as well as functional interaction involving hydrogen bonding and charge-charge interaction. The sensor 1 also recognizes intracellular AMP.

Ghosh K; Ali SS; Sarkar AR; Samadder A; Khuda-Bukhsh AR; Petsalakis ID; Theodorakopoulos G

2013-09-01

20

Bayesian speckle tracking. Part I: an implementable perturbation to the likelihood function for ultrasound displacement estimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate and precise displacement estimation has been a hallmark of clinical ultrasound. Displacement estimation accuracy has largely been considered to be limited by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). However, the CRLB only describes the minimum variance obtainable from unbiased estimators. Unbiased estimators are generally implemented using Bayes' theorem, which requires a likelihood function. The classic likelihood function for the displacement estimation problem is not discriminative and is difficult to implement for clinically relevant ultrasound with diffuse scattering. Because the classic likelihood function is not effective, a perturbation is proposed. The proposed likelihood function was evaluated and compared against the classic likelihood function by converting both to posterior probability density functions (PDFs) using a noninformative prior. Example results are reported for bulk motion simulations using a 6? tracking kernel and 30 dB SNR for 1000 data realizations. The canonical likelihood function assigned the true displacement a mean probability of only 0.070 ± 0.020, whereas the new likelihood function assigned the true displacement a much higher probability of 0.22 ± 0.16. The new likelihood function shows improvements at least for bulk motion, acoustic radiation force induced motion, and compressive motion, and at least for SNRs greater than 10 dB and kernel lengths between 1.5 and 12?.

Byram B; Trahey GE; Palmeri M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Analysis of occupational and displacive disorder using the atomic pair distribution function a systematic investigation  

CERN Document Server

Many disordered crystalline materials show chemical short range order andrelaxation of neighboring atoms. Local structural information can be obtainedby analyzing the atomic pair distribution function (PDF). The viability ofreverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations to extract quantitative information aboutchemical ordering as well as displacements is investigated. The method has beenapplied to simulated PDFs of disordered structures showing chemical disorderalone as well as in combination with displacements.

Proffen, T

2000-01-01

22

Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder following forced displacement in older adults and their offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement.

Jelinek L; Wittekind CE; Moritz S; Kellner M; Muhtz C

2013-07-01

23

A field study of the vertical immiscible displacement of LNAPL associated with a fluctuating water table  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A variety of field techniques were utilized to study the immiscible displacement of LNAPL (gasoline) above a fluctuating shallow water table. Hydrophobic and hydrophillic tensiometer measurements were compared to a dual-well monitoring system that measured the potentiometric head of groundwater ...

Steffy, D. A.; Johnston, C.; Barry, D. A.

24

Attainment of a zero vertical pressure drop in water-oil displacements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of pseudo-relative permeabilities to represent the vertical character of water-oil displacement is common in the numeric simulation of reservoir performance. This study uses a finite difference numeric simulator to determine and verify under what conditions a displacement model which assumes a zero vertical pressure drop would apply. The discussion illustrates when the pseudo-relative permeabilities of Hearn would give an accurate vertical sweep efficiency, and illustrates several features of viscous crossflow in multi-layered porous media. 17 references.

Zapata, V.J.; MacDonald, R.C.; Lake, L.W.

1980-07-01

25

Fall with Linear Drag and Wien's Displacement Law: Approximate Solution and Lambert Function  

Science.gov (United States)

|We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for…

Vial, Alexandre

2012-01-01

26

Comparison of total body water determinations in lactating women by anthropometry, water displacement, and deuterium isotope dilution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To expand the limited data on the total body water in lactating women, the authors have determined total body water contents, in eight subjects from anthropometric measurements, water displacement, and isotope dilution of deuterium oxide. On the day of the study, their skinfold thicknesses were measured over the biceps and triceps muscles and at the suprailiac and subscapular areas. Their body densities were measured by water displacement. Deuterium oxide was administered orally at 100 mg/kg of body weight. One predose milk sample was collected from each subject. The milk samples were defatted by centrifugation and the milk water was reduced to hydrogen gas for hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The results indicated that total body water in lactating women estimated from anthropometric measurements was 49.7 +/- 3.3% of body weight, by water displacement was 54.9 +/- 7.2%, and by isotope dilution was 50.8 +/- 3.7%

1986-10-01

27

Constant load and constant displacement stress corrosion in simulated water reactor environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stress corrosion behaviour of selected water reactor constructional materials, as determined by constant load or constant displacement test techniques, is reviewed. Experimental results obtained using a very wide range of conditions have been collected in a form for easy reference. A discussion is given of some apparent trends in these data. The possible reasons for these trends are considered together with a discussion of how the observed discrepancies may be resolved. (author)

1987-01-01

28

Evaluation of an instrumental method to reduce error in canopy water storage estimates via mechanical displacement  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve water budgeting of forested catchments and inform relevant hydrologic theory regarding forest water cycling, the scientific community has been seeking simple, inexpensive, direct methods for determining rainwater storage on in-situ tree canopies. This paper evaluates an installation arrangement/routine for one such method: mechanical displacement sensors placed on the trunk to directly monitor compression under canopy water loading from rainfall. The evaluated installation routine aligns mechanical displacement sensors along orthogonal axes passing through the trunk's mechanical center to reduce wind-induced noise. Experimental attainment of neutral bending axes for a subject hard- and softwood tree suggest the routine is precise and approximates the trunk's mechanical center well regardless of differences in cellular axial stiffness between heart and sapwood. When installed in this precise sensor arrangement, bending tests of different direction produced consistent signal ratios between sensor pairs about -1 (1 unit compression/1 unit elongation), allowing the identification and removal of bending strains from raw strain signals to isolate the compression component attributable to canopy water storage. The same experiments performed on sensors 5cm off the computed mechanical center were unable to produce neutral bending axes or consistent signal ratios during directional bending. Results from the method evaluation were translated into a data processing technique that is applied to strain data from 2 sample storms (1 each for the hard- and softwood trees). Processed strain data showed clear synchronicities between rainfall and canopy loading, and periods of maximized canopy water loading (capacity). Our results indicate the evaluated arrangement/installation procedure for mechanical displacement sensors may provide scientists with simple, direct canopy water storage estimates at high temporal resolution and sensitivity.

Friesen, Jan; Van Stan, John; Martin, Kael; Jarvis, Matthew; Lundquist, Jessica; Levia, Delphis

2013-04-01

29

Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years (range, 19-92 years). The average overall ASES score was 66.5. The average overall Constant score was 57.5. Conclusion: Our results show that good fracture stability was achieved, and the functional outcome was very good in younger patients and it declined with increasing age. Early mobilization of the shoulder can be achieved without compromising fracture union.

Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

2009-01-01

30

Subdiffusive behavior in a trapping potential: mean square displacement and velocity autocorrelation function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A theoretical framework for analyzing stochastic data from single-particle tracking in viscoelastic materials and under the influence of a trapping potential is presented. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation, we found analytical expressions for the two-time dynamics of a particle subjected to a harmonic potential. The mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function of the diffusing particle are given in terms of the time lag. In particular, we investigate the subdiffusive case. Using a power-law memory kernel, exact expressions for the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions and their derivatives. The behaviors for short-, intermediate-, and long-time lags are investigated in terms of the involved parameters. Finally, the validity of usual approximations is examined.

Despósito MA; Viñales AD

2009-08-01

31

Subdiffusive behavior in a trapping potential: mean square displacement and velocity autocorrelation function.  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical framework for analyzing stochastic data from single-particle tracking in viscoelastic materials and under the influence of a trapping potential is presented. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation, we found analytical expressions for the two-time dynamics of a particle subjected to a harmonic potential. The mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function of the diffusing particle are given in terms of the time lag. In particular, we investigate the subdiffusive case. Using a power-law memory kernel, exact expressions for the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions and their derivatives. The behaviors for short-, intermediate-, and long-time lags are investigated in terms of the involved parameters. Finally, the validity of usual approximations is examined. PMID:19792081

Despósito, M A; Viñales, A D

2009-08-14

32

A computational chemical study of penetration and displacement of water films near mineral surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on organic–water mixtures near mineral surfaces. These simulations show that, in contrast to apolar compounds, small polar organic compounds such as phenols can penetrate through thin water films to adsorb on these mineral surfaces. Furthermore, additional simulations involving demixing of an organic–water mixture near a surfactant-covered mineral surface demonstrate that even low concentrations of adsorbed polar compounds can induce major changes in mineral surface wettability, allowing sorption of apolar molecules. This strongly supports a two-stage adsorption mechanism for organic solutes, involving initial migration of small polar organic molecules to the mineral surface followed by water film displacement due to co-adsorption of the more apolar organic compounds, thus converting an initial water-wet mineral system to an organic-covered surface. This has profound implications for studies of petroleum reservoir diagenesis and wettability changes.

van Duin Adri CT; Larter Steve R

2001-01-01

33

Variable-order fractional mean square displacement function with evolution of diffusibility  

Science.gov (United States)

It is a challenging issue to characterize the evolution of diffusibility, which causes some complex diffusion. For the clear physical significance in some parameters of the existing fractional diffusion models, we present a modified fractional diffusion model and then establish the fractional mean square displacement (MSD) functions using a variable-order integration with memory of the order. The comparative analysis and numerical simulation demonstrate that the variable-order MSD function can characterize the evolution of the diffusibility without losing the advantage of fewer parameters.

Yin, Deshun; Wang, Yixin; Li, Yanqing; Cheng, Chen

2013-10-01

34

Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined theoretically at a larger scale.

Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina

2006-01-01

35

Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction  

CERN Document Server

We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on th...

Jung, Youngeui

2013-01-01

36

An image displacement correction algorithm for functional MRI using phase differences in k-space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In functional MRI (fMRI) examinations using Echo-planar Imaging (EPI) sequences, brain displacement in the reconstructed images occurs due to physiological motion artifacts and static magnetic field drift. We have developed a new reordering technique to correct for such displacement. This reordering technique is based on the principle that the displacement can be reduced when using an EPI sequence by removing first-order phase shift along the k-space axes; that is, by using a phase-mapping technique. We applied the reordering technique to an fMRI data set to confirm its effectiveness. The fMRI data set was acquired with a 1.5-T MRI system (MRH1500AD, Hitachi Medial Corporation) using a multislice interleaved EPI sequence (4 slices, 8 shots per slice, FOV=240 x 240 mm, slice thickness=6 mm, matrix size=128 x 128, TR/TE=1250/10 ms, FA=60deg). We used the first image of each slice as the reference image. The inclination angles along the k-space axes were calculated with the least-squares method. The signal-to-noise ratio will affect the precision of the inclination angles, so we tried to optimize the data-selection parameters by varying the number of data points from the origin in k-space (±10 to 30 points), and by varying the threshold value (1% to 5% of the signal intensity of the origin in k-space). After correcting for displacement, we made error images of each imaging plane to estimate the accuracy of the selection methods. All error images before the correction had high error value regions. We compared the error values in the regions for various parameter values and found that setting the threshold value at 1% could achieve the most accurate correction. We conclude that this reordering technique using phase maps can be used to accurately correct an fMRI data set taken from an EPI sequence. (author)

1997-01-01

37

Severity of injury predicts subsequent function in surgically treated displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The treatment of displaced, intraarticular calcaneal fractures (DIACFs) remains challenging and the best treatment choices remain controversial. The majority of patients will have some lasting functional restrictions. However, it is unclear which patient- or surgeon-related factors predict long-term function. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We determined (1) the impact of patient- and surgeon-related factors on function of patients after internal fixation of DIACFs and (2) whether severity of injury correlated with subsequent function. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all 210 patients operatively treated for 242 DIACFs between 2000 and 2003; of these, 127 patients (60%) with 149 fractures were available for followup at a minimum of 69 months (average, 95 months; range, 69-122 months). Severity of injury was quantified by the classifications of Sanders and Zwipp Function was quantified using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot score, an adjusted Zwipp score, the Foot Function Index (FFI), and the SF-36 physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores. RESULTS: At latest followup, the median AOFAS score was 77, the median Zwipp score was 60, the median FFI was 27, and the median SF-36 PCS and MCS scores were 44 and 55, respectively. The foot-related scores and the SF-36 PCS negatively correlated with the severity of injury, work-related injuries, and bilateral fractures. CONCLUSIONS: We found the severity of a DIACF related to subsequent foot function and quality of life. Both fracture severity classifications predicted function. Anatomic reconstruction of the shape and articular surfaces of the calcaneus leads to predictable function in the medium to long term.

Rammelt S; Zwipp H; Schneiders W; Dürr C

2013-09-01

38

Effect of water storage on tooth displacement in maxillary complete dentures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a movimentação dental sob influência da imersão em água ocorrida na armazenagem da prótese à temperatura de 37ºC. Foram confeccionadas 10 próteses totais superiores com resina acrílica Clássico pelo método convencional de prensagem em muflas metálicas. Pontos referenciais metálicos foram colocados nos dentes incisivos centrais (I), pré-molares (PM) e molares (M). Doze horas após a prensagem final, a resina acrílica foi polimerizada em (more) água aquecida a 74ºC por 9 h. As muflas foram removidas da unidade polimerizadora após esfriamento da água e as próteses foram desincluídas, acabadas e armazenadas em água à temperatura de 37ºC pelos períodos de 1 semana, 1 mês e 3 meses. A movimentação dos dentes foi verificada nas distâncias transversais I-I, PM-PM e M-M e ântero-posteriores IE-ME e ID-MD após demuflagem e nos intervalos de armazenagem em água, com microscópio comparador óptico com precisão de 0,0005 mm. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey (5%). Comparando-se os períodos de avaliação para cada ponto de referência transversal e ântero-posterior, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0.05) entre os valores pós-demuflagem e após os intervalos de armazenamento em água para as distâncias I-I, PM-PM, M-M e RI-RM. Para o ponto LI-LM, entretanto, os valores de demuflagem foram estatisticamente diferentes daqueles observados após estocagem em água por 1 semana, 1 mês e 3 meses (p0.05). Esses resultados confirmam a complexidade da movimentação dos dentes em próteses totais. Do ponto de vista clínico, a diferença observada para a distância LI-LM após a armazenagem em água não seria percebida pelos pacientes durante o uso clínico. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of water storage at 37ºC (1 week, 1 month and 3 months) on tooth displacement in maxillary complete dentures. Ten maxillary dentures were constructed with Clássico acrylic resin using the conventional method of packing in metallic flasks. Metallic reference pins were placed in the incisal border of the central incisors (I), labial cusp of the first premolars (PM), and mesiolabial cusp of the second molars (M). Twel (more) ve hours after final flask closure, the acrylic resin was cured in water at 74ºC for 9 h. The flasks were removed from the thermo-polymerizing unit after water-cooling and the dentures were deflasked, finished and stored in water at a temperature of 37ºC for 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. At deflasking and at the water storage intervals, the I-I (incisor to incisor), PM-PM (pre-molar to pre-molar), and M-M (molar to molar) transversal distances, and LI-LM (left incisor to left molar) and RI-RM (right incisor to right molar) anteroposterior distances were measured using an optical microscope with 0.0005 mm accuracy. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey´s test (5%). Comparing the evaluation periods for each individual transversal and anteroposterior reference point, no statistically significant differences were observed among deflasking and the water storage intervals for I-I, PM-PM, M-M and RI-RM distances (p>0.05). For LI-LM, however, deflasking values were statistically different from those of 1-week, 1-month and 3-month water storage intervals (p0.05). These results confirm the complexity of tooth displacement in complete dentures. From a clinical standpoint, the difference observed in LI-LM distance after water storage would not be detected by the patients during clinical use.

Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Consani, Simonides; Correr Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

2006-01-01

39

Systematic treatment of displacements, strains and electric fields in density-functional perturbation theory  

CERN Multimedia

The methods of density-functional perturbation theory may be used to calculate various physical response properties of insulating crystals including elastic, dielectric, Born charge, and piezoelectric tensors. These and other important tensors may be defined as second derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic-displacement, electric-field, or strain perturbations, or as mixed derivatives with respect to two of these perturbations. The resulting tensor quantities tend to be coupled in complex ways in polar crystals, giving rise to a variety of variant definitions. For example, it is generally necessary to distinguish between elastic tensors defined under different electrostatic boundary conditions, and between dielectric tensors defined under different elastic boundary conditions. Here, we describe an approach for computing all of these various response tensors in a unified and systematic fashion. Applications are presented for two materials, wurtzite ZnO and rhombohedral BaTiO3, at zero temperatur...

Wu, X; Hamann, D R; Wu, Xifan; Vanderbilt, David

2005-01-01

40

Displacement damage effects in SiC JFETs as a function of temperture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of neutron-induced displacement damage effects as a function of temperature is reported for [ital n]-channel, 2-[mu]m channel length, depletion mode junction-field-effect-transistor (JFETs) fabricated on 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Very little effect on the electrical characteristics of the devices was observed for neutron fluences less than 10[sup 15] n/cm[sup 2] and the effect for fluences greater than 10[sup 15] n/cm[sup 2] became less significant with increasing temperature. The results offer promise for SiC devices to be used in applications which combine high-temperature and radiation environments, where Si and GaAs technologies are limited.

McGarrity, J.M. (US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)); Oakley, R.E. (BoozAllen Hamilton, Inc., 891 Elkridge Landing Road, Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States)); DeLancey, W.M.; McLean, F.B. (US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States))

1993-01-15

 
 
 
 
41

Functional and quality-of-life results of displaced and nondisplaced proximal humeral fractures treated conservatively.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Functional and quality-of-life outcomes of conservatively treated proximal humeral fractures. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University orthopedic department at a hospital. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Seventy consecutive patients between the ages of 60 and 85 years. INTERVENTION: Conservative treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Functional outcome measured according to the Constant score, quality of life assessed using EuroQol-5D, and fracture pattern analyzed with x-ray and computed tomography scan. RESULTS: : All fractures consolidated uneventfully with no loss of reduction in either group. Four-part fractures obtained the worst functional results (33.66) followed by three-part fractures (54.64) and finally two-part fractures (65.88 and 71). Mild pain was expected in three- and four-part fractures, whereas two-part fractures achieved near complete pain relief. Nondisplaced fractures obtained a final Constant score of 73.58 and displaced fractures a score of 59.41 with significant differences in all Constant score items with the exception of external rotation. Although patients older than 75 years scored lower (54.63) than those younger than 75 years (70.83), there was no difference in the quality-of-life perception. CONCLUSION: Conservative treatment of proximal humeral fractures in those patients older than age 75 years provides good pain relief with limited functional outcome. Despite limited functional outcome, this appears to have no effect on the quality-of-life perception in the population studied. Four-part fractures present the worst results and treatment options may need to be discussed with the patient to adjust treatment to patient expectations.

Torrens C; Corrales M; Vilà G; Santana F; Cáceres E

2011-10-01

42

Water displacement leg volumetry in clinical studies - A discussion of error sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Water displacement leg volumetry is a highly reproducible method, allowing the confirmation of efficacy of vasoactive substances. Nevertheless errors of its execution and the selection of unsuitable patients are likely to negatively affect the outcome of clinical studies in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Discussion Placebo controlled double-blind drug studies in CVI were searched (Cochrane Review 2005, MedLine Search until December 2007) and assessed with regard to efficacy (volume reduction of the leg), patient characteristics, and potential methodological error sources. Almost every second study reported only small drug effects (? 30 mL volume reduction). As the most relevant error source the conduct of volumetry was identified. Because the practical use of available equipment varies, volume differences of more than 300 mL - which is a multifold of a potential treatment effect - have been reported between consecutive measurements. Other potential error sources were insufficient patient guidance or difficulties with the transition from the Widmer CVI classification to the CEAP (Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological) grading. Summary Patients should be properly diagnosed with CVI and selected for stable oedema and further clinical symptoms relevant for the specific study. Centres require a thorough training on the use of the volumeter and on patient guidance. Volumetry should be performed under constant conditions. The reproducibility of short term repeat measurements has to be ensured.

Rabe Eberhard; Stücker Markus; Ottillinger Bertram

2010-01-01

43

COMPARISON OF ABSOLUTE VOLUME CALCULATION METHODS WITH WATER-DISPLACEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR Mimosa scabrella BENTHAM .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The observed volumes obtained by several volume calculation methods for the bole and sections of the bole of Mimosa scabrella trees were compared with theirs respective true volumes obtained by measurements in xylometer (water-displacement technique). Fifty four sample trees were felled and measured into several municipal districts of the Curitiba Metropolitan Region, in the Paraná State. The sample trees presented DBH from 7,2 to 29,5cm and were gruped in 4 DBH classes. The treatments statistically analysed were the xylometer (control); four absolute volume calculation procedures (Smalian, Huber, Newton and Centroid), each one with three different section lengths (1m, 2m and 4m); the four DBH classes configured the blocks for the statistical analysis. All the treatments presented significant statistic difference related to the xylometer. Amongst the absolute volume calculation procedures the Huber’s formula seems to be the most accurate, although having presented significant statistic difference related to the true volume.

Sebastião do Amaral Machado , ,, ,; Saulo Jorge Téo; Edilson Urbano; Marco Aurélio Figura; Luis César Rodrigues da Silva

2006-01-01

44

Water displacement leg volumetry in clinical studies--a discussion of error sources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Water displacement leg volumetry is a highly reproducible method, allowing the confirmation of efficacy of vasoactive substances. Nevertheless errors of its execution and the selection of unsuitable patients are likely to negatively affect the outcome of clinical studies in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). DISCUSSION: Placebo controlled double-blind drug studies in CVI were searched (Cochrane Review 2005, MedLine Search until December 2007) and assessed with regard to efficacy (volume reduction of the leg), patient characteristics, and potential methodological error sources. Almost every second study reported only small drug effects (

Rabe E; Stücker M; Ottillinger B

2010-01-01

45

The probability density function of the multiplication factor due to small, random displacements of fissile spheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An analytical expression is obtained for the probability density function of the multiplication factor of an array of spheres when each sphere is displaced in a random fashion from its initial position. Two cases are considered: (1) spheres in an infinite background medium in which the total cross section in spheres and medium is the same, and (2) spheres in a void. In all cases we use integral transport theory and cast the problem into one involving average fluxes in the spheres which interact via collision probabilities. The statistical aspects of the problem are treated by first order perturbation theory and the general conclusion is that, when the number of spheres exceeds about 5, the reduced multiplication factor ((? (k-k0))/(k0)), where k0 is the unperturbed value, is given accurately by the Gaussian distribution P (?)= (1)/(SQRT(2 ?) ? DT) exp-((? 2)/(2 ?2 DT 2)).)) The partial standard deviation ? - 2 ? / SQRT (3), ? being the maximum movement of the sphere from its equilibrium position. DT is a function of the system properties and geometry. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the magnitude of the effects and also the accuracy of diffusion theory for this type of problem is assessed. The overall accuracy of the perturbation method is assessed by an essentially exact result obtained using simulation, thereby enabling the range of perturbation theory to be investigated

2003-01-01

46

Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We used near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800-7500 cm(-1)). Here we introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we were able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may offer a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water-soluble materials. We also observed red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from the contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift gets larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compared.

Jung Y; Hwang J

2013-02-01

47

Research on the displacement function and equivalent circuit of circular flexural vibration mode piezoelectric ceramic composite transducers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flexural vibration mode piezoelectric ceramic transducers can be used in many application fields because of their ability to develop large displacement at low levels of electrical excitation, or conversely, to generate high output from sources of low mechanical impedance. Many flexural transducers are very thin, and their behavior can be analyzed and predicted accurately by the current theory based on thin-plate assumptions. However, for those flexural transducers with moderate thickness, the thin-plate assumptions are no longer valid. To analyze and predict the behaviors of the flexural transducers with moderate thickness, we must establish a new theory. In this paper, by introducing Mindlin's assumptions and theory, the displacement function and equivalent circuit for circular flexural composite transducers with moderate thickness are derived. Through the displacement function and the equivalent circuit, the vibration characteristics and the electrical impedance of circular flexural composite transducers with moderate thickness can be predicted directly.

Yihua H; Wenjin H

2013-01-01

48

Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

Steen-Olsen K; Weinzettel J; Cranston G; Ercin AE; Hertwich EG

2012-10-01

49

Mesoporous hybrid materials containing nanoscopic "binding pockets" for colorimetric anion signaling in water by using displacement assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mesoporous solids functionalized with anion-binding groups have proved to be suitable anion hosts and have been used in selective colorimetric displacement assays. The material UVM-7, a mesoporous MCM41-type support characterized by the presence of nanometric mesoporous particle conglomerates, was selected as inorganic scaffolding. Reaction of the template-free UVM-7 solid with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (1) yielded solid S1, from which the derivatives S2 and S3 were obtained by reaction with 2-methylthio-2-imidazoline hydroiodide (2) and butyl isocyanate (3), respectively. Solids S4 and S5 were prepared by reaction of the starting mesoporous UVM-7 scaffolding with N-methyl-N'-propyltrimethoxysilyl imidazolium chloride (4) and with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (5), respectively. The solids synthesized contain mesoporous binding pockets that can interact with anions through electrostatic attractive forces (S1, S2, S4, S5) and hydrogen-bonding interactions (S1, S2, S3, S4). These functionalized solids were loaded with a dye (d) capable of interacting coordinatively with the anchored binding sites, in our case 5-carboxyfluorescein, to yield the hybrid materials S1d, S2d, S3d, S4d and S5d. These dye-containing solids are the signaling reporters. Their sensing ability towards a family of carboxylates, namely acetate, citrate, lactate, succinate, oxalate, tartrate, malate, mandelate, glutamate and certain nucleotides, has been studied in pure water at pH 7.5 (Hepes, 0.01 mol dm(-3)). In the sensing protocol, a particular analyte may be bonded preferentially by the nanoscopic functionalized pocket, leading to delivery of the dye to the solution and resulting in colorimetric detection of the guest. The response to a given anion depends on the characteristics of the binding pockets and the specific interaction of the anion with the binding groups in the mesopores. We believe that the possibility of using a wide variety of mesoporous supports that can easily be functionalized with anion-binding sites, combined with suitable dyes as indicators, make this approach significant for opening new perspectives in the design of chromogenic assays for anion detection in pure water.

Comes M; Aznar E; Moragues M; Marcos MD; Martínez-Máñez R; Sancenón F; Soto J; Villaescusa LA; Gil L; Amorós P

2009-09-01

50

Mesoporous hybrid materials containing nanoscopic "binding pockets" for colorimetric anion signaling in water by using displacement assays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesoporous solids functionalized with anion-binding groups have proved to be suitable anion hosts and have been used in selective colorimetric displacement assays. The material UVM-7, a mesoporous MCM41-type support characterized by the presence of nanometric mesoporous particle conglomerates, was selected as inorganic scaffolding. Reaction of the template-free UVM-7 solid with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (1) yielded solid S1, from which the derivatives S2 and S3 were obtained by reaction with 2-methylthio-2-imidazoline hydroiodide (2) and butyl isocyanate (3), respectively. Solids S4 and S5 were prepared by reaction of the starting mesoporous UVM-7 scaffolding with N-methyl-N'-propyltrimethoxysilyl imidazolium chloride (4) and with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (5), respectively. The solids synthesized contain mesoporous binding pockets that can interact with anions through electrostatic attractive forces (S1, S2, S4, S5) and hydrogen-bonding interactions (S1, S2, S3, S4). These functionalized solids were loaded with a dye (d) capable of interacting coordinatively with the anchored binding sites, in our case 5-carboxyfluorescein, to yield the hybrid materials S1d, S2d, S3d, S4d and S5d. These dye-containing solids are the signaling reporters. Their sensing ability towards a family of carboxylates, namely acetate, citrate, lactate, succinate, oxalate, tartrate, malate, mandelate, glutamate and certain nucleotides, has been studied in pure water at pH 7.5 (Hepes, 0.01 mol dm(-3)). In the sensing protocol, a particular analyte may be bonded preferentially by the nanoscopic functionalized pocket, leading to delivery of the dye to the solution and resulting in colorimetric detection of the guest. The response to a given anion depends on the characteristics of the binding pockets and the specific interaction of the anion with the binding groups in the mesopores. We believe that the possibility of using a wide variety of mesoporous supports that can easily be functionalized with anion-binding sites, combined with suitable dyes as indicators, make this approach significant for opening new perspectives in the design of chromogenic assays for anion detection in pure water. PMID:19650095

Comes, María; Aznar, Elena; Moragues, María; Marcos, M Dolores; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix; Soto, Juan; Villaescusa, Luis A; Gil, Luis; Amorós, Pedro

2009-09-14

51

Spinal cord contusion based on precise vertebral stabilization and tissue displacement measured by combined assessment to discriminate small functional differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) is the most common type of spinal injury seen clinically. Several rat contusion SCI models have been described, and all have strengths and weaknesses with respect to sensitivity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance. We developed the Louisville Injury System Apparatus (LISA), which contains a novel spine-stabilizing device that enables precise and stable spine fixation, and is based on tissue displacement to determine the severity of injury. Injuries graded from mild to moderately severe were produced using 0.2-, 0.4-, 0.6-, 0.8-, 1.0-, and 1.2-mm spinal cord displacement in rats. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) and Louisville Swim Score (LSS) could not significantly distinguish between 0.2-mm lesion severities, except those of 0.6- and 0.8-mm BBB scores, but could between 0.4-mm injury differences or if the data were grouped (0.2-0.4, 0.6-0.8, and 1.0-1.2). Transcranial magnetic motor evoked potential (tcMMEP) response amplitudes were decreased 10-fold at 0.2-mm displacement, barely detected at 0.4-mm displacement, and absent with greater displacement injuries. In contrast, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were recorded at 0.2- and 0.4-mm displacements with normal amplitudes and latencies but were detected at lower amplitudes at 0.6-mm displacement and absent with more severe injuries. Analyzing combined BBB, tcMMEP, and SSEP results enabled statistically significant discrimination between 0.2-, 0.4-, 0.6-, and 0.8-mm displacement injuries but not the more severe injuries. Present data document that the LISA produces reliable and reproducible SCI whose parameters of injury can be adjusted to more accurately reflect clinical SCI. Moreover, multiple outcome measures are necessary to accurately detect small differences in functional deficits and/or recovery. This is of crucial importance when trying to detect functional improvement after therapeutic intervention to treat SCI. PMID:18986224

Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A; Shields, Lisa B E; Chekmenev, Sergey Y; Dincman, Toros; Zhang, Yongjie; Zheng, Yiyan; Smith, Rebecca R; Benton, Richard L; DeVries, William H; Hu, Xiaoling; Magnuson, David S K; Whittemore, Scott R; Shields, Christopher B

2008-10-01

52

Application of the Moliere multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement function in Monte-Carlo calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-dimensional approximation is found for the multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement correlation formula which satisfies two conditions: first, that it be close to the Moliere one (better than 10/sup 3/) and, second, that it be suitable for Monte Carlo calculations. These Monte Carlo calculations are made for relativistic particles. (orig.).

Todorova, G.

1984-11-15

53

Application of the Moliere multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement function in Monte-Carlo calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-dimensional approximation is found for the multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement correlation formula which satisfies two conditions: first, that it be close to the Moliere one (better than 10/sup -3/) and, second, that it be suitable for Monte Carlo calculations. These Monte Carlo calculations are made for relativistic particles.

Todorova, G. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

1984-11-15

54

Lagrangian analysis of MIV (Magnetic Impulse-Velocity) gauge experiments on PBX 9502 using the mass-displacement moment function  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic Impulse-Velocity (MIV) gauges were used to measure the impulse and particle-velocity fields at discrete Lagrangian positions in two samples of the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) explosive PBX 9502. Each sample was shock driven by a 6.4 mm layer of reacting superfine TATB ((rho)(sub 0) = 1.80 g/cm(sup 3)), which was itself shocked by a gas driven projectile. The gauge histories of particle velocity and impulse, and the derived displacement history were simultaneously fit to the partial derivatives of the mass-displacement moment function employing a single set of parameters. (The function also gives volume, energy, pressure and their time derivatives.) With an assumed mixture equation of state, the reaction extent and reaction rate were calculated. The two experiments were compared and rate correlations were examined.

Forest, Charles A.; Wackerle, Jerry; Dick, Jerry J.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Pettit, Donald R.

55

Lagrangian analysis of MIV (Magnetic Impulse-Velocity) gauge experiments on PBX 9502 using the mass-displacement moment function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic Impulse-Velocity (MIV) gauges were used to measure the impulse and particle-velocity fields at discrete Lagrangian positions in two samples of the TATB explosive PBX 9502. Each sample was shock driven by a 6.4 mm layer of reacting superfine TATB (/rho//sub 0/ = 1.80 g/cm/sup 3/), which was itself shocked by a gas driven projectile. The gauge histories of particle velocity and impulse, and the derived displacement history were simultaneously fit to the partial derivatives of the mass-displacement moment function employing a single set of parameters. (The function also gives volume, energy, pressure and their time derivatives.) With an assumed mixture equation of state, the reaction extent and reaction rate were calculated. The two experiments were compared and rate correlations were examined. 8 refs.

