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Sample records for water displacement functions

  1. Rotor Displacement of the Ultrasonic Motor Having an Angular Displacement Self-Correction Function

    Chen, Xiaoduo; Kusakabe, Chiharu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro; Takano, Takehiro

    1993-09-01

    This paper deals with the experimental investigation for confirmation of rotor displacement of the ultrasonic stepping motor having an angular displacement self-correction function. The experiment focused on the relationship between the rotor’s vibration displacement and its staying position for the self-correction. The result proved that the rotor always stays at the position where the displacement is smallest by cutting a slit into the rotor. Moreover, it has also been found that the stable self-correction of rotor angular displacement depends upon both the rotor driving frequency and rotor clamping force.

  2. Liquid CO2 displacement of water in a dual-permeability pore network micromodel.

    Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Mart; Grate, Jay W; Wietsma, Thomas W; Warner, Marvin G

    2011-09-01

    Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale displacements, liquid CO(2) (LCO(2))-water displacement was evaluated in a pore network micromodel with two distinct permeability zones. Due to the low viscosity ratio (logM = -1.1), unstable displacement occurred at all injection rates over 2 orders of magnitude. LCO(2) displaced water only in the high permeability zone at low injection rates with the mechanism shifting from capillary fingering to viscous fingering with increasing flow rate. At high injection rates, LCO(2) displaced water in the low permeability zone with capillary fingering as the dominant mechanism. LCO(2) saturation (S(LCO2)) as a function of injection rate was quantified using fluorescent microscopy. In all experiments, more than 50% of LCO(2) resided in the active flowpaths, and this fraction increased as displacement transitioned from capillary to viscous fingering. A continuum-scale two-phase flow model with independently determined fluid and hydraulic parameters was used to predict S(LCO2) in the dual-permeability field. Agreement with the micromodel experiments was obtained for low injection rates. However, the numerical model does not account for the unstable viscous fingering processes observed experimentally at higher rates and hence overestimated S(LCO2). PMID:21774502

  3. Experimental Research on Profile Control for Oil Displacement by Functional Polymer in Low Permeability Fractured Reservoir

    Li, Li; Xiuting, Han; Lin, Meng

    Utilizing artificial fractured cores with low permeability, a physical simulation experiment on profile control for oil displacement was carried out. The result showed that 23.63% extra oil recovery was realized by functional polymer, and 29.05% extra oil recovery was realized by functional polymer with gas which is higher than water flooding alone. The experiment demonstrates that functional polymer is effective for enhance oil recovery for low permeability fractured reservoir significantly.

  4. Landslide velocity prediction using a rainfall to displacements transfer function. La Barmasse case study (Valais, Switzerland).

    Abellán, Antonio; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Baillifard, François; Demierre, Jonathan; Carrea, Dario

    2013-04-01

    We present a model for ground displacements prediction using a transfer function. Model was mainly tested at the Barmasse rockslide (Valais, Switzerland) which is an active structurally-controlled instability formed by intensively deformed and metamorphosed mica schists. The kinematics of the slide, which currently threatens roads and inhabitants of the Bal de Bagnes Valley, is characterized by a continuous displacement with variable rates of displacements. Indeed, the velocity is strongly affected by external forces: a sharp increase in landslide velocity is observed with a short delay after every snow melting period and after each rainfall pulse. The instability is currently monitored by different remote sensing and in situ techniques (Terrestrial LiDAR, GB Radar and extensometers). In order to predict ground displacements, we developed a new model composed by two different parts: (a) calculation of the Effective Rainfall (Peff) and (b) modelling of the landslide velocity. First of all, Peff was obtained using Thornthwaite (1946) method, which estimates the water that infiltrates into the terrain as a function of the total precipitation, Real Evapo-Transpiration (ETR) and water recharge. Afterwards, the rates of displacement were modelled through a stochastic transfer function which links the Peff (input) with daily displacements (output). Model computes the displacement rates at each time lapse (e.g. one day) as a convolution of the above mentioned transfer function times daily effective rainfall during a certain time lapse (50 days in our case). The transfer function has two components: first component account for the sudden increase of landslide velocities after each rainfall pulse and second component account for the progressive decay. The variables of these functions were optimized in Matlab in order to minimize the error between the real and the modelled velocities. The model performance was assessed for two different response functions (following either

  5. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT IN POROUS MEDIA INFLUENCED BY MOBILE WATER AND IMMOBILE WATER

    崔明; 梁栋

    2002-01-01

    The numerical methods for miscible displacment in aggregated or sorbing medium areconsidered. A mixed finite element method is adopted for the pressure equation. The concentra-tion in the mobile water is approximated by a combination of a Galerkin finite element method andthe method of characteristics and the concentration in immobile water is approximated by a stan-dard Galerkin method. The moving mesh technique which depends on time t is adopted here. Themoving meshes can vary in different spacial domains with different variable times. Optima errorestimates in energy norm and L2 norm are obtained under certain constraints.

  6. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    A.C. Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  7. [The influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms].

    Xia, W D; Fu, K Y

    2016-03-01

    Anterior disc displacement is a common subtype seen in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. It may cause mandibular movement disorders, such as clicking of joint, intermittent closed lock, limitation of mouth opening, etc. These disorders may affect the life qualities of patients. Anterior disc displacement may also cause mandibular malformations, especially among adolescents, which may affect the growth of condyle, therefore may have a correlation with mandibular retrusion or mandibular deviation when grown up. This paper going to review the influences of anterior disc displacement on oral mandibular function and morphology and their biological mechanisms. PMID:26980658

  8. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish;

    2015-01-01

    hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population...

  9. Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first the dynamical generation at time $t$ of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time $\\tau \\geq 0$ apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier ensures that the temporal second-order coherence function depends only on $\\tau$, via $\\tau/t$, for given Gaussian state parameters, Gaussian state preparation time $t$, and average number $\\bar{n}$ of thermal photons. It is interesting that the time evolution for displaced thermal states shows a power decay in $\\tau/t$ rather than an exponential one as is the case for general, displaced-squeezed thermal states.

  10. Derivation of an Efficient Non-Prismatic Thin Curved Beam Element Using Basic Displacement Functions

    Ahmad Shahba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and accuracy of the elements proposed by the Finite Element Method (FEM considerably depend on the interpolating functions, namely shape functions, used to formulate the displacement field within an element. In this paper, a new insight is proposed for derivation of elements from a mechanical point of view. Special functions namely Basic Displacement Functions (BDFs are introduced which hold pure structural foundations. Following basic principles of structural mechanics, it is shown that exact shape functions for non-prismatic thin curved beams could be derived in terms of BDFs. Performing a limiting study, it is observed that the new curved beam element successfully becomes the straight Euler-Bernoulli beam element. Carrying out numerical examples, it is shown that the element provides exact static deformations. Finally efficiency of the method in free vibration analysis is verified through several examples. The results are in good agreement with those in the literature.

  11. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  12. Experimental study of displacement of viscous oil in pipes by water

    Kazemihatami, Milad

    2013-01-01

    This study is specifically concerned with the understanding of real restart procedure that is very crucial for prediction of oil-water columns displacement after un-expected shut down at water-viscous crude oil transportation. This issue gets more important for subsea pipeline which is generally located in ups and downs topology and in average cold medium. At subsea pipelines the risk of formation of oil-water columns is high and in addition the viscosity of crude oil gets higher due to heat ...

  13. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  14. Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first the dynamical generation at time $t$ of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time $\\tau \\geq 0$ apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier ensures that the temporal second-o...

  15. Mean square displacement evaluation by elastic neutron scattering self-distribution function

    Magazù, Salvatore; Maisano, Giacomo; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2008-06-01

    In the present work an operational recipe for the mean square displacement (MSD) determination, highlighting the connection between elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) intensity profiles and the associated self-distribution function, is presented. The determination of the thermal behavior of the total MSD and of its partial contributions is tested on EINS data collected by the backscattering spectrometer IN13 (ILL, Grenoble) on a model system such as PolyEthylene Glycol with a mean molecular weight of 400 Dalton (PEG 400).

  16. A computational chemical study of penetration and displacement of water films near mineral surfaces

    Larter Steve R

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on organic–water mixtures near mineral surfaces. These simulations show that, in contrast to apolar compounds, small polar organic compounds such as phenols can penetrate through thin water films to adsorb on these mineral surfaces. Furthermore, additional simulations involving demixing of an organic–water mixture near a surfactant-covered mineral surface demonstrate that even low concentrations of adsorbed polar compounds can induce major changes in mineral surface wettability, allowing sorption of apolar molecules. This strongly supports a two-stage adsorption mechanism for organic solutes, involving initial migration of small polar organic molecules to the mineral surface followed by water film displacement due to co-adsorption of the more apolar organic compounds, thus converting an initial water-wet mineral system to an organic-covered surface. This has profound implications for studies of petroleum reservoir diagenesis and wettability changes.

  17. Large-Deformation Displacement Transfer Functions for Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Slender Aerospace Structures

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    Large deformation displacement transfer functions were formulated for deformed shape predictions of highly flexible slender structures like aircraft wings. In the formulation, the embedded beam (depth wise cross section of structure along the surface strain sensing line) was first evenly discretized into multiple small domains, with surface strain sensing stations located at the domain junctures. Thus, the surface strain (bending strains) variation within each domain could be expressed with linear of nonlinear function. Such piecewise approach enabled piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations [classical (Eulerian), physical (Lagrangian), and shifted curvature equations] to yield closed form slope and deflection equations in recursive forms.

  18. Heavy metal displacement in salt-water-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Wahla, Intkhab Hazoor [Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5501 (United States); Kirkham, M.B. [Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5501 (United States)], E-mail: mbk@ksu.edu

    2008-09-15

    In regions where phytoremediation is carried out, brackish water must often be used. However, no information exists concerning the consequences of saline-water irrigation on the mobility of heavy metals in sludge applied to soil during phytoremediation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of NaCl irrigation on displacement of seven heavy metals in sludge (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) applied to the surface of soil columns containing barley plants. Half the columns received NaCl irrigation (10,000 mg L{sup -1}) and half the columns received tap-water irrigation. Half the columns were treated with the chelating agent EDTA. With no EDTA, irrigation with the NaCl solution increased the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb in the drainage water above drinking-water standards. Irrigation of sludge farms with brackish water is not recommended, because saline water increased the mobility of the heavy metals and they polluted the drainage water. - Irrigation with brackish water mobilizes heavy metals in contaminated soils.

  19. Heavy metal displacement in salt-water-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    In regions where phytoremediation is carried out, brackish water must often be used. However, no information exists concerning the consequences of saline-water irrigation on the mobility of heavy metals in sludge applied to soil during phytoremediation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of NaCl irrigation on displacement of seven heavy metals in sludge (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) applied to the surface of soil columns containing barley plants. Half the columns received NaCl irrigation (10,000 mg L-1) and half the columns received tap-water irrigation. Half the columns were treated with the chelating agent EDTA. With no EDTA, irrigation with the NaCl solution increased the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb in the drainage water above drinking-water standards. Irrigation of sludge farms with brackish water is not recommended, because saline water increased the mobility of the heavy metals and they polluted the drainage water. - Irrigation with brackish water mobilizes heavy metals in contaminated soils

  20. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail

  1. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann;

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water a...

  2. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Hedegaard, Kathrine; Springer, Niels

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water and...... forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  3. Stresses and displacements in functionally graded materials of semi-infinite extent induced by rectangular loadings

    Zhong-Qi Yue; Hong-Tian Xiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM) caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over t...

  4. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    Highlights: • Energy and water services are a key need in long-term displacement situations. • At present electricity is supplied mostly with diesel generators and water is imported. • On-site electricity and clean water production can decrease costs and increase security. • The proposed containerized solution produces electricity and purifies water locally. • Model results show the cost-competitiveness and technical potential of the solution. - Abstract: The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency

  5. Nozzle optimization for water jet propulsion with a positive displacement pump

    Yang, You-sheng; Xie, Ying-chun; Nie, Song-lin

    2014-06-01

    In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

  6. Nozzle Optimization for Water Jet Propulsion with A Positive Displacement Pump

    杨友胜; 谢迎春; 聂松林

    2014-01-01

    In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

  7. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam

    Oro S.R.; Mafioleti T.R.; Chaves Neto A.; Garcia S.R.P.; Neumann Júnior C.

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam found...

  8. Upwind finite difference method for miscible oil and water displacement problem with moving boundary values

    Yi-rang YUAN; Chang-feng LI; Cheng-shun YANG; Yu-ji HAN

    2009-01-01

    The research of the miscible oil and water displacement problem with moving boundary values is of great value to the history of oil-gas transport and accumulation in the basin evolution as well as to the rational evaluation in prospecting and exploiting oil-gas resources. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with moving boundary values. For the two-dimensional bounded region, the upwind finite difference schemes are proposed. Some techniques, such as the calculus of variations, the change of variables, and the theory of a priori estimates, are used. The optimal order l2-norm estimates are derived for the errors in the approximate solutions. The research is important both theoretically and practically for the model analysis in the field, the model numerical method, and the software development.

  9. Stresses and Displacements in Functionally Graded Materials of Semi-Infinite Extent Induced by Rectangular Loadings

    Zhong-Qi Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over the distributed loaded area. The loaded area is discretized into 200 small equal-sized rectangular elements. The numerical integration is carried out with the regular Gaussian quadrature. Weak and strong singular integrations encountered when the field points are located on the loaded plane, are resolved with the classical methods in boundary element analysis. The numerical integration results have high accuracy.

  10. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    Vrebos, D.; Vansteenkiste, T.; Staes, J.; Willems, P.; Meire, P.