Forest, C.A.; Wackerle, J.; Dick, J.J.; Sheffield, S.A.; Pettit, D.R.

1989-01-01

56

Functional outcome of operatively treated displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures using two parallel contoured reconstruction plates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture is controversial. Conventionally, they were treated non-operatively. However, some surgeons are now operatively treating these fractures because of continuing dissatisfaction with the outcome of conservative treatment of these fractures and improvements that have occurred in surgical techniques and complication rates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the functional outcome of operatively treated displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures using two parallel contoured reconstruction plates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 patients with 14 displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the subtalar joint were included in the study conducted between July 2005 and December 2008. The fracture site was exposed using extended lateral approach. Internal fixation was done by two nearly parallel 3.5mm reconstruction plates and screws contoured to form a gentle curve in all cases with the fi rst plate fixed just below the articular surface. At the end of follow up, the patients' foot function was assessed by Calcaneal Fracture Scoring System of Kerr et al. Patients were also inquired about their satisfaction with their treatment outcome. RESULTS: The patients were followed up for duration of 12 to 24 months (mean 15.64 months). The outcome score as measured by Calcaneal Fracture Scoring System ranged from 48 to 94 (mean 83.64). 11 of 12 patients (91.6 %) were satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSION: Displaced intra-articular fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation, using two nearly parallel, contoured reconstruction plates through an extensile lateral approach and following the principles of treatment of intraarticular fractures, have good functional results with high patient satisfaction rate.

Lakhey S; Manandhar RR; Pradhan RL; Pandey BK; Sharma S; Rijal KP

2010-01-01

57

Changes in the viscosity of oil and water-oil emulsion during the displacement of oil by carbon dioxide fluid fringes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents a study of changes in oil viscosity and water oil emulsion present during the displacement of oil by means of a dioxide-carbon fringe of various levels remaining after a water injection. This study used an oil model with viscosity level of 0.005-0.055 pascals per second. Each model used CO/sub 2/ fringe displacement at levels of 0.05 to 0.40 within the porous cavities of the formation model. During the model displacement of oil with a viscosity of 0.005 and 0.03 pascals per hour dioxide-carbon fringes were used having twice the volume used in the porous-cavity models. This resulted in a significant drop in the viscosity of oil displaced.

Bruslov, A.Yu.

1981-01-01

58

Temperature dependent relative permeability and its effect upon oil displacement by thermal methods. [Effect of water saturation and temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical theory is presented which permits the formulation of a mathematical model to describe the variation of relative permeability with temperature in a water/oil system. The theory develops analytical equations for temperature dependent relative permeability in terms of water saturation, irreducible water saturation, and differential change in irreducible water saturation with temperature. These equations predict and agree reasonably well with experimental results reported by other researchers. The implications of temperature dependent relative permeability data on reservoir performance of a thermal process is also presented. This data together with the application of the Buckley-Leverett frontal advance theory and the fractional flow equation are used to predict oil recovery. It is shown that when viscosity of fluids are independent of temperature, the change in relative permeability with temperature also leads to higher calculated oil recovery and improved displacement efficiency. Additional results are presented which demonstrate viscosity reduction and temperature dependent relative permeability, when considered simultaneously in thermal recovery calculations, results in even greater oil recoveries.

Nakornthap, K.; Evans, R.D.

1982-09-01

59

Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and 15N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D2O, bromide and [15N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers.

1999-01-01

60

Multi-function ozone water treating machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model which discloses a multi-function ozone water treating machine belongs to the technical field of an ozone water equipment, the technological problem which needs to solved by the utility model is that the ozone water used in the disinfection and the sterilization can be generated at any time, and the qualified water used in the direct drinking can also be generated at any time beside, the qualified water is processed by the ozonization and the multi-stage filtration. The residual ozone which is not mixed with water is treated and discharged to the atmospheric air, without the environmental pollution. The multi-function ozone water treating machine is provided with an air water mixing device a circulation air water mixing system comprises a water pump, a fluidic device, and an air water mixing pipeline, wherein, the fluidic device is connected with an ozone generation circuit, and the circulation air water mixing system is respectively connected with a water inflow circuit, a sterilized water out circuit, and a drinking water out circuit besides, the air water mixing pipeline is connected with a residual ozone discharge circuit, and the residual ozone is not mixed with the water. The ozone water and the qualified direct drinking water can be gained at any time, with the utility model, and the utility model adapts to the family and a plurality of other places.

YANG DAQING; FANG KAI; WANG LIN

 
 
 
 
61

Precision Displacement Mechanism (PDM).  

Science.gov (United States)

A mechanism designed to fulfill the requirements of the Precision Displacement Mechanism (PDM) for the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Space Telescope (FIRST) antenna is described. The PDM function is to perform the fine adjustment of the position of the m...

J. I. Bueno F. Delcampo P. Coste

1993-01-01

62

Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope effects on nucleophilic displacement by water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinetic deuterium isotope effects (k/sub H/sub 2/O//k/sub D/sub 2/O/) have been measured for nucleophilic attack by water at primary alkyl carbon (S-methylthiophenium ion (MeTh+), methyl trifluoromethane-sulfonate (MeOTf), methyl and ethyl perchlorate (MeOClO/sub 3/, EtOClO/sub 3/)) in aprotic solvents (acetonitrile (MeCN) and tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-dioxide (TMSO/sub 2/; solfolane)) and L/sub 2/O. In L/sub 2/O solvent k/sub H/sub 2/O//k/sub D/sub 2/O/ is significantly greater than unity while it is reduced to near unity in aprotic solvents. The oxygen-18 isotope effect has also been observed to be 1.002 +- 0.004 for the reaction of MeTh/sup +/ with dilute H/sub 2/O in TMSO/sub 2/ at 35/sup 0/C. For the reaction of MeTh/sup +/ and MeOClO/sub 3/ in aprotic solvents the chemical reaction kinetics are discussed.

Lee, J.

1981-01-01

63

Immediate effect of orthopedic shoe and functional foot orthosis on center of pressure displacement and gait parameters in juvenile flexible flat foot.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background:Flat foot in children is a common deformity in which the medial longitudinal arch is reduced or eliminated.Objectives:The objective of this article was to compare flat foot and healthy children on the displacement of the center of pressure and walking parameters in children with two common orthoses (functional foot orthosis and medical shoe).Study design:Randomized controlled trial.Methods:This study included 30 children with flat foot and 20 healthy children as a control group. The step length and width, walking velocity, symmetry, and center of pressure displacements were recorded and compared functional foot orthosis with medical shoe for these variables.Results:The results from center of pressure displacements showed that the regular shoe with functional foot orthosis caused a significant decrease in the level of displacement of center of pressure in flat foot patients. The findings indicated significant improvement in symmetry of steps and walking speed with the functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoe in flat foot children.Conclusion:Center of pressure displacement was decreased and percentage of gait symmetry and walking speed were increased by the use of regular shoes with functional foot orthosis in comparison to the medical shoes.Clinical relevanceOrthopedic shoe is heavy and expensive and most of the children are reluctant to use it. This study on center of pressure displacement and gait parameters with orthopedic shoe and functional foot orthosis showed that prescription of the functional foot orthosis with regular shoes might be a good alternative for children with moderate flat foot.

Aboutorabi A; Saeedi H; Kamali M; Farahmand B; Eshraghi A; Dolagh RS

2013-08-01

64

Complications and functional outcome after internal fixation of dorsally displaced distal radial fractures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Recently there has been an increasing interest in open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures. Even so further studies are still needed. Purpose: To document the functional outcome and identify complica- tions among patients treated with a volar locking plate (DVR-locking plate, DePuy Orthopaedics) newly introduced in our department. Methods: The study was designed as a historical cohort study. 37 females and 6 males with a mean (CI) age of 72,6 (69,5-75,6) were included. 35 received 6 months follow up (median 6,4) and 30 received 1 year follow up (median 14,0). Outcome measures included the Dis- ability of the Arm, shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, grip strength, active wrist and forearm range of motion and radiographic parameters. Findings: The mean DASH score was 15,5 (10,5- 20,6) at 6 months and 6,3 (2,5-10) at 1 year. There were at 1 year statistical significant differ- ence between thefractured and non-fractured wrist for flexion, extension and grip strength but not for supination and pronation. X-rays showed an improvement from preoperative to postoperative in dorsal angulation (17,7 degrees), inclination (6,6 degrees) and radial length (4,8 mm). A total of 10 major complications were identified: 4 had screws in the joint, 2 tendon ruptures, 2 plates were removed, 1 carpal tunnel syn- drome, 1 lacking radiological healing. There were no association between major complications and the surgeons experience level (> 10 operations). Evaluation of the X-ray images showed 14 cases of too radi- al plate placement and 1 one forgotten tower. Conclusion: The literature describes an overall complication frequency between 0 and 27%, with a lower frequency of secondary procedures compared to this study. There is still a need for further studies

Bove, Jeppe; Viberg, Bjarke

65

Immiscible displacement of oil by water in a microchannel: asymmetric flow behavior and nonlinear stability analysis of core-annular flow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The immiscible displacement of oil by water in a circular microchannel was investigated. A fused silica microchannel with an inner diameter of 250 ?m and a length of 7 cm was initially filled with a viscous silicone oil. Only water then was injected into the channel. We describe our flow observations based on the two-dimensional images captured in the middle of the channel. The water finger displaced the oil and left an oil film on the channel wall. While the oil was being displaced at the core, the flow resistance decreased, which resulted in increases in water flow rate and inertia. Eventually, the water finger reached the channel exit and formed a core-annular flow pattern. The wavelength of the waves formed at the oil-water interface also increased with the increase in inertia. The initially symmetric interfacial waves became asymmetric with time. Also, the water core shifted from the center of the channel and left a thinner oil film on one side of the microchannel. Under all flow rates tested in this study, as long as the water was continuously injected, the water core was stable and no breakup into droplets was observed. We also discuss the flow stability based on nonlinear and linear stability analyses performed on the core-annular flow. Compared to the linear analysis, which ignores the inertia effects, the nonlinear analysis, which includes the inertia effects, predicts longer interfacial wavelengths by a factor of 1/sqrt[1-a(o)/2(We(w) + We(o)a(o)(2)/1-a(o)(2))] where We(w) and We(o) are the Weber numbers of the water and the oil phases, respectively, and a(o) is the unperturbed water core radius made dimensionless by the channel radius.

Foroughi H; Abbasi A; Das KS; Kawaji M

2012-02-01

66

A large outbreak of hepatitis E among a displaced population in Darfur, Sudan, 2004: the role of water treatment methods.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The conflict in Darfur, Sudan, was responsible for the displacement of 1.8 million civilians. We investigated a large outbreak of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Mornay camp (78,800 inhabitants) in western Darfur.

Guthmann, JP; Klovstad, H; Boccia, D; Hamid, N; Pinoges, L

67

Accurate assessment of breast volume: a study comparing the volumetric gold standard (direct water displacement measurement of mastectomy specimen) with a 3D laser scanning technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preoperative assessment of breast volume could contribute significantly to the planning of breast-related procedures. The availability of 3D scanning technology provides us with an innovative method for doing this. We performed this study to compare measurements by this technology with breast volume measurement by water displacement. A total of 30 patients undergoing 39 mastectomies were recruited from our center. The volume of each patient's breast(s) was determined with a preoperative 3D laser scan. The volume of the mastectomy specimen was then measured in the operating theater by water displacement. There was a strong linear association between breast volumes measured using the 2 different methods when using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.95, P < 0.001). The mastectomy mean volume was defined by the equation: mastectomy mean volume = (scan mean volume × 1.03) -70.6. This close correlation validates the Cyberware WBX Scanner as a tool for assessment of breast volume.

Yip JM; Mouratova N; Jeffery RM; Veitch DE; Woodman RJ; Dean NR

2012-02-01

68

Accurate assessment of breast volume: a study comparing the volumetric gold standard (direct water displacement measurement of mastectomy specimen) with a 3D laser scanning technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preoperative assessment of breast volume could contribute significantly to the planning of breast-related procedures. The availability of 3D scanning technology provides us with an innovative method for doing this. We performed this study to compare measurements by this technology with breast volume measurement by water displacement. A total of 30 patients undergoing 39 mastectomies were recruited from our center. The volume of each patient's breast(s) was determined with a preoperative 3D laser scan. The volume of the mastectomy specimen was then measured in the operating theater by water displacement. There was a strong linear association between breast volumes measured using the 2 different methods when using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.95, P < 0.001). The mastectomy mean volume was defined by the equation: mastectomy mean volume = (scan mean volume × 1.03) -70.6. This close correlation validates the Cyberware WBX Scanner as a tool for assessment of breast volume. PMID:21587046

Yip, Jia Miin; Mouratova, Naila; Jeffery, Rebecca M; Veitch, Daisy E; Woodman, Richard J; Dean, Nicola R

2012-02-01

69

Determination of extractable oil reserves in pools at late stage of working by characteristics of oil displacement by water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The factual data on the final rectilinear segments on displacement characteristics depending on the degree of flooding of the extracted liquid and comparison of the calculated extracted reserves with the actual or those computed on the balance for objects in the late stage of development defined the area of application of the methods, and characteristics for displacement. Three methods were recommended for pinpointing the reserves of oil for pools in the terrigenous collectors with low-viscous and elevated viscosity of oil. The methods were improved by limiting the extraction of oil to the maximum profitable annual output.

Amelin, I.D.; Davydov, A.V.; Subbotina, Ye.V.

1985-01-01

70

The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

2007-04-07

71

Combined Effects of Mass and Velocity on Forward Displacement and Phenomenological Ratings: A Functional Measurement Approach to the Momentum Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

Representational Momentum (RepMo) refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as…

De Sa Teixeira, Nuno; Oliveira, Armando Monica; Amorim, Michel-Ange

2010-01-01

72

Displacement cascades in diatomic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al2O3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

1981-08-12

73

Implications of surfactant-induced flow for miscible-displacement estimation of air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surfactant miscible-displacement experiments represent a conventional means of estimating air-water interfacial area (A(I)) in unsaturated porous media. However, changes in surface tension during the experiment can potentially induce unsaturated flow, thereby altering interfacial areas and violating several fundamental method assumptions, including that of steady-state flow. In this work, the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow was quantified by monitoring moisture content and perturbations to effluent flow rate during miscible-displacement experiments conducted using a range of surfactant concentrations. For systems initially at 83% moisture saturation (S(W)), decreases of 18-43% S(W) occurred following surfactant introduction, with the magnitude and rate of drainage inversely related to the surface tension of the surfactant solution. Drainage induced by 0.1 mM sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, commonly used for A(I) estimation, resulted in effluent flow rate increases of up to 27% above steady-state conditions and is estimated to more than double the interfacial area over the course of the experiment. Depending on the surfactant concentration and the moisture content used to describe the system, A(I) estimates varied more than 3-fold. The magnitude of surfactant-induced flow is considerably larger than previously recognized and casts doubt on the reliability of A(I) estimation by surfactant miscible-displacement.

Costanza-Robinson MS; Zheng Z; Henry EJ; Estabrook BD; Littlefield MH

2012-10-01

74

Implications of surfactant-induced flow for miscible-displacement estimation of air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surfactant miscible-displacement experiments represent a conventional means of estimating air-water interfacial area (A(I)) in unsaturated porous media. However, changes in surface tension during the experiment can potentially induce unsaturated flow, thereby altering interfacial areas and violating several fundamental method assumptions, including that of steady-state flow. In this work, the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow was quantified by monitoring moisture content and perturbations to effluent flow rate during miscible-displacement experiments conducted using a range of surfactant concentrations. For systems initially at 83% moisture saturation (S(W)), decreases of 18-43% S(W) occurred following surfactant introduction, with the magnitude and rate of drainage inversely related to the surface tension of the surfactant solution. Drainage induced by 0.1 mM sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, commonly used for A(I) estimation, resulted in effluent flow rate increases of up to 27% above steady-state conditions and is estimated to more than double the interfacial area over the course of the experiment. Depending on the surfactant concentration and the moisture content used to describe the system, A(I) estimates varied more than 3-fold. The magnitude of surfactant-induced flow is considerably larger than previously recognized and casts doubt on the reliability of A(I) estimation by surfactant miscible-displacement. PMID:23033988

Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Zheng, Zheng; Henry, Eric J; Estabrook, Benjamin D; Littlefield, Malcolm H

2012-10-03

75

Density-driven displacement of pore water as possible factor affecting the vertical distribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in a Baltic Sea sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vertical distribution of radionuclides in the bottom sediment of Gaevle Bay, southern Bothnian Sea, was investigated after the Chernobyl fallout. Sediment cores collected two years after the initial fallout revealed the highest radionuclide concentrations found in the Baltic Sea, reflecting the heavy fallout over this region. Concentrations of nuclides were almost constant down to about 8 cm sediment depth. Results from calculations by solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation were compared with the measured concentrations of radionuclide. The computed values were much lower than the observed ones, and diffusion alone could not account for the distribution pattern in the sediment. The macrobenthic community was scarce and vertical mixing of pore water could not be explained by bioturbation either. Vertical displacement of the pore water, caused by changes in density of the overlying water column, is a possible mechanism which could explain the rapid penetration of fallout nuclides in the soft bottom sediment. 8 refs, 16 figs, 3 tabs.

1994-01-01

76

Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

2004-07-01

77

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by water plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were functionalized by H(2)O plasma treatment. Through a controlled functionalization process of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) we were able to modify and tune their chemical reactivity, expanding the range of potential applications in the field of energy and environment. In particular, different oxygen groups were attached to the surfaces of the nanotubes (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl), which changed their physicochemical properties. In order to optimize the main operational parameters of the H(2)O plasma treatment, pressure and power, a Box-Wilson experimental design was adopted. Analysis of the morphology, electrochemical properties and functional groups attached to the surfaces of the CNTs allowed us to determine which treatment conditions were suitable for different applications. After water plasma treatment the specific capacitance of the nanotubes increased from 23 up to 68 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1).

Hussain S; Amade R; Jover E; Bertran E

2012-09-01

78

Assessment of HAM and PEM to Find Analytical Solution for Calculating Displacement Functions of Geometrically Nonlinear Prestressed Cable Structures with Concentrated Mass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two powerful analytical methods, called He’s Parameter-Expanding Methods (PEM) and Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) are used to calculating displacement functions of geometrically nonlinear prestressed cable structures. In this study, the results of two methods are compared and it is shown that one term in series expansions is sufficient to obtain a solution by using the PEM. Comparison of the obtained solutions with those obtained using numerical method shows that two methods are effective and convenient for solving this problem. These two methods introduce a capable tool for solving this kind of nonlinear problems.

M. Ghasempour; E. Rokni; A. Kimiaeifar; M. Rahimpour

2009-01-01

79

Displaced Patella Fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred.

Della Rocca GJ

2013-08-01

80

Displaced patella fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. PMID:23966286

Della Rocca, Gregory J

2013-08-21

 
 
 
 
81

Lucky interferometry for displacement measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

We extrapolated the lucky imaging technique, mostly used in astronomy, to the field of interferometry for displacement measurement. From the batch of interferograms generated by a Twyman-Green-type interferometer and acquired by a CCD camera, those with high overall contrast were selected and fitted to a sinusoidal function. The high-contrast interferograms showed a significantly lower dispersion and, consequently, a lower uncertainty of the measured displacement.

Ioni??, Bogdan; Logof?tu, Petre C?t?lin; Apostol, Dan

2009-11-01

82

Automatic displacement control for variable displacement motor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydraulic system is described comprising: first and second ducts adapted to be connected respectively to a source of fluid pressure and a low pressure fluid return; a variable displacement motor having a pair of ports; a reversing valve interposed between the motor and the first and second ducts for selectively reversing connections between the pair of ports and the first and second ducts to selectively drive the motor in opposite directions; displacement control means operably associated with the motor for altering the displacement thereof, the displacement control means including opposed fluid chambers operably communicating with the pair of ports for impressing the pressure differential between the pair of ports upon the displacement control means to adjust the latter; biasing means engaging the displacement control means for urging the latter in a direction reducing displacement of the motor; and shuttle valve means, responsive to the pressure differential between the pair of ports, for automatically reversing communication between the opposed fluid chambers and the pair of ports whereby the pressure differential always urges the displacement control means in a direction increasing displacement of the motor.

Hamilton, P.U.

1988-09-06

83

Semi-diurnal and diurnal variation of errors in GPS precipitable water vapor at Tsukuba, Japan caused by site displacement due to ocean tidal loading  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous GPS and water vapor radiometer (WVR) observations were carried out at Tsukuba, Japan from May 1 to June 30, 1998. The precise point positioning method of the GIPSY/OASIS-II software package (GIPSY) was used to retrieve precipitable water vapor (GPS_PWV) from GPS data, which was then compared with precipitable water vapor observed by WVR (WVR_PWV). They agreed quite well with the root mean square difference of less than 1.5 mm. However, periodic variations were found in the difference between GPS_PWV and WVR_PWV (dPWV). It was also found that semi-diurnal or diurnal components of these variations had a positive correlation with site displacement due to Ocean Tidal Loading (OTL). Two months of dPWV data were decomposed by the period of a component of OTL, and then composite time series data with a period equal to that of the component were made. This process was performed for K1, O1, M2, and S1 components of OTL. In each component, a periodic variation in dPWV appeared which was similar to those of the simulated GPS_PWV errors from OTL effects calculated with 'GOTIC' (Sato and Hanada, 1984), a program for the computation of OTL effect. Inclusion of OTL effects into GIPSY analysis reduced dPWV. In the M2 component, the amplitude of the dPWV was reduced by about 80%. This suggests that the OTL components calculated by the GOTIC succeeded in simulating the actual site displacement by OTL effects in Japan. On the other hand, in K1 components, the amplitude of dPWV without OTL in GIPSY is 1.5 times larger than the simulated GPS_PWV error, with considerable error remaining even in the case of GIPSY analysis with OTL. The error may be due to multi-path effect, temperature dependency on conversion from Zenith Wet Delay to PWV, or instrument dependency of WVR on temperature. Analysis utilizing much longer data periods than the present two months is required to overcome these difficulties.

Shoji, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Aonashi, K.; Ichiki, A.; Seko, H.; Members of GPS/MET Japan Summer Campaign 1997 in Tsukuba

2000-10-01

84

Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation.

Hamida T; Babadagli T

2007-09-01

85

Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:17927413

Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

2007-09-01

86

Temperature dependence of mean square displacement by IN13: a comparison between trehalose and sucrose water mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis in terms of elastic scans of the neutron intensity in mixtures of homologues disaccharides (i.e., trehalose and sucrose)/D2O as a function of temperature has been carried out. The study provides an effective way for characterizing the dynamical behavior, furnishing a set of parameters characterizing the 'flexibility' and the 'rigidity' that justifies the better cryptobiotic effect of trehalose in respect to sucrose. Elastic scans make evident a non-Gaussian behavior of the intensity profiles which is more marked for sucrose, with a dynamical transition at T?253 K and T?250 K for trehalose/D2O and sucrose/D2O mixtures, respectively.

2003-08-01

87

Temperature dependence of mean square displacement by IN13: a comparison between trehalose and sucrose water mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis in terms of elastic scans of the neutron intensity in mixtures of homologues disaccharides (i.e., trehalose and sucrose)/D{sub 2}O as a function of temperature has been carried out. The study provides an effective way for characterizing the dynamical behavior, furnishing a set of parameters characterizing the 'flexibility' and the 'rigidity' that justifies the better cryptobiotic effect of trehalose in respect to sucrose. Elastic scans make evident a non-Gaussian behavior of the intensity profiles which is more marked for sucrose, with a dynamical transition at T{approx}253 K and T{approx}250 K for trehalose/D{sub 2}O and sucrose/D{sub 2}O mixtures, respectively.

Magazu, S.; Migliardo, F.; Mondelli, C.; Romeo, G

2003-08-01

88

A classical density-functional theory for describing water interfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We develop a classical density functional for water which combines the White Bear fundamental-measure theory (FMT) functional for the hard sphere fluid with attractive interactions based on the statistical associating fluid theory variable range (SAFT-VR). This functional reproduces the properties of water at both long and short length scales over a wide range of temperatures and is computationally efficient, comparable to the cost of FMT itself. We demonstrate our functional by applying it to systems composed of two hard rods, four hard rods arranged in a square, and hard spheres in water.

Hughes J; Krebs EJ; Roundy D

2013-01-01

89

Flexor digitorum longus transfer and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy for the treatment of stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: kinematic and functional results of fifty one feet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) can be treated by flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon transfer and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy (MDCO). Numerous authors have studied the clinical and radiographic results of this procedure. However, little is known about the kinematic changes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess plantar-pressure distribution in these patients. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with PTTD stage II underwent FDL tendon transfer and MDCO. Plantar pressure distribution and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were assessed 48 months after surgery. Pedobarographic parameters included lateral and medial force index of the gait line, peak pressure (PP), maximum force (MF), contact area (CA), contact time (CT) and force-time integral (FTI). RESULTS: In the lesser-toe region, PP, MF, CT, FTI and CA were reduced and MF in the forefoot region was increased. These changes were statistically significant. We found statistically significant correlations between AOFAS score and loading parameters of the medial midfoot. CONCLUSIONS: Study results reveal that FDL tendon transfer and MDCO leads to impaired function of the lesser toes during the stance phase. However, there seems to be a compensating increased load in the forefoot region.

Schuh R; Gruber F; Wanivenhaus A; Hartig N; Windhager R; Trnka HJ

2013-09-01

90

Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

1982-11-17

91

Predicting oil displacement by thermal methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil displaced by heat fronts associated with thermal oil recovery methods is calculated using a graphical correlation of three-phase permeability data. Previous investigations were based on the two-phase flow of steam and oil behind the heat front and hot water and oil ahead of the condensation front. In situ combustion displacement has not been adequately studied, except to some exent by numerical methods and laboratory experiments, due to the complexity of gas, oil and water three-phase flow. The solution developed herein combines fluid flow with Marx-Langenheim heat loss to predict heat front velocity and oil displacement. 13 refs.

Moss, J.T.

1981-01-01

92

No difference in the long term final functional outcome after nailing or cast bracing of high energy displaced tibial shaft fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cast bracing (CB) has been a well established method of treating tibial shaft fractures. Majority of the recent literature on treatment of tibial shaft fractures have upheld intramedullary nailing (IMN) as the treatment of choice. Most of these studies are from the west, in public funded health set ups and in hospitals with very low rates of infection. This has lead to bewilderment in the minds of surgeons wishing to opt for conservative treatment in countries with scarcity of health resources. We therefore undertook this study to compare the two modalities in the scenario of the developing world. Material and methods Sixty-eight consecutive patients were treated alternately with CB and IMN for high energy, displaced, closed and Gustilo Grade 1 open fractures of the tibial shaft, between 1995 and 2001. Results An average follow up at 4.3?years revealed no statistical difference in the final functional outcome as per Johner and Wruhs' criteria with modification to Indian lifestyle. IMN group had a) slightly shorter time to fracture union (mean 21.3?weeks versus 23.1?weeks for CB, p?>?0.05), (b) lesser time off work (mean 17.6?weeks versus 25.6?weeks for CB, p Conclusion Treating tibial shaft fracture either with IMN or CB provided equally gratifying results with no statistical difference in final functional outcome. The economic cost to the patient in Indian conditions is significantly less with CB and therefore stands as an equally reliable treatment option, especially in countries with fewer resources.

Batta Vineet; Dwyer Amitabh J; Gulati Aashish; Prakash Jeevan; Mam Maharaj K; John Bobby

2012-01-01

93

Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water: Hybrid density functionals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure, dynamical and electronic properties of liquid water utilizing different hybrid density functionals were tested within the plane wave framework of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. The computational approach, which employs modified functionals with short-ranged Hartree-Fock exchange, was first tested in calculations of the structural and bonding properties of the water dimer and cyclic water trimer. Liquid water simulations were performed at the state point of 350 K at the experimental density. Simulations included three different hybrid functionals, a meta functional, four gradient corrected functionals, the local density and Hartree-Fock approximation. It is found that hybrid functionals are superior in reproducing the experimental structure and dynamical properties as measured by the radial distribution function and self diffusion constant when compared to the pure density functionals. The local density and Hartree-Fock approximations show strongly over- and under-structured liquids, respectively. Hydrogen bond analysis shows that the hybrid functionals give slightly smaller averaged numbers of hydrogen bonds and similar hydrogen bond populations as pure density functionals. The average molecular dipole moments in the liquid from the three hybrid functionals are lower than from the corresponding pure density functionals.

Todorova, T; Seitsonen, A; Hutter, J; Kuo, W; Mundy, C

2005-09-12

94

Tactile suppression of displacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vision, the discovery of the phenomenon of saccadic suppression of displacement has made important contributions to the understanding of the stable world problem. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in the tactile modality. When scanning a single Braille dot with two fingers of the same hand, participants were asked to decide whether the dot was stationary or whether it was displaced from one location to another. The stimulus was produced by refreshable Braille devices that have dots that can be swiftly raised and recessed. In some conditions, the dot was stationary. In others, a displacement was created by monitoring the participant's finger position and by switching the dot activation when it was not touched by either finger. The dot displacement was of either 2.5 mm or 5 mm. We found that in certain cases, displaced dots were felt to be stationary. If the displacement was orthogonal to the finger movements, tactile suppression occurred effectively when it was of 2.5 mm, but when the displacement was of 5 mm, the participants easily detected it. If the displacement was medial-lateral, the suppression effect occurred as well, but less often when the apparent movement of the dot opposed the movement of the finger. In such cases, the stimulus appeared sooner than when the brain could predict it from finger movement, supporting a predictive rather than a postdictive differential processing hypothesis.

Ziat M; Hayward V; Chapman CE; Ernst MO; Lenay C

2010-10-01

95

Photo-displacement imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

A modulated laser beam, incident on a surface, gives rise to a time-varying surface displacement. This displacement can be detected by means of a laser interferometer, thereby forming the basis for a novel imaging system. Preliminary results to demonstrate the viability of such a technique are presented.

Ameri, S.; Ash, E. A.; Neuman, V.; Petts, C. R.

1981-05-01

96

Highly water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes amine-functionalized by supercritical water oxidation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been amine-functionalized by eco-friendly supercritical water oxidation. The facilely functionalized MWNTs have high solubility (?84 mg L(-1)) in water and 78% transmittance at 30-fold dilution. The Tyndall effect is also shown for several liquids.

Chun KY; Moon IK; Han JH; Do SH; Lee JS; Jeon SY

2013-09-01

97

Polarized phase functions in oil-in-water emulsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results of modeling of polarized phase functions (PPFs) in water polluted by oil-in-water emulsion are presented. The shapes of PPFs for various oil droplets size distributions and for two optically different oil types are shown for various wavelengths in the visible region. It is revealed that PPFs...

Zbigniew Otremba; Jacek Piskozub

98

Optimum control of displacement ventilation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Displacement ventilation imposes more stringent requirements on the control system than mixing air ventilation. A perfectly functioning room temperature control is only obtainable by means of components which have been optimally matched to each other, in conjunction with the correct settings of the parameters. Sulzer Infra set up a test room with a displacement ventilation system in order to investigate the control behaviour. In this test room, supply air quantity and supplementary heating were controlled as a function of the room air temperature. The objective of the various tests was to measure the temperature profile across the height of the room and the flow velocities at different internal loads in order to consolidate the knowledge of this new type of ventilation. (orig.).

Prochaska, V.

1991-01-01

99

A study for biofilm removing and antimicrobial effects by microbubbled tap water and other functional water, electrolyzed hypochlorite water and ozonated water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to examine the biofilm removing and antimicrobial effects of microbubbled tap water and other functional water. The biofilm removal test showed that the activity of microbubbled tap water against the biofilm of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of ordinary tap water (p<0.01). When the antimicrobial activities of two types of functional water were compared, the activity of electrolyzed hypochlorite water was significantly stronger than that of the ozonated water (p<0.01). The antimicrobial effect of the electrolyzed hypochlorite water was increased in the microbubbled form, and was stronger than microbubbled tap water. The same results were obtained not only for biofilms, but also for planktonic microbes. Our results demonstrated that the microbubbled water showed strong biofilm removing effects. Moreover, the application of functional water, such as electrolyzed hypochlorite microbubbled water was effective for both removing and sterilizing biofilms.