    2013-06-01

    Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area), based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between -16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between -99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  11. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    D. Vrebos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area, based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between −16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between −99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  12. Water flooding to displace heavy oil with electromagnetic resistive heating (ERH)

    Oliverira, H.J.M.; Barillas, J.L.M.; Mata, W.; Dutra, T.V.Jr. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova (Brazil). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The viscosity of heavy oil can be effectively reduced by increasing its temperature, thus providing better mobility in the reservoir. Steam flooding is a commonly used technique to improve oil recovery, but may not be technically possible or economically feasible in situations such as permafrost, deep formations, thin pay zones and low permeability formations. Therefore, alternative methods are needed to produce this heavy oil. This paper proposed the use of electromagnetic resistive heating (ERH), a thermal stimulation technique in which an electrical current passes through a formation to increase the original temperature by Joule effect. The reservoir temperatures increases proportionally as the electrical current intensity increases. This paper demonstrated the results of computational simulations using water injection, with or without ERH in a reservoir of heavy oil with similar characteristics to those found in northeastern Brazilian basins. The paper outlined the reservoir and fluids characteristics used to model the ERH process and waterflooding. It was concluded that using water flooding, without ERH to displace heavy oil can enhance oil recovery. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  13. The probability density function of the multiplication factor due to small, random displacements of fissile spheres

    An analytical expression is obtained for the probability density function of the multiplication factor of an array of spheres when each sphere is displaced in a random fashion from its initial position. Two cases are considered: (1) spheres in an infinite background medium in which the total cross section in spheres and medium is the same, and (2) spheres in a void. In all cases we use integral transport theory and cast the problem into one involving average fluxes in the spheres which interact via collision probabilities. The statistical aspects of the problem are treated by first order perturbation theory and the general conclusion is that, when the number of spheres exceeds about 5, the reduced multiplication factor ((ξ (k-k0))/(k0)), where k0 is the unperturbed value, is given accurately by the Gaussian distribution P (ξ)= (1)/(SQRT(2 π) σ DT) exp-((ξ 2)/(2 σ2 DT2)).)) The partial standard deviation σ -2δ / SQRT (3), δ being the maximum movement of the sphere from its equilibrium position. DT is a function of the system properties and geometry. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the magnitude of the effects and also the accuracy of diffusion theory for this type of problem is assessed. The overall accuracy of the perturbation method is assessed by an essentially exact result obtained using simulation, thereby enabling the range of perturbation theory to be investigated

  14. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  15. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam

    Oro S.R.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam foundations. The factor analysis is used to identify data sources of variability and order the sensors according to the action of factors. The dates of the measurements are grouped according to similarities in the present observations, by applying the cluster analysis. Then the discriminant analysis is used to assess the groups as to their homogeneity. The results demonstrate that the techniques used for distinguishing the dam responses and identify the effects of changes in environmental conditions on the displacements of the structures and dam foundations.

  16. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Eihab Fathelrahman; Amalia Davies; Stephen Davies; James Pritchett

    2014-01-01

    This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that c...

  17. Application of the Moliere multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement function in Monte-Carlo calculations

    A two-dimensional approximation is found for the multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement correlation formula which satisfies two conditions: first, that it be close to the Moliere one (better than 10-3) and, second, that it be suitable for Monte Carlo calculations. These Monte Carlo calculations are made for relativistic particles. (orig.)

  18. Application of the Moliere multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement function in Monte-Carlo calculations

    A two-dimensional approximation is found for the multiple scattering angle-lateral displacement correlation formula. The formula satisfies two conditions: it is close to the Moliere one (better than 10-3) and suitable for Monte-Carlo calculations. These Monte-Carlo calculations are made for relativistic particles

  19. Assessment of damage of masonry walls as a function of displacements and repair costs

    Krumpestar, David

    2015-01-01

    An overview of a database of cyclic tests of masonry walls is firstly presented in this thesis. The objective of the analysis of the database was to estimate the relationship between the damage and displacements of the masonry walls. A discussion on the typical failure mechanisms of masonry walls and definition of damage states is then presented in the first part of the thesis which addresses also the issue of rehabilitaiton and strengthening of masonry walls by different techn...

  20. Experimental study of crossover from capillary to viscous fingering for supercritical CO2-water displacement in a homogeneous pore network.

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Changyong; Wei, Ning; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W; Li, Xiaochun; Bonneville, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in saline aquifers involves displacing brine from the pore space by supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)). The displacement process is considered unstable due to the unfavorable viscosity ratio between the invading scCO(2) and the resident brine. The mechanisms that affect scCO(2)-water displacement under reservoir conditions (41 °C, 9 MPa) were investigated in a homogeneous micromodel. A large range of injection rates, expressed as the dimensionless capillary number (Ca), was studied in two sets of experiments: discontinuous-rate injection, where the micromodel was saturated with water before each injection rate was imposed, and continuous-rate injection, where the rate was increased after quasi-steady conditions were reached for a certain rate. For the discontinuous-rate experiments, capillary fingering and viscous fingering are the dominant mechanisms for low (logCa ≤ -6.61) and high injection rates (logCa ≥ -5.21), respectively. Crossover from capillary to viscous fingering was observed for logCa = -5.91 to -5.21, resulting in a large decrease in scCO(2) saturation. The discontinuous-rate experimental results confirmed the decrease in nonwetting fluid saturation during crossover from capillary to viscous fingering predicted by numerical simulations by Lenormand et al. (J. Fluid Mech.1988, 189, 165-187). Capillary fingering was the dominant mechanism for all injection rates in the continuous-rate experiment, resulting in monotonic increase in scCO(2) saturation. PMID:22676368

  1. Job Displacement

    Lori G. Kletzer

    1998-01-01

    The past decade and a half has seen tremendous research growth in the area of job displacement. This paper discusses the state of knowledge on the issues and questions of job loss. The 1984-96 Displaced Worker Surveys are used to describe how the characteristics of displacement are changing to include more college educated, white collar, and nonmanufacturing workers. For many workers, the long-term earnings losses following displacement are large due to the loss of firm-specific human capital...

  2. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement.

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-14

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. PMID:26814628

  3. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool.Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed descriptions of DNA logic gate design, materials and methods, and additional data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08497k

  4. Influence of basin characteristics on the effectiveness and downstream reach of interbasin water transfers: displacing a problem

    Emanuel, Ryan E.; Buckley, John J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, Ge

    2015-12-01

    Interbasin water transfers are globally important water management strategies, yet little is known about their role in the hydrologic cycle at regional and continental scales. Specifically, there is a dearth of centralized information on transfer locations and characteristics, and few analyses place transfers into a relevant hydrological context. We assessed hydrological characteristics of interbasin transfers (IBTs) in the conterminous US using a nationwide inventory of transfers together with historical climate data and hydrological modeling. Supplying and receiving drainage basins share similar hydroclimatological conditions, suggesting that climatological drivers of water shortages in receiving basins likely have similar effects on supplying basins. This result calls into question the effectiveness of transfers as a strategy to mitigate climate-driven water shortages, as the water shortage may be displaced but not resolved. We also identified hydrologically advantageous and disadvantageous IBTs by comparing the water balances of supplying and receiving basins. Transfer magnitudes did not vary between the two categories, confirming that factors driving individual IBTs, such as patterns of human water demand or engineering constraints, also influence the continental-scale distribution of transfers. Some IBTs impact streamflow for hundreds of kilometers downstream. Transfer magnitude, hydroclimate and organization of downstream river networks mediate downstream impacts, and these impacts have the potential to expand downstream nonlinearly during years of drought. This work sheds new light on IBTs and emphasizes the need for updated inventories and analyses that place IBTs in an appropriate hydrological context.

  5. A forcefield with discrete displaceable waters and desolvation entropy for hydrated ligand docking

    Forli, Stefano; Olson, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    In modeling ligand-protein interactions, the representation and role of water is of great importance. We introduce a forcefield and hydration docking method that enables the automated prediction of waters mediating the binding of ligands with target proteins. The method presumes no prior knowledge of the apo or holo protein hydration state, and is potentially useful in the process of structure-based drug discovery. The hydration forcefield accounts for the entropic and enthalpic contributions...

  6. Development of extensometer system for measuring displacement of gauge length of low cycle fatigue specimen in high temperature and high pressure water

    Low cycle fatigue experiment in high temperature and high pressure water have been conducted to evaluate environmental fatigue characteristics of nuclear materials which are used in the primary water. The experimental methods of evaluating low cycle fatigue properties are to control by either load or displacement. The study is about the development of extensometer system for measuring displacement in gauge length of low cycle fatigue specimen in autoclave which simulated high temperature and high pressure water. The developed extensometer system showed precise change of displacement data by controlling actuator in room temperature as well as high temperature and high pressure water. This device can be applied to various material testings in high temperature and high pressure environments and is expected to greatly contribute on acquiring more detailed test data.

  7. Effect of a Selected Physical Exercise on the Development of Displacement Movement Skills in Highly Functional Autistic Children

    Fatemeh Keyhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on the development of displacement skills in High Function Autistic (HFA children. Materials and Methods: In this research, 10 children (7.9±1.4 years among of 33 children with HFA in Sahr-e-Kord city (in Iran based on their pre-test scores randomly were selected. The measuring tool was Test of Gross Motor Development-2000 (TGMD-2. Selected motor program (SPARK motor program in this research includes motor strengthening activities, games and sports for children that were performed for 12 sessions by our subjects. Normal distribution of data checked by K-S test and appropriate statistical Levine's and ANOVA tests (dependent and independent types were used for compare mean values (α=0.05. Results: Twelfth sessions of selected physical exercises training in experiment group made significant differences in some research variables but it was not the case for the control group. There were significant differences in running (p=0.002, trotting (p=0.08, jumping (p=0.002 and gliding (p=0.004 and there were non-significant differences in hop (p=0.035 and leaping (p=0.02. Conclusion: According to the results of this research we suggest that the selected physical exercise programs that derived from SPARK motor program can improve displacement motor skills in children with HFA.

  8. Permeability heterogeneity in cross-bedded sandstones: Impact on water/oil displacement in fluvial reservoirs. Doctoral thesis

    Hartkamp-Bakker, C.A.

    1993-09-07

    This study focuses on quantitatively defining the permeability/capillary-pressure characteristics in a number of well-exposed analoges and cored reservoirs by minipermeametry. Average contrasts in permeability are determined for fluvial cross-bedding and combined with thin-section studies to characterize the grain size, sorting and compositional characteristics that determine permeability contrasts. In addition capillary pressure experiments of laminated samples were carried out to study the contrasting capillary-pressure characteristics between the laminae. Water/oil displacement through cross-bedding by numerical and physical modelling were performed in close corporation with reservoir engineers to increase the understanding of the geological and physical conditions under which movable-oil entrapment occurs. Finally, the likely percentages of movable oil that are initially trapped in a cross-bedded reservoir are estimated.

  9. Complications and functional outcome after internal fixation of dorsally displaced distal radial fractures

    Bove, Jeppe; Viberg, Bjarke; Greisen, Pernille;

    Background: Recently there has been an increasing interest in open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures. Even so further studies are still needed. Purpose: To document the functional outcome and identify complica- tions among patients treated with a volar locking plate (DVR...

  10. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical m...

  11. Stress and displacement fields for a propagating crack in a linear functionally gradient material along X direction

    Stress and displacement fields for a propagating crack in a Functionally Gradient Material (FGM) which has shear modulus as μ=μ0(1+ζX) are derived. The equations of motion in FGM which is nonhomogeneous material are different form those of homogeneous material. The stress intensity factors in stress fields have influence on odd terms of γn/2-1(n=1,3,5,...,) but stress at crack tip only retains term of γ-1/2, where the γ is a radius of cylindrical coordinates centered at crack tip. When the FGM constant ζ is zero or γ→0, the fields for FGM are almost same as the those for isotropic material

  12. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    Tawa, G J; Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for solvation of classical electrostatic interactions the diele...

  13. Tests of dielectric model descriptions of chemical charge displacements in water

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for (a) pairing of sodium and/or chloride ions; (b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; (c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to poor. It is argued that: (a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; (b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and (c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for salvation of classical electrostatic interactions the dielectric models appear to perform as well as the more detailed XRISM theory

  14. Assessment of Volume Measurement of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema by Three Methods: Circumference Measurement, Water Displacement, and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    Gjørup, Caroline; Zerahn, B.; Hendel, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Following treatment for breast cancer 12%-60% develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). There are several ways of assessing BCRL. Circumference measurement (CM) and water displacement (WD) for volume measurements (VM) are frequently used methods in practice and research...

  15. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that comes from runoff derived from snowpack in the Rocky Mountains. The analysis is composed of a Base simulation, designed to represent selected features of the agricultural economy several decades in the future, and then three alternative climatic scenarios are run. The Base starts with a reduction in agricultural water by 10.3% from increased municipal and industrial water demand, and assumes a 75% increase in corn extracted-ethanol production. From this, the first simulation (S1 reduces agricultural water availability by a further 14.0%, for a combined decrease of 24.3%, due to climatic factors and related groundwater depletion. The second simulation (S2-WET describes wet year conditions, which negatively affect yields of irrigated corn and milking cows, but improves yields for important crops such as non-irrigated wheat and forages. In contrast, the third simulation (S3-DRY describes a drought year, which leads to reduced dairy output and reduced corn and wheat. Consumer and producer surplus losses are approximately $10 million in this simulation. The simulation results also demonstrate the importance of the modeling trade when studying climate change in a small open economy, and of linking crop and livestock activities to quantify overall sector effects. This model has not taken into account farmers’ adaptation strategies, which would reduce the climate impact on yields, nor has it reflected climate-induced shifts in planting decisions and production

  16. Displacing use

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a hum...

  17. Displacement Ventilation

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats;

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment in the...

  18. Water displacement by cyanogold complexes in binuclear nickel(II) compounds based on bridging oxalate. Synthesis, structural diversity, magnetic properties, and DFT calculations.

    Vitoria, Pablo; Muga, Iñaki; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Luque, Antonio; Román, Pascual; Lezama, Luis; Zúniga, F Javier; Beitia, Javier I

    2003-02-24

    Several cyanogold complexes react with the binuclear nickel complex [(Ni(dien)(H(2)O))(2)(mu-ox)](PF(6))(2).2H(2)O to give the compounds [(Ni(dien)(H(2)O))(2)(mu-ox)]Br(2) (1), [(Ni(dien)(Au(CN)(2)))(2)(mu-ox)] (2), and [(Ni(dien))(2)(mu-ox)(mu-Au(CN)(4))](PF(6)) (3) (dien, diethilenetriamine; ox, oxalate). In the case of compounds 2 and 3, water displacement by the corresponding cyanogold complex takes place, whereas compound 1 is formed by a substitution of the anion. The crystal structures of compounds 1 and 2 present a 2D arrangement where the layers are connected by van der Waals forces (1) or N-H.Ntbd1;C hydrogen bonds (2), where each binuclear complex is hydrogen bonded to its neighbors, whereas compound 3 presents a novel structure where the tetracyanoaurate acts as a bridging ligand to give a polymeric compound. Magnetic studies of these compounds reveal an antiferromagnetic behavior. Finally, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on isolated models of compounds 2 and 3 in order to gain some insight about the different behavior of the [Au(CN)(2)](-) and [Au(CN)(4)](-) groups as ligands and proton acceptors in hydrogen bonds. PMID:12588126

  19. Computing the Kirkwood g-Factor by Combining Constant Maxwell Electric Field and Electric Displacement Simulations: Application to the Dielectric Constant of Liquid Water.