Ozaki M; Ohshima T; Mukumoto M; Konishi H; Hirashita A; Maeda N; Nakamura Y

2012-01-01

100

Phase functions of oil-in-water emulsions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling of optical phase function (PF) of water polluted by dispersed oil. The shapes of PFs for various oil droplet size distributions and for two optically extremely different oil types are shown for various wavelengths from 350 to 750 nm. It is proved that changes of optical properties of oil (the complex refractive index) play minor role in PF shaping towards the impact of wavelength and size distribution. Water with oil emulsion has a PF significantly different from that of natural ocean water or harbour turbid water.

Zbigniew Otremba; Jacek Piskozub

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of wettability and pore-level displacement on hydrocarbon trapping  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a three-dimensional mixed-wet random network model representing Berea sandstone to extend our previous work on relative permeability hysteresis during water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection cycles [Suicmez, VS, Piri, M, Blunt, MJ, 2007, Pore-scale simulation of water alternate gas injection, Transport Porous Med 66(3), 259-86]. We compute the trapped hydrocarbon saturation for tertiary water-flooding, which is water injection into different initial gas saturations, Sgi, established by secondary gas injection after primary drainage. Tertiary water-flooding is continued until all the gas and oil is trapped. We study four different wettability conditions: water-wet, weakly water-wet, weakly oil-wet and oil-wet. We demonstrate that the amounts of oil and gas that are trapped show surprising trends with wettability that cannot be captured using previously developed empirical trapping models. We show that the amount of oil that is trapped by water in the presence of gas increases as the medium becomes more oil-wet, which is opposite from that seen for two-phase flow. It is only through a careful analysis of displacement statistics and fluid configurations that these results can be explained. This illustrates the need to have detailed models of the displacement processes that represent the three-phase displacement physics as carefully as possible. Further work is needed to explore the full range of behavior as a function of wettability and displacement path.

Suicmez, V. Sander; Piri, Mohammad; Blunt, Martin J.

2008-03-01

102

Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins  

CERN Document Server

The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), Ribonuclease A and Staphysloccal Nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

Vural, Derya

2012-01-01

103

Abomasal displacement in cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Left abomasal displacement can be treated among other techniques also with the rolling technique accompanied with a percutaneus paramedian abomasopexy using toggle pin fixators of cornel wood. This method is reliable, quick and cheap.

Zemlji? Borut

2003-01-01

104

Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1982-07-01

105

Water distribution function across the curved lipid bilayer: SANS study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The neutron scattering length density across the membrane is simulated on the basis of fluctuated model of lipid bilayer. The use of a separated form factors method has been applied for the identification of the structural features of the polydispersed unilamellar DMPC vesicle system. The hydration of vesicle is described by sigmoid distribution function of the water molecules. The application of the model to the obtained SANS spectra allow the determination of the main parameters of the system, such as the average vesicle radius (and its polydispersity), the membrane thickness, the thickness of hydrocarbon chain region, the number of water molecules located per lipid molecule, and the phospholipid surface area. Moreover the approach allow the calculation of some relevant parameters connected with the water distribution function across the bilayer system. The main features of the obtained results furnish an explanation of why lipid membrane is easily penetrated by the water molecules of the solution.

Kiselev, M.A. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Zemlyanaya, E.V. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ryabova, N.Y. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Hauss, T.; Dante, S. [Hahn-Meither-Institute, Berlin (Germany); Lombardo, D. [CNR-IPCF, Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici (Sez. Messina), Messina (Italy)], E-mail: lombardo@me.cnr.it

2008-04-18

106

Point processes and stochastic displacement fields.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a stochastic displacement field on a statistically independent point process is analyzed. Stochastic displacement fields can be divided into two large classes: spatially correlated and uncorrelated. For both cases exact transformation equations for the two-point correlation function and the power spectrum of the point process are found, and a detailed study of them with important paradigmatic examples is done. The results are general and in any dimension. Particular attention is devoted to the kind of large-scale correlations that can be introduced by the displacement field and to the realizability of arbitrary "superhomogeneous" point processes. PMID:15697458

Gabrielli, Andrea

2004-12-23

107

Point processes and stochastic displacement fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of a stochastic displacement field on a statistically independent point process is analyzed. Stochastic displacement fields can be divided into two large classes: spatially correlated and uncorrelated. For both cases exact transformation equations for the two-point correlation function and the power spectrum of the point process are found, and a detailed study of them with important paradigmatic examples is done. The results are general and in any dimension. Particular attention is devoted to the kind of large-scale correlations that can be introduced by the displacement field and to the realizability of arbitrary "superhomogeneous" point processes.

Gabrielli A

2004-12-01

108

Multiple displacement amplification  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are compositions and a method for amplification of nucleic acid sequences of interest. The disclosed method generally involves replication of a target sequence such that, during replication, the replicated strands are displaced from the target sequence by strand displacement replication of another replicated strand. In one form of the disclosed method, the target sample is not subjected to denaturing conditions. It was discovered that the target nucleic acids, genomic DNA, for example, need not be denatured for efficient multiple displacement amplification. The primers used can be hexamer primers. The primers can also each contain at least one modified nucleotide such that the primers are nuclease resistant.The primers can also each contain at least one modified nucleotide such that the melting temperature of the primer is altered relative to a primer of the same sequence without the modified nucleotide(s). The DNA polymerase can be phi29 DNA polymerase.

DEAN FRANK B; LASKEN ROGER S; FANG LINHUA; FARUQI A. FAWAD; ALSMADI OSAMA A; DRISCOLL MARK D; HOSONO SEIYU

109

Optical displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-08

110

Updated model for dielectric response function of liquid water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A modified and updated version of the model of the dielectric response function of liquid water as currently implemented in the PARTRAC code is presented. The updated version takes advantage of the newer experimental information from the Sendai group and implements some improvements in modeling and usability.

Dingfelder M

2013-01-01

111

Root functions as influenced by different water supply  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present thesis covers three chapters, each focusing on a root function during different water supply. Firstly, soil oxygenation by Carex rostrata in flooded soil is studied. The study showed that this wetland species can increase significantly soil oxygen availability. The aeration effect, howev...

Mainiero, Raphael

112

Characterization of silica-functionalized carbon nanotubes dispersed in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to enhance the strength, toughness, and multifunctional ability of composite materials. However, suitable dispersion and interfacial bonding remain as key challenges. Composites that are formed by reactions with water, like Portland cement concrete and mortar, pose a special challenge for dispersing the inherently hydrophobic nanotubes. The hydration of Portland cement also offers a specific chemical framework for interfacial bonding. In this study, nanoscale silica functional groups are covalently bonded to CNTs to improve their dispersion in water while providing interfacial bond sites for the proposed matrix material. The bond signatures of treated nanotubes are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In situ dispersion is characterized using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and point of zero charge (PZC) measurements. At the nanoscale, interparticle spacing was greatly increased. A slight increase in the PZC after treatment indicates the importance of steric effects in the dispersion mechanism. Overall, results indicate successful functionalization and dramatically improved dispersion stability in water.

Stynoski, Peter, E-mail: pstynos2@illinois.edu; Mondal, Paramita, E-mail: pmondal@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Wotring, Erik, E-mail: erik.wotring@usace.army.mil; Marsh, Charles, E-mail: charles.p.marsh@usace.army.mil [US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (United States)

2013-01-15

113

The electronic structure of liquid water within density functional theory  

CERN Multimedia

In the last decade, computational studies of liquid water have mostly concentrated on ground state properties. However recent spectroscopic measurements have been used to infer the structure of water, and the interpretation of optical and x-ray spectra requires accurate theoretical models of excited electronic states, not only of the ground state. To this end, we investigate the electronic properties of water at ambient conditions using ab initio density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (DFT/GGA), focussing on the unoccupied subspace of Kohn-Sham eigenstates. We generate long (250 ps) classical trajectories for large supercells, up to 256 molecules, from which uncorrelated configurations of water molecules are extracted for use in DFT/GGA calculations of the electronic structure. We find that the density of occupied states of this molecular liquid is well described with 32 molecule supercells using a single k-point (k = 0) to approximate integration over the first Brillouin zone...

Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Prendergast, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C.; Galli, Giulia

2005-01-01

114

Study of Xe poisoning effect on fuel displacement strategies in a nuclear electric plant equipped with a natural uranium - heavy water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Xenon poisoning on fuel handling strategies in a natural uranium reactor was studied. A computer code, called PRODFIS was devised to have a permanent control on the concentrations of fission products, allowing to obtain the concentration values for a fission product, at any moment. This computer code can simultaneously follow 19 fission products and supply information at different time intervals depending on the computer storage used. The problems concerning the behaviour of Xe and Sm concentrations in the reactor and their influence on its functioning were mathematically treated. The influence of Xe concentration oscillations on the functioning of a natural uranium-heavy water reactor was analysed by means of a computer code called OSCXEN that allowed us to obtain the radial and axial values for fast and thermal neutron flows at certain time intervals and iodine and Xenon concentration values on different time ranges. Dynamic programming methods were applied to the study of the control of Xe and Sm poisoning, obtaining the solutions for two aspects of this problem, namely the minimization of the Xe concentration value and Xe concentration maximum. This problem is solved by using a control system of ''bang-bang'' type. A computer code called XENPROG was devised to determine the best version for the neutron flow when the reactor is stopped in such a way as the two conditions imposed by Xe concentration minimization or minimization of Xe concentration maximum to be fulfilled. Ex.perimental measurements were performed on the V/V. R-S reactor in order to verify the results obtained with XENPROG channel. Agreement between experimental results, applying XENPROG code indications, and results obtained bY means of calculation confirms the correctness of the computer code. (author)

1983-01-01

115

Aminopolycarboxylic acid functionalized adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the excellent chelating properties of aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCAs), they can be used for the removal of metals from contaminated waters. This paper reviews the research results obtained for both commercial and self-prepared adsorbents functionalized with four most common APCAs: iminodiacetic acid (IDA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The structural characteristics and unique metal binding properties of these chelating adsorbents are presented. The theory of the adsorption phenomena is discussed based on the kinetics of adsorption, equilibrium adsorption isotherm models, and thermodynamic models. The most important applications of APCA-functionalized adsorbents are also described. APCA-functionalized adsorbents are found to be highly promising materials for metal removal from contaminated waters.

Repo E; Warcho? JK; Bhatnagar A; Mudhoo A; Sillanpää M

2013-09-01

116

DISPLACEMENT-DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION BASED ON SOLIDIFICATION FLOATING ORGANIC DROP TRACE AMOUNTS OF LEAD IN WATER SAMPLE PRIOR TO FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY DETERMINATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this study, a novel method using displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop in complicated samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination was developed. This method involves two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification. In step I, Zn(II) ions reacted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio carbamate (APDC) to form Zn-APDC complex and was extracted with the soli (more) dified floating organic drop microextraction procedure using 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) and ethanol (dispersive solvent). In step II, after centrifugation and solidification, the separated drop was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) and then dispersed into the sample solution containing lead ion and another dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification procedure was carried out. Due to the greater stability of Pb-APDC, Pb displaces Zn from the pre-extracted Zn-APDC and preconcentration of Pb was achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 4-700 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.7 ng mL-1(3a b). The relative standard deviation of ±1.6% was obtained (n=7) and the enrichment factor was found to be 35.0.

AFZALI, DARYOUSH; FAYAZI, MARYAM; FAVI, ALIMOSTA

2013-03-01

117

Miscible displacement of salinity fronts: Implications for colloid mobilization  

Science.gov (United States)

Colloids can be mobilized in the subsurface when low ionic strength pore water displaces high ionic strength pore water. Various experiments in saturated porous media, where such a change in ionic strength was used to mobilize colloids, have been reported in the literature. Here we experimentally test the effect of the flow direction on the hydrodynamic stability of the salinity displacement front. A series of experiments was conducted in packed columns where a solution of 1000 mM NaCl was displaced by 1 mM NaNO3 in a saturated porous medium. The flow direction was vertically downward, horizontal, or vertically upward. Nitrate breakthrough curves were determined at the column outflow. Results show that for downward flow of a salinity front the displacement fronts were hydrodynamically stable, but breakthrough curves showed less dispersion than in the case of equimolar miscible displacement. For upward flow of the salinity front the displacement was unstable. Breakthrough curves were not reproducible, and a family of breakthrough curves was observed for repeated experiments. This was caused by the development of distinct fingers at the displacement front. For horizontal flow of the salinity front the displacement was unstable. Repeated breakthrough curves were reproducible, but there was more dispersion than under equimolar displacement, which we attribute to some instability in the displacement front. Front instability inferred from breakthrough curves was consistent with theoretical expectations for miscible displacement.

Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Mathison, Jon B.

2003-12-01

118

Military-induced displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the fall of the former government, Iraqis have primarily fled their homes because of sectarian and generalised violence. However, counter-insurgency operations by the US military and their Iraqi allies continue to be a significant cause of death, destruction and internal displacement in parts of Iraq.

Dina Abou Samra

2007-01-01

119

Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlani@fcav.unesp.br

2008-07-01

120

Polarized phase functions in oil-in-water emulsion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results of modeling of polarized phase functions (PPFs) in water polluted by oil-in-water emulsion are presented. The shapes of PPFs for various oil droplets size distributions and for two optically different oil types are shown for various wavelengths in the visible region. It is revealed that PPFs for two perpendicular planes are different for angles greater than 50° (with even 2-fold difference close to 90°). Shapes of PPFs depend on the type of oil and on wavelength; oil droplets size distribution plays a minor role only.

Zbigniew Otremba; Jacek Piskozub

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology.

Karan Ram; Capes Melinda D; DasSarma Shiladitya

2012-01-01

122

Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology.

Karan R; Capes MD; Dassarma S

2012-01-01

123

Variance and covariance of accumulated displacement estimates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tracking large deformations in tissue using ultrasound can enable the reconstruction of nonlinear elastic parameters, but poses a challenge to displacement estimation algorithms. Such large deformations have to be broken up into steps, each of which contributes an estimation error to the final accumulated displacement map. The work reported here measured the error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using one-dimensional numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to tissue strain and electronic noise. The covariance between accumulation steps was also computed. These simulations show that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps, and therefore accumulate slowly, whereas errors due to tissue deformation are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. For reasonably low electronic noise levels, the error variance in the accumulated displacement estimates is remarkably constant as a function of step size, but increases with the length of the tracking kernel.

Bayer M; Hall TJ

2013-04-01

124

Applications of water-based magnetic gradiometry to assess the geometry and displacement for concealed faults in the southern Adirondack Mountains, New York, U.S.A  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated magnetic gradiometry and structural analysis was conducted on three lakes in the southern Adirondacks Mountains, New York, in order to develop a geometric and kinematic model for concealed and long lived faults that transect the Proterozoic basement structures, offset Paleozoic strata to the south, and may be associated with the development of the post-Paleozoic cratonic dome (the Adirondack dome). Two lakes occur along the trace of two of the most prominent topographic lineaments that have been proposed to be faults in the southern Adirondack Mountains, and a third lake is located at the apparent fault intersection. Hinkley Lake occurs over the east-west trending lineament that corresponds to the trace of the Prospect fault. Indian Lake resides in a set of north-northeast trending pronounced lineaments that transect an anorthosite-cored structural dome and are inferred to be faults on the NYS geologic map. Piseco Lake is immediately adjacent to the intersection of the two proposed fault zones (Prospect and Indian Lake fault zones). Magnetic surveys were conducted on all three lakes, resulting in anomaly maps. Accompanying two dimensional geologic models for Hinkley and Piseco Lake were produced. At Piseco Lake, field evidence supports a brittle deformation history with sinistral-normal displacement. A similar deformation history is consistent with field data collected at Indian Lake. Correlation of the two dimensional magnetic models resulted in a sinistral, releasing-bend fault geometry beneath Piseco Lake, and the fault truncation of a granitic gneiss cored antiform for the subsurface geology of Hinkley Lake. The magnetic data and models suggest that Piseco Lake resides over a sinistral, pull-apart structure with sufficient throw to preserve the lowermost Paleozoic strata that once covered much of the Adirondack dome. This would account for both sinistral strike-slip and normal displacement on the interpreted faults, at Piseco and Indian Lakes, and rotation of structural blocks as the result of fault interaction. Relative timing, regional relationships, and ties to published ages suggest that the distribution of the faults is a relic of Neoproterozoic Iapetan rifting, Paleozoic displacement, and Mesozoic uplift of the Adirondack dome. Finally there is probable correlation of these faults with modern seismic activity.

Valentino, David W.; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R.; Hewitt, Elise M.; Valentino, Joshua D.

2012-01-01

125

Local structure of a pure Bi A site polar perovskite revealed by pair distribution function analysis and reverse Monte Carlo modeling: correlated off-axis displacements in a rhombohedral material.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perovskite oxides with Bi(3+) on the A site are of interest as candidate replacements for lead-based piezoelectric ceramics. Current understanding of the chemical factors permitting the synthesis of ambient-pressure-stable perovskite oxides with Bi(3+) on the A site is limited to information derived from average structures. The local structure of the lead-free ferroelectric perovskite Bi(Ti(3/8)Fe(2/8)Mg(3/8))O(3) is studied by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of neutron scattering data. The resultant model is consistent with the structure derived from diffraction but reveals key extra structural features due to correlated local displacements that are inaccessible from the average unit cell. The resulting structural picture emphasizes the need to combine symmetry-averaged long-range and local analysis of the structures of compositionally complex, substitutionally disordered functional materials. Local correlation of the off-axis displacements of the A site cation produces monoclinic domains consistent with the existence of displacement directions other than R (<111>(p)) or T (<100>(p)). The Bi displacements are correlated ferroelectrically both in the polar direction and orthogonal to it, providing evidence of the presence of monoclinic domains. The octahedral cation environments reveal distinct differences in the coordination geometry of the different B site metal ions. The local nature of these deviations and correlations makes them inaccessible to long-range averaged techniques. The resulting local structure information provides a new understanding of the stability of pure Bi(3+) A site perovskite oxides.

Chong SY; Szczecinski RJ; Bridges CA; Tucker MG; Claridge JB; Rosseinsky MJ

2012-04-01

126

Displacement of a hydrocarbon oil from a metal surface using a surfactant solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Separation of oils from solid surfaces is important in cleaning and degreasing operations. Water and oils are immiscible requiring the use of an additive which is miscible with water yet has an affinity for oils. Surface active agents, known as surfactants, have this property, being miscible with water while having an affinity for hydrocarbons. In some cases, surfactant solutions displace oils from a solid surface (i.e., remove oil by replacing the oil/solid interfacial area with surfactant solution/solid interfacial area). The presence of alkalinity as well as surfactant concentration is known to affect the ability of a surfactant solution to wet the solid surface and displace the oil. Experiments have been performed to determine quantitatively the effects of surfactant concentration and pH on the displacement of an oil from a metal surface. The displacement is measured in terms of the contact angle formed by the oil on the solid surface in the presence of the surfactant solution, the amount of time needed for the surfactant solution to cause part of the oil to detach from the solid surface, and the volume of the detached oil. Measuring the contact angle of the oil as a function of time shows that surfactant concentration and pH affect the displacement of oil from a metal surface. Increasing the pH of a solution of Triton X-100, a non-ionic surfactant, enhances oil displacement. Increasing the surfactant concentration also enhances oil displacement. The volume of oil which detaches from the solid surface increases with increasing pH and increasing surfactant concentration.

Starkweather, B.A.; Counce, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, X. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1999-04-01

127

Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2? is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, ?, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author).

1976-01-01

128

Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically.

1976-01-01

129

Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method  

Science.gov (United States)

By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter, with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates), and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized. To this end, we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al. (J. Hydrodynamics, B2, 51, 1995) to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity, and obtain its solution by Green's function method. The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and, by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient, experimentally measured turbulent flow data. Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

Xuan, Li-Jun; Mao, Feng; Wu, Jie-Zhi

2012-04-01

130

Functional brain studies with O-15 water and PET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Positron emission tomography (PET) with intravenous injection of O-15 water allows regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) images to be obtained repeatedly within a short period of time. Since increased electrical activity in a specific brain region is followed by an abrupt increase in rCBF, the technique with O-15 water and PET is suitable for functional stimulation-activation studies. In general, the images are analyzed by making a subtraction image (activation minus baseline) and then identifying the activated areas on anatomical structures. This approach is widely applicable, ranging from simple stimulation to highly integrated tasks. The detectability and amplitude of the responsive area depend on the PET system and methodology. In this article, we mainly describe the methodological aspects of activaiton analysis and review some of PET data for exploring higher cognitive functions. (author) 43 refs

1994-01-01

131

Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

2011-01-01

132

RTV 21 Displacements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A seal is needed for the cover of the Nitrogen Test Vessel in order to prevent leakage of the N{sub 2} gas. This seal is to be molded out of RTV 21. In this experiment, the Modulus of Elasticity of the RTV was sought after, and the displacements of the RTV due to various stresses were measured to see if they were large enough to provide a tight seal between the vessel and its cover.

Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

1987-02-04

133

Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 ?m to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 ?m at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 ?m in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

2004-01-01

134

Displacement cascades in polyatomic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a continuous-slowing-down, random amorphous material model, we have studied displacement cascades in a number of diatomic materials. This paper reviews a number of previous results that elucidate the effects of atomic mass, recoil energy, displacement energy, capture energy and material stoichiometry on the numbers of displacements in a cascade. The displacement cascade reveals a complex structure that is dependent on the type of irradiation and the material properties. Conclusions related to damage analysis for fusion reactors are given

1982-10-28

135

Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des études effectuées jusqu'ici ont fait intervenir la visualisation des déplacements eau/huile en deux dimensions, dans des milieux poreux horizontaux. L'objectif de la présente recherche est de déterminer les effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur le phénomène de digitation et la récupération de l'huile, en effectuant des expériences de déplacements non-miscibles sur des milieux poreux consolidés, bi-dimensionnels, à cellules alignées dans un plan vertical. Pour bien comprendre les effets positifs et négatifs des facteurs de flottabilité, nous avons effectué des expériences avec trois modes d'écoulement différents : horizontal, vertical ascendant et vertical descendant. L'effet des facteurs de flottabilité étant négligeable pour les milieux poreux bi-dimensionnels en cas d'écoulement horizontal, les données de récupération obtenues dans ce cas ont servi de référence pour comparaison avec les données obtenues en cas d'écoulement vertical. L'étude des déplacements a été effectuée avec cinq solutions de densité différente. Dans chaque cas, nous avons mesuré le temps de percée et le pourcentage de récupération de pétrole. Les effets des facteurs de flottabilité, de capillarité et de viscosité ont été enregistrés, ainsi que le débit d'injection. Les résultats obtenus indiquent que les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet très prononcé à faible débit et pour une faible densité huile/eau, et que la moindre augmentation du débit entraîne une baisse rapide de cet effet.

Thirunavu S. R.; Neale G. H.

2006-01-01

136

WATER-ACTIVATED ECO - FRIENDLY MULTI - FUNCTIONAL WI PE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multi-functional wipes with desirable ecological profiles and improved performances are disclosed. The wipes may include a substrate and a cleaning composition, a disinfecting / sanitizing composition, and an optional fragrance composition releasably associated with the substrate. The compositions may be separated from one another and may be impregnated in or coated on distinct sections of the substrate. Unlike "wet" wipes preloaded with a dilute cleaning liquid, the disclosed wipes may be substantially dry and water-activated just prior to its application on a target surface.

SAINT VICTOR MARIE-ESTHER

137

Mechanisms of oil displacement by microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechanisms of oil displacement at the oil-brine-sand interfaces by bacteria were investigated by microscopic observations and capillary pressure changes using unconsolidated, thin, reservoir flow cells. Three genera of bacteria, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium, were injected into water-wet and oil-wet cells of unconsolidated sand, saturated with brine and crude oil. The flow cells were placed under a microscope for visual and photographic observations. The flow cells were connected to a manometer to examine the complete capillary pressure hysteresis loop before and after introduction of bacteria. The thin reservoir flow cells were first saturated with brine, and then displaced to irreducible water saturation with crude oil. Oil and brine displacements were then made to determine the complete capillary pressure relationship. Next, the bacteria and nutrients were introduced and incubated in the flow cell for 24-48 hours. Microscopic observations were recorded photographically. After incubation, oil and brine displacements were again made to determine the capillary pressure hysteresis loop.

Kianipey, S.A.; Donaldson, E.C.

1986-01-01

138

Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the possibility of amorphizing silicon carbide (SiC) by exclusively displacing C atoms. At a defect generation corresponding to 0.2 displacements per atom, the enthalpy surpasses the level of melt-quenched SiC, the density decreases by about 15%, and the radial distribution function shows a lack of long-range order. Prior to amorphization, the surviving defects are mainly C Frenkel pairs (67%), but Si Frenkel pairs (18%) and anti-site defects (15%) are also present. The results indicate that SiC can be amorphized by C sublattice displacements. Chemical short-range disorder, arising mainly from interstitial production, plays a significant role in the amorphization.

Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

2004-05-10

139

Fiber optic multimode displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An underwater Optical Motion Sensor (OMS) based on a design first presented by W. B. Spillman, {ital Schlieren} {ital multimode} {ital fiber}-{ital optic} {ital hydrophone}, Applied Physics Letters 37(2), 15 July 1980, p. 145{endash}146 is described. The displacement sensor uses the same acoustooptical intensity modulation mechanism as Spillman, however the sensing mechanism is isolated from the ambient fluid environment by a small cylindrical aluminum enclosure (1{double_prime} OD{times}3/4{double_prime}). The enclosure contains an inertial mass and the fiber collimators. The inertial mass is suspended in the center of the enclosure by three small wires rigidly mounted to the walls. The mass and wires act as a cantilever beam system with a mechanical resonance near 100 Hz. The transduction mechanism consists of two opposed optical gratings aligned and positioned between the fiber collimators. One grating is mounted on the inertial mass while the other is mounted on the lower end cap of the enclosure. Relative motion between the gratings causes a modulation of the light transmitted through the gratings. The modulated beam is focused onto a photodetector and converted to electric current. The frequency response is flat from 200 Hz{endash}9 kHz with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.002 A and the dynamic range is 136 dB. The small size and light weight give the sensor an effective density of 1.08 g/cm{sup 3} making it almost neutrally buoyant in water. This in conjunction with the performance characteristics make this sensor suitable for use in acoustical sensing applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fisher, K.A.; Jarzynski, J. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

1996-04-01

140

Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

2010-07-30

 
 
 
 
141

Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed.

Winkler BE; Tetzlaff K; Muth CM; Hebestreit H

2010-10-01

142

Linking Species Traits to the Abiotic Template of Flowing Waters: Contrasting Eco physiologies Underlie Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in a Large River-Estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

The St. Lawrence River-Estuary was the gateway of entry for dreissenids to North America and holds some of the oldest populations. The St. Lawrence also has four distinct physical-chemical water masses (a regional scale abiotic template) that both species inhabit. Despite their ecological similarities, quagga mussels are supplanting zebra mussels in much of their shared range. In order to try to better understand the changing distributions of these two species we compared glycogen, shell mass and tissue biomass in each of the water masses. This comparative physiological combined with experimental approaches (estuarine salinity experiments and reciprocal transplants) showed that while quagga mussels should dominate in most habitats, that abiotic/bioenergetic constraints in two regions (the Ottawa River plume and the freshwater-marine transition zone) might prevent them from dominating these locations. These findings are an example of how the interaction of landscape scale abiotic heterogeneity and a species-specific physiology can have strong impacts of distribution of biota large rivers.

Casper, A. F.

2005-05-01

143

Computer Simulation of Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed molecular dynamics simulation of displacement events on silicon and carbon sublattices in silicon carbide for displacement doses ranging from 0.005 to 0.5 displacements per atom. Our results indicate that the displacement threshold energy is about 21 eV for C and 35 eV for Si, and amorphization can occur by accumulation of displacement damage regardless of whether Si or C is displaced. In addition, we have simulated defect production in high-energy cascades as a function of the primary knock-on atom energy and observed features that are different from the case of damage accumulation in Si. These systematic studies shed light on the phenomenon of non-ionizing energy loss that is relevant to understanding space radiation effects in semiconductor devices.

Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.; M. Chipara, D. L. Edwards, S. Phillips, and R. Benson

2005-07-01

144

Computer Simulation of Displacement Damage in Silicon Carbide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have performed molecular dynamics simulation of displacement events on silicon and carbon sublattices in silicon carbide for displacement doses ranging from 0.005 to 0.5 displacements per atom. Our results indicate that the displacement threshold energy is about 21 eV for C and 35 eV for Si, and amorphization can occur by accumulation of displacement damage regardless of whether Si or C is displaced. In addition, we have simulated defect production in high-energy cascades as a function of the primary knock-on atom energy and observed features that are different from the case of damage accumulation in Si. These systematic studies shed light on the phenomenon of non-ionizing energy loss that is relevant to understanding space radiation effects in semiconductor devices.

2004-12-03

145

National response to internal displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many cases the international community acts to protect and assist the world's internally displaced people in absence of responsible and effective national action. This is, at least partly, because countries experiencing crises of internal displacement are unlikely to possess national institutions capable of effectively providing their displaced citizens with the necessary support. Strengthening national capacity for response is essential in order that governments themselves can assume immediate responsibility in humanitarian emergencies without having to depend on external aid.

Jennifer McLean

1998-01-01

146

MRI of displaced meniscal fragments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

2012-01-01

147

MRI of displaced meniscal fragments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

2012-01-15

148

MRI of displaced meniscal fragments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. PMID:21863288

Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M; Laor, Tal

2011-08-24

149

Functional limits of agreement applied as a novel method comparison tool for accuracy and precision of inertial measurement unit derived displacement of the distal limb in horses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over ground motion analysis in horses is limited by a small number of strides and restraints of the indoor gait laboratory. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are transforming the knowledge of human motion and objective clinical assessment through the opportunity to obtain clinically relevant data under various conditions. When using IMUs on the limbs of horses to determine local position estimates, conditions with high dynamic range of both accelerations and rotational velocities prove particularly challenging. Here we apply traditional method agreement and suggest a novel method of functional data analysis to compare motion capture with IMUs placed over the fetlock joint in seven horses. We demonstrate acceptable accuracy and precision at less than or equal to 5% of the range of motion for detection of distal limb mounted cranio-caudal and vertical position. We do not recommend the use of the latero-medial position estimate of the distal metacarpus/metatarsus during walk where the average error is 10% and the maximum error 111% of the range. We also show that functional data analysis and functional limits of agreement are sensitive methods for comparison of cyclical data and could be applied to differentiate changes in gait for individuals across time and conditions. PMID:23891315

Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo; Ritz, Christian

2013-07-23

150

Displacement Ventilation : theory and design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design metho...

Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

151

Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

152

The management of climate displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many of those who have fought against displacement now find themselves being advocates for resettlement and relocation. Knowing that displacements will occur as a result of climate change,the humanitarian community will need to work pre-emptively with communities identified as likely to be threatened on the land-based solutions that may be available to them.

Scott Leckie

2012-01-01

153

Applications of Displacement Speed and Virtual Velocity to Bedload Motion  

Science.gov (United States)

The advances made in scientific visualization techniques have enhanced our capabilities of tracking sediment and measuring sediment rates. The focus of this study is to incorporate a new experimental approach to determine the displacement speed and the virtual velocity of particles rolling atop a well packed bed and provide a formula that describes the average speed of particles as a function of the particles? geometry and weight, settling velocity, and the frictional characteristics of flow. The displacement speed is the speed of a particle moving from one point of rest to another, while the virtual velocity is the velocity of a particle including its resting period. Such formulas are lacking because the emphasis, so far, has been placed in developing expressions that provide the displacement speed of particles during saltation only. The nature of the present study is experimental. As such, tests were performed in a laboratory flume so that flow and sediment conditions could be precisely controlled. The motion of spherical particles with diameters ranging from 8 mm to 25.4 mm was monitored under different flow conditions and bed roughness in a laboratory flume. The flow was varied between the incipient flow conditions and conditions representing general sediment motion in natural gravel bed rivers. Bed conditions varied from well packed spheres of 8 mm and 19 mm, to a well packed bed of gravel with a mean size of 6.5 mm. Overall, 42 experimental runs were conducted. The tests were repeated at least 15 times, or until flow and sediment data of statistical significance was established. A laboratory version of an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and a Swoffer propeller meter were used to obtain velocity profiles through out the water depth. The velocity profiles were used in conjunction with the Clauser method to determine the friction velocity. Incipient flow conditions were determined based on a trial and error method and where defined as the conditions when a particle is first displaced. Once sediment motion was established, it was monitored using a digital camera mounted above the flume to obtain plan view images of the test section and the particles pathways. Image analysis software developed by Data Translation was employed to calculate the displacement speed of sediment motion. Average resting periods were determined and used to calculate the virtual velocity. The ultimate goal of this study is to apply the virtual velocity expression towards the determination of bed load transport in gravel bed streams.

Knapp, D. D.; Papanicolaou, A. N.

2002-12-01

154

Displacement behaviour regulates the experience of stress in men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Behavioural coping strategies represent a key means by which people regulate their stress levels. Attention has recently focused on the potential role in coping of 'displacement behaviour' - activities such as scratching, lip biting and face touching. Increased levels of displacement behaviour are associated with feelings of anxiety and stress; however, the extent to which displacement behaviour, as a short-term behavioural response to emotionally challenging stimuli, influences the subsequent experience of stress remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of displacement behaviour in coping with stress. In a study population of 42 healthy adult men (mean age = 28.09 years, SD = 7.98), we quantified displacement behaviour during a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and used self-report questionnaires to assess trait and state anxiety before the TSST, and the experience of stress afterwards. We predicted displacement behaviour would diminish the negative impact of the stressful situation, and hence be associated with lower post-TSST stress levels. Furthermore, we predicted displacement behaviour would mediate the link between state and trait anxiety on the one hand and the experience of stress on the other. Results showed the rate of displacement behaviour was positively correlated with state anxiety but unrelated to trait anxiety, and negatively correlated with the self-reported experience of stress, in agreement with the idea that displacement behaviour has a crucial impact on regulation of stress. Moreover, serial mediation analyses using a bias-corrected bootstrapping approach indicated displacement behaviour mediated the relationship between state anxiety and the experience of stress, and that state anxiety and displacement behaviour - in combination, respectively - mediated the link between trait anxiety and experience of stress. These results shed important new light on the function of displacement behaviour, and highlight promising new avenues for research into emotional expression and stress regulation.

Mohiyeddini C; Semple S

2013-03-01

155

Dispersants displace hot oiling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory experiments and field testing of dispersants in producing wells have resulted in development of 2 inexpensive paraffin dispersant packages with a broad application range, potential for significant savings over hot oiling, and that can be applied effectively by both continuous and batch treating techniques. The 2 dispersants are soluble in the carrier solvent (one soluble in oil, one in water); are able to readily disperse the wax during a hot flask test conducted in a laboratory; and leave the producing interval water wet. Field data on the 2 dispersants are tabulated, demonstrating their efficacy.

Wash, R.

1984-02-01

156

Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi [Nihon Univ. Tokyo (Japan); Raggi, L. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

1996-12-31

157

High resolution displacement detection by speckle pattern analysis : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a simple reflection measurement setup and a motion evaluation procedure based on a two dimensional recording of subsequent speckle images. The averaging of cross correlation functions is used to measure displacements. We demonstrate experimentally a 10 nm precision on a 50 ?m measurement ...

Filter, Robert; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter

158

Diffusion of cations in homo-ionic swelling clays as a function of the water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. In the past years, dielectric spectroscopy has been recognized as a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of cations in aluminosilicate compounds such as zeolites or clays minerals. In the case of nuclear waste storage, clays show remarkable properties for confinement: swelling capacity and cation retention. Indeed, exchangeable cations are more weakly linked to the adjacent atoms than framework ions and thus are more mobile. They consequently contribute to the whole dielectric signal, assuming that the network can be considered as rigid. Furthermore, polar molecules, such as water, that strongly interact with the cations or/and with the structural aluminosilicate network, have relatively large dielectric effects. It is thus possible to investigate adsorption process with dielectric spectroscopy. Besides, in the case of clays their swelling capacity complicates the interpretation of results and modifies the activation energy for cation diffusion. The present work reports conductivity data, by means of Complex Impedance Spectroscopy (CIS), recorded on clays samples: homo-ionic montmorillonites (i.e. saturated by alkaline or alkaline-earth cations) and mixed Na-Ca montmorillonite. Purified MX-80 bentonite is considered in our study as a model for montmorillonite. The dynamics of exchangeable cations, in terms of the activation energy ?E required for the charge carrier displacement, is discussed as a function of: i) the nature of the clays, ii) the nature of the exchangeable cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+ and Ca2+) and iii) the hydration state. In the latter, CIS results are interpreted in the light of the data recorded from Sample Controlled Thermal Analysis (SCTA). It is thus shown that the comparison between ?E obtained on dry solids and ?E determined on water saturated systems is an efficient way to estimate the hydration energy and the swelling process. The values are compared with theoretical hydration energy values based on electrostatic calculations. It follows that the agreement and the differences obtained between the two approaches allows us to distinguish different behaviors as a function of the nature of the interlayer cations. Another powerful result is the estimation of the diffusion coefficients of the interlayer cations. Conductivity measurements as a function of the relative humidity are combined with a recent approach used to determine the specific surface area. It is then possible to extract cations diffusion coefficients as a function of the relative humidity. The evolution of these diffusion coefficients clearly shows the influence of the hydration state of the cations as well as the opening of the interlayer space. It results that for some cations (Li+ and Na+), diffusion coefficients can reach very high values at high relative humidity, while for larger cations (Cs+ in particular), the diffusion coefficients stay at a very low value. These results are in agreement with the classical description of hydration in swelling clays where the smaller cations can hydrate with a complete water layer, in contrast with the larger cations which are strongly bonded to the clay layer, even at high hydration states. (authors)

2012-01-01

159

Mathematic Model of Green Function with Two-Dimensional Free Water Surface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adopting complex number theory, a mathematic model of Green function is built for two dimension free water surface, and an analytic expression of Green function is obtained by introducing two parameters. The intrinsic properties of Green function are discussed on vertical line and horizontal line. At last, the derivation expression of Green function is obtained from the formula of Green function.

Sujing Jin; Xing Wang; Junjun Du; Shesheng Zhang; Shengping Jin

2013-01-01

160

OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

Ivanka Juttner

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Displacement damage quantification in future fusion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The demanding neutronic environment in a future fusion power plant will require a thorough understanding of the mechanisms at work in producing displacement damage, their magnitudes, and their effects on the materials and their properties. It is a pre-requisite to have a precise understanding of the Primary Knock-on Atom (PKA) energy spectra caused by 14.1 MeV fusion neutrons in order to have a good foundation for a quantitative determination of the damage driving phenomena produced as a result of neutron encounters. At the higher neutron energies involved in fusion compared to fission, inelastic collisions become very much more significant. This adds to the complexity of estimates of the deposited energy. A Monte-Carlo transport code (MCNP5) has been adapted to provide neutron induced PKA energy spectra for both elastic and inelastic neutron collisions. The introduction of PKA calculations of this type to an MCNP code is new. The Norgett-Robinson-Torrens [M. Norgett, M. Robinson, I. Torrens, A proposed method of calculating displacement dose rates, Nucl. Eng. Design 33 (1975) 50-54] modification to the Kinchin-Pease [G. Kinchin, R. Pease, The displacements of atoms in solids by radiation, Rep. Prog. Phys. 23 (1955) 1-51] model of atomic displacements allows a convenient normalisation measure, the displacements per atom (dpa), allowing for both elastic and inelastic neutron collisions. Application of this work to models of the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) [G. Marbach, I. Cook, D. Maisonnier, The EU power plant conceptual study, Fusion Eng. Design 63-64 (2002) 1-9] very efficiently generates the PKA spectra and dpa damage as a function of location, providing data that can be used in the design of both power plants and materials testing facilities.

2007-01-01

162

Effect of interfacial viscosities upon displacement in sinusoidal capillaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This quantitative analysis shows the relative effects of interfacial tension, interfacial viscosities, and wetting during displacement in a capillary whose radius is a sinusoidal function of axial position. The effect of the interfacial viscosities is to increase the resistance to displacement regardless of the wetting condition. The results are consistent with a previous qualitative analysis and with a previous quantitative analysis for displacement in capillaries whose radii are independent of axial position. In screening surfactant systems for potential use in tertiary oil recovery, it is recommended that the interfacial tension be minimized first, since it determines whether oil displacement will occur, and that the interfacial viscosities be minimized second, since they influence the rate of oil displacement.

Giordano, R.M.; Slattery, J.C.

1987-10-01

163

Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden/Wasser-Pflanze. Eigene Untersuchungen mit D{sub 2}O, Bromid und [{sup 15}N]Nitrat in Lysimetern mit verschiedenen Boeden weisen aber darauf hin, dass die obigen Annahmen fuer Bromid-Tracer unter den Bedingungen von biologisch aktiven Boeden nur bedingt zutreffen und lassen eine gute Einschaetzung der Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Tracer zu, wie nachstehende Ausfuehrungen zeigen. (orig.)

Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

1999-02-01

164

Displacement threshold energies in ?-SiC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have calculated the displacement threshold energies (Ed) for C and Si primary knock-on atoms (PKA) in ?-SiC using molecular dynamic simulations. The interactions between atoms were modeled using a modified form of the Tersoff potential in combination with a realistic repulsive potential obtained from density-functional theory calculations. The simulation cell was cubic, contained 8000 atoms and had periodic boundaries. The temperature of the simulation was about 150 K. Our results indicate strong anisotropy in the Ed values for both Si and C PKA. The displacement threshold for Si varies from about 36 eV along [001] to 113 eV along [111], while Ed for C varies from 28 eV along [111] to 71 eV along [111]. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-03-01

165

Parameterization of water response functions in leaf stomatal conductance model for winter wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Water response functions in leaf stomatal conductance models are used to simulate the effects of water stress on stomatal conductance. Especially under a water-limited environment, the water response function is a critical method for modeling gas exchange between plant and air. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important crop grown under water-limited environment in North China. Our objective is to determine the responses of stomatal conductance of winter wheat to vapor humidity, soil water content and leaf water potential and to determine the appropriate water response functions for winter wheat in North China based on field experiments.Methods Field experiments were carried out at Yucheng Comprehensive Station. Eight water treatment plots were set up to produce different degrees of water stress on winter wheat. Leaf gas exchange and stomatal conductance were measured, along with other environmental and water factors. We analyzed relationships between leaf stomatal conductance and air vapor humidity, soil water content and leaf water potential.Important findings Leaf stomatal conductance of winter wheat decreased with increasing air vapor pressure deficit (VPD). About 1 kPa in VPD is a valuable threshold value for winter wheat. When VPD is 1 kPa, leaf stomatal conductance decreases slightly even with a large VPD increase. A hyperbolic function can simulate the response of stomatal conductance of winter wheat to VPD. Midday leaf stomatal conductance linearly increases when soil water content increases, but the maximum threshold is about 25% of mean soil water volumetric contents, above which leaf stomatal conductance fluctuates in high conductance and does not show a simple increasing trend. A similar relationship between midday leaf stomatal conductance and soil water content occurs between midday leaf water potential and midday leaf stomatal conductance, where the maximum threshold in midday leaf water potential is about –1 MPa when the leaf stomatal conductance becomes relatively stable. We obtained the vapor humidity response function for winter wheat in hyperbolic and power exponent forms based on our field experimental data by data-fitting methods. We also obtained the soil water content response function and leaf water potential response function in simple linear form. These water response functions are useful for the application on modelling surface processes for winter wheat, especially in North China.

YUAN Guo-Fu; ZHUANG Wei; LUO Yi

2012-01-01

166

Inherent Properties of Two Dimension Green Function with Linear Boundary Condition of Free Water Surface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mathematic model of Green function is build for two dimension free water surface. The analytic expression of Green function is obtained by introducing a parameter of complex number. The intrinsic properties of Green function are discussed for the special parameter values. The real and imaginary parts of H function are shown in the paper.

Xing Wang; Chao Liu; Zhenli Sun; Mingyan Wu; Shesheng Zhang

2013-01-01

167

Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO3 leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

2009-01-01

168

Galvanic displacement of metals on semiconductor nanocrystals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the galvanic displacement (GD) of germanium from germanium nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) with silver. The Ge-NCs are synthesized by reductive thermal processing of germanium suboxide sol-gel prepolymers. Thermal processing yields size-controlled oxide-embedded Ge-NCs, which are liberated by dissolution of the germanium oxide matrix in water. Subsequent exposure of the freestanding Ge-NCs to aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} leads to deposition of silver nanostructures by GD. The resulting metal structures were analyzed by XRD, XPS, TEM and EDX, confirming deposition of elemental silver in a variety of shapes and sizes.

Johnson, Melanie; Kelly, Joel A; Henderson, Eric J; Veinot, Jonathan G C, E-mail: jveinot@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

2009-11-15

169

Asymmetry in Reproductive Character Displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A commonly held view in studies of character displacement is that character states of both speciesare shifted in areas of sympatry. This view has been confirmed in an overwhelming number of cases for ecologicalcharacter displacement. Excluding species pairs in which one of the two interacting species is found onlywithin the distribution of the other species and species displaying gynogenesis, the pattern of reproductivecharacter displacement is asymmetrical in that the shift in character states between areas of symaptry andallopatry occurs in only one of the two interacting species. Hypotheses for the reasons behind this asymmetryin reproductive character displacement include (1) homogenization by gene flow, (2) other mechanisms of reproductiveisolation, and (3) sufficient reproductive isolation being provided by one of the interacting species exhibitinga pattern of reproductive character displacement. Because reproductive isolation can be achieved by divergenceat any point in a sequence of premating reproductive behaviors and postmating developments, it is necessaryto understand the mechanisms of reproductive isolation of two interacting taxa in areas of sympatry and allopatryand to analyze the relative contributions of potential factors to reproductive isolation to disentangle hypothesesfor the patterns of asymmetry.

Jang, Yikweon

2008-01-01

170

Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method.

Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.

1986-07-23

171

Displaced Dark Matter at Colliders  

CERN Multimedia

Models in which the dark matter is very weakly coupled to the observable sector may explain the observed dark matter density, either as a "superWIMP" or as "asymmetric dark matter." Both types of models predict displaced vertices at colliders, with a rich variety of possible phenomenology. We classify the cases in which the decays can naturally occur inside particle detectors at the LHC, with particular focus on the nontrivial scenarios where the decaying particle is invisible. Identification of the position and timing of these invisible displaced vertices significantly improves the prospects of reconstructing the new physics in models such as supersymmetry. In many cases, reconstruction of the visible products of the displaced decay can determine the dark matter mass, allowing the dark matter density to be predicted from collider data.

Chang, Spencer

2009-01-01

172

Critical relationships for displacement processes in oil reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The correlations of various essentially defined parameters for displacement processes were examined in order to find the critical values discribing the oil mobility with the aim of an optimal recovery. The relationships between the permeabilities and the mobility ratios with displacement efficiency were determined. The three most important dimensionsless characteristic numbers were discussed with the help of the experimental results. It was further discovered that with suitable co-surfactants stable microemulsions could be formed between the oil and the water phases. The microemulsions contain almost all the surfactants used. Due to the fact that this middle phase microemulsions do not have high viscosities and are also newton fluids, a very low pressure gradient could be encountered during the displacement process so that an optimal displacement efficiency for the system could be achieved.

Tunc, S.

1982-06-01

173

Digital image correlation: displacement accuracy estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this collaborative work is to study the uncertainties associated with Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC). More specifically, the link between displacement uncertainties and several correlation parameters chosen by the user and relative to the image analysis software and several image characteristics like speckle size and image noise is emphasized. A previous work [1] has been done for situations with spatially fluctuating displacement fields which dealt with mismatch error linked to the discrepancy between the adopted shape function and the real displacement field in the subset. This present work is focused on the ultimate error regime. To ensure that there is no mismatch error, synthetic images of plane rigid body translation have been analysed. DIC softwares developed by or used in the French community were used to study a large number of settings. The first observations are: (a) bias amplitude is almost always insensitive to the subset size, (b) DIC formulations can be split up into two families. For the first one, the bias amplitude increases with the noise while it remains constant for the second one. For both families, the mean value of the random error increases with the noise level and with the inverse of the subset size. Furthermore, the random error decreases with the radius of the speckle for the first family, while it increases for the second one. These two different behaviours of the tested DIC package are probably due to their underlying DIC formulation (interpolation, correlation criteria, optimisation process).

Dupré J.C.; Bornert M.; Robert L.; Wattrisse B.

2010-01-01

174

Thermodynamic properties, gradients and functions for saturated steam and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tables presented in this report were produced to provide steam and water properties required in dynamic simulations of steam/water systems. In addition to the usual thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid and vapour at saturation, the tables provide certain partial derivatives of one thermodynamic property with respect to another, covering the pressure range from 0.1 to 22.0 MPa. Also tabulated are surface tension, acoustic velocities and isentropic expansion exponents for dry and wet saturated steam, shown only graphically, or not at all, in conventional steam tables. (author)

1977-01-01

175

Woody plant willow in function of river water protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavi? in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trep?a industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn) from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 ?g of lead, 20.09 ?g of cadmium and 22.89 ?g of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 ?g/dm3 of lead, 29.21 ?g/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 ?g/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals from the river water are 19.01 ?g of lead, 21.85 ?g of cadmium and 23.96 ?g of zinc in grams dry matter. The obtained results indicate that the willow can contribute to the decontamination of moderately contaminated river water from Pb, Cd and Zn.

Babincev Ljiljana M.; Rajakovi? Ljubinka V.; Budimir Milana V.; Peri?-Gruji? Aleksandra A.; Sejmanovi? Dragana

2011-01-01

176

Reliability of structural systems with regard to permanent displacements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the problem of estimating the accumulated permanent displacements of an offshore platform during one storm is condidered. For steel jacket platforms subjected to wave, wind and current loads with specified main directions three methods to estimate the permanents displacements during a single storm are proposed, namely a simulation approach, a differential equation approach and a superposition approach - the simple method. In the simulation approach realisations of the load are generated and the permanent displacements are determined by elastic-plastic analysis of the structural system. In the differential equation approach a system of differential equations is formulated from which the expected value and the standard deviation of the response (e.g. permanent displacements) can be determined as a function of the time. Numerical techniques and approximations to solve the system of equations are discussed. The basic idea in the superposition approach is to estimate the accumulated permanent displacements as sums of permanent displacements from single waves (this assumption is equivalent to that used in Miner's rule for fatigue analysis). It is described how a single storm can be broken down into a number of single waves and how the permanent displacements for each single wave can be determined. Further it is described how the reliability of the structural system can be estimated. The three approaches are compared on a qualitative level. (AB) 12 refs.

Soerensen, J.D.; Thoft-Christensen, P.

1990-06-01

177

Functionalization of water-soluble gold nanoparticles for biological applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water-soluble gold nanoparticles represent an appealing scaffold for the preparation of robust and biocompatible bioconjugates. Indeed, many examples of gold nanoparticles-bioconjugates as new materials in several fields as material science, biology and medicine have been reported in the literature....

Pace, Alice

178

Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior. PMID:23557682

Tripathi, Bijay P; Dubey, Nidhi C; Stamm, M

2013-03-04

179

Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior.

Tripathi BP; Dubey NC; Stamm M

2013-05-01

180

Evaluation of Parametric Pedotransfer Functions for Estimating Soil Water Characteristic Curve in Fars Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil water characteristic curve shows the relationship between soil water content and matric suction, which has an important role in water movement in the soil. The measurement of this curve is expensive and time-consuming in laboratory; therefore, many methods have been proposed for its estimation including pedotransfer functions. By using the pedotransfer functions, soil water characteristic curve can be estimated based on other easily measured soil physicochemical properties. Parametric pedotransfer functions have been offered for parameters of the existing soil water characteristic curve models. In this study, 12 internal and external parametric pedotransfer functions of Brooks and Corey, Campbell and van Genuchten models were used and evaluated for 30 top soil samples in Fars province. To this end, the soil water characteristic curve and other necessary soil properties were measured, and then all soils according to the texture were divided into three groups of fine, medium and course textures. The results showed that the parametric pedotransfer functions of van Genuchten model were better than the other models, beacause of the better fit of this model to the measured data. Also, the results demonstrated that the parametric pedotransfer functions of Wosten et al. were the most appropriate method for estimating the soil water characteristic curve for the selected soils in Fars province, and that internal pedotransfer functions were not appropriate

H. R. Fooladmand; S. Hadipour

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Boiling water reactor stability analysis by stochastic transfer function identification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The univariate and the bivariate ARMA models are proposed as the stochastic transfer function models for the identification of BWR systems. This technique has been developed as a new method for on-line system identification, optimum control, and malfunction monitoring of nuclear power plants. The relationships between the stochastic transfer function model and the differential equation model are derived. The estimation algorithms are developed through the related covariance functions and Green's function by the least squares method. It has been shown that the stochastic models can also be used for fitting the stochastic data which are contaminated with sinusoidal waves. Both the univariate and the bivariate modeling are applied in the BWR system identification and stability analysis. The univariate modeling is applied to decompose the pressure dynamics from the neutron data. From both of the normal operation data and the perturbation experiment data, the reactor dynamics are consistently estimated. The dynamics of the reactor core are estimated as a second order mode with a natural frequency of 0.4 Hz and a damping ratio of 0.1. The univariate modeling is also applied to monitor the local performance of the coolant channel in the reactor. The transfer functions between system's variables are obtained by use of bivariate modeling. The obtained transfer functions are closely related to the stability analysis of thermal-hydraulics in the reactor. The transition of the system dynamics from normal operation to the perturbation experiment are observed.

Ouyang, M.

1982-01-01

182

To prevent or pursue displacement?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The repertoire of survival actions of at-risk civilians includes bothavoiding and attempting displacement. But there are also overlaps,combinations and tacking back and forth between the two, whiletrying to mitigate the risks that any choice entails.

Casey Barrs

2012-01-01

183

Displacement and difference in Lubumbashi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signs on the outskirts of the second largest city in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) welcome visitors to ‘the city of peace’. Lubumbashi has a reputation as a haven of tolerance in a violent nation but how are displaced people treated?

Aurelia Wa Kabwe-Segatti; Loren B Landau

2007-01-01

184

Displacement ventilation in hospital environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experts suggest that displacement ventilation can play a key role in providing better ventilation facilities in hospital environments. Designers need to consider that hospitals differ from conventional buildings in terms of ventilation needs. Exhaled infectious droplets or droplet nuclei of an infec...

Li, Y; Nielsen, PV; Sandberg, M

185

Thermal Care of Functional Dyspepsia Based on Bicarbonate-Sulphate-Calcium Water: A Sequential Clinical Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia is often unsatisfactory. We assessed the efficacy of a bicarbonate-sulphate-calcium thermal water cycle of 12 days, in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients with functional dyspepsia were sent by their general practitioners to 12 days of treatment with t...

Rocca, Giuseppe; Dioni, Federico; Rocca, Nadia; Oliveri, Filippo; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Bonino, Ferruccio

186

A study of oil displacement on model surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were performed to study bitumen film rupture and displacement on model surfaces. Bitumen film on a glass plate was found to thin down and rupture in the presence of water having a high pH; whereas on a polytetrafluoroethylene surface, film rupture did not take place. Experimental results on the rate of bitumen/water contact line displacement on a glass surface are also reported. A thin coating of bitumen on a glass surface retracted spontaneously in the inward radial direction upon exposure to an aqueous environment. The initially circular bitumen disk was reshaped into a spherical droplet. The time variation of the apparent dynamic contact angle of bitumen on the glass surface was measured at different pH and temperature. Finally the equilibrium contact angle of the bitumen on the glass surface was also measured. The bitumen displacement rate on the glass plate is higher at lower pH and the corresponding equilibrium contact angle is smaller. The rate of bitumen displacement increases with a decrease in the initial bitumen volume. The water temperature has minimal effect on the equilibrium contact angle; however, it has a significant influence on the bitumen displacement rate through changes in the bitumen viscosity. The displacement of a three-phase contact line is modeled using a simple force balance at the contact line. The experimentally measured dynamic contact angle is predicted well by the proposed model. The dynamic contact angle predictions by other contact line displacement models were compared with the experimental data. The practical implications of these results for bitumen extraction from oil sands are discussed.

Basu, S.; Nandakumar, K.; Masliyah, J.H. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-09-01

187

The Ontario Water Works Consortium: a functional model of source water management and understanding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With an historical onus on reactive water treatment in North America, most taste and odour (T&O) outbreaks and other water quality issues have been unanticipated and difficult to control. Recent severe outbreaks of these drinking water issues have prompted wider advocacy of a more proactive "source-to-tap" approach, with greater focus on multidisciplinary partnerships among utilities, scientists and management/policy-makers. However, the practical application of this management model is faced with fragmented drainage basins, waterbodies and jurisdictions, and often requires a common issue such as T&O to initiate its development. This paper presents an example of a successful cooperative approach to drinking water management, the Ontario Water Works Research Consortium (OWWRC), consisting of the six major water utilities drawing water from Western Lake Ontario, scientists from the Canadian and Ontario governments and universities, and several other agencies. Established in 1999 following severe T&O outbreaks, the OWWRC has since operated as a highly effective model, employing a science-based approach to T&O management, supporting research on source-water and treatment issues, public outreach and utility surveys. The paper describes this partnership and summarises the results of an OWWRC T&O survey as one of the significant steps towards source-water characterisation undertaken by this cooperative.

Moore LF; Watson SB

2007-01-01

188

Dispersive effects of transverse magnet displacements in rolled arc achromats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of transverse displacements of combined function magnets is investigated where the disperion in not matched due to roll. This dispersion function is perturbed by displacement of combined function magnets either singly or coherently. In the latter case the effect of a systematic (or DC) offset of magnets is examined. This type of error can occur due to systematics in the placement or the readout of Beam Position Monitors or equivalently by correcting the orbit of a beam of the wrong momentum with respect to the Arc magnet excitation. 5 refs., 18 figs.

Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.; Murray, J.J.

1986-09-22

189

Dispersive effects of transverse magnet displacements in rolled arc achromats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of transverse displacements of combined function magnets is investigated where the disperion in not matched due to roll. This dispersion function is perturbed by displacement of combined function magnets either singly or coherently. In the latter case the effect of a systematic (or DC) offset of magnets is examined. This type of error can occur due to systematics in the placement or the readout of Beam Position Monitors or equivalently by correcting the orbit of a beam of the wrong momentum with respect to the Arc magnet excitation. 5 refs., 18 figs

1986-01-01

190

Health, safe water and sanitation: a cross-sectional health production function for central Java, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study describes the development of health production functions and their application in the evaluation of the health impacts of investments in safe water and sanitation. For this purpose, data on the morbidity of waterborne diseases and diarrhoea were collected from medical records in the province of Central Java, Indonesia. A reciprocal production function was found to fit the data best. The health production functions exhibit constant return to scale, i.e., a simultaneous m-fold increase in both safe water and sanitation coverage produces a 1-1/m decrease in morbidity. Safe water was found to be more important for health than the sanitary disposal of excreta.

Wibowo D; Tisdell C

1993-01-01

191

Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor with New Reflectivity Compensation Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a fiber optic displacement sensor with a new reflectivity compensation method is presented. The proposed compensation method is based on two light receiving channels with characteristic displacement sensitivities. The sensitivity characteristic for each channel is achieved by using fibers with different numerical apertures. The ratio of the intensity values of the two receiving channels is a function of the object displacement and fairly independent from the reflectivity of the measured object. The sensor is characterized by a well-defined measurement spot. By use of a focus lens mounted onto the fiber optics probe head, the object displacement range can be extended. The sensor is suitable for measurements with changing object reflectivity and demanding distance ranges.

Ansgar Wego; Gundolf Geske

2013-01-01

192

Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

1994-05-01

193

Wetting of Functionalized Polyethylene Film Having Ionizable Organic Acids and Bases at the Polymer-Water Interface: Relations between Functional Group Polarity, Extent of Ionization, and Contact Angle with Water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the wetting by water of low density polyethylene film modified at the polymer water (air) interface by introduction of polar organic functional groups (carboxylic acids, amines, and others). Water/polymer contact angles were determined...

C. D. Bain G. M. Whitesides S. R. Holmes-Farley

1988-01-01

194

Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. PMID:23314635

Dolin, Lev S

2013-01-10

195

Squeeze and Displacement Operators of a Generalized Harmonic Oscillator  

CERN Multimedia

We generalized the squeeze and displacement operators of the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator to the three-dimensional case and based on these operators we construct the corresponding coherent and squeezed states. We have also calculated the Wigner function for 3D harmonic oscillator and from the analysis of time evolution of this function, the quantum Liouville equation is also presented.

Miri, Mehdi

2009-01-01

196

Mountain border area of eastern Serbia in the function of the spring zones of surface water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Border mountain area of eastern Serbia has a distinct potential and importance in the function of surface water sources, which are characterized by range of geographical and environmental characteristics and similarities determined by mountainous character of the territory. For the purposes of this paper, border area of Serbia towards Bulgaria is provisionally determined by iso-border of 25 km. On the defined area of eastern Serbia there are 11 individual territories allocated in the function of being surface water source. Key objects for the realization of the goals of rational and functional exploitation of surface water sources are accumulations. They are the link between the system of surface water sources and water supply system.

Milin?i? Miroljub; Mihajlovi? Bojana; Šabi? Dejan; ?ur?i? Nina

2012-01-01

197

Enhancement of Hydrophobic Solvation by Hydrophilic Functional Groups: Trehalose and Kojibiose in Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and dynamics of water around biomacromolecules differs significantly from that of water in bulk in ways critical for biological function. The manner in which water structure differs is a function of both chemical and topological heterogeneity. Attempts to disentangle these effects have generally focussed on solvation of large molecules at either particular locations or in an averaged sense. In either case, understanding how chemical and topological heterogeneity combine can be difficult. Here we circumvent this problem by examining, in all atom simulations, water structure around the disaccharides Trehalose and Kojibiose. Taken together water structure around these molecules provides a series of internal control experiments for disentangling topological and chemical effects and allows us to conclude that, in the case of Trehalose, topological effects can lead to slow down of water reorientation by a factor of 2 relative to a chemically equivalent system.

Kramer Campen, R.; Vila Verde, Ana

2010-03-01

198

[Functional load tests for the investigation of the kidneys and water-electrolyte metabolism].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper deals with the application of functional load tests to assess the renal function and water-salt metabolism in human subjects during spaceflight simulating experiments and in cosmonauts in orbit and in the course of postflight recovery. The tests gave insight into mechanisms of the osmotic and volumetric regulation systems and enabled the development upon this knowledge of countermeasures to correct shifts in water-salt homeostasis.

Grigor'ev AI; Noskov VB

2013-03-01

199

Uncertainty in Multimodel Water Flow Simulation Associated with Pedotransfer Functions and Weighing Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Multimodeling (MM) has been developed during the last decade to improve prediction capability of hydrological models. The MM combined with the pedotransfer functions (PTFs) was successfully applied to soil water flow simulations. This study examined the uncertainty in water content simulations assoc...

200

A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersen...

Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

 
 
 
 
201

Earthquake-induced slope displacements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a finite-element analysis to evaluate earthquake-induced displacements in slopes. The procedure takes into account the nonlinear characteristics of the materials, spatial variation of strength (friction) along the potential failure surface and the inertial effects of the sliding wedge considered as a flexible multi-degree of freedom system. The potential effects are shown through hypothetical cases using two different seismic events. The model proposed in this paper is compared with other methods.

E. Botero J.; M. P. Romo

2003-01-01

202

Determining recoverable oil reserves based upon displacement characteristics and profitability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines an improved method for accurately determining recoverable oil reserves based on data for field production through water displacement and taking into account oil yield and profitability. The author suggests two methods he prefers to employ in accurately using data obtained during protracted field exploitation. Formulas are given for processing such data and for arriving at estimated recoverable oil yields.

Amelin, I.D.

1982-01-01

203

Short-time fluctuations of displacements and work  

CERN Multimedia

A recent theorem giving the initial behavior of very short-time fluctuations of particle displacements in classical many-body systems is discussed. It has applications to equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, one of which is a series expansion of the distribution of work fluctuations around a Gaussian function. To determine the time-scale at which this series expansion is valid, we present preliminary numerical results for a Lennard-Jones fluid. These results suggest that the series expansion converges up to time scales on the order of a picosecond, below which a simple Gaussian function for the distribution of the displacements can be used.

Van Zon, R; Cohen, E G D; Zon, Ramses van

2006-01-01

204

Computational study of glycine-(water){sub 3} complex by density functional method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glycine-(water){sub 3} complexes have been studied by means of B3LYP density functional method using 6-311++G* basis set. In the complex considered here, the three water molecule are either attached to the carboxylic group or bridge between the amino group and carboxylic group of glycine. Four such complexes are studied. Relaxation energies, two-, three- and four-body interaction energies are obtained by applying many-body analysis to know their role in binding energy of the complex. The results are compared with recent work on glycine-(water){sub 3} complex with (-NH3+) group as proton donor [A. Chaudhari, P.K. Sahu, S.L. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 120 (2004) 170]. In the most stable structure of glycine-(water){sub 3} complex, the three water molecules are attached to the carboxylic group of glycine and it is 5.3 kcal/mol lower in energy than that of the most stable structure reported earlier. The three-body term from water-water-water interaction in the most stable in this work and that reported earlier is unique since the distances between the water molecules are almost same. The two-body term from water-water interaction has significant contribution to the total two-body term when the distance between water molecules is less than 3 A.