    Zhang, Chao; Hutter, Jürg; Sprik, Michiel

    2016-07-21

    In his classic 1939 paper, Kirkwood linked the macroscopic dielectric constant of polar liquids to the local orientational order as measured by the g-factor (later named after him) and suggested that the corresponding dielectric constant at short-range is effectively equal to the macroscopic value just after "a distance of molecular magnitude" [ Kirkwood, J. Chem. Phys., 1939, 7, 911 ]. Here, we show a simple approach to extract the short-ranged Kirkwood g-factor from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation by superposing the outcomes of constant electric field E and constant electric displacement D simulations [ Zhang and Sprik, Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2016, 93, 144201 ]. Rather than from the notoriously slow fluctuations of the dipole moment of the full MD cell, the dielectric constant can now be estimated from dipole fluctuations at short-range, accelerating the convergence. Exploiting this feature, we computed the bulk dielectric constant of liquid water modeled in the generalized gradient approximation (PBE) to density functional theory and found it to be at least 40% larger than the experimental value. PMID:27352038

  20. Seafloor slow vertical displacement inferred by sea bottom pressure measurements in shallow water: an application to the Campi Flegrei volcanic area

    Chierici, Francesco; Pignagnoli, Luca; Iannaccone, Giovanni; Guardato, Sergio; Locritani, Marina; Embriaco, Davide; Donnarumma, Gian Paolo; La Rocca, Adriano; Pinto, Salvatore; Beranzoli, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The vertical component of sea floor displacement in tectonic or volcanically active areas can be observed using sea bottom pressure recorders. These measurements are usually acquired in areas affected by strong dynamics with large vertical displacement and in deep water, where the noise induced by the sea state is low. Under these conditions the contribution of the variation of sea water density and the contribution of the instrumental drift - a typical feature of the bottom pressure recorders - can be negligible. We have developed a new methodology to monitor vertical sea floor displacement both in areas with small and slow deformation, and in shallow water. We take advantage of bottom pressure recorder data, augmented with ancillary sea level, barometric and water physical parameters measurements. We have applied this method to the data collected by a bottom pressure recorder deployed at 100 m w.d. in the Campi Flegrei Caldera as part of CUMAS multiparameter monitoring system. During several months of 2011 we have observed a small uplift episode related to the bradiseismic activity of the area. These observations are compatible with other geodetic data recorded in the region and provide unprecedented measurements of the vertical deformation in the marine area.

  1. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    Bo Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system.

  2. Water chemistry management during hot functional test

    To reduce radiation exposure in light water reactor, it is important decrease radioactive corrosion product which is a radiation source. One of the countermeasures is to improve water quality during plant trial operation to form a stable oxide film and to minimize metal release to the coolant at the beginning of commercial operation. This study reviews the optimum water quality conditions to form a chromium rich oxide film during hot functional test (HFT) that is thought to be stable under the PWR condition and reduce the release of Ni that is the source of Co-58, the main radiation source of exposure. (author)

  3. The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging

    Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

  4. Stresses and Displacements in Steel-Lined Pressure Tunnels and Shafts in Anisotropic Rock Under Quasi-Static Internal Water Pressure

    Pachoud, Alexandre J.; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    Steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts are constructed to convey water from reservoirs to hydroelectric power plants. They are multilayer structures made of a steel liner, a cracked backfill concrete layer, a cracked or loosened near-field rock zone and a sound far-field rock zone. Designers often assume isotropic behavior of the far-field rock, considering the most unfavorable rock mass elastic modulus measured in situ, and a quasi-static internal water pressure. Such a conventional model is thus axisymmetrical and has an analytical solution for stresses and displacements. However, rock masses often have an anisotropic behavior and such isotropic assumption is usually conservative in terms of quasi-static maximum stresses in the steel liner. In this work, the stresses and displacements in steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock mass are studied by means of the finite element method. A quasi-static internal water pressure is considered. The materials are considered linear elastic, and tied contact is assumed between the layers. The constitutive models used for the rock mass and the cracked layers are presented and the practical ranges of variation of the parameters are discussed. An extensive systematic parametric study is performed and stresses and displacements in the steel liner and in the far-field rock mass are presented. Finally, correction factors are derived to be included in the axisymmetrical solution which allow a rapid estimate of the maximum stresses in the steel liners of pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock.

  5. Combined Effects of Mass and Velocity on Forward Displacement and Phenomenological Ratings: A Functional Measurement Approach to the Momentum Metaphor

    De Sa Teixeira, Nuno; Oliveira, Armando Monica; Amorim, Michel-Ange

    2010-01-01

    Representational Momentum (RepMo) refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as…

  6. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    Mehmet Kerem Canbora; Ozkan Kose; Atilla Polat; Levent Konukoglu; Mucahit Gorgec

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification ...

  7. Digital displacements

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    digital reforms in Denmark and shows how citizen service is transformed from service to support. The frontline employee’s classical tasks such as casework are being displaced into educational and support-oriented tasks with less professional content. Thus an unintended effect of digitisation is blurred......In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...... digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...

  8. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [99mTc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.)

  9. Self-Oscillated Ultrasonic Stepping Motor with Function of Angular Displacement Self-Correction: Nonaxisymmetric ((2,1))-Mode Thin Disk Motor

    Chen, Xiaoduo; Aoyagi, Manabu; Kusakabe, Chiharu; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    1994-05-01

    This paper deals with experimental investigation of a self-oscillated open-loop driving motor using a slitted rotor and a nonaxisymmetric ((2,1)) vibration mode thin annular disk which has four projection teeth on its inner circumference. This motor is suitable for application to watches because it can be constructed in a thin configuration and the slitted rotor enables the self-correction of angular displacement. In the experiment, two types of self-oscillation circuits were investigated for suitable driving. The results were that the self-oscillated driving motor could be achieved by using an operational amplifier and some inverter IC elements. That is, the self-correction function of the angular displacement of a stepping motor was confirmed in the case of the nonaxisymmetric-mode disk motor.

  10. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita, E-mail: charus@chemistry.iitd.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Murari [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor [Science Institute, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-11-07

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O–O–O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O–O–O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  11. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  12. Molecular Density Functional Theory of Water

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Borgis, Daniel; 10.1021/jz301956b

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional implementations of liquid state theories offer an efficient alternative to computer simulations for the atomic-level description of aqueous solutions in complex environments. In this context, we present a (classical) molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water that is derived from first principles and is based on two classical density fields, a scalar one, the particle density, and a vectorial one, the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric constants. It has to be complemented by a solute-solvent three-body term that reinforces tetrahedral order at short range. The approach is shown to provide the correct three-dimensional microscopic solvation profile around various molecular solutes, possibly possessing H-bonding sites, at a computer cost two-three orders of magnitude lower tha...

  13. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    Canbora, Mehmet Kerem; Kose, Ozkan; Polat, Atilla; Konukoglu, Levent; Gorgec, Mucahit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification and all met the displacement criteria described by Neer. Standard physical therapy program was applied. Patients were evaluated clinically using Constant shoulder score, quick form of disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand score and visual analog scale. At the final follow-up, humeral head position in the coronal plane was assessed with neck-shaft angle. Any complication was recorded during the treatment period. Correlation between the functional outcomes and final radiologic results were statistically analyzed. Results: Data were analyzed from 29 cases (21 female, 8 male) with a mean age was 78 ± 8.6 years (range 65-93 years). The mean follow-up period was 18.2 ± 4.07 months (range 12-26 months). Functional results were significantly related with initial fragmentation. However, there was no correlation between the functional outcomes and the final geometry of the humeral head. Despite the union occurred with deformity, the functional outcome were satisfactory. Conclusion: The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results. PMID:24167402

  14. Combined effects of Mass and Velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: a functional measurement approach to the Momentum metaphor

    Michel-Ange Amorim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Representational Momentum (RepMo refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as a second-order isomorphism between mental representations and principles of the physical world. However, very few studies have addressed the effects of mass on RepMo, and consistent replications of the null effect are lacking. The extent of motor engagement of the observers in RepMo tasks has, on the other hand, been suggested to determine the occurrence of the phenomenon; however, no systematic investigations were made of the degree to which it might modulate the effect of target mass. In the present work, we use Information Integration Theory to study the joint effects of different motor responses, target velocity and target mass on RepMo, and also of velocity and target mass on rating responses. Outcomes point not only to an effect of mass on RepMo, as to a differential effect of response modality on kinematic (e.g., velocity and dynamic (e.g., mass variables. Comparisons of patterns of mislocalisation with phenomenological ratings suggest that simplification of physical principles, rather than strict internalization or isomorphism per se, might underlie RepMo.

  15. Asymmetrical Deterministic Lateral Displacement Gaps for Dual Functions of Enhanced Separation and Throughput of Red Blood Cells

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Salafi, Thoriq; Chen, Chia-Hung; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) method for particle separation in microfluidic devices has been extensively used for particle separation in recent years due to its high resolution and robust separation. DLD has shown versatility for a wide spectrum of applications for sorting of micro particles such as parasites, blood cells to bacteria and DNA. DLD model is designed for spherical particles and efficient separation of blood cells is challenging due to non-uniform shape and size. Moreover, separation in sub-micron regime requires the gap size of DLD systems to be reduced which exponentially increases the device resistance, resulting in greatly reduced throughput. This paper shows how simple application of asymmetrical DLD gap-size by changing the ratio of lateral-gap (GL) to downstream-gap (GD) enables efficient separation of RBCs without greatly restricting throughput. This method reduces the need for challenging fabrication of DLD pillars and provides new insight to the current DLD model. The separation shows an increase in DLD critical diameter resolution (separate smaller particles) and increase selectivity for non-spherical RBCs. The RBCs separate better as compared to standard DLD model with symmetrical gap sizes. This method can be applied to separate non-spherical bacteria or sub-micron particles to enhance throughput and DLD resolution.

  16. Water soluble azido polyisocyanopeptides as functional β-sheet mimics

    Schwartz, Erik; Koepf, Matthieu; Kitto, Heather J.; Espelt, Mónica; Nebot-Carda, Vicent J.; Gelder, de Rene; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Rowan, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    The design and synthesis of functional biomimetic water soluble polymers with a defined secondary structure has been developed using β-sheet polyisocyanopeptide scaffolds. Water soluble isocyanopolymers were prepared by random copolymerisation of the azido functionalized isocyanopeptides with nonfun

  17. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La11B6 and EuB6 as a function of temperature

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data and the local structure from La LIII-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) are presented for a La11B6 sample as a function of temperature (∼10 - 320K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB6 sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites obtained from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB6 indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB6 place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites

  18. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  19. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    Good, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  20. The Role of Drinking Water Shortages on Human Psychological Functioning

    Siamak Khodarahimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded on an ecopsychological approach towards the effect of water shortages on human psychological functioning. The purpose of this study was to: (1 to examine the prevalence of psychological problems in rural residents with and without water shortages; (2 to evaluate human attributions about the possible causes of water scarcity; (3 to explore human coping styles towards water shortage; and (4 to recognize the role of sociocultural factors on the aforesaid factors. Participants included 3850 Iranian rural residents, those with water shortages (WWS, and those without water shortages (WOWS. A demographic questionnaire and several self-rating measures were used. Resulting data indicates that the prevalence of mental health problems is significantly higher in rural residents who suffer with water shortages. Attributional styles towards water shortages consisted of four components: personal, social, natural, and organizational. Coping styles of participants (with water shortages indicated an emotional-avoidant coping style, the utilization of water consumption methods to optimize water usage, the use of water-free technologies, social adaptation to life with regards to water, and the application of high quality technologies for water saving. Demographic and sociocultural factors influence psychological functioning with regards to water scarcity. This study demonstrates that mental health problems are more prevalent in areas with water shortages. It also indicates the impact of attributional styles, coping methods and the role of demographic and sociocultural factors on psychological functioning when water shortages occur,

  1. Generation of plastic influence functions for J-integral and crack opening displacement of thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack

    Fracture mechanics parameters such as the J-integral and crack opening displacement (COD), are necessary for Leak-Before-Break (LBB) evaluation. The famous two estimation methods, the GE/EPRI and the Reference Stress Method (RSM), have their applicability limit with regard to the ratio of a pipe mean radius to thickness (Rm/t). In order to extend their applicability limit to a thin walled pipe, several finite element analyses are performed for the J-integral and COD, and then new plastic influence functions are developed for thin-walled pipes with a short circumferential through-wall crack. With the newly generated plastic influence functions, the GE/EPRI and the RSM give closer results with those obtained from detailed finite element analyses. In addition, C*-integral and COD rate are estimated by using the new plastic influence functions and they are well matched with elastic–creep finite element analysis results under the power-law creep condition. Since the LBB concept can be applied to a piping system in a Korean Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) which is designed to have thin-walled pipes and to operate in high temperature enough to cause creep, this paper can be applied for the LBB assessment of thin-walled pipes with a short through-wall crack in the SFR

  2. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.

    Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2007-09-01

    Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:17927413

  3. Job Displacement and Crime

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing a...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  4. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  5. Job Displacement and Crime

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities.......This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced...... individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits no...

  6. Electrochemical determination of microRNAs based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction coupled with multienzyme functionalized magnetic micro-carriers.

    Ma, Wen; Situ, Bo; Lv, Weifeng; Li, Bo; Yin, Xiaomao; Vadgama, Pankaj; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Wen

    2016-06-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) show great potential for disease diagnostics due to their specific molecular profiles. Detection of miRNAs remains challenging and often requires sophisticated platforms. Here we report a multienzyme-functionalized magnetic microcarriers-assisted isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction (ISDPR) for quantitative detection of miRNAs. Magnetic micro-carriers (MMCs) were functionalized with molecular beacons to enable miRNAs recognition and magnetic separation. The target miRNAs triggered a phi29-mediated ISDPR, which can produce biotin-modified sequences on the MMCs. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase was then conjugated to the MMC surface through biotin-streptavidin interactions. In the presence of 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid, miRNAs were quantitatively determined on a screen-printed carbon electrode from the anodic current of the enzymatic product. We show that this method enables detection of miRNAs as low as 9 fM and allows the discrimination of one base mismatched sequence. The proposed method was also successfully applied to analyze miRNAs in clinical tumor samples. This paper reports a new strategy for miRNAs analysis with high sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. It would be particularly useful for rapid point-of-care testing of miRNAs in clinical laboratory. PMID:26855164

  7. Optimization of an exchange-correlation density functional for water

    Fritz, Michelle; Fernández-Serra, Marivi; Soler, José M.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a method, that we call data projection onto parameter space (DPPS), to optimize an energy functional of the electron density, so that it reproduces a dataset of experimental magnitudes. Our scheme, based on Bayes theorem, constrains the optimized functional not to depart unphysically from existing ab initio functionals. The resulting functional maximizes the probability of being the "correct" parameterization of a given functional form, in the sense of Bayes theory. The application of DPPS to water sheds new light on why density functional theory has performed rather poorly for liquid water, on what improvements are needed, and on the intrinsic limitations of the generalized gradient approximation to electron exchange and correlation. Finally, we present tests of our water-optimized functional, that we call vdW-DF-w, showing that it performs very well for a variety of condensed water systems.