Chaudhari, Ajay [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia Yi 62104, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ajaychau5@yahoo.com; Lee, S.-L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia Yi 62104, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chesll@ccu.edu.tw

2005-04-04

205

State fragility, displacement and development interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development approach to displacement brings advantages notonly in addressing the needs of refugees, IDPs and host communitiesbut also in helping societies tackle the underlying aspects of fragility that may have caused the displacement.

Yonatan Araya

2013-01-01

206

High Throughput Screening of Potential Displacer Molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bioproduct may be selectively separated from one or more impurities by means of a displacement chromatography system that includes a solvent, a chromatographic resin and a chemically selective displacer. The method includes: dissolving the bioproduct an...

S. M. Cramer K. Rege J. Dordick N. Tugcu

2005-01-01

207

Analysis of displacement cascades and threshold displacement energies in ?-sic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The threshold displacement energy (TDE) for both Si and C atoms in SiC at 300 K has been determined by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation along four crystallographic directions: [0 0 1], [1 1 0], [1 1 1] and [1-bar 1-bar 1-bar]. The existence of recombination barriers, which allow the formation of metastable defects even below the threshold, has been observed. Displacement cascades produced by both C and Si recoils of energies spanning from 0.5 keV up to, respectively, 5 and 8 keV have also been simulated with MD, both at 300 and 1300 K. Their analysis, together with the analysis of a damage accumulation at 1300 K, reveals that the two sublattices exhibit opposite responses to irradiation: whereas only a little damage is produced on the 'ductile' Si sublattice, many defects accumulate on the much more 'fragile' C sublattice. The low defect mobility in SiC prevents the study of defect evolution within the scope of MD.

2000-01-01

208

Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments.

Su S; Li D; Zhang Q; Xiao R; Huang F; Wu J

2011-02-01

209

Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

2010-11-30

210

Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

2013-04-01

211

Surge-line thermal stratification: Displacements and fatigue damage computations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slow, unexpected displacements have been experienced in most pressurized water reactor (PWR) surge lines. Sometimes, these displacement lead to gap closure at the pipe whip restraints. These movements occur because of thermal stratification. This movement has the potential to increase stresses to valves, which may exceed the material yield stress. To understand this phenomenon, Framatome, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, and Electricite de France have undertaken large programs for the study of (1) thermal-hydraulic tests with a half-scale Plexiglas surge line, (2) thermal-hydraulic computations of permanent states and transients with a two-dimensional model, and (3) mechanical analysis of displacements and computation of fatigue damage due to stratification. This paper deals with the last subject. Avoiding stratification in piping by process modifications is difficult because of the high flow rate needed. Alternative solutions for coping with stratification effects are discussed.

Ensel, C.; Taupin, E.T.S.

1989-01-01

212

Surge-line thermal stratification: Displacements and fatigue damage computations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slow, unexpected displacements have been experienced in most pressurized water reactor (PWR) surge lines. Sometimes, these displacement lead to gap closure at the pipe whip restraints. These movements occur because of thermal stratification. This movement has the potential to increase stresses to valves, which may exceed the material yield stress. To understand this phenomenon, Framatome, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, and Electricite de France have undertaken large programs for the study of (1) thermal-hydraulic tests with a half-scale Plexiglas surge line, (2) thermal-hydraulic computations of permanent states and transients with a two-dimensional model, and (3) mechanical analysis of displacements and computation of fatigue damage due to stratification. This paper deals with the last subject. Avoiding stratification in piping by process modifications is difficult because of the high flow rate needed. Alternative solutions for coping with stratification effects are discussed

1989-01-01

213

Alternative electron flows (water-water cycle and cyclic electron flow around PSI) in photosynthesis: molecular mechanisms and physiological functions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An electron flow in addition to the major electron sinks in C(3) plants [both photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) and photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycles] is termed an alternative electron flow (AEF) and functions in the chloroplasts of leaves. The water-water cycle (WWC; Mehler-ascorbate peroxidase pathway) and cyclic electron flow around PSI (CEF-PSI) have been studied as the main AEFs in chloroplasts and are proposed to play a physiologically important role in both the regulation of photosynthesis and the alleviation of photoinhibition. In the present review, I discuss the molecular mechanisms of both AEFs and their functions in vivo. To determine their physiological function, accurate measurement of the electron flux of AEFs in vivo are required. Methods to assay electron flux in CEF-PSI have been developed recently and their problematic points are discussed. The common physiological function of both the WWC and CEF-PSI is the supply of ATP to drive net CO(2) assimilation. The requirement for ATP depends on the activities of both PCR and PCO cycles, and changes in both WWC and CEF-PSI were compared with the data obtained in intact leaves. Furthermore, the fact that CEF-PSI cannot function independently has been demonstrated. I propose a model for the regulation of CEF-PSI by WWC, in which WWC is indispensable as an electron sink for the expression of CEF-PSI activity.

Miyake C

2010-12-01

214

The effects of a water-based exercise program on strength and functionality of older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of a water-based exercise program on peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) during maximal voluntary ballistic isometric contractions of the lower limb muscles and the performance of a number of functional tests in the elderly. METHOD: Thirty-seven elderly were randomly assigned to water-based training (3 d/wk for 12 wk) or a control group. Extensor and flexor PT and RTD of the ankle, knee, and hip joints and functional tests were evaluated before and after training. RESULTS: PT increased after training for the hip flexors (18%) and extensors (40%) and the plantar-flexor (42%) muscles in the water-based group. RTD increased after training for the hip-extensor (10%), knee-extensor (11%), and ankle plantar-flexor (27%) muscles in the water-based group. Functional tests also improved after training in the water-based group (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The water-based program improved PT and RTD and functional performance in the elderly.

Bento P CB; Pereira G; Ugrinowitsch C; Rodacki A LF

2012-10-01

215

Displacing Lagrangian toric fibers by extended probes  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we introduce a new way of displacing Lagrangian fibers in toric symplectic manifolds, a generalization of McDuff's original method of probes. Extended probes are formed by deflecting one probe by another auxiliary probe. Using them, we are able to displace all fibers in Hirzebruch surfaces except those already known to be nondisplaceable, and can also displace an open dense set of fibers in the weighted projective space P(1,3,5) after resolving the singularities. We also investigate the displaceability question in sectors and their resolutions. There are still many cases in which there is an open set of fibers whose displaceability status is unknown.

Abreu, Miguel; McDuff, Dusa

2012-01-01

216

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

Farah, John (M.I.T. Branch P.O. Box 301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

1995-01-01

217

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

Farah, J.

1995-05-30

218

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

Farah, John (M.I.T. P.O. Box 397301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

1999-01-01

219

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

Farah, J.

1999-04-06

220

A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.

Nanying Shentu; Hongjian Zhang; Qing Li; Hongliang Zhou; Renyuan Tong; Xiong Li

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Decoherence of superpositions of displaced number states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We study the decoherence of even and odd superpositions of displaced number states vertical bar ?:m> ± vertical bar - ?:m> in the frameworks of the standard master equation, describing phase insensitive attenuators and amplifiers. We compare different possible definitions of the 'decoherence time' and show that the frequently used approaches based on the time derivatives of some quantities (such as the 'quantum purity'), taken at the initial moment, are not quite satisfactory for quantum states characterized by several parameters, due to the absence of the scaling laws. Defining the conditional decoherence time as the time necessary for diminishing the interference peak of the Wigner function to the given relative level, we study its dependence on the initial distance between peaks |?|, excitation number m and parameters of the reservoir. We show that highly excited states with m ? ?2 >>1 can be more robust against decoherence than the coherent superpositions with m = 0

2005-12-01

222

Steering of H{sup -} ion beamlet by aperture displacement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Focussing of multibeamlets produced from a large accelerator grid is a key issue of ion beam application to the neutral beam injector (NBI) of fusion devices. Another issue is highlighted in a case of negative ion based NBI to compensate beamlet deflection inside the extractor, where magnetic field is applied for suppression of electron extraction. Steering of H{sup -} beamlet was carried out by displacing apertures in an electrostatic extractor/accelerator composed of four grids, where the beam energy was in the range of {approx}50 keV. Out of a few combination of grid displacement, displacement of ESG (3rd grid) and/or GRG (4th grid) was found to be successful: (1) The beamlet steering angle of 50 mrad was obtained by displacing the apertures of 9 mm dia. up to 3 mm. It was confirmed that the steering angle was proportional fairly well to the displacement. The characteristic of the steering, i.e., the steering angle as a function of displacement, agrees well with the analysis based on the linear optics theory. (2) Neither significant divergence growth nor the beam interception were observed in the steered beams over a wide range of operation. The H{sup -} beams, of which divergent angle was 5 mrad, was obtained even under the beamlet steering. Thus the steering by displacement is suitable for the focusing of negative ion beam generated from multi-aperture grids. (3) It was found that the steering angle was independent of the magnetic field direction in the present extractor structure. This is an advantage of the steering technique for compensation of the beam deflection inside the extractor by magnetic field. (author)

Inoue, Takashi; Miyamoto, Kenji; Okumura, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Suzuki, Yasuo [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-09-01

223

Steering of H- ion beamlet by aperture displacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focussing of multibeamlets produced from a large accelerator grid is a key issue of ion beam application to the neutral beam injector (NBI) of fusion devices. Another issue is highlighted in a case of negative ion based NBI to compensate beamlet deflection inside the extractor, where magnetic field is applied for suppression of electron extraction. Steering of H- beamlet was carried out by displacing apertures in an electrostatic extractor/accelerator composed of four grids, where the beam energy was in the range of ?50 keV. Out of a few combination of grid displacement, displacement of ESG (3rd grid) and/or GRG (4th grid) was found to be successful: 1) The beamlet steering angle of 50 mrad was obtained by displacing the apertures of 9 mm dia. up to 3 mm. It was confirmed that the steering angle was proportional fairly well to the displacement. The characteristic of the steering, i.e., the steering angle as a function of displacement, agrees well with the analysis based on the linear optics theory. 2) Neither significant divergence growth nor the beam interception were observed in the steered beams over a wide range of operation. The H- beams, of which divergent angle was 5 mrad, was obtained even under the beamlet steering. Thus the steering by displacement is suitable for the focusing of negative ion beam generated from multi-aperture grids. 3) It was found that the steering angle was independent of the magnetic field direction in the present extractor structure. This is an advantage of the steering technique for compensation of the beam deflection inside the extractor by magnetic field. (author)

2000-01-01

224

SPS data on tunnel displacements and the ATL law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this article we analyze data from long-term measurements of quadrupole displacements in the Super Proton Synchrotron ring at CERN. The variance of displacement can be approximated by ATL law with coefficient A = (0.1--0.4) * 10-4 ?m2/s/m, with T the time interval between measurements and L the distance between two points of the tunnel. The shape of the distribution function is found to be close to Gaussian. The results of the analysis are compared with other data on slow ground motion

1993-10-03

225

Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

2010-10-10

226

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular dynamics simulation with Buckingham and Morse empirical potentials has been used to study radiation damage in zircon (ZrSiO4) at 300 K, where an uranium atom was used as the primary knock-on and O-O RDF functions have been drawn. The results of the MD simulations show that the maximal number of displaced atoms is closely equal to 100 for t?0.27 ps, and the end number of displaced atoms is closely equal to 70 for t>1 ps

2007-01-01

227

Determination of water storage and permeability functions for oil sands tailings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mining projects in the Alberta oil sands produce tailings in a slurry form with high water content and that makes it difficult to characterize the unsaturated soil property functions. This paper discusses the determination of water storage and permeability functions for oil sands tailings. The objective is to describe a way to conduct a conventional soil-water characteristic curve test and use it with an independently measured shrinkage curve to determine the proper unsaturated soil property functions for numerically modeling the drying process. A lab procedure for measuring and interpreting shrinkage behavior of oil sands tailings is given with the results. To obtain a closed-form equation for the shrinkage curve, a regression curve-fitting analysis was used. The saturated coefficient of permeability is combined with the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) to compute hydraulic properties for the oil sands tailings. From the results it can be concluded that the volumetric water content is essential to computing the water storage characteristics of oil sands tailings.

Fredlund, Delwyn G.; Stone, Jeff; Stianson, Jason [Golder Associates Ltd. (Canada); Sedgwick, Andrea [Total EandP Canada (Canada)

2011-07-01

228

Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18%) developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP) >40% and further 19 (9%) MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40%) was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip surveillance programme for children with CP with radiographic examinations based on the child's age and GMFCS level.

Hägglund Gunnar; Lauge-Pedersen Henrik; Wagner Philippe

2007-01-01

229

Attempt of water retention characteristcs estimation as pedotransfer function for organic soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of statistical-physical modelling (pedotransfer function) relating soil water content at defined values of soil water potential to selected physical and chemical parameters of organic soils. The two models were developed as the result of the modelling. The independent variables of equations of both models are: ash content, specific surface area, bulk density, pH in KCl and Fe content. The following ranges of determination coefficient values between the measured and predicted water content were estimated for the models: 0.67 < R2 < 0.81 for the first and 0.68 < R2 < 0.91 for second one.

M. Korus; C. Sławiński; B. Witkowska-Walczak

2007-01-01

230

Parameterization of volume scattering function of coastal waters based on the statistical approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A parameterization of the volume scattering function (VSF) specific to coastal waters is proposed. We have found that the standard VSF parameterizations proposed by Fournier-Forand and Petzold do not fit our measurements obtained with a high angular resolution VSF-meter for water samples taken in the Black Sea coastal zone. We propose modeling VSF as a linear function of scattering, backscattering and particulate absorption. The statistical techniques employed allow us to retrieve the variability of VSF and to demonstrate the significance of the estimates obtained. The results of independent validation and the comparison with other commonly used parameterizations are provided.

Sokolov A; Chami M; Dmitriev E; Khomenko G

2010-03-01

231

Network modeling of residual oil displacement after polymer flooding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on microscopic flow mechanisms can aid in improving oil recovery after polymer flooding. Based on a two-phase water-oil network model, a simulation model for polymer flooding is proposed that considers various percolation mechanisms of the polymer solution, such as thickening, diffusion, adsorption, entrapment and shear degradation. Thus, the pore structure and the rheological fluid properties can be integrated. This network model can provide an effective tool for the study of residual oil displacement after polymer flooding. The distribution laws for residual oil after polymer flooding were studied using this microscopic simulation. Results show that compared to water flooding, polymer flooding can greatly improve oil recovery. Moreover, the residual oil distribution after polymer flooding tends to be more disperse, complex and variable. At the same time, displacement methods and parameters of the residual oil were investigated. Methods such as increasing the viscosity of the injection fluid can be applied, but the viscosity must be very high. Injection of a slug of displacing liquid with low interfacial tension after polymer flooding can decrease irreducible oil saturation and improve the displacement efficiency, but the interfacial tension needs to be extremely low. (author)

Hou, Jian [Department of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061 (China)

2007-11-15

232

QSPR with TAU Indices: Water Solubility of Diverse Functional Acyclic Compounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topochemically arrived unique (TAU) scheme, developed in valence electron mobile (VEM) environment, is unique in that it unravels specific contributions of functionality, branching, shape and size factors to the physicochemical property or biological activity while most other indices give mainly a global contribution of the molecule. QSPR/QSAR studies with TAU indices on different physicochemical properties/biological activities of diverse functional compounds will explore the usefulness of TAU indices in modeling studies. The present communication attempts to correlate water solubility, ln S, of 193 diverse functional acyclic compounds with different TAU indices, namely T, TR, F, B, NV, NP, NI, NX, and NY. Sometimes, TAU relations have been improved further upon inclusion of suitable indicator or integer variables. The statistical quality of the QSPR model has been judged by statistical parameters such as predicted variance Q2, explained variance Ra2, correlation coefficient R, and variance ratio F. This study shows that TAU indices, along with appropriate indicator variables, can predict up to 91.4% and explain 91.9% of the variance of water solubility. The relations can unravel specific contributions of molecular bulk (size), functionality, branching and shape parameters to the water solubility of diverse functional compounds. In general, water solubility increases with increase in functionality and branching, and decreases with increase in molecular bulk. Further, halocarbons and hydrocarbons specifically show reduced water solubility. Some of the hydrocarbons and halogen compounds act as outliers. The TAU index is an important tool in exploring structure-property relationships in view of its potential to unravel specific contributions of different structural parameters like molecular bulk, shape factors, branching, functionality and carbon skeletal structure.

Kunal Roy; Achintya Saha

2003-01-01

233

Simulating Water Transfers at a Forest Field Site by Using Pedo-Transfer Functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) are an essential building block for the modelling of water flow in soils. Many such functions have been developed for estimating the water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity from measured soil properties. Studies have previously been conducted to evaluate the performance of such functions against independent data sets obtained by laboratory measurements. Three PTFs, which have performed well in such studies, are here compared in the calibration and evaluation of a modified unsaturated flow model for forest soil water dynamics. This flow model is part of the multi-component reactive transport model MIN3P. The three functions perform similarly in reproducing the actual soil moisture data measured by TDR during about 3 years at different soil depths. All functions have difficulty simulating higher soil moisture contents. Improved results could be achieved by considering the presence of preferential flow paths. This has been simulated by implementing preferential flow schemes of varying complexity including an equilibrium flow scheme and a non-equilibrium flow formulation. The equilibrium approach, which involves a single permeability medium and a composite water retention curve, yields statistically the best results and is more flexible for calibration.

Gerard, F.; Tinsley, M.; Mayer, K. U.

2003-12-01

234

Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins  

CERN Document Server

We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R

2013-01-01

235

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

HOFMAYER,C.H.

1999-03-29

236

Modelling of displacement washing of packed bed of fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mechanism of displacement washing of packed bed of porous, compressible and cylindrical particles, e.g., fibers, is presented with the help of an axial dispersion model involving Peclet number (Pe) and Biot number (Bi). Bulk fluid concentration, intra-pore solute concentration and concentration of solute adsorbed on the fiber surface are taken to be the function of washing time and position in the bed. Concentration of solute adsorbed on the fiber surface and intra-pore solute concentration are related by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Experiments have been performed on pulp beds formed from unbeaten, unbleached kraft fibers. Displacement washing has been simulated using a laboratory washing cell. Model equations are solved by using orthogonal collocation on finite elements (OCFE). Model predicted values are compared with the experimental values and key industrial parameters such as displacement ratio and efficiency are expressed in terms of exit and average solute concentrations.

S. Arora; F. Pot??ek

2009-01-01

237

Modelling of displacement washing of packed bed of fibers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The mechanism of displacement washing of packed bed of porous, compressible and cylindrical particles, e.g., fibers, is presented with the help of an axial dispersion model involving Peclet number (Pe) and Biot number (Bi). Bulk fluid concentration, intra-pore solute concentration and concentration of solute adsorbed on the fiber surface are taken to be the function of washing time and position in the bed. Concentration of solute adsorbed on the fiber surface and intra-po (more) re solute concentration are related by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Experiments have been performed on pulp beds formed from unbeaten, unbleached kraft fibers. Displacement washing has been simulated using a laboratory washing cell. Model equations are solved by using orthogonal collocation on finite elements (OCFE). Model predicted values are compared with the experimental values and key industrial parameters such as displacement ratio and efficiency are expressed in terms of exit and average solute concentrations.

Arora, S.; Potů č ek, F.

2009-06-01

238

Nomarski imaging interferometry to measure the displacement field of MEMS  

CERN Multimedia

We propose to use a Nomarski imaging interferometer to measure the out-of-plane displacement field of MEMS. It is shown that the measured optical phase arises both from height and slope gradients. Using four integrating buckets a more efficient approach to unwrap the measured phase is presented, thus making the method well suited for highly curved objects. Slope and height effects are then decoupled by expanding the displacement field on a functions basis, and the inverse transformation is applied to get a displacement field from a measure of the optical phase map change with a mechanical loading. A measurement reproducibility of about 10 pm is achieved, and typical results are shown on a microcantilever under thermal actuation, thereby proving the ability of such a set-up to provide a reliable full-field kinematic measurement without surface modification.

Amiot, F; Amiot, Fabien; Roger, Jean Paul

2006-01-01

239

The population genetics of sperm displacement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article reports the results of some sperm displacement experiments, as well as the results of a theoretical study of selection arising from genetic differences in displacing ability. The experimental work involved the use of three genetic marker stocks in double and triple matings. The speed of displacement following the matings was determined by scoring the progeny of each female daily. There were clear differences between strains in their displacing ability. It is shown how new information concerning the displacement process results when three markers are used; however, no new light is shed by these experiments on the mechanism of displacement. The theoretical study of selection resulting from displacement uses a one-locus, two-allele model in which three diploid male genotypes confer different displacing abilities. The results indicate stable equilibria if (1) there is heterosis, and (2) there are certain nontransitive relationships in displacing ability among the different kinds of double matings. Some evolutionary consequences are discussed in which sperm displacement is regarded as a form of sexual selection.

Prout, Timothy; Bundgaard, JØrgen

1977-01-01

240

Laboratory imaging of stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to physically investigate the processes governing stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures. Experiments were performed on two scales: meter-scale in a 1500 cm{sup 2} sand pack and core-scale in a 65 cm{sup 2} API linear conductivity cell. High-resolution light transmission imaging was employed at the meter-scale to visualize and quantify processes governing fluid displacement. For comparison, complimentary tests were performed using an API conductivity cell under ambient test conditions and at elevated closure stress. In these experiments viscous fingering and gravity drainage were identified as the dominant processes governing fluid displacement. Fluid viscosity was found to dictate the relative importance of the competing displacement processes and ultimately determine the residual liquid saturation of the sand pack. The process by which fluid displacement occurs was seen to effect the shape of both the gas and liquid phase relative permeability functions. Knowledge of such viscosity/relative permeability relationships may prove useful in bounding predictions of post-stimulation recovery of gels from the fracture pack.

Tidwell, V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, M. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

Lucy Hovil

2012-01-01

242

Large displacement analysis of a marine riser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of static analysis for a marine riser experiencing large displacements is presented. The method is suitable for analyzing a riser having a known top tension and a possible slippage at the top slip joint. Utilizing the stationary condition of a functional coupled with an equilibrium equation, one can conveniently obtain the equilibrium configuration numerically. The configuration is expressed in terms of the rectangular coordinates. The functional representing the energy and work of the riser system is expressed in terms of the horizontal coordinate which is parameterized in terms of the vertical depth instead of arc length. For a twodimensional problem, two multipliers must be included in the functional. One of the two represents the variable axial force along the length of the riser and the other corresponds to the strain energy per unit riser length due to bending. Utilizing the finite element method, a numerical procedure to obtain the configuration of static equilibrium is given. The resulting algebraic equations are highly nonlinear and the Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is used to solve the equations. An example is given.

Huang, T.; Chucheepsakul, S.

1985-03-01

243

The effects of contrast water therapy on recovery of muscle function post exercise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Recovery from training is one of the most important aspects of improving athletic performance (Bishop el al., 2008). Contrast Water Therapy (CWT) has been reported to accelerate recovery of muscle function after intense exercise (Vaile el al., 2007). CWT involves repeated alternate immer...

Algar, Lynne

244

Estimating travel time of recharge water through a deep vadose zone using a transfer function model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate the travel time of percolating water through a deep vadose zone at the regional scale using a transfer function model and a physical based conceptual flow model (Hydrus-1D), thereby exploiting the time series of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and groundwater piezometry and gene...

Mattern, Samuel; Vanclooster, Marnik

245

Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

2007-07-01

246

Zwitterion functionalized carbon nanotube/polyamide nanocomposite membranes for water desalination.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have shown from both simulations and experiments that zwitterion functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used to construct highly efficient desalination membranes. Our simulations predicted that zwitterion functional groups at the ends of CNTs allow a high flux of water, while rejecting essentially all ions. We have synthesized zwitterion functionalized CNT/polyamide nanocomposite membranes with varying loadings of CNTs and assessed these membranes for water desalination. The CNTs within the polyamide layer were partially aligned through a high-vacuum filtration step during membrane synthesis. Addition of zwitterion functionalized CNTs into a polyamide membrane increased both the flux of water and the salt rejection ratio. The flux of water was found to increase by more than a factor of 4, from 6.8 to 28.7 GFD (gallons per square foot per day), as the fraction of CNTs was increased from 0 to 20 wt %. Importantly, the ion rejection ratio increased slightly from 97.6% to 98.6%. Thus, the nanotubes imparted an additional transport mechanism to the polyamide membrane, having higher flow rate and the same or slightly better selectivity. Simulations show that when two zwitterions are attached to each end of CNTs having diameters of about 15 Å, the ion rejection ratio is essentially 100%. In contrast, the rejection ratio for nonfunctionalized CNTs is about 0%, and roughly 20% for CNTs having five carboxylic acid groups per end. The increase in ion rejection for the zwitterion functionalized CNTs is due to a combination of steric hindrance from the functional groups partially blocking the tube ends and electrostatic repulsion between functional groups and ions, with steric effects dominating. Theoretical predictions indicate that an ideal CNT/polymer membrane having a loading of 20 wt % CNTs would have a maximum flux of about 20000 GFD at the conditions of our experiments. PMID:23705642

Chan, Wai-Fong; Chen, Hang-yan; Surapathi, Anil; Taylor, Michael G; Shao, Xiaohong; Marand, Eva; Johnson, J Karl

2013-06-03

247

Zwitterion functionalized carbon nanotube/polyamide nanocomposite membranes for water desalination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have shown from both simulations and experiments that zwitterion functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used to construct highly efficient desalination membranes. Our simulations predicted that zwitterion functional groups at the ends of CNTs allow a high flux of water, while rejecting essentially all ions. We have synthesized zwitterion functionalized CNT/polyamide nanocomposite membranes with varying loadings of CNTs and assessed these membranes for water desalination. The CNTs within the polyamide layer were partially aligned through a high-vacuum filtration step during membrane synthesis. Addition of zwitterion functionalized CNTs into a polyamide membrane increased both the flux of water and the salt rejection ratio. The flux of water was found to increase by more than a factor of 4, from 6.8 to 28.7 GFD (gallons per square foot per day), as the fraction of CNTs was increased from 0 to 20 wt %. Importantly, the ion rejection ratio increased slightly from 97.6% to 98.6%. Thus, the nanotubes imparted an additional transport mechanism to the polyamide membrane, having higher flow rate and the same or slightly better selectivity. Simulations show that when two zwitterions are attached to each end of CNTs having diameters of about 15 Å, the ion rejection ratio is essentially 100%. In contrast, the rejection ratio for nonfunctionalized CNTs is about 0%, and roughly 20% for CNTs having five carboxylic acid groups per end. The increase in ion rejection for the zwitterion functionalized CNTs is due to a combination of steric hindrance from the functional groups partially blocking the tube ends and electrostatic repulsion between functional groups and ions, with steric effects dominating. Theoretical predictions indicate that an ideal CNT/polymer membrane having a loading of 20 wt % CNTs would have a maximum flux of about 20000 GFD at the conditions of our experiments.

Chan WF; Chen HY; Surapathi A; Taylor MG; Shao X; Marand E; Johnson JK

2013-06-01

248

Molecular Density Functional Theory of Water describing Hydrophobicity at Short and Long Length Scales  

CERN Multimedia

We present an extension of our recently introduced molecular density functional theory of water [G. Jeanmairet et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 619, 2013] to the solvation of hydrophobic solutes of various sizes, going from angstroms to nanometers. The theory is based on the quadratic expansion of the excess free energy in terms of two classical density fields, the particle density and the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input a molecular model of water and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities. The fine three-dimensional water structure around small hydrophobic molecules is found to be well reproduced. In contrast the computed solvation free-energies appear overestimated and do not exhibit the correct qualitative behavior when the hydrophobic solute is grown in size. These shortcomings are corrected, in the spirit of the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory, by complementing the functional ...

Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Borgis, Daniel

2013-01-01

249

Density functional description of water condensation in proximity of nanoscale asperity  

CERN Multimedia

We apply non-local density functional formalism to describe an equilibrium distribution of the water-like fluid in the asymmetric nanoscale junction presenting an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip dwelling above an arbitrary surface. The hydrogen bonding dominating in intermolecular attraction is modeled as a square well potential with two adjustable parameters (energy and length) characterizing well's depth and width. A water meniscus formed inside nanoscale junction is explicitly described for different humidity. Furthermore, we suggest a simple approach using polymolecular adsorption isotherms for the evaluation of an energetic parameter characterizing fluid (water) attraction to substrate. This model can be easily generalized for more complex geometries and effective intermolecular potentials. Our study establishes a framework for the density functional description of fluid with orientational anisotropy induced by non-uniform external electric field.

Paramonov, P B; Paramonov, Pavel B.; Lyuksyutov, Sergei F.

2005-01-01

250

Macular displacement following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To investigate the incidence of macula displacement and symptoms of distortion following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair, quantify the displacement where seen and further characterise the nature of the displacement. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing primary RRD repair were assessed postoperatively with fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography imaging, and the extent of macula displacement quantified using a novel means. Findings were examined for correlations with symptoms and pre-operative features. RESULTS: Macula displacement was evident postoperatively in 72% of 32 consecutive fovea-involving detachments treated with vitrectomy and gas. It was also evident in 5/17 foveal-sparing cases treated with vitrectomy and gas and in two of two patients with fovea-involving detachments treated with vitrectomy and oil. There was a significant correlation between the presence of macula displacement and symptoms of distortion in the early postoperative period (p=0.013). Symptomatic patients described bending of lines with or without objects appearing smaller or narrower in the operated eye. Quantifying the displacement demonstrated that the extent of displacement was associated with distance from the optic disc (p=0.005) and the extent of retinal detachment. CONCLUSIONS: Displacement of the macula is common following RRD repair and heterogeneous in nature. Most affected patients are symptomatic in the early postoperative period.

Lee E; Williamson TH; Hysi P; Shunmugam M; Dogramaci M; Wong R; Laidlaw DA

2013-07-01

251

Stabilization of phase inversion temperature nanoemulsions by surfactant displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoemulsions are finding increasing utilization in the food and beverage industry to encapsulate and protect lipophilic functional components. Low-intensity methods, such as the phase inversion temperature (PIT) approach, are of particular interest for forming food-grade nanoemulsions because of their ease of formation and relatively low energy costs. Nevertheless, this type of emulsion tends to be highly unstable to droplet coalescence after preparation. In this study, we develop a potential solution to this problem using model water/surfactant (Brij 30, C(12)E(4))/oil (tetradecane) systems. The PIT and system morphology were determined by monitoring the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, turbidity, and microstructure of the emulsions. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding water/surfactant/oil mixtures at their PIT and then rapidly cooling them. The influence of storage temperature on emulsion stability was investigated, which indicated that the optimum temperature (13 degrees C) was about 27 degrees C lower than the PIT (approximately 40 degrees C). Higher storage temperatures resulted in an increase in droplet growth rate due to coalescence, while lower temperatures led to gelation. Nanoemulsions that were relatively stable to coalescence could be formed at ambient temperatures by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt %) or SDS (0.1 wt %) to displace the Brij 30 from the droplet surfaces. We propose that these surfactants increase nanoemulsion stability by changing the optimum curvature of the interfacial layer, as well as by increasing the repulsive interactions (steric or electrostatic) between the droplets. This study may lead to a novel approach to create stable nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that are suitable for utilization within the food industry. PMID:20476765

Rao, Jiajia; McClements, David Julian

2010-06-01

252

Stabilization of phase inversion temperature nanoemulsions by surfactant displacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanoemulsions are finding increasing utilization in the food and beverage industry to encapsulate and protect lipophilic functional components. Low-intensity methods, such as the phase inversion temperature (PIT) approach, are of particular interest for forming food-grade nanoemulsions because of their ease of formation and relatively low energy costs. Nevertheless, this type of emulsion tends to be highly unstable to droplet coalescence after preparation. In this study, we develop a potential solution to this problem using model water/surfactant (Brij 30, C(12)E(4))/oil (tetradecane) systems. The PIT and system morphology were determined by monitoring the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, turbidity, and microstructure of the emulsions. Nanoemulsions were formed by holding water/surfactant/oil mixtures at their PIT and then rapidly cooling them. The influence of storage temperature on emulsion stability was investigated, which indicated that the optimum temperature (13 degrees C) was about 27 degrees C lower than the PIT (approximately 40 degrees C). Higher storage temperatures resulted in an increase in droplet growth rate due to coalescence, while lower temperatures led to gelation. Nanoemulsions that were relatively stable to coalescence could be formed at ambient temperatures by adding either Tween 80 (0.2 wt %) or SDS (0.1 wt %) to displace the Brij 30 from the droplet surfaces. We propose that these surfactants increase nanoemulsion stability by changing the optimum curvature of the interfacial layer, as well as by increasing the repulsive interactions (steric or electrostatic) between the droplets. This study may lead to a novel approach to create stable nanoemulsion-based delivery systems that are suitable for utilization within the food industry.

Rao J; McClements DJ

2010-06-01

253

Accurate evaluation of the angular-dependent direct correlation function of water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The direct correlation function (DCF) plays a pivotal role in addressing the thermodynamic properties with non-mean-field statistical theories of liquid state. This work provides an accurate yet efficient calculation procedure for evaluating the angular-dependent DCF of bulk SPC?E water. The DCF here represented in a discrete angles basis is computed with two typical steps: the first step involves solving the molecular Ornstein-Zernike equation with the input of total correlation function extracted from simulation; the resultant DCF is then polished in second step at small wavelength for all orientations in order to match correct thermodynamic properties. This function is also discussed in terms of its rotational invariant components. In particular, we show that the component c112(r) that accounts for dipolar symmetry reaches already its long-range asymptotic behavior at a short distance of 4 A?. With the knowledge of DCF, the angular-dependent bridge function of bulk water is thereafter computed and discussed in comparison with referenced hard-sphere bridge functions. We conclude that, even though such hard-sphere bridge functions may be relevant to improve the calculation of Helmholtz free energies in integral equations or density functional theory, they are doomed to fail at a structural level.

Zhao S; Liu H; Ramirez R; Borgis D

2013-07-01

254

Investigation of operating parameters in high-performance displacement chromatography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of operational parameters of displacement chromatography was examined in the separation of various mixtures such as that of the main hydrolysis products of methylfurylbutyrolactone, a potential anticancer drug, the diastereoisomers benzoyl-D- and benzoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-proline, as well as polyethylene glycol homologues containing 1-10 ethylene oxide units. The chromatograph was assembled from modules generally used in analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the column effluent was analyzed by an on-line HPLC unit at 30-sec intervals. Octadecyl-silica was used throughout as the stationary phase. Derivatives of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol as well as tetrabutylammonium bromide and n-butanol were used as displacers. The throughput was used as the measure of efficiency. In the absence of axial dispersion, for a given separation various displacers are expected to yield the same efficiency if the slope of the operating line is kept the same by appropriate adjustment of displacer concentrations. In practice, however, the optimum slope of the operating line has to be determined experimentally as most available chromatographic systems depart from ideal behavior. The dependence of the throughput on the flow-rate and feed load also indicated the presence of non-equilibrium phenomena and the optimum value of these parameters was established experimentally. In most cases water was used as the carrier solvent but the separation of poorly soluble peptides required the use of hydro-organic carriers. Results obtained with octadecyl-silicas of different origin and a given displacer were found to vary significantly suggesting that even for stationary phases of the same type the selection of displacer requires special consideration. Most experiments were carried out with columns having dimensions customary in analytical HPLC. Increasing the inner diameter of the column did not result in the expected increase in throughout probably due to poor distribution of the sample at the column entrance. Therefore scaling-up the process requires careful engineering of inlet conditions. Throughput can be increased by connecting a small inner diameter column to the outlet of a large diameter preparative column. As theoretical predictions for ideal displacement chromatography do not hold in practice when axial dispersion is significant, optimization of the process requires experimental support. The results obtained in the separation of a variety of mixtures shed light on the most important operational aspects of displacement chromatography and suggest approaches to find optimum conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Frenz J; van der Schrieck P; Horváth C

1985-08-01

255

Omnidirectional displacements for deformable surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deformable surface models are often represented as triangular meshes in image segmentation applications. For a fast and easily regularized deformation onto the target object boundary, the vertices of the mesh are commonly moved along line segments (typically surface normals). However, in case of high mesh curvature, these lines may not intersect with the target boundary at all. Consequently, certain deformations cannot be achieved. We propose omnidirectional displacements for deformable surfaces (ODDS) to overcome this limitation. ODDS allow each vertex to move not only along a line segment but within the volumetric inside of a surrounding sphere, and achieve globally optimal deformations subject to local regularization constraints. However, allowing a ball-shaped instead of a linear range of motion per vertex significantly increases runtime and memory. To alleviate this drawback, we propose a hybrid approach, fastODDS, with improved runtime and reduced memory requirements. Furthermore, fastODDS can also cope with simultaneous segmentation of multiple objects. We show the theoretical benefits of ODDS with experiments on synthetic data, and evaluate ODDS and fastODDS quantitatively on clinical image data of the mandible and the hip bones. There, we assess both the global segmentation accuracy as well as local accuracy in high curvature regions, such as the tip-shaped mandibular coronoid processes and the ridge-shaped acetabular rims of the hip bones.

Kainmueller D; Lamecker H; Heller MO; Weber B; Hege HC; Zachow S

2013-05-01

256

Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.

F. Duan

2000-04-25

257

Displacement of Monolithic Rubble-Mound Breakwater Crown-Walls  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper evaluates the validity of a simple one-dimensional dynamic analysis as well as a Finite-Element model to determine the sliding of a rubble-mound breakwater crown-wall. The evaluation is based on a case example with real wave load time-series and displacements measured from two-dimensional physical model tests. The outcome is a more reliable evaluation of the applicability of simple dynamic calculations for the estimation of displacement of rubble-mound superstructures. The case example clearly demonstrates that a simplified one-dimensional sliding model provides a safe estimate of the accumulated sliding distance of crown-wall superstructures, which is in contrast to findings from previous similar studies on caisson breakwaters. The calculated sliding distance is approximately three times larger than the measured one when using the original one-dimensional model suggested in previous studies on caisson breakwaters, but correction terms are suggested in the present paper to obtain almost equal measured and estimated displacements. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble-mound crown-walls are subjected to increasing wave loads due to rising sea water level from climate changes. Reliable and safe estimates are needed to determine whether displacements of crown wall superstructures during extreme situations would be acceptable or whether they lead to total failure of the structures.

NØrgaard, JØrgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

2012-01-01

258

Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulphate droplets initiated by Humic Like Substances as a function of water activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing Leonardite (LEO) and Pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for Humic Like Substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85–1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5–15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw, ?aw, by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5)×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4)×104 cm?2 s?1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by ?aw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (?(T)-model) to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, ?(T)-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for entire population (single-? model) is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of ?-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Thus, from fitting frozen fractions only, the underlying ice nucleation mechanism and nature of the ice nucleating sites cannot be inferred. In contrast to using fitted functions obtained to represent experimental conditions only, we suggest to use experimentally derived Jhet as a function of temperature and aw that can be applied to conditions outside of those probed in laboratory. This is because Jhet(T) is independent of time and IN surface areas in contrast to the fit parameters obtained by representation of experimentally derived frozen fractions.

Y. J. Rigg; P. A. Alpert; D. A. Knopf

2013-01-01

259

Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulphate droplets initiated by Humic Like Substances as a function of water activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing Leonardite (LEO) and Pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for Humic Like Substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85-1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5-15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw, ?aw, by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5)×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4)×104 cm-2 s-1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by ?aw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (?(T)-model) to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, ?(T)-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for entire population (single-? model) is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of ?-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Thus, from fitting frozen fractions only, the underlying ice nucleation mechanism and nature of the ice nucleating sites cannot be inferred. In contrast to using fitted functions obtained to represent experimental conditions only, we suggest to use experimentally derived Jhet as a function of temperature and aw that can be applied to conditions outside of those probed in laboratory. This is because Jhet(T) is independent of time and IN surface areas in contrast to the fit parameters obtained by representation of experimentally derived frozen fractions.

Rigg, Y. J.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

2013-02-01

260

Equilibrium Constant for Water Dimerization: Analysis of the Partition Function for a Weakly Bound System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The treatment of dissociative states in the calculation of the partition function of a weakly bound system, such as the water dimer, is discussed. For a dissociative system, the number of phase-space configurations that contribute to the total partition function from energies above the dissociation energy depend upon the system volume. For a sufficiently large system volume, entropy from these confiurations will dominate over the energy contribution of the local minimum and contributions from dissociative states will dominate the total partition function. The calculation of the dimer partition function requires limiting the phase space of the cluster or providing a definition of those phase space points that correspond to a dimer. Since there is no unique procedure to constrain the phase space of a dimer, we provide an analysis of the dimer partition function using different constraints. For the water dimer at temperatures in the range 200-500 K, the value of the dimer partition function changes by up to 3 orders of magnitude with variations of the constraint.

Schenter, Gregory K.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Garrett, Bruce C.

2002-02-28

 
 
 
 
261

Policies for displaced workers: An american perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

American employment policy for displaced workers started in the Great Depression with programs for the employment service, unemployment insurance, work experience, and direct job creation. Assistance for workers displaced by foreign competition emerged in the 1960s along with formalized programs for...

O'Leary, Christopher J.

262

A Generalized Displacement Problem in Elasticity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By solving a special coupling boundary value problem for vector Helmholtz equations it is shown how the displacement boundary value problem in elasticity can be solved. It is shown that the generalized displacement problem possesses at most one solution.

Wilde P.

2011-01-01

263

Oil, conflict and displacement in Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores the political dimensions of development-induced displacement and resettlement (DIDR) in the context of oil extraction in Sudan. It provides a detailed perspective on the experience of displacement of the local people in the oil-rich areas of Southern Sudan. It also offers an imp...

Moro, L. N.; Chatty, D.; Johnson, D.

264

Selective colorimetric sensing of geometrical isomers of dicarboxylates in water by using functionalized gold nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A colorimetric sensing system based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with a water-soluble anion-recognition motif, an o-(carboxamido)trifluoroacetophenone analogue, has been developed. The nanoparticle system selectively senses specific isomers of dicarboxylates that are geometrically favorable for the binding-induced aggregation process; thus, it discriminates a trans-dicarboxylate fumarate from its cis-isomer maleate, and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate from its isomeric benzene-1,2-and benzene-1,3-dicarboxylates in water, exhibiting a color change from red to blue.

Chatterjee A; Oh DJ; Kim KM; Youk KS; Ahn KH

2008-11-01

265

Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotubes functionalized with water soluble porphyrin  

Science.gov (United States)

A new nanocomposite is obtained by functionalizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a water soluble metalloprophyrin using a simple chemical technique and characterized by optical absorption, IR, and Raman spectroscopy. Results from spectroscopic studies indicate the noncovalent nature of interaction between CNTs and porphyrin. The ultrafast nonlinear response is characterized by measuring the nonlinear absorption coefficient and refractive index by z-scan technique in the femtosecond pulse regime. The nanocomposite is found to exhibit two-photon absorption (TPA) with a reasonably large nonlinear optical coefficient, whereas pure CNTs is known to exhibit saturable absorption. Design of such water soluble nanocomposites offers scope for obtaining materials with enhanced ultrafast optical nonlinearity.

Gupta, Jyotsana; Vijayan, C.; Maurya, Sandeep Kumar; Goswami, D.

2012-04-01

266

Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

2012-10-15

267

Functionalization of graphene and grafting of temperature-responsive surfaces from graphene by ATRP “on water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-dispersible graphene with temperature-responsive surfaces has successfully been synthesized by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) from graphene via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, graphene surfaces are functionalized with aminophenol groups by diazonium reaction on water. Subsequently, bromoisobutyrate groups are covalently attached to the phenol-functionalized graphene (G-OH) surface by esterification of 2-bromoisobutyrate with the hydroxyl groups, forming bromoisobutyrate-functionalized graphene (G-Br). Finally, PNIPAM is then grafted from G-Br via ATRP. Data from Raman spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirm that PNIPAM chains grow from graphene by ATRP. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the amount of PNIPAM grown from the graphene increases with the increase of monomer ratios. TEM images also show that functionalized polymer structures (PNIPAM cluster or agglutination) on graphene sheets can be well tuned by controlled polymerization. The obtained graphene-PNIPAM (G-PNIPAM) composite has PNIPAM surface which is highly sensitive to the temperature change. This temperature-responsive and water-dispersible G-PNIPAM composite may find potential applications in environmental devices as well as controlled release drug delivery.

2012-01-01

268

Internally displaced persons remaining in camps : A case study of internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Internally displaced persons remaining in camps - who are they, why do they stay? A case study of internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka Essay in Political Science C, by Rebecka Johansson, fall 2004 This essay is a case study of internally displaced persons in camps in the district of Va...

Johansson, Rebecka

269

Stress-displacement relation during fiber pullout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During fiber pullout tests of fiber-reinforced composites, initial debonding, partial debonding, complete debonding at the interface, and fiber pullout occur sequentially. Adopting the shear lag model for stress analyses and the strength criterion for interfacial debonding, a bond length dependence of the initial debond stress is derived. During partial debonding, the stress initially increases with the increasing fiber displacement. The partial debond stress reaches a maximum value and begins to decrease with an accompanying decreasing fiber displacement until the interface is completely debonded. Theoretically, the stress-displacement curve shows a nose'' at the maximum debond stress. However, the pullout test is generally conducted under the condition of an increasing fiber displacement. Hence, at the maximum debond stress, the observed stress drops abruptly as the increasing fiber displacement type test obscures the nose-type characteristic.

Hsueh, C.H.

1990-01-01

270

Displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop of trace amounts of palladium in water and road dust samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drop was developed for separation and preconcentration of Pd(ll) in road dust and aqueous samples. This method involves two steps of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification. In Step 1, Cu ions react with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to form Cu-DDTC complex, which is extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a solidification procedure using 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) and ethanol (dispersive solvent). In Step 2, the extracted complex is first dispersed using ethanol in a sample solution containing Pd ions, then a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a solidification procedure is performed creating an organic drop. In this step, Pd(ll) replaces Cu(ll) from the pre-extracted Cu-DDTC complex and goes into the extraction solvent phase. Finally, the Pd(ll)-containing drop is introduced into a graphite furnace using a microsyringe, and Pd(ll) is determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Several factors that influence the extraction efficiency of Pd and its subsequent determination, such as extraction and dispersive solvent type and volume, pH of sample solution, centrifugation time, and concentration of DDTC, are optimized.

Ghanbarian M; Afzali D; Mostafavi A; Fathirad F

2013-07-01

271

Sound velocity studies of pipeline oils as a function of viscosity, density and water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of velocity of sound in crude oil samples taken from a pipeline have been made as a function of oil temperature and added amounts of water and diluent (toluene). In the case of low concentrations of water-in-oil, the experimental sound velocities show a linear dependence on wt % of added water. For the diluent-in-oil systems the experimental sound velocity can be predicted over a wide concentration range of diluent by assuming an ideal mixing law for the sound velocities of the individual components. It is observed that the sound velocities for a number of the water-free oils show a strong dependence on the source of the oil. Of further interest is the observation of a good correlation between the measured viscosity and density properties with the measured sound velocities for the oil samples obtained from the pipeline. These preliminary results suggest some potentially important deliverables. In particular, that rapid and frequent on-line monitoring of the sound velocity property of an oil or oil mixture may provide accurate estimates of: viscosity; density; wt % diluent-in-oil for conditions <50 wt % added diluent; and wt % water-in-oil for conditions <10 wt % added water. 10 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Verrall, R.E.; Heal, G.A.; Dyer, K.L. (Saskatchewan Univ., SK (Canada))

1994-02-01

272

Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages. PMID:21458095

Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

2011-03-10

273

Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages.

Servili M; Rizzello CG; Taticchi A; Esposto S; Urbani S; Mazzacane F; Di Maio I; Selvaggini R; Gobbetti M; Di Cagno R

2011-05-01

274

[Removal of chrysoidine from water by functionalized mesoporous material SBA-16].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of functionalized SBA-16 were synthesized and subsequently oxidized into sulfonic functionalized mesoporous silica mixing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (TMMPS), with triblock copolymers pluronic (F127) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMABr) served as the mixing template by combination of hydrothermal and co-condensation method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption and SEM. The results show that the resulting functional materials belong to mesoporous materials when n(TEOS): n(TMMPS) is 3-8. The removal of Chrysoidine from water reaches the highest by functionalized mesoporous material when n(TEOS): n(TMMPS) is 7. Compared with different pH values, when the pH value ranges from 4-5 the adsorption reaches the highest.

Wei SH; He Y; Li FT; Xu R

2010-06-01

275

[Removal of chrysoidine from water by functionalized mesoporous material SBA-16].  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of functionalized SBA-16 were synthesized and subsequently oxidized into sulfonic functionalized mesoporous silica mixing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (TMMPS), with triblock copolymers pluronic (F127) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMABr) served as the mixing template by combination of hydrothermal and co-condensation method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption and SEM. The results show that the resulting functional materials belong to mesoporous materials when n(TEOS): n(TMMPS) is 3-8. The removal of Chrysoidine from water reaches the highest by functionalized mesoporous material when n(TEOS): n(TMMPS) is 7. Compared with different pH values, when the pH value ranges from 4-5 the adsorption reaches the highest. PMID:20698269

Wei, Shi-Hui; He, Yan; Li, Feng-Ting; Xu, Ran

2010-06-01

276

Mental health of internally displaced preschool children: a cross-sectional study conducted in Bogota, Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Ongoing armed conflicts, like the one in Colombia, have forcibly displaced millions of people including many young children. This study aimed to assess the mental health of internally displaced preschoolers in Bogotá Colombia and to identify correlates of mental health in these children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted among 279 children attending four kindergartens in a deprived neighbourhood in Bogotá. Child mental health was assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) 1.5-5 years, a parent-report. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to assess the association between displacement and child mental health and to identify correlates of mental health in displaced children. RESULTS: Displaced children (n = 90) more often met borderline cut-off scores for the CBCL scales than non-displaced children (n = 189) (e.g. total problems 46.7 vs. 22.8 %; p < 0.001). The association between displacement and presence of CBCL total problems remained after adjustment for socio-demographic factors (Adjusted OR 3.3, 95 % CI 1.5; 6.9). Caretaker's mental health partly explained the association. In displaced children, caretaker's mental health (p < 0.01) and family functioning (p < 0.01) were independently associated with child mental health. Exposure to traumatic events and social support was also associated with child mental health; however, associations were not independent. CONCLUSION: In this deprived neighbourhood in Bogotá, preschool children registered as internally displaced presented worse mental health than non-displaced peers. Family functioning and caretaker's mental health were strongly and independently associated with displaced children's mental health.

Flink IJ; Restrepo MH; Blanco DP; Ortegon MM; Enriquez CL; Beirens TM; Raat H

2013-06-01

277

Neural Network-Based Multi-scale Pedo-Transfer Functions for Soil Water Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

Pedo Transfer Functions (PTFs) based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been used in the field of hydrology for some time. However, while most previous studies derive and adopt these parameters at matching spatial scales (1:1) of input and output data, here we present two methodologies to derive the soil water retention function at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser scale input data. In the first study, a conventional ANN was trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000) and then used for predicting the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs. Suitable bias correction was applied to the resulting output and used to construct the van Genuchten soil water characteristic curve. The results show good agreement between the soil water retention curves constructed from the ANN-based PTFs and the field observations at the local scale. In the second study we employed a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based Bayesian Neural Network to derive the soil water content values. While conventional ANN training attempts to describe the target variable as a function of the input vector and the training weights, Bayesian training attempts to update the weight vector with information available in the data. Comparisons of the outputs from the two methodologies are presented and their respective advantages and disadvantages are highlighted. These methods have potential as suitable tools to tackle the dual problems of parameter estimation and their scaling in one simple package.

Jana, R. B.; Mohanty, B. P.

2006-12-01

278

Relationship of dietary iodide and drinking water disinfectants to thyroid function in experimental animals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of dietary iodide on the reported hypothyroid effect of drinking water disinfectants on thyroid function was investigated. Previous studies have also showed differences in the relative sensitivity of pigeons and rabbits to chlorinated water. Pigeons and rabbits were exposed for 3 months to diets containing high (950 ppb) or low (300 ppb) levels of iodide and to drinking water containing two levels of chlorine. Results showed that the high-iodide diet prevented the hypothyroid effect observed in pigeons given the low-iodide diet and chlorinated drinking water. Similar trends were observed in rabbits exposed to the same treatment; however, significant hypothyroid effects were not observed in this animal model. The factor associated with the observed effect of dietary iodide on the chlorine-induced change in thyroid function is unknown, as is the relative sensitivity of rabbits and pigeons to the effect of chlorine. Several factors may explain the importance of dietary iodide and the relative sensitivity of these species. For example, the iodine formed by the known reaction of chlorine with iodide could result in a decrease in the plasma level of iodide because of the relative absorption rates of iodide and iodine in the intestinal tract, and the various types and concentrations of chloroorganics (metabolites) formed in the diet following the exposure of various dietary constituents to chlorine could affect the thyroid function. The former factor was investigated in the present studies. Results do not confirm a consistent, significant reduction in the plasma level of iodide in rabbits and pigeons exposed to chlorinated water and the low-iodide diet. The latter factor is being investigated.

Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Holdsworth, G.

1986-11-01

279

The first discovered water channel protein, later called aquaporin 1: molecular characteristics, functions and medical implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a decade of work on the water permeability of red blood cells (RBC) Benga group in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, discovered in 1985 the first water channel protein in the RBC membrane. The discovery was reported in publications in 1986 and reviewed in subsequent years. The same protein was purified by chance by Agre group in Baltimore, USA, in 1988, who called in 1991 the protein CHIP28 (CHannel forming Integral membrane Protein of 28 kDa), suggesting that it may play a role in linkage of the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer. In 1992 the Agre group identified CHIP28's water transport property. One year later CHIP28 was named aquaporin 1, abbreviated as AQP1. In this review the molecular structure-function relationships of AQP1 are presented. In the natural or model membranes AQP1 is in the form of a homotetramer, however, each monomer has an independent water channel (pore). The three-dimensional structure of AQP1 is described, with a detailed description of the channel (pore), the molecular mechanisms of permeation through the channel of water molecules and exclusion of protons. The permeability of the pore to gases (CO(2), NH(3), NO, O(2)) and ions is also mentioned. I have also reviewed the functional roles and medical implications of AQP1 expressed in various organs and cells (microvascular endothelial cells, kidney, central nervous system, eye, lacrimal and salivary glands, respiratory apparatus, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary compartments, female and male reproductive system, inner ear, skin). The role of AQP1 in cell migration and angiogenesis in relation with cancer, the genetics of AQP1 and mutations in human subjects are also mentioned. The role of AQP1 in red blood cells is discussed based on our comparative studies of water permeability in over 30 species.

Benga G

2012-10-01

280

Density functional treatment of water-carbon dioxide van der Waals complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LCGTO-LSD and LCGTO-NLSD methods have been tested for the study of water-carbon dioxide weakly bound binary complex. Different local and nonlocal exchange-correlation energy functionals and many grid radial points have been used. Results show that both nonlocal corrections and a large number of radial points in the grid are mandatory for well reproducing then experimental data. 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abashkin, Y.; Mele, F.; Russo, N.; Toscano, M. [Universita della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
281

Water balance and renal function in two species of African lungfish Protopterus dolloi and Protopterus annectens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The basic physiology of water balance and kidney function was characterized in two species of African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi and Protopterus annectens. Diffusive water efflux rate constants were low (0.13 h(-1)-0.38 h(-1) in various series) relative to values in freshwater teleost fish. Efflux rate constants increased approximately 3-fold after feeding in both species, and were greatly decreased after 8 months terrestrialization (P. dolloi only tested). Urine flow rates (UFR, 3.9-5.2 mL kg(-1) h(-1)) and glomerular filtration rates (GFR, 6.6-9.3 mL kg(-1) h(-1)) were quite high relative to values in most freshwater teleosts. However urinary ion excretion rates were low, with net re-absorption of >99% Na(+), >98% Cl(-), and >78% Ca(2+) from the primary filtrate, comparable to teleosts. Net water re-absorption was significantly greater in P. dolloi (56%) than in P. annectens (23%). We conclude that renal function in lungfish is similar to that in other primitive freshwater fish, but there is an interesting dichotomy between diffusive and osmotic permeabilities. Aquatic lungfish have low diffusive water permeability, an important pre-adaptation to life on land, and in accord with greatly reduced gill areas and low metabolic rates. However osmotic permeability is high, 4-12 times greater than diffusive permeability. A role for aquaporins in this dichotomy is speculated.

Patel M; Iftikar FI; Smith RW; Ip YK; Wood CM

2009-02-01

282

Estimating marginal value of water for irrigated olive grove with the production function method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic valuation of irrigation water is done through the use of production functions for the case of the olive grove. In order to do so the integration of an agronomic model (based on the production function) and an economic model linked to the profitability of the crop (the ratio of revenue and operating costs) in the area under study is proposed. The study case encompasses the Guadalbullon River Sub-basin area, belonging to the Guadalquivir River Hydrologic Demarcation (Southern Spain). Within the overall deficit of the Guadalquivir River basin, the Guadalbullon River poses a special problem as it is unregulated and there are important irrigated fields on its banks, most of them olive groves. Net marginal value of water obtained (having deducted the variable costs of production including harvesting and irrigation) is Euros 0.60 m{sup 3} for the allocation of 1,000 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 and Euros 0.53 m{sup 3} for the water right allowance of 1,500 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 (average for period 2005/2008). The results obtained support the recommendation by other authors suggesting the use of deficit irrigation in olive, additionally the high value of water estimated contributes to explain the substantial increase in irrigated olive area in Andalucia. (Author) 37 refs.

Mesa-Jurado, M. A.; Berbel, J.; Orgaz, F.

2010-07-01

283

The effects of taking chronic nitrate by drinking water on thyroid functions and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrate incorporation in humans takes place via drinking water and food. The water used for drinking and cooking in the goitrous areas is high in nitrate content. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both chronic effects and the dose-response relationship of nitrate on thyroid functions. A total of rats were divided into 5 work groups and sodium nitrate was added to their drinking water in different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/l) over a 30-week period. The radioiodine uptake of thyroid was decreased in the 50 mg/l nitrate group, whereas it was increased in the 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups as compared to control. All hormones of thyroid gland except total thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were decreased in the 50, 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups. However, the level of total thyroxin was increased in the 100 mg/l nitrate group. Thyroid gland weights were increased in all experimental groups. Histomorphological changes were observed in the 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups. These findings suggest that nitrate impairs thyroid function involving the hypothalamo-hypophysio-thyroid axis. This observation could contribute to the current discussion about the acceptable daily intake of nitrate, as well as drinking water nitrate standard safety margins. PMID:16096856

Eskiocak, S; Dundar, C; Basoglu, T; Altaner, S

2005-07-01

284

The effects of taking chronic nitrate by drinking water on thyroid functions and morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrate incorporation in humans takes place via drinking water and food. The water used for drinking and cooking in the goitrous areas is high in nitrate content. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both chronic effects and the dose-response relationship of nitrate on thyroid functions. A total of rats were divided into 5 work groups and sodium nitrate was added to their drinking water in different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/l) over a 30-week period. The radioiodine uptake of thyroid was decreased in the 50 mg/l nitrate group, whereas it was increased in the 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups as compared to control. All hormones of thyroid gland except total thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were decreased in the 50, 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups. However, the level of total thyroxin was increased in the 100 mg/l nitrate group. Thyroid gland weights were increased in all experimental groups. Histomorphological changes were observed in the 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups. These findings suggest that nitrate impairs thyroid function involving the hypothalamo-hypophysio-thyroid axis. This observation could contribute to the current discussion about the acceptable daily intake of nitrate, as well as drinking water nitrate standard safety margins.

Eskiocak S; Dundar C; Basoglu T; Altaner S

2005-07-01

285

[Efficacy of sulfate calcium mineral water in disorders of motor evacuatory function of the stomach and gallbladder  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with disorders of motor-evacuatory gastric function and those of the gallbladder received sanatorium spa treatment with Nizhneivkinskaya 2K mineral water. It was found that both course and single intake of the above mineral water induce clinical remission of the disease, normalization of the echoscopic picture of the stomach and gallbladder, their motor function, tesiocrystalloscopic characteristics of the saliva. Therefore, spa treatment with mineral water Nizhneivkinskaya is effective in rehabilitation of patients with gastric and gallbladder motor-evacuatory dysfunction.

Guliaeva SF; Pomaskina TV; Guliaev PV; Martusevich AK; Aistov VI

2004-11-01

286

A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance). The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g) fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance) is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water) using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes). The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

Haval Yacoob; Susan Shamdeen

2011-01-01

287

Cognitive function during lower body water immersion and post-immersion afterdrop.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The physiological effects of immersion hypothermia and afterdrop are well-characterized, but the psychological effects are less clear. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in cognitive function during and after lower body water immersion. METHODS: On separate mornings, nine young healthy men participated in both neutral (35 +/- 1 degree C) and cold (13 +/- 1 degree C) water immersion. Subjects rested in neutral air for 30 min followed by 60 min water immersion to the iliac crest and 15 min of recovery in neutral air. Rectal temperature and mean skin temperature were continuously monitored. Metabolic rate, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) were quantified at predetermined intervals. RESULTS: During immersion in cold water, rectal temperature was reduced, but SCWT and POMS scores were unchanged relative to baseline. Despite the reduced rectal temperature, little to no shivering was observed during immersion and metabolic rate did not change. During recovery from cold immersion, rectal temperature was further reduced by approximately 0.5 degree C, shivering was noted, and metabolic rate increased. Coincident with this acute afterdrop, SCWT Color-Word performance (delta = -4 +/- 8 vs. 7 +/- 6 correct responses) and Interference score (delta = -2 +/- 7 vs. 4 +/- 8) was impaired relative to recovery from neutral immersion (i.e., when core temperature and metabolic rate did not change). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that recovery from lower body cold water immersion elicits the afterdrop phenomenon and shivering, which together impair selective attention as measured by the SCWT.

Seo Y; Kim CH; Ryan EJ; Gunstad J; Glickman EL; Muller MD

2013-09-01

288

Percutaneous calcaneoplasty in displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ideal treatment for displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures is still under debate. Open reduction and internal fixation is the most popular surgical procedure; however, wound complications, hardware failure and infection remain a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of a new minimally-invasive surgical procedure: closed reduction technique combined with balloon-assisted fracture augmentation with cement or calcium phosphate (minimally-invasive percutaneous calcaneoplasty). We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients that sustained Sander's type II and III calcaneal fractures treated in our institution from January 2008 to June 2010. The same approach and technique was utilized in all cases. Conventional X-rays and CT scan have been performed pre- and post-operatively. The average follow-up was 24 months. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle/hindfoot score has been utilized for clinical evaluation and Bohler's angle to assess bone reduction. All cases obtained bony union in 2/3 months, with average Bohler's angle of 22.97° (from 14.21° to 32.83°). No skin complications or adverse reactions were observed, with only one patient complaining of residual pain in the hindfoot. Minimally-invasive percutaneous calcaneoplasty can represent an alternative to open reduction internal fixation in the treatment of calcaneal fractures, allowing stable reduction without plating, early function recovery and short hospital stay.

Biggi F; Di Fabio S; D'Antimo C; Isoni F; Salfi C; Trevisani S

2013-06-01

289

Displaced Vertices in Extended Supersymmetric Models  

CERN Document Server

In extended supersymmetric models with additional singlet Higgs fields displaced vertices could be observed if the decay width of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle becomes very small due to a singlino dominated LSP. We study the supersymmetric parameter space where displaced vertices of the second lightest neutralino exist in the NMSSM and an E6 inspired model. For a mass difference between LSP and NLSP of more than 10 GeV the singlet vacuum expectation value has to be at least of the order of 100 TeV in order to obtain a lightest neutralino with a singlino component large enough for displaced vertices.

Hesselbach, S; Fraas, H

2000-01-01

290

Higher-order displaced Kerr States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss quantum states generated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a Kerr medium in one of its arms. These states are referred to as displaced Kerr states. Contrary to the former approaches, we describe a nonlinear Kerr medium not only by the third-order(two-photon) but also by higher-order (k-photon, k=3,4,...) nonlinear oscillators. We refer to the states generated in the system with higher optical Kerr nonlinearity as higher-order displaced Kerr states or multiphoton displaced Kerr states. We investigate the quantum-statistical properties of these states showing their dependence on the degree of the Kerr nonlinearity. (authors)

1997-04-25

291

A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution. PMID:22019635

Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Li, Chao; Yamaji, Naoki; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-09-01

292

A functional cutin matrix is required for plant protection against water loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant cuticle, a cutin matrix embedded with and covered by wax, seals the aerial organ's surface to protect the plant against uncontrolled water loss. The cutin matrix is essential for the cuticle to function as a barrier to water loss. Recently, we identified from wild barley a drought supersensitive mutant, eibi1, which is caused by a defective cutin matrix as the result of the loss of function of HvABCG31, an ABCG full transporter. Here, we report that eibi1 epidermal cells contain lipid-like droplets, which are supposed to consist of cutin monomers that have not been transported out of the cells. The eibi1 cuticle is fragile due to a defective cutin matrix. The rice ortholog of the EIBI1 gene has a similar pattern of expression, young shoot but not flag leaf blade, as the barley gene. The model of the function of Eibi1 is discussed. The HvABCG31 full transporter functions in the export of cutin components and contributed to land plant colonization, hence also to terrestrial life evolution.