  8. Optimization of an exchange-correlation density functional for water.

    Fritz, Michelle; Fernández-Serra, Marivi; Soler, José M

    2016-06-14

    We describe a method, that we call data projection onto parameter space (DPPS), to optimize an energy functional of the electron density, so that it reproduces a dataset of experimental magnitudes. Our scheme, based on Bayes theorem, constrains the optimized functional not to depart unphysically from existing ab initio functionals. The resulting functional maximizes the probability of being the "correct" parameterization of a given functional form, in the sense of Bayes theory. The application of DPPS to water sheds new light on why density functional theory has performed rather poorly for liquid water, on what improvements are needed, and on the intrinsic limitations of the generalized gradient approximation to electron exchange and correlation. Finally, we present tests of our water-optimized functional, that we call vdW-DF-w, showing that it performs very well for a variety of condensed water systems. PMID:27305990

  9. Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor

    The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

  10. Displacement solid-phase extraction on mercapto-functionalized magnetite microspheres for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric determination of trace noble metals

    A flow injection online displacement solid-phase extraction (DSPE) via magnetic immobilization of mercapto-functionalized magnetite microspheres onto the inner walls of a knotted reactor (KR) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed for selective preconcentration and determination of trace noble metals (Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au) in complex matrices. Online DSPE of 2.7 mL aqueous solution gave the enhancement factors of 32-46 for the six noble metals in comparison with direct nebulization of aqueous sample solution, and the detection limits (3 s) of 2.1 ng L-1 for Ru, 1.9 ng L-1 for Rh, 2.5 ng L-1 for Pd, 1.8 ng L-1 for Ir, 1.9 ng L-1 for Pt and 1.7 ng L-1 for Au. The sample throughput of the developed method was about 20 samples h-1, and the relative standard deviation for eleven replicate determinations of the noble metals at the 30 ng L-1 level ranged from 1.2% to 2.1%. The recoveries of Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au still maintained 90% even after successive 140 cycles of DSPE. The developed method was successfully applied to selective determination of trace Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au in complex matrices.

  11. Field kites: Crop-water production functions and the timing of water application for supplementary irrigation

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is directly related to water management and water supply. The temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season can significantly influence crop yield, and the facility to manage both the timing and amount of irrigation water may result in higher yields. The crop-water production function quantitatively evaluates the relationship between seasonal water use and crop yield. Previous efforts have attempted to describe and formalize the crop-water production function as a single-variable function of seasonal water use. However, these representations do not account for the effects of temporal distribution of water use and trivialize the associated variability in yields by assuming an optimized or arbitrary temporal distribution of soil moisture. This over-simplification renders the function inappropriate for recommendations related to irrigation scheduling, water management, economically optimal irrigation, water and agricultural productivity, and assessing the role of full and supplementary irrigation. We propose field kites, a novel representation of the crop-water production function that explicitly acknowledges crop yield variability as a function of both seasonal water use and associated temporal distributions of water use. Field kites are a tool that explicitly considers the farmers' capacity to manage their water resources, to more appropriately evaluate the optimal depth of irrigation water under water-limiting conditions. The field kite for winter wheat is presented both generally and cultivar- and climate-specific for Western Canada. The field kites are constructed using AquaCrop and previously validated cultivar-specific variables. Field kites provide the tools for water authorities and policy makers to evaluate agricultural production as it relates to farm water management, and to determine appropriate policies related to developing and supporting the necessary irrigation infrastructure to increase water productivity.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel injectable and water-swelling gingival displacement materials%可注射吸水膨胀性排龈膏的制备与排龈效果评价

    徐晓华; 祝小鹏; 宁天云; 刘巍; 李全利

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制一种新型可注射、吸水膨胀性排龈材料的膏剂.方法 将吸水膨胀性高分子载体基质与高岭土、氯化铝等药物机械混合,获得一种膏剂材料.采用Expasyl(R)作为对照,体外评价其在水中的稳定性和吸水膨胀性能,通过动物实验评价其排龈效果.结果 新型排龈膏体外吸水膨胀,但是可以维持结构的完整性,不会崩解.动物实验也显示无论在牙龈高度退缩和龈沟宽度变化方面都有良好的排龈效果.结论 获得一种新型的具有良好应用前景的可注射吸水膨胀性、遇水不崩解的排龈材料.%Objective To synthesize and evaluate a novel injectable and water-swelling gingival displacement materials. Methods A kind of water-swelling polymer, kaolin and aluminum chloride were mechanically mixed at certain ratio in water solution, resulting to a novel paste materials for gingival displacement. Then, its stability in aqueous solution and water swelling properties were evaluated in vitro. The effect on gingival displacement was evaluated by animal experiments in dogs. A commercial gingival displacement materials paste of Expasyl was used as control. Results While contacting with water, the novel gingival displacement paste did not collapse, maintained its integrity structure, and could expand for adsorbing water. Animal experiments in dogs showed that the materials could lead to displace the gingival margins from the dental root surfaces. Conclusion The novel injectable and expanded gingival displacement material is efficient to retract free gingival margin with potential clinical application.

  13. A molecular density functional theory to study solvation in water

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A classical density functional theory is applied to study solvation of solutes in water. An approx- imate form of the excess functional is proposed for water. This functional requires the knowledge of pure solvent direct correlation functions. Those functions can be computed by using molecular simulations such as molecular dynamic or Monte Carlo. It is also possible to use functions that have been determined experimentally. The functional minimization gives access to the solvation free energy and to the equilibrium solvent density. Some correction to the functional are also proposed to get the proper tetrahedral order of solvent molecules around a charged solute and to reproduce the correct long range hydrophobic behavior of big apolar solutes. To proceed the numerical minimization of the functional, the theory has been discretized on two tridimensional grids, one for the space coordinates, the other for the angular coordinates, in a functional minimization code written in modern Fortran, mdft. This program i...

  14. The Role of Drinking Water Shortages on Human Psychological Functioning

    Siamak Khodarahimi; Abdolrahman Rahimian Boogar; Cheryl-anne Johnston

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded on an ecopsychological approach towards the effect of water shortages on human psychological functioning. The purpose of this study was to: (1) to examine the prevalence of psychological problems in rural residents with and without water shortages; (2) to evaluate human attributions about the possible causes of water scarcity; (3) to explore human coping styles towards water shortage; and (4) to recognize the role of sociocultural factors on the aforesaid factors. Part...

  15. A Prospective Study on Radiological and Functional Outcome of Displaced Tongue Type Intra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures Treated by Percutaneous Screw Fixation

    Hegde, Anoop; Mathias, Lawrence John; Shetty, Vikram; Shetty, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calcaneal fractures have posed a challenge to orthopaedic surgeon for many years. The major problem is to reconstruct the fracture and improve healing of the fracture and also the surrounding tissues. Anatomic restoration of the three-dimensional anatomy of the calcaneum is the goal of surgical management of calcaneal fractures. Over the years, various techniques have been developed to accomplish this goal. Aim To determine the functional outcome in displaced tongue-type calcaneal fracture treated by percutaneous screw fixation. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted from October 2012 and September 2014. A total of 23 patients with intra-articular ‘tongue type’ calcaneal fractures were included in the study. Complete clinical and radiological evaluation was done. The surgical procedure encompassed closed reduction and fixation with two criss-cross 6.5 mm cannulated cancellous across the fracture site under fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperatively, on day three ankle and toe mobilization was begun. Non-weight bearing crutch mobilization was begun on postoperative day three. Reviews were done at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks postoperatively. At 6 weeks partial weight bearing mobilization was started. Full weight bearing was begun at 12 weeks. The patient was finally reviewed at 24 weeks and assessment of ankle function was done as per the Maryland foot scoring system. Radiographs were compared and preoperative and postoperative Gissane’s and Bohler’s angles were also compared. The results were analysed as per descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage). The complications noted were documented. Results Of the 23 patients under the study, three had excellent results with mean score of 90, 17 had good results with mean score of 82.94 and three had fair results with mean score of 74. Only one patient had subtalar arthritis as a complication. No other complications were seen. Conclusion Percutaneous screw fixation of tongue type

  16. Research Paradigm of Displaced Aggression

    Tanno, Syota

    2013-01-01

    A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.

  17. Water-displacement plethysmography: a technique for the simultaneous thermal manipulation and measurement of whole-hand and whole-foot blood flows

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and validate water-displacement plethysmographs for the forearm, hand and foot that could clamp segmental skin temperature whilst simultaneously measuring cutaneous blood flow. Two experiments were performed. In the first, the forearm plethysmograph was validated against a mercury-in-silastic plethysmograph under thermoneutral conditions, with and without forearm heating. Cutaneous vascular conductance was elevated almost three-fold by this treatment, however, there were no significant differences between the two forms of plethysmography in either state (P > 0.05). In study two, hand and foot blood flows were measured under clamped thermoneutral conditions, but with three local skin temperature treatments (5, 25, 40 °C). The hand had significantly higher blood flows than the foot at both 25 °C (4.07 versus 2.20 mL.100 mL − 1.min − 1; P < 0.05) and 40 °C (8.20 versus 4.47 mL.100 mL − 1.min − 1; P < 0.05). The foot was maximally constricted during the two lower temperatures, yet the cutaneous thermal sensitivity of the hand was almost two-fold greater (P < 0.05). This evidence supports the significant role played by these appendages in heat loss and conservation, and these plethysmographs will now be used to map cutaneous vascular responses (forearm, hand, calf, foot) across combinations of core and local skin temperatures. (paper)

  18. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement

    Šulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  19. Simulation of miscible laboratory displacements by the total dispersion method

    The total dispersion method was developed to simulate first-contact miscible displacements performed in the laboratory. Simulations applying this method add sufficient dispersivity to the numerical dispersion inherent in finite differencing methods so the sum approximates the actual physical dispersion. This paper describes the application of this technique to model three floods taken from the literature and three displacements performed in a CT scanner. A key variable for modelling miscible displacements is dispersion. Numerical dispersion for both 1-point and 2-point upstream weighing was characterized as a function of grid block size and through put for an IMPES simulator. After quantifying numerical dispersion, three floods reported in the literature were simulated to confirm the total dispersion method. Recovery curves for two displacements dominated by viscous fingering that one exhibiting gravity override were modelled with good agreement. The authors' next objective was to determine if concentration profiles as well as recovery curves could be matched in a well characterized rock. First, longitudinal convective dispersion was measured for Bentheimer sandstone by a series of tritiated water displacements

  20. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    Moskowitz, Ian; Snyder, Mark A.; Mittal, Jeetain, E-mail: jeetain@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ≈ 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f – an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f < 0.4, and almost no change in flux for higher f values, similar to the change in water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior.

  1. Irradiation embrittlement mechanism of reactor pressure vessel steels of light water reactors; Effect of displacement cascade on production of copper-enriched clusters

    To investigate experimentally whether displacement cascade causes copper-enriched clusters, which is one of primarily causes of irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels, we developed a new experimental technique for measuring the number of copper-enriched clusters produced by irradiation. The technique is a way to decorate copper-enriched clusters with solute copper atoms by heating irradiated iron-based alloy with relatively high copper content. Consequently, copper-enriched clusters can be observed as copper precipitates with a transmission electron microscope. We applied the technique to iron-based alloy containing 0.9 wt% copper irradiated nickel ion at an energy of 4 MeV to 0.1 dpa at 288degC. The results showed that no copper-enriched clusters were observed in the as-irradiated alloy, whereas fine and high-density copper precipitates were observed in the irradiated alloy aged for 30 minutes at 550degC. A comparison of the estimated number density of displacement cascade with the number density of copper precipitates in the irradiated alloy aged for 30 minutes showed that the number density of displacement cascade was almost same as that of the copper precipitates. This means that the high-energy displacement cascade produces directly nuclei of copper-enriched clusters, and that the number and size of the high-energy displacement cascade are a very important scale to predict embrittlement caused by copper-enriched clusters. (author)

  2. Displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift reactor

    A displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor comprises a sectioned substantially hollow low neutron absorbing metal rod capable of displacing reactor coolant without absorbing a high amount of neutrons. The tubular sections preferably consist of stainless steel and Zircaloy tubing interconnected by a solid Zircaloy metal rod and may contain pellets for weighting the displacer rod. (author)

  3. Estimation of Water Demand of Agriculture Sector by Water-Yield Function (Case Study: Sistan Province

    Zahra Ghaffari Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I n this study, yield-water and profit function was used to obtain water demand function in agriculture sector. The results showed that the ratio of actual to potential Evapotranspiration had positive, significant effect on the ratio of actual to potential yield for wheat and barley. Also, square ratio of actual to potential Evapotranspiration had negative, significant relationship. After estimation of product function, water demand function for agriculture sector was obtained by profit function. Price elasticity of water demand for agriculture was -1.10 being less than -1 and showing that price policies can be an important factor in the control of non-optimum use of their valuable inputs.

  4. Displacement Data Assimilation

    Rosenthal, W Steven; Mariano, Arthur J; Restrepo, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information important. While the displacement transformation is not tied to any particular assimilation scheme, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  5. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups

    Lauwers, Karl; Breynaert, Eric; Rombouts, Ine; Delcour, Jan; Kirschhock, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic...

  6. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  7. Intrinsic mean-square displacements in proteins

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-07-01

    The thermal mean-square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width, and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), ribonuclease A, and staphysloccal nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  8. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    Vural, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), Ribonuclease A and Staphysloccal Nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  9. Water use efficiency and functional traits of a semiarid shrubland

    Perez-Priego, Oscar; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Carrara, Arnaud; Palomares-Palacio, Agustí; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2013-04-01

    In semiarid climates, water is the fundamental factor determining ecosystem productivity and thereby the capacity for carbon sequestration. Increased water use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of carbon dioxide assimilation (canopy photosynthesis, Pc) to water transpired (canopy evaporation, Ec), is assumed to be an adaptive strategy for sclerophyll shrublands to improve productivity and stress resistance in water-limited environments. However, the real complexity of WUE lies in its dependence on both plant physiological traits (e.g. stomatal resistance, photosynthetic capacity, leaf chemical composition, structure) and on environmental conditions (e.g. atmospheric CO2 concentration, vapour pressure deficit, temperature, light, soil water availability). We used a transient-state closed canopy-chamber to characterise CO2 and water vapour exchanges at the whole plant scale under different environmental conditions and phenological stages. Diurnal and seasonal variations in Pc, Ec and WUE were explained by both physiological and environmental variables. All species showed symmetric patterns in both Pc and Ec when not water limited, but asymmetry during summer drought when leaf water potential was low. During drought, grasses (Festuca sp.) showed a marked decline in functioning (Pc and Ec), whereas shrubs (Genista sp., Hormathophylla sp.) maintained spring-like assimilation rates all morning until stomatal controls shut down gas exchanges. While grasses showed the highest WUE when not water limited, their near senescence during summer drought yielded the lowest WUE. Shrubs showed reduced WUE under moderate drought stress, in contradiction to the assumptions made in global ecosystem models. The importance of the appropriate time-scale for calculating WUE (daily versus hourly), together with water use strategies and ecological functions of individual species, will be further discussed.

  10. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  11. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per;

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...... for further three soils and performed accurately for all three. Consequently, we suggest that the α(θ) model represents a useful strategy to predict the entire soil-water repellency characteristic curve, and thus potential risks for enhanced runoff and preferential (fingered) soil-water flow at given initial...

  12. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO3H and -NH2 groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D2O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D2O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D2O with bare SBA. (authors)

  13. Characterization of silica-functionalized carbon nanotubes dispersed in water

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to enhance the strength, toughness, and multifunctional ability of composite materials. However, suitable dispersion and interfacial bonding remain as key challenges. Composites that are formed by reactions with water, like Portland cement concrete and mortar, pose a special challenge for dispersing the inherently hydrophobic nanotubes. The hydration of Portland cement also offers a specific chemical framework for interfacial bonding. In this study, nanoscale silica functional groups are covalently bonded to CNTs to improve their dispersion in water while providing interfacial bond sites for the proposed matrix material. The bond signatures of treated nanotubes are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In situ dispersion is characterized using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and point of zero charge (PZC) measurements. At the nanoscale, interparticle spacing was greatly increased. A slight increase in the PZC after treatment indicates the importance of steric effects in the dispersion mechanism. Overall, results indicate successful functionalization and dramatically improved dispersion stability in water.

  14. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  15. Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure

    Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlani@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

  16. Time-dependent Displaced and Squeezed Number States

    Kim, S P

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the wave functions of the displaced and squeezed number states, found by Nieto, to a time-dependent harmonic oscillator with variable mass and frequency. These time-dependent displaced and squeezed number states are obtained by first squeezing and then displacing the exact number states and are exact solutions of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Further, these wave functions are the time-dependent squeezed harmonic-oscillator wave functions centered at classical trajectories.

  17. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  18. IRRIGATION PRODUCTION FUNCTIONS WITH WATER-CAPITAL SUBSTITUTION

    Shani, Uri; Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos; Zilberman, David

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of biomass growth implies that the yield of irrigated crops depends, in addition to the total amount of water applied, on irrigation scheduling during the growing period. Advanced irrigation technologies relax constraints on irrigation rates and timing, allowing to better adjust irrigation scheduling to the varying needs of the plants along the growing period. Irrigation production functions, then, should include capital (or expenditures on irrigation equipment) in addition to ag...

  19. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

  20. The photoelectric displacement converter

    Dragoner, Valeriu V.

    2005-02-01

    In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.

  1. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    Mehmet Kerem Canbora

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study show that initial fragmentation has a negative effect on the functional results. However, the changed position of the humeral head on coronal plane does not affect the final functional results.

  2. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  3. Simulation of root water uptake. II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different reduction functions

    Homaee, M.; Feddes, R.A.; Dirksen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The macroscopic root water uptake approach was used in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR to test four different pressure head-dependent reduction functions. The input parameter values were obtained from the literature and derived from extensive measurements under controlled conditions in the g

  4. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  5. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups.

    Lauwers, K; Breynaert, E; Rombouts, I; Delcour, J A; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-15

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic study of different electrolyte components showed that especially CaCl2 improved the oxidation rate of GSH. However, this effect was not observed for CYS, which indicated a strong impact of the local chemical environment on thiol oxidation kinetics. PMID:26675862

  6. Dispossession and displacement in Libya

    Rhodri C Williams

    2012-01-01

    Inability to access pre-displacement housing, land and property poses a significant obstacle to the achievement of durable solutions for most IDPs in Libya. Displacement and dispossession cannot be separated from the legacy of the Gaddafi era.

  7. Virtual Displacement in Lagrangian Dynamics

    Ray, S; Ray, Subhankar

    2004-01-01

    The confusion and ambiguity encountered by students, in understanding virtual displacement and virtual work, is addressed in this article. A definition of virtual displacement is presented that allows one to express them explicitly for both time independent and time dependent constraints. It is observed that for time independent constraints the virtual displacements are the displacements allowed by the constraints. However this is not so for a general time dependent case. For simple physical systems, it is shown that, the work done on virtual displacements by the constraint forces is zero in both the situations. For allowed displacements however, this is not always true. It is also demonstrated that when constraint forces do zero work on virtual displacement, as defined here, we have a solvable mechanical problem. We identify this special class of constraints, physically realized and solvable, as the ideal constraints. The concept of virtual displacement and the principle of zero virtual work by constraint fo...

  8. Displacement cascades in polyatomic materials

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Using a continuous-slowing-down, random amorphous material model, we have studied displacement cascades in a number of diatomic materials. This paper reviews a number of previous results that elucidate the effects of atomic mass, recoil energy, displacement energy, capture energy and material stoichiometry on the numbers of displacements in a cascade. The displacement cascade reveals a complex structure that is dependent on the type of irradiation and the material properties. Conclusions related to damage analysis for fusion reactors are given.

  9. Cleaning and Dewatering Fine Coal using Hydrophobic Displacement

    Smith, Kara E.

    2008-01-01

    A new processing technique, known as hydrophobic displacement, was explored as a means of simultaneously removing both mineral matter and surface moisture from coal in a single process. Previous thermodynamic analysis suggests that coal moisture will be spontaneously displaced by any oil with a contact angle greater than ninety degrees in water. Based on these results, six methods of hydrophobic displacement were evaluated: hand shaking, screening, air classification, centrifugation, filtra...

  10. [Functionally-relevant conformational dynamics of water-soluble proteins].

    Novikov, G V; Sivozhelezov, V S; Shaĭtan, K V

    2013-01-01

    A study is reported of the functional-relevant dynamics of three typical water-soluble proteins: Calmodulin, Src-tyrosine kinase as well as repressor of Trp operon. Application of the state-of-art methods of structural bioinformatics allowed to identify dynamics seen in the X-ray structures of the investigated proteins associated with their specific biological functions. In addition, Normal Mode analysis technique revealed the most probable directions of the functionally-relevant motions for all that proteins were also predicted. Importantly, overall type of the motions observed on the lowest-frequency modes was very similar to the motions seen from the analysis of the X-ray data of the examined macromolecules. Thereby it was shown that the large-scale as well as local conformational motions of the proteins might be predetermined already at the level of their tertiary structures. In particular, the determining factor might be the specific fold of the alpha-helixes. Thus functionally-relevant in vivo dynamics of the investigated proteins might be evolutionally formed by means of natural selection at the level of the spatial topology. PMID:23705506

  11. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Tucher Guilherme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  12. Density-functional study of photoinduced water splitting

    We investigate the dynamics of water splitting on dye-sensitized metal (Ti, Cu) oxide surfaces, induced by direct sunlight excitation. In this study, we will consider the typical photoexcitation-followed-by-injection scheme, treating electron-injection and water splitting dynamics as independent events. The simultaneous modeling of the molecular motion and the quantum nonadiabatic transitions is achieved via the computation of the low-lying electronic states along several alternative reaction paths. Electronic structure calculations are based on a B3LYP-DFT Hamiltonian. The proposed approach combines an atomistic description of the reactants and of the immediate region of the surface, while the vibrational dynamics of the substrate is modeled as an effective bath leading to dissipation effects. The use of density-functional theory to solve the many- body electronic problem allows investigating the atomic motion of the water molecules and of a representative part of the substrate, thereby providing a theoretical and computational model capable to account simultaneously for the molecular character of the dye molecule and for the bulk properties of the surface. Furthermore, the insight emerging from this fundamental modeling can be used to optimize the chemical composition of the system to attain high incident-photon-flux-to-hydrogen-yield ratios. (full text)

  13. Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.

    Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

  14. Nonlinear Brownian motion - mean square displacement

    W.Ebeling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic dynamics of self-propelled Brownian particles is studied by means of the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck approach. We model the driving by a nonlinear friction function which has a negative part at small velocities, leading to active Brownian motion of the particles. The mean square displacement is estimated analytically and compared with numerical simulations.

  15. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    provide a guideline for a sustainable exploration of groundwater resources within the investigated regions, relating to population movements and potential of aquifers. To achieve these objectives a) groundwater samples are collected and analyzed (microbiologically, chemically and physically) from all types of water points, boreholes and "protected" springs, during rainy, dry and intermediate seasons, b) a network of piezometers is being installed for monitoring groundwater level, and comparison with available rainfall data will define groundwater balance. During these steps results are compared with the population's displacement and density in order to quantify the consequences towards the groundwater resources. Preliminary results after microbiological analysis show the inadequacy of traditional "protected" springs in providing safe water. Feacal pollution is observed in "protected" springs even though it was not being observed before and during rehabilitation. It is mainly due to recent population concentration around the available water resources and the lack of comprehensive hydrogeological study of the functioning of the near surface aquifers. Accordingly all operations concerning spring rehabilitation are on hold. No evidence regarding microbiological contamination was found from borehole water samples. However, high concentration in ferrous iron and total iron was found in several boreholes. Concentrations in the water of weathered bedrock are expected and specific treatment is necessary.

  16. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  17. Control of DNA Strand Displacement Kinetics Using Toehold Exchange

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-01-01

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions...

  18. Strategies for displacing oil

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  19. Displacing the patient

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    target groups for which information can be standardized. In the latter approach (market orientation), the patient is also a resource for organizational development. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure that makes it possible to streamline the organization's care...... in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on situational analysis of internal documents, the paper gives an empirical account of the work of strategic documents and explores how the documents organize patient communication through displacements of the patient. This paper shows that the hospital’s patient...... communication is not only about disease treatment, but also about ‘information treatment’ for the purpose of increasing patient satisfaction at the hospital. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses both a care-oriented approach to the patient and also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous...

  20. Displacing the Patient

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... 2005) the analysis examines how the hospital’s patient communication is not just about disease treatment, but rather about information treatment of the patient in order to attain a high level of patient satisfaction. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses care-oriented understandings of the patient...

  1. Displacing the patient

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2012-01-01

    a care-oriented approach to the patient and also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardized. In the latter approach (market orientation), the patient is also a resource for organizational development. Overall, the strategy presents an......This analysis is based on an empirical study of a Danish hospital‟s communication programme entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper explores how strategic documents of the programme organize the communication work through situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological...... elements from situational analysis (Clarke 2005) the analysis examines how the hospital‟s patient communication is not only about disease treatment, but rather about information treatment of the patient in order to attain a high level of patient satisfaction. The goal of patient satisfaction addresses both...

  2. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Nanying Shentu; Qing Li; Xiong Li; Renyuan Tong; Nankai Shentu; Guoqing Jiang; Guohua Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic el...

  3. Nitrate decontamination through functionalized chitosan in brackish water.

    Appunni, Sowmya; Rajesh, Mathur P; Prabhakar, Sivaraman

    2016-08-20

    N, N, N-Triethyl ammonium functionalized cross-linked chitosan beads (TEACCB) was prepared by alkylation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads to remove nitrate from brackish water. Physico-chemical characteristics of TEACCB were analyzed using FTIR, SEM, EDAX, TGA, DTA, BET surface area, swelling ratio and pHzpc. The maximum nitrate removal capacity of TEACCB was 2.26meq/g and is higher than other reported chitosan based adsorbents. Nitrate removal ratio in the presence and absence of common anions like chloride and sulphate demonstrated the selectively of TEACCB towards nitrate. The kinetic data of nitrate removal fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that nitrate removal could be spontaneous and exothermic in nature. TEACCB was reused with 100% efficiency after regenerating with 0.05N HCl. Column study was carried out to remove nitrate from brackish water. These results are very significant to develop TEACCB based nitrate removal technology with great efficiency. PMID:27178960

  4. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  5. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  6. Modeling Non-aqueous Phase Liquid Displacement Process

    Yang Zhenqing; Shao Changjin; Zhou Guanggang; Qiu Chao

    2007-01-01

    A pore-network model physically based on pore level multiphase flow was used to study the water-non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) displacement process, especially the effects of wettability, water-NAPL interfacial tension, the fraction of NAPL-wet pores, and initial water saturation on the displacement. The computed data show that with the wettability of the mineral surfaces changing from strongly water-wet to NAPL-wet, capillary pressure and the NAPL relative permeability gradually decrease, while water-NAPL interfacial tension has little effect on water relative permeability, but initial water saturation has a strong effect on water and NAPL relative permeabilities. The analytical results may help to understand the micro-structure displacement process of non-aqueous phase liquid and to provide the theoretical basis for controlling NAPL migration.

  7. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  8. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  9. Measurement of Relative Permeability Curve for the Volcanic-Rock by Unsteady-State Water Displacement by Gas%非稳态气驱水法火山岩相对渗透率曲线实验

    徐子健; 杨双春; 佟乐; 王云

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic-rock reservoir belongs to extremely low permeability gas reservoir.However,as with natural holes and rifts,it can be for industrial development.Relative permeability curve is an important data for dynamic analysis and numerical simulate of gas reservoir development.It illustrated by the case of a Jilin Province's volcanic-rock gas reservoir,and measured the relative permeability curve by unsteady-state water displacement by gas.The results show:It had a high bound water saturation,residual gas saturation and water saturation in isotonic point;it also had a low relative permeability in isotonic point and a low water relative permeability in endpoint;confining pressure and displacement pressure had a significant impact to the results;volcanic-rock reservoir had a serious heterogeneity.%火山岩储层属于特低渗透率气藏,但是由于具有较多的天然气孔,裂缝发育,因此可进行工业化开发。气水相对渗透率曲线在气藏开发的动态分析和数值模拟中是一项重要的参考资料。以吉林某火山岩气藏岩心为例,使用非稳态气驱水法,测定并绘制了火山岩岩心的气水相对渗透率曲线。结果表明,束缚水饱和度、残余气饱和度及等渗点处含水饱和度均较高,等渗点处相对渗透率较低,端点处水相相对渗透率较低;围压及驱替压差对结果有重要影响;火山岩储层非均质性严重。

  10. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  11. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  12. Box girder vertical displacement monitoring for Xujiawan continuous rigid aqueduct water filling test%徐家湾连续刚构渡槽充水试验箱梁竖向位移监测

    张健; 钟伟

    2016-01-01

    为了检验徐家湾连续刚构渡槽箱梁的安全性能,经过近42天5级加载充水试验,监测结果表明:徐家湾渡槽箱梁竖向位移与设计理论值一致,渡槽施工质量良好,结构安全。其成果可供类似连续刚构渡槽充水试验参考。%In order to check the safety of box girder of Xujiawan continuous rigid aqueduct,5-grade loading water filling test was conducted for nearly 45 days. The results of monitoring demonstrate the vertical displacement is identical with the design value,the construction quality is good,and the structure is safe. The results also can be reference for water filling test of similar rigid aqueduct.

  13. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Hong Yao; Zhen You; Bo Liu

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biologi...