Chen G; Komatsuda T; Ma JF; Li C; Yamaji N; Nevo E

2011-09-01

293

Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water) could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI) and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C). Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

Grüner Sveälv Bente; Cider Åsa; Täng Margareta; Angwald Eva; Kardassis Dimitris; Andersson Bert

2009-01-01

294

Static and dynamic displacements in {alpha}-phase FeCr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A single crystal of {alpha}-Fe{sub 0.47}Cr{sub 0.53} was annealed at 1100K, 5K above the {sigma}-phase transition temperature, for four days and then water quenched. A detailed investigation using X-ray synchrotron radiation was previously carried out to study the short-range order and static displacements in this alloy. The phonon dispersion curves, studied here by inelastic neutron scattering, appear typical of bcc alloys and the phonon groups are observed to be significantly broadened in the vicinity of the dip at {xi}=2/3 in the longitudinal [{xi} {xi} {xi}] phonon dispersion. In this paper we explore the possibility that nearly random concentration fluctuations and an extremely small difference in the atomic sizes, together with an appropriate lattice response function, can nonetheless produce elastic diffuse scattering indicative of a new phase.

Robertson, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Reinhard, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Neumann, D.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Reactor Radiation Div.; Moss, S.C. [Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-12-31

295

Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

Xu Yunqiang; Wang Chunfeng [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Wu Yue; Chen Jing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry, Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China)

2012-06-15

296

Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica  

Science.gov (United States)

Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

Xu, Yunqiang; Wang, Chunfeng; Zhou, Guowei; Wu, Yue; Chen, Jing

2012-06-01

297

Improving the controlled release of water-insoluble emodin from amino-functionalized mesoporous silica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several types of amino-functionalized mesoporous silica, including F5-SBA-15, F10-SBA-15, and F15-SBA-15 were prepared through co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) in varying molar ratios (5 mol%, 10 mol%, and 15 mol%) via a hydrothermal process. The materials obtained were characterized by means of small-angle X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Increasing APTES molar ratios decreased the degree of orderliness of the functionalized mesoporous silica. Pure and amino-functionalized SBA-15 samples were employed as supports for the controlled release of water-insoluble drug emodin. Loading experiments showed that drug loading capacities mainly depended on the surface areas and pore diameters of the carriers. Controlled release profiles of emodin-loaded samples were studied in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), and results indicated that the emodin release rate could be controlled by surface amino-functionalized carriers. Emodin loaded on functionalized mesoporous supports exhibited a lower release rate than that of loaded on pure SBA-15, emodin loaded on F10-SBA-15 showed the smallest release amount (71.74 wt%) after stirring in PBS for 60 h. Findings suggest that functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 is a promising carrier for achieving prolonged release time periods.

2012-06-15

298

Digital image correlation using energy minimization in full-field displacement and strain measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital image correlation (DIC) method is an effective way for full-field strain measurement. Optical flow estimation methods combined with a global searching strategy for displacement field measurement are introduced in this paper. Compared with the conventional DIC method, this strategy can lessen possible mismatching between the reference image and warped image. By minimization the energy function of displacement field, displacement continuity and displacement gradients continuity among calculation points are achieved. For detecting large displacements, a coarse-tofine strategy is also employed. More importantly, the architecture parallelization of optical flow estimation and searching strategy can decrease the running time of this method for time-critical conditions. This proposed method is universally applicable to the images with shadows, rotation, and large deformation. Several pairs of simulated digital speckle images were used to evaluate the performance of this novel DIC method, and the experimental results clearly demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness.

Huo, Xing; Cheng, Teng; Tan, Jieqing; Gao, Yue; Cai, Yulong

2013-06-01

299

A new algorithm for estimating relative permeabilities from displacement experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of estimating relative permeability curves from two-phase displacement experiments is considered. A parameter estimation approach overcomes significant limitations of the classic calculation procedure. In this approach, functional representations are chosen for the relative permeability curves. Adjustable coefficients (or parameters) in the functional representations are then chosen to minimize a least-squares objective function. Previous applications of this approach have used exponential functional representations with a single adjustable coefficient (the exponent) for each curve. However, significant errors in the relative permeability estimates may be encountered when this function is used. It has been determined, in principle, that cubic spline functional representations may be used to obtain accurate estimates of relative permeability curves. The process of obtaining the least-squares estimates for the parameters is more difficult, however, because a significantly greater number of parameters are to be determined. No algorithm has been reported for this purpose. The authors present an algorithm for estimating relative permeability curves that uses cubic spline functional representations. A unique and essential feature of the algorithm is that it incorporates inequality constraints that ensure that physically realistic relative permeability curves are maintained throughout the iterative minimization process. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated with data from hypothetical and laboratory coreflood displacement experiments.

Kerig, P.D.; Watson, A.T.

1987-02-01

300

Making work safe for displaced women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Displaced women need opportunities to make a living for themselves and their families but these opportunities should not increase their vulnerability. Understanding risk factors and protection strategies allows practitioners to ensure appropriate programme design and implementation.

Dale Buscher

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD) was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111), Cu on Ag(111), and Cu on Au(111) by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

Vasili? Rastko

2012-01-01

302

Pneumatically powered vertebral displacement device for dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pneumatically powered trauma device was developed to produce vertebral displacement and spinal cord injury in dogs. After surgical exposure of the spine, displacement was done without laminectomy or cutting of the intervertebral disc. Trauma resulted in luxation between L1 and L2 or fractures of L1 and L2. Force required to cause displacement was recorded via a load sensing system and ranged between 1,848 and 2,666 newtons. In a few dogs, there was partial return of the displaced segment upon pressure release from the device at posttrauma hour 4. The device was an effective means of producing spinal injuries in dogs, and provides a method for studying spinal column and spinal cord injuries.

Fialho SA; Lumb WV; Scott RJ

1982-07-01

303

Individual displacements in hashing with coalesced chains  

CERN Multimedia

We study the asymptotic distribution of the displacements in hashing with coalesced chains, for both late-insertion and early-insertion. Asymptotic formulas for means and variances follow. The method uses Poissonization and some stochastic calculus.

Janson, S

2005-01-01

304

Natural disasters and indigenous displacement in Bolivia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Those seeking to understand and address the reasons for growing numbers of displaced indigenous people in Bolivia should consider the relationship between traditional knowledge and the impacts of climate change.

Ludvik Girard

2012-01-01

305

Dynamics and Structure of Energetic Displacement Cascades.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes recent progress in the understanding of energetic displacement cascades and the primary state of damage in metals. On the theoretical side, the availability of supercomputers has greatly enhanced our ability to simulate cascades by m...

R. S. Averback T. Diaz de la Rubia R. Benedek

1987-01-01

306

Inverted liver with suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A suprahepatic, anteriorly displaced gallbladder in association with an inverted liver is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. We report the clinical and radiologic findings associated with a 78-year-old woman presenting with shortness of breath, desaturation, hypercapnia and hypoxemia. An abnormal chest radiograph demonstrated right hemi-diaphragmatic elevation consistent with a possible eventration. Subsequent imaging by computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an inverted liver with an anteriorly displaced, suprahepatic gallbladder.

Hibbs H; Ahmad U

2010-05-01

307

The displacement cascade in ceramic oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

The displacement cascade in ceramic oxides is studied using the atomic scattering methods of Lindhard et al. and the Monte Carlo TRIM methods of Biersack et al. The results concentrate on the effects of cascade energy and material mass ratio. It is seen that the heavy metal atom is preferentially displaced relative to the lighter O atom and that compositional changes can occur on the scale of the cascade.

Parkin, Don. M.

1990-02-01

308

Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface, and the results provide an ideal basis for testing theoretical predictions of characteristic surface properties such as pK{sub a}, sorption equilibria, and surface water permittivity.

Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.

2009-12-15

309

Attempts to prevent displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevention has become a strategy increasingly adopted by the humanitarian community in addressing forced displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as responding to immediate emergency needs for families displaced or at risk of displacement.

Karim Khalil

2012-01-01

310

A conceptual model for assessing ecological risk to water quality function of bottomland hardwood forests  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological risk assessment provides a methodology for evaluating the threats to ecosystem function associated with environmental perturbations or stressors. This report documents the development of a conceptual model for assessing the ecological risk to the water quality function (WQF) of bottomland hardwood riparian ecosystems (BHRE) in the Tifton-Vidalia upland (TVU) ecoregion of Georgia. Previus research has demonstrated that mature BHRE are essential to maintaining water quality in this portion of the coastal plain. The WQF of these ecosystems is considered an assessment endpoit—an ecosystem function or set of functions that society chooses to value as evidenced by laws, regulations, or common usage. Stressors operate on ecosystems at risk through an exposure scenario to produce ecological effects that are linked to loss of the desired function or assessment end point. The WQF of BHRE is at risk because of the ecological and environmental quality effects of a suite of chemical, physical, and biological stressors. The stressors are related to nonpoint source pollution from adjacent land uses, especially agriculture; the conversion of BHRE to other land uses; and the encroachment of domestic animals into BHRE. Potential chemical, physical, and biological stressors to BHRE are identified, and the methodology for evaluating appropriate exposure scenarios is discussed. Field-scale and watershed-scale measurement end points of most use in assessing the effects of stressors on the WQF are identified and discussed. The product of this study is a conceptual model of how risks to the WQF of BHRE are produced and how the risk and associated uncertainties can be quantified.

Lowrance, Richard; Vellidis, George

1995-03-01

311

Molecular tools for investigating microbial community structure and function in oxygen-deficient marine waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water column oxygen (O2)-deficiency shapes food-web structure by progressively directing nutrients and energy away from higher trophic levels into microbial community metabolism resulting in fixed nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Although respiratory O2 consumption during organic matter degradation is a natural outcome of a productive surface ocean, global-warming-induced stratification intensifies this process leading to oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion. Here, we describe useful tools for detection and quantification of potential key microbial players and processes in OMZ community metabolism including quantitative polymerase chain reaction primers targeting Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota, SUP05, Arctic96BD-19, and SAR324 small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes and protein extraction methods from OMZ waters compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling microbial community structure and functional dynamics.

Hawley AK; Kheirandish S; Mueller A; Leung HT; Norbeck AD; Brewer HM; Pasa-Tolic L; Hallam SJ

2013-01-01

312

Steel corrosion in concrete: Determinist modeling of cathodic reaction as a function of water saturation degree  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The prediction of the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete structures involved in the nuclear waste storage requires the assessment and the modeling of the corrosion processes of steel reinforcement. This paper deals with the modeling of the cathodic reaction that is one of the main mechanisms of steel rebar corrosion. This model takes into account oxygen reduction and oxygen diffusion through a diffusion barrier (iron oxide and/or carbonated concrete) as a function of water saturation degree. It is demonstrated that corrosion rate of reinforcement embedded in concrete with water saturation degree as low as 0.9 could be under oxygen diffusion control. Thus, transport properties of concrete (aqueous and gaseous phase, dissolved species) are key parameters that must be taken into account to model electrochemical processes on the reinforcement

2007-01-01

313

Molecular tools for investigating microbial community structure and function in oxygen-deficient marine waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water column oxygen (O2)-deficiency shapes food-web structure by progressively directing nutrients and energy away from higher trophic levels into microbial community metabolism resulting in fixed nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Although respiratory O2 consumption during organic matter degradation is a natural outcome of a productive surface ocean, global-warming-induced stratification intensifies this process leading to oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion. Here, we describe useful tools for detection and quantification of potential key microbial players and processes in OMZ community metabolism including quantitative polymerase chain reaction primers targeting Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota, SUP05, Arctic96BD-19, and SAR324 small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes and protein extraction methods from OMZ waters compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling microbial community structure and functional dynamics. PMID:24060128

Hawley, Alyse K; Kheirandish, Sam; Mueller, Andreas; Leung, Hilary T C; Norbeck, Angela D; Brewer, Heather M; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hallam, Steven J

2013-01-01

314

Iterated function system fractal image code on instability of vapor-water two-phase flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method is put forward for studying the instability of vapor-water two-phase flow. This method combines data compression and denoising based on wavelet analysis with the iterated function system (IFS) fractal image code techniques. Firstly, the experiment data are compressed and denoised by wavelet and the data signals can be expressed by the low and high main frequency coefficients of wavelet, and then the fractal codes are abstracted from the compressed experiment data based on IFS. The fractal codes can be divided into low and high frequency parts automatically. The farther studies on the instability of vapor-water two-phase flow can be carried out based on these fractal codes. (authors)

2006-01-01

315

Water transport between CNS compartments: functional and molecular interactions between aquaporins and ion channels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The physiological ability of the mammalian CNS to integrate peripheral stimuli and to convey information to the body is tightly regulated by its capacity to preserve the ion composition and volume of the perineuronal milieu. It is well known that astroglial syncytium plays a crucial role in such process by controlling the homeostasis of ions and water through the selective transmembrane movement of inorganic and organic molecules and the equilibration of osmotic gradients. Astrocytes, in fact, by contacting neurons and cells lining the fluid-filled compartments, are in a strategic position to fulfill this role. They are endowed with ion and water channel proteins that are localized in specific plasma membrane domains facing diverse liquid spaces. Recent data in rodents have demonstrated that the precise dynamics of the astroglia-mediated homeostatic regulation of the CNS is dependent on the interactions between water channels and ion channels, and their anchoring with proteins that allow the formation of macromolecular complexes in specific cellular domains. Interplay can occur with or without direct molecular interactions suggesting the existence of different regulatory mechanisms. The importance of molecular and functional interactions is pinpointed by the numerous observations that as consequence of pathological insults leading to the derangement of ion and volume homeostasis the cell surface expression and/or polarized localization of these proteins is perturbed. Here, we critically discuss the experimental evidence concerning: (1) molecular and functional interplay of aquaporin 4, the major aquaporin protein in astroglial cells, with potassium and gap-junctional channels that are involved in extracellular potassium buffering. (2) the interactions of aquaporin 4 with chloride and calcium channels regulating cell volume homeostasis. The relevance of the crosstalk between water channels and ion channels in the pathogenesis of astroglia-related acute and chronic diseases of the CNS is also briefly discussed.

Benfenati V; Ferroni S

2010-07-01

316

Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = ?0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

J. Moeys; M. Larsbo; L. Bergström; C. D. Brown; Y. Coquet; N. J. Jarvis

2012-01-01

317

Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisation usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = ?0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

J. Moeys; M. Larsbo; L. Bergström; C. D. Brown; Y. Coquet; N. J. Jarvis

2012-01-01

318

Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = -0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

Moeys, J.; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L.; Brown, C. D.; Coquet, Y.; Jarvis, N. J.

2012-07-01

319

Displaced carbonates in the Zechstein of the UK North Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cored Zechstein 2 interval of Amoco well 38/24-1, drilled on the southern margin of the Mid North Sea High, contains deformed conglomeratic and brecciated dolostones which are interpreted as displaced distal shelf sediments redeposited in deeper water. The displaced dolostones indicate disruption and sliding of consolidated rock down a slope, accompanied by slumping of semi-consolidated sediment. Minor collapse brecciation also occurred as a result of the partial removal of underlying evaporites. Such features have not hitherto been described from cored wells in the UK North Sea, nor have their petrophysical attributes been discussed. The best reservoir properties occur in the slumped deposits showing plastic deformation. Brecciated beds have unpredictable and wide ranging porosity and permeability values, which are attributable to variable anhydrite cementation and clasts with different textures (and very variable fabric). Displaced Zechstein carbonates on or at the foot of unstable palaeo-slopes, for example in the vicinity of the Mid North Sea High, can develop moderately attractive reservoir characteristics, and might in places be thick enough to be of economic importance. (author)

Amiri-Garroussi, K. (British Petroleum Co. Ltd., Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom). BP Research Centre); Taylor, J.C.M.

1992-04-01

320

Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme ?-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. ?-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for ?-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

2013-10-07

 
 
 
 
321

Water in biological membranes at interfaces: does it play a functional role?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la organización delaguaen la interfaz de una membrana biológica y su relevancia en las propiedades de superficie y en la adsorción de proteínas. El enfoque consiste en considerar que la función celular está confinada a un medio restringido en agua, el interior celular, en el cuaál la proximidad de la membrana puede ser clave para regular la actividad enzimática y la permeabilidad. Como la bicapa lipidica es la estructura b (more) ásica de la membrana celular, los sitios de hidratación en la cabeza polar se analizan por medio de espectrometría infrarroja a transformada de Fourier. La contribución de la hidratación al potencial dipolar y la respuesta dinámica de monocapas de diferente composicioneslipídicas se investiganmediante determinación de potenciales de superficie yvoltametría cíclica. La modificación de esas propiedades a causa del reemplazo de agua por polioles como trehalosa y floretina y por la inserción de proteínas acuosolubles, ha sido también investigada. Abstract in english The purpose of this review is to examine and discuss the ways in which water is organized at the interface of a biological membrane. The relevance of this structure to the surface properties and to the adsorption of proteins in membranes is also analized. The approach is based on the idea that cell functions are confined to a restricted water media, the cell interior, in which the proximity of the membrane may bekey to regulating the enzyme activity and the cell membrane (more) permeability. As the lipid bilayer is the structural base ofcell membranes, the distribution of water in the surface sites of a phospholipid membrane is analyzed by means of Fourier Transform spectrometry. The polarization of water at the surface was looked into through the measure ofsurface potentials and the dynamics of the surface hydration by cyclic voltammetry. Modification of these properties by the replacement of water bypolyol molecules such as trehalose and phloretin and by the insertion of aqueous soluble enzymes, has also been investigated.

Disalvo, E. A.; Lairion, F.; Martini, F.; Almaleck, H.; Diaz, S.; Gordillo, G.

2004-12-01

322

Measurement of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in microchannels and minichannels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with a water box was used; the refraction index of this device is the same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of the interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement by using the measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 ?m to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 mm and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with the real displacement to within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 ?m at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 mm and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film of less than 1 ?m in thickness in the slug and annular flow regimes.

Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

2005-06-01

323

Measurement of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in microchannels and minichannels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with a water box was used; the refraction index of this device is the same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of the interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement by using the measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 {mu}m to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 mm and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with the real displacement to within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 {mu}m at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 mm and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film of less than 1 {mu}m in thickness in the slug and annular flow regimes. (orig.)

Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Technology, Etchujima, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Hibiki, Takashi [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Mamoru [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

2005-06-01

324

Diagnostic Study of Hydraulic and Water Serviceability Functions to Rehabilitate Irrigation Canal Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, a technique for the functional diagnosis of various structures and a verification approach have been developed in order to increase the life-span of agricultural irrigation facilities. This permits visual inspections to understand structural conditions of deteriorated hydraulic structures and to assess their soundness indices. To update or upgrade an agricultural irrigation canal on the other hand, it is necessary to establish performance-based design of the system. In addition to structural performance, this performance-based design system should include the evaluation of hydraulic performance and water serviceability. This report targets the irrigation canal system in an irrigation district consisting of paddy fields. It provides examples of the generation of a diagnosis chart for irrigation canal systems that can be effective as an investigation method involving functional diagnosis. This report also discusses a diagnosis example to evaluate the problem examination priority.

Miharu, Koichi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mukai, Akie; Taruya, Hiroyuki; Naka, Tatsuo

325

Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of a physical relevance (meaning) of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However, unlike the findings for simple fluids, the loci of the response function extrema exhibit density/pressure dependence quite different from that of the percolation line. The only potential coincidence between the loci of the extrema of a thermodynamic property and a detectable structural change is found for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility and Voronoi neighbors distribution skewness maximum.

J. Škvor; I. Nezbeda

2012-01-01

326

Mussel-inspired synthesis of polydopamine-functionalized graphene hydrogel as reusable adsorbents for water purification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a one-step approach to polydopamine-modified graphene hydrogel, with dopamine serving as both reductant and surface functionalization agents. The synthetic method is based on the spontaneous polymerization of dopamine and the self-assembly of graphene nanosheets into porous hydrogel structures. Benefiting from the abundant functional groups of polydopamine and the high specific surface areas of graphene hydrogel with three-dimensional interconnected pores, the prepared material exhibits high adsorption capacities toward a wide spectrum of contaminants, including heavy metals, synthetic dyes, and aromatic pollutants. Importantly, the free-standing graphene hydrogel can be easily removed from water after adsorption process, and can be regenerated by altering the pH values of the solution for adsorbed heavy metals or using low-cost alcohols for synthetic dyes and aromatic molecules.

Gao H; Sun Y; Zhou J; Xu R; Duan H

2013-01-01

327

Surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Acetabular fractures are severe injuries, generally caused by high-energy trauma, most frequently from traffic accidents or falls from heights. Fractures of the extremities, head injuries, chest, abdomen and pelvic ring injuries are most commonly associated injuries. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures. The open anatomical reduction of the articular surface combined with a rigid internal fixation and early mobilisation have become the standard treatment of these injuries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 22 patients of average age 43.13 years. The patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at the Orthopaedic Clinic of Niš from 2005-2009. The follow-up was 12 to 60 months, with the average of 21.18 months after surgery. Results. All injured patients were operated on between 4 and 11 days (5.7 days on the average). According to the classification by Judet and Letournel, 15 (68.18%) patients had an elementary acetabular fracture, whereas 7 (31.82%) patients had associated fracture. A satisfactory postoperative reduction implying less than 2 mm of displacement was achieved in 19 (86.36%) patients. The radiological status of the hip joint, determined according to Matta score, was excellent in 15 (68.18%) patients, good in 4 (18.18%) patients and moderate in 3 (13.63%) patients. According to Merle d’Aubigné Scale, the final functional results of the treatment of all operated patients were excellent in 12 (54.54%) patients, good in 7 (31.81%) patients and moderate in 3 (13.63%) patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of dislocated acetabular fractures requires an open reduction and a stable internal fixation. Excellent and good results can be expected only if anatomical reduction and stable internal fixation are achieved.

Milenkovi? Saša; Saveski Jordan; Radenkovi? Mile; Vidi? Goran; Trajkovska Neda

2011-01-01

328

Application of systematic sequences of wave functions to the water dimer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A systematic series of calculations encompassing a wide range of basis sets and correlated methods has been used to estimate the complete basis set, full CI hydrogen bond strength in the water dimer system. The largest basis set included up through h polarization functions on oxygen and g functions on hydrogen. The complete basis set limit for the self-consistent-field (SCF) interaction energy is estimated to be -3.55 kcal/mol with an accompanying correlation contribution of ?-1.5 kcal/mol. This leads to an interaction energy of -5.1 kcal/mol, exclusive of vibrational zero-point considerations, and is in good agreement with experimental measurements of -5.4±0.7 kcal/mol. Inclusion of an approximate adjustment for the basis set superposition error via the Boys/Bernardi counterpoise correction was found to substantially improve agreement with ?E?, our estimate of the complete basis set interaction energy, at the both the SCF and correlated levels for basis sets that were lacking in sufficient near-valence diffuse functions. For diffuse-function-augmented basis sets, application of the CP correction was found to sometimes worsen agreement with ?E?

1992-04-15

329

[Displaced people's healthcare use in Bucaramanga, Colombia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Analysing the factors and barriers associated with the population displaced by armed conflict using medical services in Bucaramanga, Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the "Diagnosing the health of both displaced and non-displaced populations in Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area" study, designed and executed by the Industrial University of Santander and financed by the Pan-American Health Organisation, analysed medical service use in individuals aged over 15 years. This agreed with Andersen and Newman's model and evaluated the effect of associated factors by means of multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: One out of each five people who became ill during the fifteen days prior to the survey had used the medical services. This percentage was smaller than that found in the Colombian population as a whole. The type of social security regime (contributory health insurance), previous service use and being from the region were associated with greater service use. Displaced people having subsidised health insurance did not present differences in service use compared to those who had no access to such insurance. The distance from dwelling to institution was another barrier against using health services (RM = 0.64; IC 0.42-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: There was differential medical service use amongst the displaced population, determined by their health insurance coverage and economic position.

Ruiz-Rodríguez M; López-Moreno S; Avila-Burgos L; Acosta-Ramírez N

2006-09-01

330

Removal of sudan dyes from water with C18-functional ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the new C(18)-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles (C(18)-UMS NPs) were successfully synthesized and applied for extraction of sudan dyes in water samples based on the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The extraction and concentration were carried out in one step by blending C(18)-UMS NPs and water samples. The sudan dyes adsorbed C(18)-UMS NPs were isolated from the matrix easily with an external magnetic field. After desorption the quantitation of sudan dyes was done by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC). Satisfactory extraction recovery can be obtained with only 50 mg C(18)-UMS NPs. The effects of experimental parameters, including the amount of the nanoparticles, extraction time, pH value, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. The limits of detection for sudan I, II, III and IV were 0.066, 0.070, 0.12 and 0.12 ng mL(-1), respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the six spiked water samples were between 68% and 103%.

Jiang C; Sun Y; Yu X; Zhang L; Sun X; Gao Y; Zhang H; Song D

2012-01-01

331

A simple biphasic route to water soluble dithiocarbamate functionalized quantum dots  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrophobic trioctylphosphine oxide-functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CdSe-TOPO QDs) were transferred from organic solvent to aqueous solution via a simple yet novel biphasic ligand exchange process in one step, which involved the in-situ formation of hydrophilic dithiocarbamate moieties and subsequent ligand exchange with TOPO at the chloroform/water interface. The resulting water dispersible, dithiocarbamate functionalized CdSe QDs (i.e., D-CdSe) exhibited an increased photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield as compared to the original CdSe-TOPO QDs, suggesting an effective passivation of dithiocarbamate ligands on the QD surface. The D-CdSe QDs were then mixed with hydroxyl terminated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. A decrease in the PL of the mixture was observed, indicating a possible charge transfer from the D-CdSe QDs to the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The reaction of the carboxyl group on the D-CdSe surface with the hydroxyl group on the TiO{sub 2} rendered QDs in direct contact with TiO{sub 2}, thereby facilitating the electronic interaction between them.

Wang, J.; Xu, J.; Goodman, M.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.; Shinar, J.; Lin, Z.

2008-06-11

332

Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model)4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs), the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error at both sites. All of the GMFs exhibit a negative bias in the retrieved wind speed. In order to understand the reason for this bias, all SAR-retrieved wind speeds are separated into two categories: onshore wind (blowing from sea to land) and offshore wind (blowing from land to sea). Only offshore winds were found to exhibit the large negative bias, and short fetches from the coastline may be a possible reason for this. Moreover, it is clarified that in both the unstable and stable conditions, CMOD5.N has atmospheric stability effectiveness, and can keep the same accuracy with CMOD5 in the neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch.

Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo

2013-01-01

333

The effect of stopping water exercise for 12 weeks on the functional fitness of elderly women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week pause in exercising in water on the functional fitness of elderly women. The sample was 31 elderly women, with x _ = 68.97 years (SD = 5.34), all participants in a water exercise program. The women were tested in November 2005 and, after a 12-week pause in water exercises, in March2006, using the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – AAHPERD test battery. The statistical analysis was descriptive, using simple frequencies and percentages, plus the t test for paired samples. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean scores for coordination, agility and the general functional fitness index (GFFI) at the end of the exercise program and 12 weeks later. The GFFI and coordination scores had reduced after the 12-week period, but the participants’ agility had improved. It was concluded that a 12-week pause in water exercise impacted the GFFI of these elderly women. These results emphasize the importance of physical exercise during the ageing process and of raising awareness of the need for the elderly to keep physically active even during the holiday period in order to improve and/or maintain functional fitness levels. ResumoEsse estudo teve como objetivo verificar a influência do período de interrupção de 12 semanas na aptidão funcional de mulheres idosas, praticantes de atividades aquáticas. A amostra foi composta por 31 idosas, com x _ = 68,97 anos (DP = 5,34), praticantes de atividades aquáticas, que fizeram os testes da Bateria da American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance – AAHPERD, em novembro de 2005 e após 12 semanas de interrupção (março de 2006). Os resultados dos testes foram comparados com os valores normativos para essa bateria. O tratamento estatístico foi descritivo, mediante a freqüência simples e percentagem, e o teste t para amostras emparelhadas/pareadas, com nível de significância de 5%. Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os valores médios de coordenação, agilidade e do índice de aptidão funcional geral (IAFG) entre o final do programa e após o período de interrupção. Ocorreu uma diminuição no resultado do IAFG e da coordenação após o período de interrupção de 12 semanas, porém, a agilidade das participantes melhorou. Concluiu-se que o período de interrupção de 12 semanas de atividades aquáticas influencia o IAFG em idosas. Estes resultados reforçam a importância do exercício físico no processo de envelhecimento e da conscientização sobre as vantagens de se manterem ativos mesmo no período de férias para a melhora e/ou manutenção dos níveis da aptidão funcional das idosas.

Michelle Flores da Rosa; Giovana Zarpellon Mazo; Aline Huber da Silva; Cristina Brust

2008-01-01

334

The effect of instability on relative permeability curves obtained by the dynamic-displacement method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was undertaken to investigate how instability would affect the oil/water relative permeability curves obtained by the dynamic-displacement method. In this method, stable Buckey-Leverett displacement theory is used to calculate relative permeability curves from coreflood data. Thus, to obtain the true relative permeability curves by the dynamic-displacement method, the coreflood must be stable. However, the method frequently has been applied to unstable corefloods. The consequence of this application of the method has not been previously reported. The authors compared oil/water relative permeability curves from steady-state and dynamic-displacement experiments at several levels of instability. The results showed that the dynamic-displacement relative permeability curves deviated significantly from the steady-state curves as the degree of instability increased. This observation indicates the need to scale laboratory relative permeability measurements to account for instability. To obtain representative relative permeability curves for numerical modeling of a reservoir, laboratory displacement experiments should be conducted at the same degree of instability as that in the reservoir.

Peters, E.J.

1987-12-01

335

Dynamic DNA strand displacement circuits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nucleic acids, the "NA" in DNA and RNA, have long been known to be vitally important molecules within biological cells and organisms. However, they are interesting for more than just their known roles in biology: their predictable Watson-Crick base pairing properties allow nucleic acids to be powerful nanoscale engineering tools. Additionally, nucleic acid-based devices are particularly attractive as biotechnological tools, because nucleic acids naturally exist within all life, and thus nucleic acid devices more easily function in cellular environments. It is for these reasons that nucleic acids have emerged as a frequent star in recent synthetic biology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology research papers. This thesis is a collection of 6 experimental papers, 3 theoretical papers, and 1 review paper that demonstrate and characterize novel nucleic acid-based devices such as catalysts, logic gates, and allosteric switches. Particular effort was placed in ensuring that all the designs are generalizable in sequence and that all the devices are modular in nature; this allows many different components to be integrated into higher-complexity devices. The works presented in this thesis were designed using only non-covalent changes to nucleic acid complexes and structures via Watson-Crick base pairing - i.e. hybridization, branch migration, and dissociation. These three primitives are sufficient to construct an endless variety of circuits and devices, much like how resistors, capacitors, and inductors allow complex electrical circuits. One advantage of devices, reactions, and circuits engineered using only Watson-Crick interactions is their robustness to their environmental conditions. While enzymatic reactions require specific temperatures, salt conditions, and co-factors, nucleic acid hybridization works reliably in a variety of different solutions. These works are not meant to be final, optimized designs for devices, but rather demonstrations of the wide range of possibilities afforded by nucleic acid engineering and of problems that can be practically solved with dynamic nucleic acid devices in the near future.

Zhang DY

336

Extraction of atom-atom bridge and direct correlation functions from molecular simulations: A test for ambient water  

Science.gov (United States)

We compute partial structure factors for SPC/E water under ambient conditions, using radial distribution functions derived from simulations and employing finite-size corrections. We calculate atom-atom direct correlation functions by an inverse solution to reference interaction site model integral equations with account of long-range asymptotics of the functions as additional constraints. We split the short- and long-range contributions to the direct functions in the Ewald type manner. Finally we reconstruct atom-atom bridge functions. The obtained direct correlation functions are compared with the data obtained by the hypernetted chain approximation.

Chuev, Gennady N.; Vyalov, I.; Georgi, N.

2013-03-01

337

Nucleic acid amplification by strand displacement amplification  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are compositions and a method for amplification of nucleic acid sequences of interest. The disclosed method generally involves replication of a target sequence such that, during replication, the replicated strands are displaced from the target sequence by strand displacement replication of another replicated strand. In one form of the disclosed method, the target sample is not subjected to denaturing conditions. It was discovered that the target nucleic acids, genomic DNA, for example, need not be denatured for efficient multiple displacement amplification. The primers used can be hexamer primers. The primers can also each contain at least one modified nucleotide such that the primers are nuclease resistant. The primers can also each contain at least one modified nucleotide such that the melting temperature of the primer is altered relative to a primer of the same sequence without the modified nucleotide(s). The DNA polymerase can be ¿29 DNA polymerase.

Dean Frank; Lasken Roger S.; Fang Linhua; Faruqi A. Fawad; Alsmadi Osama A.; Driscoll Mark D.; Hosono Seiyu; Wisniewski Michele; Song Wanmin

338

Experimental demonstration of ecological character displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary consequences of competition are of great interest to researchers studying sympatric speciation, adaptive radiation, species coexistence and ecological assembly. Competition's role in driving evolutionary change in phenotypic distributions, and thus causing ecological character displacement, has been inferred from biogeographical data and measurements of divergent selection on a focal species in the presence of competitors. However, direct experimental demonstrations of character displacement due to competition are rare. Results We demonstrate a causal role for competition in ecological character displacement. Using populations of the bacterium Escherichia coli that have adaptively diversified into ecotypes exploiting different carbon resources, we show that when interspecific competition is relaxed, phenotypic distributions converge. When we reinstate competition, phenotypic distributions diverge. Conclusion This accordion-like dynamic provides direct experimental evidence that competition for resources can cause evolutionary shifts in resource-related characters.

Tyerman Jabus G; Bertrand Melanie; Spencer Christine C; Doebeli Michael

2008-01-01

339

Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

Meertens D

2010-04-01

340

Functioning of a shallow-water sediment system during experimental warming and nutrient enrichment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of warming and nutrient enrichment on intact unvegetated shallow-water sediment were investigated for 5 weeks in the autumn under simulated natural field conditions, with a main focus on trophic state and benthic nitrogen cycling. In a flow-through system, sediment was exposed to either seawater at ambient temperature or seawater heated 4°C above ambient, with either natural or nutrient enriched water. Sediment-water fluxes of oxygen and inorganic nutrients, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification were measured. Warming resulted in an earlier shift to net heterotrophy due to increased community respiration; primary production was not affected by temperature but (slightly) by nutrient enrichment. The heterotrophic state was, however, not further strengthened by warming, but was rather weakened, probably because increased mineralization induced a shortage of labile organic matter. Climate-related warming of seawater during autumn could therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, induce shorter but more intensive heterotrophic periods in shallow-water sediments, followed by longer autotrophic periods. Increased nitrogen mineralization and subsequent effluxes of ammonium during warming suggested a preferential response of organisms driving nitrogen mineralization when compared to sinks of ammonium such as nitrification and algal assimilation. Warming and nutrient enrichment resulted in non-additive effects on nitrogen mineralization and denitrification (synergism), as well as on benthic fluxes of phosphate (antagonism). The mode of interaction appears to be related to the trophic level of the organisms that are the main drivers of the affected processes. Despite the weak response of benthic microalgae to both warming and nutrient enrichment, the assimilation of nitrogen by microalgae was similar in magnitude to rates of nitrogen mineralization. This implies a sustained filter function and retention capacity of nutrients by the sediment.

Alsterberg C; Sundbäck K; Hulth S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Visualization of steam displacement of heavy oils in a Hele-Shaw cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental visualization of steam injection was performed at low pressure in a transparent Hele-Shaw cell. Synthetic (Dutrex 739) and natural heavy oils were displaced by steam under a variety of conditions. The results demonstrate the significant interplay between steam injection, steam condensation, viscous fingering, heat transfer, gravity and steam distillation effects. The experiments reveal that steam fronts may be neither smooth nor flat, but undergo constant rearrangements as a result of condensation and injection. These dynamics are substantially different from typical immiscible displacement processes. The injected steam was generally found to follow the path of the condensed water. The latter set the general displacement pattern, which was highly fingered. Also identified was a rather unusual viscoelastic response of the displaced heavy oils. Although novel and interesting, these results should be extrapolated with care to account properly for field effects of heat losses. 24 refs., 18 figs.

Kong, X.; Haghighi, M.; Yortsos, Y.C. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-12-01

342

Development of measurement of displacement of the top of sub-assembly using super sonic sensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been studied for safety plant test to demonstrate inherent safety of FBR core in JOYO. As a part of this study investigation of feedback reactivity was studied. And analysis code which can estimate the reactivity of core-bowing has been prepared. In post irradiation examination, remain bowing displacement of sub-assembly can only be measured, so development of measuring system of displacement of sub-assembly under operation is expected to improve estimation of core-bowing reactivity. It is supposed that an on-line measurement system of displacement of the top of sub-assembly using super sonic sensor under operation is an effective means. In this report, development of measurement of displacement of the top of sub-assembly using super sonic sensor was settled as follows. Characteristic test of heat-resistant super sonic sensor, Design of adjustment device of super sonic sensor, Examination of in-water test for estimation of temperature fluctuation. (author)

2001-01-01

343

DNA fork displacement rates in human cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

1981-11-27

344

Atomic displacement distribu< on during ion irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method to plot atomic displacement distribution in depth of solids irradiated by ions is suggested. This method leads to better agreement between measured dependences of displacement density on the depth and the sputtering factor per shooting on the target thickness in comparing with the known theory of linear cascades. The experimental results given in the paper and obtained for tungsten irradiated by iron ions (5 keV energy) are in satisfactorily agreement with theoretical data calculated according to the method suggested. 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab.

1988-01-01

345

Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4.

Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.; BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino

2002-05-06

346

Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4

2001-11-26

347

Conserving Flush Toilet Water Use.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication describes methods to help reduce toilet water consumption through low-cost/no-cost conservation measures. It demonstrates typical use of water and how to calculate potential savings of toilet tank water displacement mechanisms. An overvie...

1984-01-01

348

[Efficacy of sulfate calcium mineral water in disorders of motor evacuatory function of the stomach and gallbladder].  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with disorders of motor-evacuatory gastric function and those of the gallbladder received sanatorium spa treatment with Nizhneivkinskaya 2K mineral water. It was found that both course and single intake of the above mineral water induce clinical remission of the disease, normalization of the echoscopic picture of the stomach and gallbladder, their motor function, tesiocrystalloscopic characteristics of the saliva. Therefore, spa treatment with mineral water Nizhneivkinskaya is effective in rehabilitation of patients with gastric and gallbladder motor-evacuatory dysfunction. PMID:15717533

Guliaeva, S F; Pomaskina, T V; Guliaev, P V; Martusevich, A K; Aistov, V I

349

Fault displacement rates on a range of timescales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Displacements on tectonic faults primarily accrue during earthquakes at rates that vary through time. To examine the processes that underlie the temporal changes in fault displacement rates we analyse displacements and displacement rates for time periods from the present to 5, 10, 20, 300, 500, 1 00...

Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Walsh, John J.; Nicol, Andrew

350

Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE) in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years) were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3?min) was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1), and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2), 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges) for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16) and 27.5 (21) min, respectively (P = 0.10)]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

V.P.I. Fernandes; M.C.L. Lima; E.E. Camargo; E.F. Collares; J.M. Bustorff-Silva; E.A. Lomazi

2013-01-01

351

Assessment of density functional methods for reaction energetics: iridium-catalyzed water oxidation as case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate basis set convergence for a series of density functional theory (DFT) functionals (both hybrid and nonhybrid) and compare to coupled-cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] benchmark calculations. The case studied is the energetics of the water oxidation reaction by an iridium-oxo complex. Complexation energies for the reactants and products complexes as well as the transition state (TS) energy are considered. Contrary to the expectation of relatively weak basis set dependence for DFT, the basis set effects are large, for example, more than 10 kcal mol(-1) difference from converged basis for the activation energy with "small" basis sets (DZ/6-31G** for Ir/other atoms, or SVP) and still more than 6 kcal mol(-1) for def2-TZVPP/6-31G**. Inclusion of the dispersion correction in DFT-D3 schemes affects the energies of reactant complex (RC), TS, and product complex (PC) by almost the same amount; it significantly improves the complexation energy (the formation of RC), but has little effect on the activation energy with respect to RC. With converged basis, some pure GGAs (PBE-D3, BP86-D3) as well as the hybrid functional B3LYP-D3 are very accurate compared to benchmark CCSD(T) calculations. PMID:23281098

Kazaryan, Andranik; Baerends, Evert Jan

2012-12-30

352

Assessment of density functional methods for reaction energetics: iridium-catalyzed water oxidation as case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigate basis set convergence for a series of density functional theory (DFT) functionals (both hybrid and nonhybrid) and compare to coupled-cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] benchmark calculations. The case studied is the energetics of the water oxidation reaction by an iridium-oxo complex. Complexation energies for the reactants and products complexes as well as the transition state (TS) energy are considered. Contrary to the expectation of relatively weak basis set dependence for DFT, the basis set effects are large, for example, more than 10 kcal mol(-1) difference from converged basis for the activation energy with "small" basis sets (DZ/6-31G** for Ir/other atoms, or SVP) and still more than 6 kcal mol(-1) for def2-TZVPP/6-31G**. Inclusion of the dispersion correction in DFT-D3 schemes affects the energies of reactant complex (RC), TS, and product complex (PC) by almost the same amount; it significantly improves the complexation energy (the formation of RC), but has little effect on the activation energy with respect to RC. With converged basis, some pure GGAs (PBE-D3, BP86-D3) as well as the hybrid functional B3LYP-D3 are very accurate compared to benchmark CCSD(T) calculations.

Kazaryan A; Baerends EJ

2013-04-01

353

Negative contributions in the velocity correlation function of supercooled liquid water  

Science.gov (United States)

The translational dynamics of supercooled and normal liquid water is investigated via a specific correlation function ?B with the aim of explaining the behavior of the centers of mass velocity correlation function (VCF). ?B is divided into diffusive and nondiffusive parts that yield separated contributions to the VCF, namely an Enskog-type diffusive one, modeled by an exponential function, and a nondiffusive one, made up by damped oscillations of a vanishing time integral. In the translational density of states (DOS), the oscillations yield the bands at ?1?50 cm-1, ?3?240 cm-1 (the two well-known experimental bands of the Raman spectra) and ?2?160 cm-1 (the Einstein frequency of the liquid). It is shown that the chief negative lobe of the VCF is mainly due to the DOS component at the lowest frequency ?1. The study of the relative pair dynamics shows that this lobe is due to the transverse dynamics, while the longitudinal one determines the fast DOS component at ?3. The presence of a negative tail is highlighted. Its contribution extends beyond the region of the fast dynamics (t<0.7 ps) up to about 1.5 ps and is due to a low-frequency oscillating mode that produces a low-frequency DOS band centered at about ?0=20 cm-1.

de Santis, Alberto; Ercoli, Alessandro; Rocca, Dario

2004-06-01

354

An Assessment of Relationship Between Arsenic in Drinking Water, Health Status and Intellectual Functioning of Children in District Kasur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study determination of arsenic (As) contamination in the drinking water and urine of children along with its effect on their health status and intellectual functioning was assessed. The study was carried out in order to determine any correlation between intake of arsenic and intellectual functioning level of the children. Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM) was administered on children of (8-15) years of age to assess their intellectual functioning and their health status was checked by measuring their height and weight. Water and urine sample were studied in both experimental and control group. In experimental area Arsenic level was above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible value which was compared with control area having arsenic level below WHO permissible value in both water and urine. An average 45% of arsenic level in drinking water samples was above WHO permissible value (10 ?g/L). Considering urinary arsenic as a biomarker of exposure to arsenic through drinking water, it was found that an average of 50% of children of the experimental group were found to have arsenic in their urine ranging from a concentration of 0.01-0.0119 ?g/L. Conclusively, this study showed that the intellectual functioning level of children drinking arsenic contaminated water was significantly lower as compared to those, drinking arsenic-free water.

Saqlain Abbas; Ejaz Mehmood Ahmad Qureshi; Farooq Ahmad; Seemal Vehra; Amin U. Khan

2012-01-01

355

Optimizing stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under water stress: a meta-analysis across plant functional types and climates  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Quantification of stomatal responses to environmental variables, in particular to soil water status, is needed to model carbon and water exchange rates between plants and the atmosphere. 2. Models based on stomatal optimality theory successfully describe leaf gas exchange under different environmental conditions, but the effects of water availability on the key optimization parameter [the marginal water use efficiency (WUE), ? = ?A/?E] has resisted complete theoretical treatment. Building on previous optimal leaf gas exchange models, we developed an analytical equation to estimate ? from gas exchange observations along gradients of soil water availability. This expression was then used in a meta-analysis of about 50 species to investigate patterns of variation in ?. 3. Assuming that cuticular water losses are negligible ? increases under mild water stress but decreases when severe water stress limits photosynthesis. When cuticular conductance is considered, however, ? increases monotonically with increasing water stress, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, the shape of these response curves to soil water availability changes with plant functional type and climatic conditions. In general, ? is lower in species grown in dry climates, indicating lower marginal WUE. 4. The proposed parameterization provides a framework to assess the responses of leaf gas exchange to changes in water availability. Moreover, the model can be extended to scale leaf-level fluxes to the canopy and ecosystem level.

Manzoni S; Vico G; Katul G; Fay PA; Polley W; Palmroth S; Porporato A

2011-06-01

356

Shelter interventions prevent and mitigate displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In hazard-prone developing countries, shelter interventions are an important way to prevent or mitigate natural disaster-induced displacement. To be effective, however, they need to be multi-facetedand carried out with the involvement of the communities affected.

Davina Wadley

2012-01-01

357

Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

Claudia McGoldrick

2005-01-01

358

Virial Theorem for Angular Displacement and Torque  

Science.gov (United States)

The usual Virial theorem is expressed through the coordinate and the force, 2Virial theorem about coordinate-force variables to the case of angular displacement-torque variables. By virtue of introducing the entangled state representation and the bosonic operator realization of the Hamiltonian of quantum pendulum system we derive the Virial theorem for angular variable and torque.

Jiang, Nian-quan; Fan, Hong-yi; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jun-hua; Tang, Long-Ying; Gu, Wen-Jing; Cai, Gen-Chang

2011-11-01

359

Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

2008-04-15

360

Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

Filipe Pais

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO3 and KTaO3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

1994-01-01

362

Positive displacement pumps - a brief survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief survey of positive displacement (PD) pumps is presented. Types of reciprocating pumps included are piston, plunger, and diaphragm types. The discussion of rotary pumps highlights gearpumps for lubricating liquids, sliding van pumps, gearpumps for non-lubricating liquids, flexible impeller pumps, helical rotor pumps, and peristaltic pumps. Broad hydraulic characteristics of the various pumps are presented diagrammatically.

Marshal, P.

1985-10-01

363

Education: protecting the rights of displaced children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

Suba Mahalingam

2002-01-01

364

Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

Jean du Plessis

2007-01-01

365

Method of displacing fluids within a gas-condensate reservoir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of displacing reservoir fluids through a subterranean retrograde or gas-condensate reservoir, comprising: introducing a displacement fluid into the reservoir and displacing it and the reservoir fluids through the reservoir; wherein the displacement fluid is inherently miscible with the reservoir fluids at the temperature and pressure of the reservoir; and further wherein the displacement fluid comprises a nonoxidizing gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, flue gas, nitrogen, residue gas, and mixtures thereof.

Sheffield, M.; Metcalfe, R.S.; Calvin, J.W.; Chabak, J.J.

1987-01-13

366

Surface-functionalized diatom microcapsules for drug delivery of water-insoluble drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Naturally available and biocompatible materials are potential substitutes for synthetic mesoporous materials as suitable drug carriers for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems. This work investigates the application of a porous silica material derived from diatoms, also known as diatomaceous earth. The aim is to explore the surface functionalization of diatom microcapsules and their impact on the drug loading and release characteristics of water-insoluble drugs. Indomethacin was used as the model for poorly soluble drug. The surface modification on diatoms was performed with two organosilanes; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine and phosphonic acids (2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid and 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid) providing organic surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Extensive characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry was performed to confirm covalent grafting of monolayer aminosilane and phosphonic acid on the diatom surfaces. Differences in loading capacity of diatoms (15-24%) and release time (6-15 days) were observed which is due to the presence of different functional groups on the surface. It was found that 2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine render diatom surfaces hydrophilic, due to polar carboxyl functional group (COOH) and active amine species (NH and NH2) that favor drug adsorption; better encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release of drugs, over the hydrophobic surface created by 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid. This work demonstrates diatom porous silica as a promising drug carrier, with possibility to further improve their performances by tailoring their surface functionalities to achieve the required drug loading and release characteristics for different therapeutic conditions.

Aw MS; Bariana M; Yu Y; Addai-Mensah J; Losic D

2013-08-01

367

Effect of heavy water on structure-function relationship of lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural and functional behaviour of lactate dehydrogenase purified from Lactobacillus casei was compared in H2O and heavy water (D2O). The enzyme showed reduced activity in D2O, being only 45% of that observed in H2O. The modulations of the enzyme caused by the substrate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate examined at varying pH and pD values indicated decreased cooperativity in D2O. The elution profiles of the enzyme on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of the substrate and fructose 1, 6-diphosphate at varying pD values showed a shift towards lower molecular weight species. At pD 5,4 fructose diphosphate did not cause any further shift in the elution pattern which was otherwise observed in H2O. (author).

1980-01-01

368

Effects of heavy water on ultrastructural and functional status of Hep 2 and CHO cells lysosomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy water effects on the ultrastructure and function of Hep 2 and CHO lysosomal cell compartment were investigated using electron microscopy and enzymatic studies. The cell viability, measured by neutral red uptake assay, and the total protein content determination, have shown a dose dependent decrease in cell growth for both studied cell types. The electron microscopy study has revealed a progressive increase in number and size of lysosomes and autophagosomes after 96 h exposure to different deuterium concentration media in a dose dependent manner. The enzymatic determination in the lysosomal pellet revealed an increased acid phosphatase activity in both cell types (15% and 33% for Hep 2 and 24% and 52% for CHO, respectively) exposed to media with high (65%, 90%) D2O content. (authors)

2002-01-01

369

Effects of heavy water on ultrastructural and functional status of Hep 2 and CHO cells lysosomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heavy water effects on the ultrastructure and function of Hep 2 and CHO lysosomal cell compartment were investigated using electron microscopy and enzymatic studies. The cell viability, measured by neutral red uptake assay and the total protein content determination, have shown a dose dependent decrease in cell growth for both studied cell types. The electron microscopy study has revealed a progressive increase in number and size of lysosomes and autophagosomes after 96 h exposure to different deuterium concentrations media in a dose dependent manner. The enzymatic determination in the lysosomal pellet revealed an increased acid phosphatase activity in both cell types (15% and 33% for Hep 2 and 24% and 52% for CHO, respectively) exposed to media with high (65%, 90%) D2O content. (authors)

2002-01-01

370

Coupled diffusional/displacive transformations: Effects of carbon concentration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nonequilibrium growth of partially supersaturated ferrite plates in Fe-C alloys is examined as a function of the carbon concentration, using a published theory for coupled diffusional/displacive transformations. It is found that the theory correctly predicts the variation in the martensite-start temperature with carbon concentration, but fails to estimate the corresponding variations in the bainite-start temperatures of the same steels. This is attributed to the fact that the model does not include any variations in stored energy has been calculated by fitting against available data.

Mujahid, S.A.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. (Univ. of Cambridge, (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy)

1993-03-01

371

Horizontal structure function and vertical correlation analysis of mesoscale water vapor variability observed by airborne lidar  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis is presented of airborne lidar measurements of water vapor, covering a height range from 1.5 to 10.4 km, from three field campaigns (midlatitude summer, polar winter, and subtropical summer). The lidar instrument provides two-dimensional cross sections of absolute humidity, with high accuracy (errors less than 5-7%) and high vertical (˜ 200 m) and horizontal (˜ 2 km) resolution. Structure functions, i.e., statistical moments up to the fifth-order of absolute increments over a range of scales, are investigated, and power law scaling or statistical-scale invariance was found over horizontal distances from 5 to 100 km. The scaling exponents are found to take different values, depending on whether or not the observations were taken in an air mass where convective clouds were present. The exponent of the first-order structure function in nonconvective regions, H=0.63±0.10, is large indicating a smooth series with long-range correlations, in contrast to the lower value H=0.35±0.11 found in convective air masses. Correspondingly, the moisture field in the convective regime was found to be more intermittent than for the nonconvective regime, i.e., water vapor structures in convectively influenced air mass show more jump discontinuities, which could be explained by the moistening and drying effects of updrafts and downdrafts in convective air mass. Within each regime (convective or nonconvective), the values appear to be universal, with no significant dependence on the season, latitude, or height where the observations were made. Furthermore, some evidence is found that vertical correlation lengths are longer in convective air masses.

Fischer, L.; Craig, G. C.; Kiemle, C.

2013-07-01

372

Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 ºC) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (µmax) and lag phase durations (LPD, ?) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r², MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model.

Kang Zhou; Meng Gui; Pinglan Li; Shaohua Xing; Tingting Cui; Zhaohui Peng

2012-01-01

373

Adsorption of fluoride from water by surface-functionalized polyurethane foam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surface-functionalized polyurethane foam (SPUF) showed an exceptionally high adsorption potential for defluoridation of drinking water. Kinetic experiments of fluoride adsorption on SPUF demonstrated quick adsorption in first 60 min and then achieved maximum adsorption (7.8 mg g?¹). The adsorption isotherm was described using Bradley equation. The adsorption capacity of SPUF was significantly influenced by the pH of the solution. The highest adsorption capacity was attained at pH 6.7 and no drastic reduction noticed in the adsorption capacity of SPUF at normal pH range (5.8-8.2). The fluoride adsorption capacity of SPUF was compared with other adsorbents like activated carbon, soil, alumina and carbon nanotubes. The added advantage of SPUF adsorbent is, it can be easily recharged by altering the pH of the solution using NaOH or Ca(OH)?. The high adsorption capacity and easy-to-use nature of SPUF in batch mode and continuous system makes the new adsorbent a promising material for defluoridation of drinking water.

Krupadam RJ; Khan MS; Das S

2010-01-01

374

Hygienic study of barrier function of local water purification facilities in respect to chemical pollutants agrochemicals and surfactants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contamination of water reservoirs is presently a multicomponent phenomenon because pesticides, fertilizers, petroleum products, dyes and surfactants may all be present in water. Efficiency of commonly-employed water purification methods was evaluated: sedimentation, chlorination, filtering, and its related effect or representative groups of agricultural chemicals. The most vulnerable link in the rural water purification system was the filtration; in presence of surfactants, the filtration effectiveness was reduced by 40-50%. The effectiveness of this hauling function of surfactants was related to chemical structure of the polluting compounds and to homologous characteristics of the detergents. The effectiveness of the precipitation of chemical impurities from polluted water depended on their solubility in water. 1 figure.

Il' in, I.E.

1984-08-01

375

Effect of body mass index on intrafraction prostate displacement monitored by real-time electromagnetic tracking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a "beam on" tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ? 30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. RESULTS: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ? 30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. CONCLUSIONS: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

Butler WM; Morris MN; Merrick GS; Kurko BS; Murray BC

2012-10-01

376

Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book considers the present knowledge of liquid water, its physical properties and how these give rise to a unique structure, its influence on the interactions between solutes, its role in maintaining biologically active structures, its involvement in chemical reactions and the problems posed by its management and in providing sufficient amounts of water of adequate quality. Topics covered include: occurrence, importance and physical properties; the place of water in the general classification of liquids; isotopic composition; the structure of the water molecule and the nature of the hydrogen bond in water: ice-its structure and dynamics; the structure of liquid water; the dynamic properties of liquid water; towards a molecular description of water; aqueous solutions of simple molecules; aqueous solutions of electrolytes; the role of water in the stabilisation of biologically significant structures; reactions in aqueous solutions; water in the environment-quality, availability and exploitation, and future prospects.

Franks, F.

1984-01-01

377

The influence of saccade length on the saccadic suppression of displacement detection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The decrease in sensitivity to spatial displacement which accompanies a voluntary horizontal saccadic eye movement was measured as a function of the length of the saccade. Threshold for detecting the displacement increased linearly from about 0.3 degrees to 1.2 degrees as saccade length increased from 4 degrees to 12 degrees. The variability (standard deviation) of the discrimination increased linearly with saccade length as well, and hence also linearly with the displacement threshold. These results, along with our previous finding that the increase is not a consequence of the saccadically generated spatiotemporal smearing of the retinal image (Li & Matin, 1990), support the proposal that displacement detection is based on a constant internal signal/noise ratio whose denominator is a measure of the variability of the extraretinal signal regarding eye position, and that the reduction in sensitivity is a result of a transient increase of this variability in the temporal neighborhood of a saccade.

Li WX; Matin L

1990-11-01

378

Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW) and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial microlattice structure to any amorphous ice phase.

David J. Anick

2013-01-01

379

Efficient solar water oxidation using photovoltaic devices functionalized with earth-abundant oxygen evolving catalysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces of triple junction photovoltaic cells were functionalized with oxygen evolving catalysts (OECs) based on amorphous hydrous earth-abundant metal oxides (metal = Fe, Ni, Co), obtained by straightforward Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) in an aqueous environment. Functionalization with Fe(iii) oxides gave the best results, leading to photoanodes capable of efficiently splitting water, with photocurrent densities up to 6 ± 1 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under AM 1.5 G simulated sunlight illumination. The resulting Solar To Hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiencies, measured in two electrodes configuration, were in the range 3.7-5%, depending on the counter electrode that was employed. Investigations on the stability showed that these photoanodes were able to sustain 120 minutes of continuous illumination with a < 10% photocurrent loss at 0 V vs. RHE. Pristine photoanodic response of the cells could be fully restored by an additional SILAR cycle, evidencing that the observed loss is due to the detachment of the more weakly surface bound catalyst. PMID:23820552

Cristino, Vito; Berardi, Serena; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Carli, Stefano; Meda, Laura; Tacca, Alessandra; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

2013-08-21

380

Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

Yortsos, Y.C.

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Measurement on liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacements meter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To elucidate details of the fascinating nonlinear phenomena of gas-liquid interface in micro- and mini-channels, high spatial temporal knowledge of the interface in gas-liquid two-phase flows is essential. This paper presents a new method for measuring interface of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter(LFD). The purpose of the study was to clarify the effectiveness the new method for obtaining detailed information of interface displacement, especially in the case of thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. In the test, water and nitrogen gas were used as working fluids. To eliminate the signal of tube wall disturbing that of gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; whose refraction index was the same as one of water. With this method, accurate measurements of the interface of liquid film, in real time, with sensitivity of 0.1 ?m and 1 kHz, were achieved. The error caused by the refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated theoretically and experimentally. The formulated theoretical equation can derive the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 ?m -2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm in I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. Simultaneous measurement on the interface in a fluorocarbon tube of 0.5 and 1 mm in I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed camera movie with a microscope was carried out. It showed that the LFD could measure the interface of liquid film in high spatially and temporally in annular, slug and piston flow regions and clarified the existence of thin liquid film thinner than 1 ?m in thickness in slug and annular regions. (author)

2003-01-01

382

Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

Mowafi H

2011-05-01

383

A cumulant analysis for non-Gaussian displacement distributions in Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows through porous media.  

Science.gov (United States)

We use displacement encoding pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance to measure Fourier components S(q) of flow displacement distributions P(zeta) with mean displacement (zeta) for Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows through rocks and bead packs. Displacement distributions are non-Gaussian; hence, there are finite terms above second order in the cumulant expansion of ln(S(q)). We describe an algorithm for an optimal self-consistent cumulant analysis of data, which can be used to obtain the first three (central) moments of a non-Gaussian P(zeta), with error bars. The analysis is applied to Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in rocks and beads. Flow with shear-thinning xanthan solution produces a 15.6+/-2.3% enhancement of the variance sigma(2) of displacement distributions when compared to flow experiments with water. PMID:17466776

Scheven, Ulrich M; Crawshaw, John P; Anderson, Valerie J; Harris, Rob; Johns, Mike L; Gladden, Lynn F

2007-01-19

384

Internal displacements in cement during ballistic impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The technique of Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR) has been shown to be widely applicable to the field of ballistics through its ability to measure internal displacement fields to a high precision. In a DSR experiment, a flat plane, typically 500 ?m thick, of X-ray opaque filings are introduced into the sample during manufacture. Flash X-rays can then be used to image the plane, both before and during an impact event, to produce random speckled images on an X-ray film. Small sub-regions of the images can be tracked relative to each other using a Digital Speckle Photography (DSP) correlation algorithm. This produces a displacement field within the specimen on the seeded plane. By repeating an experiment with identical specimens, but varying the delay of the X-ray exposure, a full time history of the impact event can be obtained

2004-07-20

385

Fast Algorithms For Generalized Displacement Structures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We introduce a generalized displacement structure that includesa variety of previously studied cases, and leads to a unified approachto fast O(n2) algorithms for the triangular factorization of structuredmatrices such as Toeplitz-like and Hankel-like structures. The algorithmis derived through a recursive state-space procedure and can be usedto solve a variety of other problems. For instance, we show that thestate-space derivation allows us to extend previous results on the cascadedecomposition of lossless and J-lossless rational matrices to a larger classof rational matrices. Also new recursive solutions to certain interpolationand H1Gammacontrol problems are obtained.Key Words: Structured matrices, triangular factorization, state-spacerecursion, J-lossless systems, interpolation, H1Gammacontrol.1. INTRODUCTIONIn this paper we introduce a generalized displacement structure of the formOmegaRDeltaGamma FRA= GJB(1)where the symbol * denote...

T. Kailath; A. H. Sayed

386

Selfhood and Exile : Displacement, Worldliness, Trust  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Victims of traumatic events such as torture or life threatening assault often turn to a specific set of metaphors when trying to explain what it is like to be in the world afterwards. Spatial descriptions such as displacement, exile, homelessness and alienation occur repeatedly as significant terms for how living now differs from what it was like before. These spatial metaphors regularly occur in such first-person narratives along with descriptions of what can be called disturbances of the self: it seems that the feeling of being a self, of being this someone, suffers with such displacement. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between spatiality and selfhood by way of how it feels when it is disrupted, or, in other words, to make sense of the claim raised by trauma survivors that they are exiled and that their selves are shattered

Christensen, Gry Ardal

2010-01-01

387

DISPLACEMENT BIOREACTOR WITH MEMBRANE GAS SUPPLY DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: power industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: displacement bioreactor with membrane gas supply device includes cylindrical housing, cover, bottom, gas distributing device, and gas-permeable polymer tubular membranes. The latter are installed along the housing axis. Load-carrying pipe of heat exchanger is installed inside the housing along its central axis. Gas supply pipe connected to gas-distributing device is located inside heat exchanger pipe. Screw perforated surface through the holes of which gas-permeable polymer tubular membranes fixed between the cover and gas distributing device pass is installed outside the load-carrying pipe of heat exchanger. ^ EFFECT: displacement bioreactor, when in operation, provides the increase in efficiency owing to intensifying the mass exchange, and operation is simplified. ^ 2 dwg

MUKHACHEV SERGEJ GERMANOVICH; EMEL JANOV VIKTOR MIKHAJLOVICH; SHAVALIEV MARAT FARIDOVICH; VLADIMIROVA IRINA SIL VESTROVNA; ABLAEV ALEKSEJ RAVIL EVICH; NURULLINA ELENA NIKOLAEVNA

388

A density-functional theory-based neural network potential for water clusters including van der waals corrections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental importance of water for many chemical processes has motivated the development of countless efficient but approximate water potentials for large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, from simple empirical force fields to very sophisticated flexible water models. Accurate and generally applicable water potentials should fulfill a number of requirements. They should have a quality close to quantum chemical methods, they should explicitly depend on all degrees of freedom including all relevant many-body interactions, and they should be able to describe molecular dissociation and recombination. In this work, we present a high-dimensional neural network (NN) potential for water clusters based on density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, which is constructed using clusters containing up to 10 monomers and is in principle able to meet all these requirements. We investigate the reliability of specific parametrizations employing two frequently used generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functionals, PBE and RPBE, as reference methods. We find that the binding energy errors of the NN potentials with respect to DFT are significantly lower than the typical uncertainties of DFT calculations arising from the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. Further, we examine the role of van der Waals interactions, which are not properly described by GGA functionals. Specifically, we incorporate the D3 scheme suggested by Grimme (J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 154104) in our potentials and demonstrate that it can be applied to GGA-based NN potentials in the same way as to DFT calculations without modification. Our results show that the description of small water clusters provided by the RPBE functional is significantly improved if van der Waals interactions are included, while in case of the PBE functional, which is well-known to yield stronger binding than RPBE, van der Waals corrections lead to overestimated binding energies. PMID:23557541

Morawietz, Tobias; Behler, Jörg

2013-04-29

389

Detection of outliers in water quality monitoring samples using functional data analysis in San Esteban estuary (Northern Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water quality controls involve large number of variables and observations, often subject to some outliers. An outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data or that appears to deviate markedly from other members of the sample in which it occurs. An interesting analysis is to find those observati