  14. NMR visualization of displacement correlations for flow in porous media.

    Khrapitchev, A A; Stapf, S; Callaghan, P T

    2002-11-01

    The temporal correlations of velocities for both water and a water-glycerol mixture flowing through a random packings of monodisperse spherical particles have been investigated using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. By combining various flow rates, fluid viscosities, and bead sizes, a wide range of flow parameters has been covered, the dimensionless Peclet number ranging from 100 to 100 000. The velocity exchange spectroscopy (VEXSY) technique has been employed to measure the correlation between velocities during two intervals separated from each other by a mixing time tau(m). This time is made both large and small compared with the time constant tau(c), required for a fluid element possessing the average flow velocity to cover a distance equal to the characteristic size in the system, the bead diameter. The two-dimensional conditional probability of displacement resulting from the VEXSY method reveals the existence of different "subensembles" of molecules, including a slow moving pool whose displacement is dominated by Brownian motion, an intermediate ensemble whose velocities change little over the mixing time, and a fast flowing ensemble which loses correlation due to mechanical dispersion. We find that that the approach to asymptotic dispersion, as tau(c)/tau(m) increases, depends strongly on the Peclet number, the deviation of the velocity autocorrelation function from a monoexponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process becoming more pronounced with increasing Peclet number. PMID:12513475

  15. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  16. The management of climate displacement

    Scott Leckie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of those who have fought against displacement now find themselves being advocates for resettlement and relocation. Knowing that displacements will occur as a result of climate change,the humanitarian community will need to work pre-emptively with communities identified as likely to be threatened on the land-based solutions that may be available to them.

  17. A displacement-doubling prism

    A novel prism has been devised which can be used in place of the ‘flag’ in an optical shadow-sensing type of displacement sensor, for example. In this way, theoretically the displacement sensitivity of the sensor can be doubled. Such a prism has been manufactured, and its displacement-doubling property has been verified. - Highlights: • A new type of glass prism doubles linear displacement of optical beams. • Optical operation has been verified. • Light beams enter and exit at normal incidence to prism's windows. • Optical path length through prism remains constant, as prism is moved. • Designed to double the displacement sensitivity of knife-edge shadow sensors

  18. Ultrasonography for non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children

    ZHANG Jing-dong; CHEN Hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children.Methods: Nine children aged 2-9 years with non-displaced or mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures were examined by high-resolution ultrasonography.The fracture line through the joint surface was visualized by ultrasonography in 6 case,in which closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was performed on 3 patients and other 3 patients did not receive the treatment because of patients' or their parents'refusal.In the remaining 3 children,ultrasonography did not reveal the cartilaginous trochle involvement at the joint surface and conservative treatment was adopted.Results: The average follow-up period was 8 months.The sonographic findings were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging in one child who received conservative treatment and another child who received percutaneous pinning.The elbow function and fractttre healing were good in cases received closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.Among the three cases who refused to receive closed reduction and internal f'txation,re-displacement occurred in 1 case and delayed union in 1 case.All three cases receiving conservative treatment had good results both in elbow function and fracture healing.Conclusion: High-resolution ultrasonography enable to reveal non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures as well as to ascertain whether the cartilaginous trochlea humeri was involved.For these cases,arthrography or magnetic resonance imaging is unnecessary.

  19. Hot functional testing of the pressurized heavy water reactor plant Atucha II with light water

    The two pressurized heavy water reactors PHWR Atucha I (designed and built by S/KWU, now AREVA), and Atucha II (designed by S/KWU and plant construction now completed by NA-SA) are owned by Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA). Atucha II was designed in the 1980'ies in parallel to the two most recent S/KWU PWR generations Prekonvoi and Konvoi. Its basic design has been updated and optimized including also backfitting of components and systems for severe accident management. The gross electric power of the plant is 745 MWe. Construction and commissioning of Atucha II has been resumed by NA-SA after a work stop in the 1990'ies and is now almost completed. Hot functional testing HFT was performed in two phases in September and October 2013 and in March and April 2014. Hot functional testing was performed with light water and the fuel assemblies loaded. The chemistry program for the HFT was derived from practices and experience gathered at other S/KWU designed PWRs during HFTs and consisted of the following main targets and requirements: (1) Low chloride and sulfate concentrations close to normal operation values specified in the VGB water chemistry guideline for power operation of PWR plants; (2) Thorough oxygen removal during heat-up and reducing conditions through N2H4 dosing; (3) High pH value (target range 1.5 to 2 ppm Li); (4) Passivation treatment of the nuclear steam supply system NSSS at temperatures of at least 260°C for a time period of at least 120 hours; (5) Zinc addition at a constant rate of 20 g Zn per day throughout the various HFT phases. Zinc dosing was begun during the first heat-up of the plant at temperatures above approx. 150°C. Daily measurement of the zinc concentration for process control was not necessary and not required due to the elaborated zinc application procedure. The main results of the chemistry program for the HFT of plant are described and evaluated in this contribution. Data shows that all chemistry targets were met

  20. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; A. K. Chapagain

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of water used from domestic water resources; the external water footprint is the volume of water used in other countries to produce goods and services imported and consumed by the inhabitants of the coun...

  1. Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. The internal water footprint is the volume of wat

  2. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle fractures is based on the notion of elevated intraarticular contact pressures with lateral displacement. To diagnose these injuries, we presumed that in patients with a fibular fracture with at least ...

  3. New Methods of Fitting the Membership Function of Oceanic Water Masses

    LI Fengqi; XIE Jun; LI Yao

    2004-01-01

    After reviewing the analytical theories of T-S curve, some methods of T-S relationship, and fuzzy sets for studying water masses, new methods of fitting the membership function of oceanic water masses are presented based on the characteristics of T-S curve family of oceanic water masses. The membership functions of oceanic Subsurface Water Mass with high salinity and Intermediate Water Mass with low salinity are fitted and discussed using the new methods. The proposed methods are useful in analyzing the mixing and modifying processes of these water masses, especially in tracing their sources.The principles and formulae of the new methods and examples are given.

  4. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    10B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH)4-) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10B and 11B

  5. Internal displacement in eastern Burma

    Heather Rae

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of post-independent Burma is characterisedby numerous conflicts in this extraordinarily heterogeneous country. Since military rule began in 196 2 Burmahas witnessed gross human rights abuses andmassive displacement.

  6. Impact of electrically activated water fractions on functional and processing properties of beef and pork

    Віннікова, Людмила Григорівна; Пронькіна, Ксенія Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the influence of electrically activated water on functional and processing properties of beef and pork. It determines the dependence of pH, water-binding capacity, and losses during heating of test items on induced mixture of electrically activated water fractions. The article establishes that using electrically activated water fractions within ratio range of 30/70 – 100 % catholyte allows to purposefully change the active acidity of minced beef and pork; to change water-bin...

  7. Measurement of chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave

    Li, Hui; Lv, Hao; Jiao, Teng; Lu, Guohua; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhao; Liu, Miao; Jing, Xijing; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of chest wall displacement is an important approach for measuring mechanics of chest wall, which has considerable significance for assessing respiratory system and diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, existing optical methods for measuring chest wall displacement are inconvenient for some specific patients such as the female patients and the patients with bandaged chest. In this letter, we proposed a method for measuring chest wall displacement based on terahertz wave and established corresponding mathematic model and set up a terahertz measurement system. The main advantages of this method are that it can measure the chest wall displacement of the subjects without taking off clothes or arranging any markers. To validate this method and assess the performance of the terahertz system, in vitro, the displacement of a water module driven by a linear guide rail was measured by the terahertz system and compared with the actual displacement of the water module. The results showed that the waveforms measured with two methods have a good agreement, and the relative error is less than 5% and sufficiently good for measurement demands. In vivo, the synchronous experiment was performed on five human volunteers with the terahertz system and a respiratory belt transducer. The results demonstrate that this method has good performance and promising prospects for measuring chest wall displacement.

  8. A novel linear displacement sensor

    Yang, Ji-sen; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xi-hou; Zhang, Tian-heng

    2011-12-01

    With development of time grating technology in the past 10 years, the theory of using time to measure spatial displacement has been completed greatly. In the study of time grating, one novel linear displacement sensor is proposed based on the measurement principles of time grating. The measurement principles of linear displacement are similar to that of angular displacement. Both of them need one endless coordinate with uniform velocity. The theory of linear AC motor is used, and the three-phase winding with equal division space of 120° and three-phase exciting signal with uniform time are utilized to generate the endless moving coordinate with uniform velocity. The magnetic traveling wave arises from the left endpoint and disappears in the right endpoint, and it travels pole pitch distance of W during the periodic time of T with the uniform velocity. When magnetic traveling wave passes by the static probe and the moving probe, the electric signals will be induced on the winding, respectively. Therefore, the linear displacement can be achieved by comparing the phase between the two output induced signals from he static probe and the moving probe. Furthermore, in order to improve the machining technique, four kinds of winding framework are designed to employ. The experimental results show that advantages and disadvantages both exist in the design methods and the precision of experiment results reaches +/-2µm. The next study plan is to choose the most excellent design method through further experiments and improve the precision of displacement sensor greatly.

  9. Density Functional Theory Study of the Complexation of the Uranyl Dication with Anionic Phosphate Ligands with and without Water Molecules

    Jackson, Virgil E.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Dixon, David A.

    2013-09-12

    The structures, vibrational frequencies and energetics of anhydrous and hydrated complexes of UO2 2+ with the phosphate anions H2PO4 −, HPO4 2−, and PO4 3− were predicted at the density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 molecular orbital theory levels as isolated gas phase species and in aqueous solution by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations with different solvation models. The geometries and vibrational frequencies of the major binding modes for these complexes are compared to experiment where possible and good agreement is found. The uranyl moiety is nonlinear in many of the complexes, and the coordination number (CN) 5 in the equatorial plane is the predominant binding motif. The phosphates are found to bind in both monodentate and bidentate binding modes depending on the charge and the number of water molecules. The SCRF calculations were done with a variety of approaches, and different SCRF approaches were found to be optimal for different reaction types. The acidities of HxPO4 3‑x in HxPO4 3‑x(H2O)4, x = 0−3 complexes were calculated with different SCRF models and compared to experiment. Phosphate anions can displace water molecules from the first solvation shell at the uranyl exothermically. The addition of water molecules can cause the bonding of H2PO4 − and HPO4 2− to change from bidentate to monodentate exothermically while maintaining CN 5. The addition of water can generate monodentate structures capable of cross-linking to other uranyl phosphates to form the types of structures found in the solid state. [UO2(HPO4)(H2O)3] is predicted to be a strong base in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. It is predicted to be a much weaker acid than H3PO4 in the gas phase and in solution.

  10. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  11. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  12. Density functional theory study of water interactions on Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We studied geometric and electronic effects of water interactions on 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface through a spin-polarized DFT + U approach. • Water molecular and dissociative interactions were favored on Mn dopant compared to those on Ce sites. • Surface oxygen vacancies formation was not promoted by water adsorption. • OH species could attach on surface O-hole (left by surface oxygen remotion) causing important structural atomic relaxations, but without changing the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations. - Abstract: Spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT + U) periodic calculations have been performed to study water adsorption and dissociation on the 12.5% Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface. Our results indicated that Mn cation is the surface active site for water adsorption and dissociation reactions. The H2O molecule preferably adsorbs on a Mn cation, causing some relaxation of the surface O-layer and, thus, facilitating the bonding of one of the HH2O with the nearest oxygen atom. After overcoming an energy barrier of 0.46 eV, the water molecule could dissociate into OH and H species. The latter configuration is about 50% more exothermic than the molecular one, suggesting the Ce0.875Mn0.125O1.9375(1 1 1) surface would be easily hydroxylated under reaction conditions. In addition, the calculations showed that water adsorption on the Mn-doped CeO2(1 1 1) surface did not favor the creation of surface oxygen vacancies as it has been reported for pure CeO2(1 1 1). On the other hand, we created a surface oxygen defect in the slab with structural oxygen vacancies and computed water interactions on the reduced surface. Although, the adsorption of OH species in the O-hole caused many surface and subsurface atomic displacements, no changes in the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations were detected

  13. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavić in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trepča industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 μg of lead, 20.09 μg of cadmium and 22.89 μg of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 μg/dm3 of lead, 29.21 μg/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 μg/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals

  14. Water homeostasis, frailty and congnitive function in the nursing home

    The goal of this study is to develop and test a practical clinical method to assess frailty in nursing homes and to investigate the relationship between cognitive status of the elderly and the balance between water compartments of their body composition. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted a...

  15. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications

    Tripathi, Bijay P., E-mail: bijayptripathi@yahoo.com [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Dubey, Nidhi C. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Chemistry, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Stamm, M., E-mail: stamm@ipfdd.de [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Department of Chemistry, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ► The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ► High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior.

  16. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications.

    Tripathi, Bijay P; Dubey, Nidhi C; Stamm, M

    2013-05-15

    A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior. PMID:23557682

  17. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications

    Highlights: ► LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ► The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ► High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior

  18. A relative permeability model to derive fractional-flow functions of water-alternating-gas and surfactant-alternating-gas foam core-floods

    Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front. (paper)

  19. Boiling water reactor stability analysis by stochastic transfer function identification

    The univariate and the bivariate ARMA models are proposed as the stochastic transfer function models for the identification of BWR systems. This technique has been developed as a new method for on-line system identification, optimum control, and malfunction monitoring of nuclear power plants. The relationships between the stochastic transfer function model and the differential equation model are derived. The estimation algorithms are developed through the related covariance functions and Green's function by the least squares method. It has been shown that the stochastic models can also be used for fitting the stochastic data which are contaminated with sinusoidal waves. Both the univariate and the bivariate modeling are applied in the BWR system identification and stability analysis. The univariate modeling is applied to decompose the pressure dynamics from the neutron data. From both of the normal operation data and the perturbation experiment data, the reactor dynamics are consistently estimated. The dynamics of the reactor core are estimated as a second order mode with a natural frequency of 0.4 Hz and a damping ratio of 0.1. The univariate modeling is also applied to monitor the local performance of the coolant channel in the reactor. The transfer functions between system's variables are obtained by use of bivariate modeling. The obtained transfer functions are closely related to the stability analysis of thermal-hydraulics in the reactor. The transition of the system dynamics from normal operation to the perturbation experiment are observed

  20. Functionalized Cellulose Networks for Efficient Oil Removal from Oil–Water Emulsions

    Paul, Uttam C.; Despina Fragouli; Ilker S. Bayer; Athanassia Athanassiou

    2016-01-01

    The separation of oil from water in emulsions is a great environmental challenge, since oily wastewater is industrially produced. Here, we demonstrate a highly efficient method to separate oil from water in non-stabilized emulsions, using functionalized cellulose fiber networks. This is achieved by the modification of the wetting properties of the fibers, transforming them from oil- and water-absorbing to water-absorbing and oil-proof. In particular, two diverse layers of polymeric coatings, ...

  1. Studies on astrocyte function : potential roles in brain water homeostasis and neuroprotection

    Song, Yutong

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are essential in brain homeostasis and function, including maintenance of water and ion balance. Astrocytes express the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), implicated in both physiological functions and injury processes associated with brain edema, a common consequence of brain diseases. As part of the tripartite synapse astrocytes are tightly coupled to normal brain function via neuron-astrocyte interactions and by providing metabolic support to neurons as well as con...

  2. Formation around planetary displaced orbit

    GONG Sheng-ping; LI Jun-feng; BAOYIN He-xi

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the relative motion around the planetary displaced orbit. Several kinds of displaced orbits for geocentric and martian cases were discussed. First, the relative motion was linearized around the displaced orbits. Then, two seminatural control laws were investigated for each kind of orbit and the stable regions were obtained for each case. One of the two control laws is the passive control law that is very attractive for engineering practice. However, the two control laws are not very suitable for the Martian mission. Another special semi-natural control law is designed based on the requirement of the Martian mission. The results show that large stable regions exist for the control law.

  3. Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

    Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

    2014-01-01

    Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrop...

  4. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  5. Structure and function of carboxypeptidase A alpha in supercooled water.

    Thompson, J. S.; Gehring, H; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    The spectral and enzymatic characteristics of chromophoric derivatives of carboxypeptidase A alpha (EC 3.4.17.1) have been examined at subzero temperatures in supercooled water-in-oil emulsions. Substrate and temperature dependencies of enzyme kinetics indicated the existence of a solution-like enzyme phase that greatly extends the temperature range (greater than 60 degrees C) over which the activity of this enzyme can be measured. The emulsion spectra were virtually identical to those of sol...

  6. Non-affine displacements in flexible polymer networks

    Basu, Anindita; Wen, Qi; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T. C.; Janmey, Paul A.; Yodh, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the affine assumption in model flexible polymer networks is explored. To this end, the displacements of fluorescent tracer beads embedded in polyacrylamide gels are quantified by confocal microscopy under shear deformation, and the deviations of these displacements from affine responses are recorded. Non-affinity within the gels is quantified as a function of polymer chain density and cross-link concentration. Observations are in qualitative agreement with current theories of ...

  7. Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets

    The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method

  8. Linear displacement measurement with a grating and speckle pattern illumination

    We present a study of the variations of a speckle pattern passing through a grating that can be displaced. This study is described theoretically by a simple model based on the scalar diffraction theory in the Fresnel zone. The intensity correlation of the modified speckle as a function of the grating displacement is obtained and compared with experimental results.The possibilities of metrological applications in optical encoders are suggested

  9. Linear displacement measurement with a grating and speckle pattern illumination

    Perez-Quintián, Fernando; Lutenberg, Ariel; Rebollo, María A.

    2006-07-01

    We present a study of the variations of a speckle pattern passing through a grating that can be displaced. This study is described theoretically by a simple model based on the scalar diffraction theory in the Fresnel zone. The intensity correlation of the modified speckle as a function of the grating displacement is obtained and compared with experimental results. The possibilities of metrological applications in optical encoders are suggested.

  10. Additional longitudinal displacement for contaminant dispersion in wetland flow

    Fu, Xudong; Gao, Ran; Wu, Zi

    2016-01-01

    When there is a sudden and uniform release of contaminant over the depth of wetland, the centroid of resulted solute cloud will travel downstream at the cross-sectional mean velocity of the flow. However, if the initial release is not uniform, there will be an additional longitudinal displacement of the centroid, which is important for predicting the concentration distribution but cannot be revealed by the classical one-dimensional Taylor dispersion model. For the most typical case of an initial point source release at the free-water-surface of the wetland, an idealized case modeling accidental leakage of toxic chemicals in waters, in the present paper we analytically deduce the longitudinal displacement by the method of concentration moment. The result is then incorporated in the analytical solutions of concentration distribution, which are further verified by our numerical simulations. The effects of the longitudinal displacement on the concentration distribution are analyzed in detail. It is shown that without considering the displacement, for vertical planes close to the edges of the contaminant cloud, the analytical solution can over- or under-estimate the vertical distribution of concentration for over 20% of the maximum concentration in the plane even at a large dimensionless time of t∗ = 5 . The longitudinal displacement is shown to decrease with the increase of the important damping factor α, which characterizes the effects of vegetation in wetlands. A simple application is given at the end of this paper to illustrate the evolution of the additional longitudinal displacement.

  11. Development of functionalized nanostructured polymeric membranes for water purification

    Altintas, Zeynep; Chianella, Iva; Da Ponte, Gabriella; Paulussen, Sabine; Gaeta, Soccorso; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals specific molecularly imprinted polymers nanoparticles (MIPNPs) were synthesized and applied onto the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes previously subjected to the plasma treatment. Diclofenac-, metoprolol- and vancomycin-MIPs were applied onto the membranes and scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize MIPNPs on the membrane. After functionalization of the membranes with target-specific MIPs the molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) affinity against their ...

  12. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Loay A. Elalfy; Wael N. Akl; Hassan, Walid M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs) to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that ex...

  13. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  14. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    Karunarathna, A. K.; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, K.;

    2010-01-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...... by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  15. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and...... technologies which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial...

  16. A method for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings in central Florida by using a simple water-balance/transfer-function model

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method is needed that provides estimates of transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings that can be incorporated into other hydrologic models. Deep water-table settings are areas where the water table is below the reach of plant roots and virtually all water that is not lost to surface runoff, evaporation at land surface, or evapotranspiration in the root zone eventually becomes ground-water recharge. Areas in central Florida with a deep water table generally are high recharge areas; consequently, simulation of recharge in these areas is of particular interest to water-resource managers. Yet the complexities of meteorological variations and unsaturated flow processes make it difficult to estimate short-term recharge rates, thereby confounding calibration and predictive use of transient hydrologic models. A simple water-balance/transfer-function (WBTF) model was developed for simulating transient ground-water recharge in deep water-table settings. The WBTF model represents a one-dimensional column from the top of the vegetative canopy to the water table and consists of two components: (1) a water-balance module that simulates the water storage capacity of the vegetative canopy and root zone; and (2) a transfer-function module that simulates the traveltime of water as it percolates from the bottom of the root zone to the water table. Data requirements include two time series for the period of interest?precipitation (or precipitation minus surface runoff, if surface runoff is not negligible) and evapotranspiration?and values for five parameters that represent water storage capacity or soil-drainage characteristics. A limiting assumption of the WBTF model is that the percolation of water below the root zone is a linear process. That is, percolating water is assumed to have the same traveltime characteristics, experiencing the same delay and attenuation, as it moves through the unsaturated zone. This assumption is more accurate if

  17. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. PMID:27074674

  18. A method to calculate displacement factors using SVM

    Li Peixian; Tan Zhixiang; Yan Lili; Deng Kazhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of mining subsidence prediction,a mathematical model using Support Vector Machine (SVM) was established to calculate the displacement factor.The study is based on a comprehensive analysis of factors affecting the displacement factor,such as mechanical properties of the cover rock,the ratio of mining depth to seam thickness,dip angle of the coal seam and the thickness of loose layer.Data of 63 typical observation stations were used as a training and testing sample set.A SVM regression model of the displacement factor and the factors affecting it was established with a kernel function,an insensitive loss factor and a properly selected penalty factor.Given an accurate calculation algorithm for testing and analysis,the results show that an SVM regression model can calculate displacement factor precisely and reliable precision can be obtained which meets engineering requirements.The experimental results show that the method to calculation of the displacement factor,based on the SVM method,is feasible.The many factors affecting the displacement factor can be considered with this method.The research provides an efficient and accurate approach for the calculation of displacement in mining subsidence prediction.

  19. Microeconomics of Deficit Irrigation and Subjective Water Response Function for Intensive Olive Groves

    Alfonso Expósito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the economics of deficit irrigation based on the use of subjective estimates of the crop yield–water relationship to determine water supply in irrigated olive groves. Interviewed farmers were asked to give three estimates for the yield-water relationship as a function of water supply (full irrigation, usual deficit irrigation and extreme deficit irrigation. Those responses are contrasted with the actual irrigation dose and the results appear to support the hypothesis that a majority of farmers use deficit irrigation as a strategy that maximizes the value of limited water input rather than the conventional microeconomic behavior of maximizing the return to land.

  20. Theory of Metallic Work Functions Between Metals and Layers of Exclusion Zone Ordered Water

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the work function to bring an electron from a metal into the exclusion zone water layer making hydrophilic contact with the metallic interface is theoretically computed. The agreement with recent experimental measurements is satisfactory.

  1. Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin

    Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2009-01-01

    Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

  2. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  3. Effects of Displacement in Children Exposed to Disasters.

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Van Horn, Richard L; Houston, J Brian

    2016-08-01

    The literature on children's responses to disasters is well developed with increasing attention to the confounding experiences of displacement. This paper presents an overview of the emotional and behavioral effects of displacement on children and adolescents and describes their educational adjustment in terms of both academic achievement and school behavior. A summary of family effects elucidates how children's functioning is influenced through the family system in which they are embedded. The psychosocial impact of displacement reflects the myriad social losses that children and their families may face. Information from this review of the current literature on the effects of displacement may inform the design and delivery of support and intervention services for children and families following disasters. PMID:27287465

  4. β-Cyclodextrin functionalized carbon quantum dots as sensors for determination of water-soluble C60 fullerenes in water.

    Cayuela, Angelina; Laura Soriano, M; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-04-25

    A selective photoluminescence method based on Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) functionalized with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin for the direct determination of water-soluble C60 fullerene has been developed. CQDs were synthesized using a top-down methodology from multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and further functionalized with N-Boc-ethylenediamine to confer monoprotected amine groups onto their surface. Once amine-functionalized CQDs were obtained after deprotection, an amidation reaction with carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin cavitands was achieved and the obtained fluorescent β-cyclodextrin functionalized Carbon Quantum Dots (cd-CQDs) were investigated for the inclusion complexation of water-soluble C60. Quenching of their fluorescence was observed owing to the non-covalent self-assembly of cd-CQDs and C60, making possible the quantification of C60. A method to determine water-soluble C60 is then proposed with detection and quantification limits of 0.525 and 1.751 μg mL(-1), respectively. The method was validated by determining soluble C60 fullerene in spiked river water. One added value of the paper is the fact that it can be ascribed to the "Third Way in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology". PMID:26870854

  5. ENSIS, Pollution inventory, pollution budget model, water quality model and scenario handling. Functional specification

    Bakken, T.H.; Bjørkenes, A.; Dagestad, K

    2003-01-01

    This is the functional specification of a complete pollution budget model for water. A crucial improvement of this model is implementation of new pollution sources and modification of existing sources. The specification of a water quality model, based on the results from the pollution budget model is also included. The document is intended to give a cost and time estimate of the programming of the functionality it describes, and will be the guideline for implementation of the specified functi...

  6. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours

    Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-01-01

    tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity...

  7. Catchment water quality: the inconvenient but necessary truth of fractal functioning

    Neal, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This commentary concerns catchment water quality functioning in relation to environmental impact assessment, with a view to proposing that much more emphasis be placed on issues of within-catchment complexity and its manifestation within stream water chemistry: fractal dynamics. The commentary is based, with closure, on my long-term research. Encouragement is given for new avenues to be pursued, including dealing with the complexities of within-stream biological functioning, and their integra...

  8. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien; Bouchard, Maryse F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated mangan...

  9. Functionalized carbon nanotube thin-film nanocomposite membranes for water desalination applications

    Chan, Wai-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective purification and desalination of water is a global challenge. Reverse osmosis (RO), the current method of choice, requires high pressure drops across the membranes in order to achieve acceptably high flow rates. Conventional polymer membranes are limited in their performance by a trade-off between water permeability and water/salt selectivity. Biofilm fouling is another critical problem in RO applications. Recent simulations and experiments suggest that properly functionalized ...

  10. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew; Garcia, Clement;

    on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal...

  11. Ukrainian scientists’ advances in plants’ water regime research: the historical and functional aspects

    T. E. Khristova; O. E. Pyurko

    2006-01-01

    Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in advances of plants’ water regime research from the standpoint of historical and functional aspects are represented. It is shown that they made essential contribution to the different developments of this problem: creation and improvement of material and technical resources, elaboration and using of modern methods of plants’ water regime research, gain of important information in theoretical and practical contexts.

  12. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  13. Polymeric nanospheres as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Zhang, Julien

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of using nanoscale polyacrylamide-based spheres (nanospheres) as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Coreflood experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of nanospheres and its concentration dispersed in model formation water on oil recovery during a tertiary oil recovery process. The coreflood results showed that nanospheres can enhance residual oil recovery in the sandstone rock samples and its concentration showed a significant impact into incremental oil. By evaluating the contact angle, it was observed that wettability alteration also might be involved in the possible oil displacement mechanism in this process together with fluid behavior and permeability to water that might divert injected fluid into unswept oil areas and enhance the residual oil recovery. These investigations promote nanospheres aqueous disperse solution as a potential displacement fluid in EOR.

  14. PHASE CONVERTER OF COMPOSING DISPLACEMENT

    SMIRNOV YU.S.; Lysov, A. N.; E.V. Yurasova; SAFRONOV V.V.; VSTAVSKAYA E.V.

    2016-01-01

    Minimax strategy of mechatronic converters efficiency improving relative to error decrease with velocity increase at the same time provides common dataware level rise. The analysis of usage possibilities of different type position transducers (PT) gives the advantages of resolvers. The subsequent processing of their output signals is performed by “Resolver-to-Digit” Converter (RDC) which provides displacement digital equivalent and digital or analog signals specifying its velocity and acceler...

  15. Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.

    Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and

  16. Integrated control and health monitoring capacitive displacement sensor development task. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program

    Collamore, Frank N.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a miniature multifunction turbomachinery shaft displacement sensor using state-of-the-art non-contract capacitive sensing technology is described. Axial displacement, radial displacement, and speed are sensed using a single probe within the envelope normally required for a single function. A survey of displacement sensing technology is summarized including inductive, capacitive, optical and ultrasonic techniques. The design and operation of an experimental triple function sensor is described. Test results are included showing calibration tests and simultaneous dynamic testing of multiple functions. Recommendations for design changes are made to improve low temperature performance, reliability, and for design of a flight type signal conditioning unit.

  17. Soil water retention function hysteresis determined by ground-penetrating radar

    Leger, E.; Saintenoy, A. C.; Coquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, represented by the soil water retentionθ and hydraulic conductivity K(h) functions, dictate waterflow in the vadose zone, as well as partition between infiltrationand runoff. Those functions can be described by several mathematicalexpressions, such as the Mualem-van Genuchten (M-vG) function. Thedetermination of the parameters defining the van Genuchten soil waterretention function is usually done using laboratory experiments, suchas the hanging water column method.For a few decades Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been known to be anaccurate geophysical method to measure water content variations insoils. The work presented here is based on mono-offset detection ofhysteresis on the soil water retention curve with on-ground surfaceGPR.Soil surface GPR measurements were acquired above a large column ofsand (40 cm high and 60 cm diameter), using a 1600 MHz antenna, forvariable ground water table depths at hydraulic equilibrium. Weinverted the GPR data to obtain the M-vG parameters consideringhysteresis on the soil water retention curve, using the ShuffledComplex Evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm. The method is presented onsynthetic examples and on laboratory experiments. Modeling of thewater dynamics were made using Hydrus-1D, GPR data were computed usingGprMax suite programs. The estimated parameters were compared to thoseobtained from hanging water column experiments.

  18. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  19. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  20. Displacement of Monolithic Rubble-Mound Breakwater Crown-Walls

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;

    2012-01-01

    studies on caisson breakwaters, but correction terms are suggested in the present paper to obtain almost equal measured and estimated displacements. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble-mound crown-walls are subjected to increasing wave loads due to rising sea water level from...

  1. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture. PMID:27363950

  2. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    P. Bohmann

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  3. Heavy water effects on the structure, functions and behavior of biological systems

    The H2O substitution for D2O either in environment or in the culture medium of the living systems generates changes in their main functions and composition. In this paper some of the heavy water effects in biological systems such as structural and functional changes were reviewed: normal cell architecture alterations, cell division and membrane functions disturbance, muscular contractility and the perturbations of biological oscillators such as circadian rhythm, heart rate, respiratory cycle, tidal and ultradian rhythm. (authors)

  4. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve is 8.485 billion yuan, while the function of water conservation is a small fraction of ecological service function, indicating that there is great ecological value in service function of forest ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve, that is, Gongbo Nature Reserve has vital ecological value.

  5. Molecular Density Functional Theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. With this correction, molecular density functional theory gives, at a modest computational cost, quantita...

  6. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  7. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  8. Modulation of morpho-functional characteristics of astrocytes using chemically-functionalized water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Gottipati, Manoj K.

    In this thesis, I report the use of chemically functionalized water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes (ws-SWCNTs) for the modulation of morpho-functional characteristics of astrocytes. When added to the culturing medium, ws-SWCNTs were able to make astrocytes larger and stellate/mature, changes associated with the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity. Thus, ws-SWCNTs could have more beneficial effects at the injury site than previously thought; by affecting astrocytes, they could provide for a more comprehensive re-establishment of the brain computational power. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, graft copolymers, astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein.

  9. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Loay A. Elalfy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  10. Fabrication of magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide for high-efficiency water remediation

    Hu, Lihua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xuefei; Wang, Yaoguang; Cui, Limei; Wei, Qin; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite (MWHPO-GO) was successfully prepared and applied to water remediation in this paper. MWHPO-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetization curve, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses. MWHPO-GO exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of synthetic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) and heavy metal (Pb(II)). Moreover, MWHPO-GO could be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation. The pseudo-second order equation and the Langmuir model exhibited good correlation with the adsorption kinetic and isotherm data, respectively, for these three pollutants. The thermodynamic results (ΔG remediation.

  11. Technology and Structural Unemployment: Reemploying Displaced Adults.

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report concentrates on problems of displaced blue-collar and nonprofessional white-collar workers. Chapter 1 is a summary. Chapter 2 discusses policy issues and options focused on helping people prepare for worklife changes and helping workers to cope if displacement occurs. A definition and description of worker displacement are offered in…

  12. 25 CFR 700.59 - Displaced person.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displaced person. 700.59 Section 700.59 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.59 Displaced person. Displaced person means a member of the... residing within the area partitioned to the Hopi Tribe who must be relocated pursuant to the Act. This...

  13. Proof nets for the Displacement calculus

    Moot, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present a proof net calculus for the Displacement calculus and show its correctness. This is the first proof net calculus which models the Displacement calculus directly and not by some sort of translation into another formalism. The proof net calculus opens up new possibilities for parsing and proof search with the Displacement calculus.

  14. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced

  15. Displaced Children: The Psychological Implications.

    Joshi, Paramjit T; Fayyad, John A

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people across the world have been displaced or live in exile and/or as refugees largely as a consequence of wars, acts of terrorism, and catastrophic natural disasters. There are serious psychological consequences as a result of these extremely difficult life circumstances. Adults often can express their needs and have them be heard, whereas children are unable to do so. The children may be provided food, shelter, and clothing and have their medical needs attended to, but their emotional and psychological needs go unrecognized and unmet, with dire and monumental long-term consequences. PMID:26346385

  16. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment

    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-01

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  17. Generalized atomic displacements in crystallographie structure analysis

    An attempt is made to summarize both theoretical and experimental aspects of generalized atomic displacement parameters (ADP's) in crystalline matter. Generalized displacement parameters are used to describe the weakening of Bragg intensities via the anharmonic (static or thermal) Debye-Waller factor (DWF) and its real-space counterpart, the generalized atomic probability density function (p.d.f.). The lattice dynamical base of the harmonic and anharmonic thermal DWF is discussed. It is pointed out that the static DWF frequently contains higher-order terms. The mathematical case for an experimental determination of generalized ADP's is given. The most popular current formulations (one-particle potential and statistical approaches) are reviewed and their individual limitations are discussed. Likewise the demands put on the quality and extent of experimental data are assessed. Some aids to the interpretation of generalized ADP's established by crystallographic least-squares procedures are given and a Monte-Carlo method for the calculation of errors in p.d.f. maps is presented. Finally, some prospects for future work are outlined and a more frequent comparison of theoretical calculations and experimental determinations of generalized ADP's is advocated. (orig.)

  18. Importance of NPA motifs in the expression and function of water channel aquaporin-1

    JIANG Yong; MA TongHui

    2007-01-01

    The asparagine-proline-alanine sequences (NPA motifs) are highly conserved in aquaporin water channel family. Crystallographic studies of AQP1 structure demonstrated that the two NPA motifs are in the narrow central constriction of the channel, serving to bind water molecules for selective and efficient water passage. To investigate the importance of the two NPA motifs in the structure, function and biogenesis of aquaporin water channels, we generated AQP1 mutations with NPA1 deletion, NPA2 deletion and NPA1,2 double deletion. The coding sequences of the three mutated cDNAs were subcloned into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1 to form expression plasmids. We established stably transfected CHO cell lines expressing these AQP1 mutants. Immunofluorescence indicated that all the three mutated AQP1 proteins are expressed normally on the plasma membrane of stably transfected CHO cells, suggesting that deletion of NPA motifs does not influence the expression and intracellular processing of AQP1. Functional analysis demonstrated that NPA1 or NPA2 deletion reduced AQP1 water permeability by 49.6% and 46.7%, respectively, while NPA1,2 double deletion had little effect on AQP1 water permeability. These results provide evidence that NPA motifs are important for water per-meation but not essential for the expression, intracellular processing and the basic structure of AQP1 water channel.

  19. Functioning of Water Users Associations or Pani Panchayat in Orissa: Principle, Procedure, Performance and Prospects

    Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra

    2007-01-01

    The current paper deals with an evaluation of water management through community participation and emergence of Pani Panchayat (PP) in a case study of the Vir Bajrang Bali Pani Panchayat under Lift Irrigation Project of the Hirakud Command Area (HCA), Orissa state in Eastern India . The broad objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of Water User Association (WUA) or Pani Panchayat promoted by the State and the local traditional irrigation institutions in the HCA, Orissa and to e...

  20. Soil attributes functionality and water eutrophication in the surrounding area of Itaparica Reservoir, Brazil

    José C. de Araújo Filho; Günter Gunkel; Maria C. M. Sobral; Martin Kaupenjohann; Helio L. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    In semi-arid areas of Brazil, climate and geological conditions are important factors that restrict the availability of soils and water for sustainable irrigated agriculture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate functionalities of physical and chemical attributes of soils and to provide information about irrigation water quality in the margins of the Itaparica Reservoir aiming the sustainable land use. Available data of 44 representative soil profiles comprising 21 profiles of Are...

  1. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping,; Tong ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilm...

  2. Ukrainian scientists’ advances in plants’ water regime research: the historical and functional aspects

    T. E. Khristova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Achievements of Ukrainian scientists in advances of plants’ water regime research from the standpoint of historical and functional aspects are represented. It is shown that they made essential contribution to the different developments of this problem: creation and improvement of material and technical resources, elaboration and using of modern methods of plants’ water regime research, gain of important information in theoretical and practical contexts.

  3. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Elidiane da Silva; Nilton Curi; Mozart Martins Ferreira; Margarete Marin Lordelo Volpato; Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos; Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva

    2015-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field c...

  4. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    Tang, Jia; Fang, Jiang-ping; Li, Ping; Guo, Jian-bin; Lu, Jie; Yuan, Qing-juan

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ec...

  5. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  6. Determination of water storage and permeability functions for oil sands tailings

    Fredlund, Delwyn G.; Stone, Jeff; Stianson, Jason [Golder Associates Ltd. (Canada); Sedgwick, Andrea [Total EandP Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Mining projects in the Alberta oil sands produce tailings in a slurry form with high water content and that makes it difficult to characterize the unsaturated soil property functions. This paper discusses the determination of water storage and permeability functions for oil sands tailings. The objective is to describe a way to conduct a conventional soil-water characteristic curve test and use it with an independently measured shrinkage curve to determine the proper unsaturated soil property functions for numerically modeling the drying process. A lab procedure for measuring and interpreting shrinkage behavior of oil sands tailings is given with the results. To obtain a closed-form equation for the shrinkage curve, a regression curve-fitting analysis was used. The saturated coefficient of permeability is combined with the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) to compute hydraulic properties for the oil sands tailings. From the results it can be concluded that the volumetric water content is essential to computing the water storage characteristics of oil sands tailings.

  7. Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.

  8. A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors

    Xiong Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.

  9. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  10. Zinc modulation of water permeability reveals that aquaporin 0 functions as a cooperative tetramer.

    Németh-Cahalan, Karin L; Kalman, Katalin; Froger, Alexandrine; Hall, James E

    2007-11-01

    We previously showed that the water permeability of AQP0, the water channel of the lens, increases with acid pH and that His40 is required (Németh-Cahalan, K.L., and J.E. Hall. 2000. J. Biol. Chem. 275:6777-6782; Németh-Cahalan, K.L., K. Kalman, and J.E. Hall. 2004. J. Gen. Physiol. 123:573-580). We have now investigated the effect of zinc (and other transition metals) on the water permeability of AQP0 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and determined the amino acid residues that facilitate zinc modulation. Zinc (1 mM) increased AQP0 water permeability by a factor of two and prevented any additional increase induced by acid pH. Zinc had no effect on water permeability of AQP1, AQP4 or MIPfun (AQP0 from killifish), or on mutants of AQP1 and MIPfun with added external histidines. Nickel, but not copper, had the same effect on AQP0 water permeability as zinc. A fit of the concentration dependence of the zinc effect to the Hill equation gives a coefficient greater than three, suggesting that binding of more than one zinc ion is necessary to enhance water permeability. His40 and His122 are necessary for zinc modulation of AQP0 water permeability, implying structural constraints for zinc binding and functional modulation. The change in water permeability was highly sensitive to a coinjected zinc-insensitive mutant and a single insensitive monomer completely abolished zinc modulation. Our results suggest a model in which positive cooperativity among subunits of the AQP0 tetramer is required for zinc modulation, implying that the tetramer is the functional unit. The results also offer the possibility of a pharmacological approach to manipulate the water permeability and transparency of the lens. PMID:17938229

  11. The subtraction of mutually displaced Gaussian Schell-model beams

    de Sande, J. Carlos G.; Santarsiero, Massimo; Piquero, Gemma; Gori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Using recently derived results about the difference of two cross-spectral densities, we consider a source whose correlation function is the difference of two mutually displaced Gaussian Schell-model cross-spectral densities. We examine the main features of this new cross-spectral density in terms of coherence and intensity distribution, both across the source plane and after free propagation.

  12. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow is obta...... flow. The thickness and the velocity are functions of the Archimedes number....

  13. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  14. Evaluation of pedotransfer functions for predicting soil water retention in portuguese soils

    Ribeiro, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of soil water retention characteristics using pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are useful in many studies, such as hydrological modelling and soil mapping. The determination of the parameters for these functions can be obtained from direct laboratory and field measurements. However, these measurements are time consuming which makes it costly to characterise an extensive area of a land. As an alternative, the existing databases of measured soil hydraulic data may be used to ...

  15. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  16. Searching for Displaced Higgs Decays

    Csaki, Csaba; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-01-01

    We study a simplified model of the SM Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs decays below $10$ cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 $ TeV. With 20 fb$^{-1}$ of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to $7 \\times 10^{-4}$ can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  17. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  18. Steering of H- ion beamlet by aperture displacement

    Focussing of multibeamlets produced from a large accelerator grid is a key issue of ion beam application to the neutral beam injector (NBI) of fusion devices. Another issue is highlighted in a case of negative ion based NBI to compensate beamlet deflection inside the extractor, where magnetic field is applied for suppression of electron extraction. Steering of H- beamlet was carried out by displacing apertures in an electrostatic extractor/accelerator composed of four grids, where the beam energy was in the range of ∼50 keV. Out of a few combination of grid displacement, displacement of ESG (3rd grid) and/or GRG (4th grid) was found to be successful: 1) The beamlet steering angle of 50 mrad was obtained by displacing the apertures of 9 mm dia. up to 3 mm. It was confirmed that the steering angle was proportional fairly well to the displacement. The characteristic of the steering, i.e., the steering angle as a function of displacement, agrees well with the analysis based on the linear optics theory. 2) Neither significant divergence growth nor the beam interception were observed in the steered beams over a wide range of operation. The H- beams, of which divergent angle was 5 mrad, was obtained even under the beamlet steering. Thus the steering by displacement is suitable for the focusing of negative ion beam generated from multi-aperture grids. 3) It was found that the steering angle was independent of the magnetic field direction in the present extractor structure. This is an advantage of the steering technique for compensation of the beam deflection inside the extractor by magnetic field. (author)

  19. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms....... The responses of the compliant mechanisms are modelled using a total Lagrangian finite element formulation, the sensitivity analysis is performed using the adjoint method and the optimization problem is solved using the method of moving asymptotes. Procedures to circumvent some numerical problems are...

  20. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  1. SPS data on tunnel displacements and the ATL law

    In this article we analyze data from long-term measurements of quadrupole displacements in the Super Proton Synchrotron ring at CERN. The variance of displacement can be approximated by ATL law with coefficient A = (0.1--0.4) * 10-4 μm2/s/m, with T the time interval between measurements and L the distance between two points of the tunnel. The shape of the distribution function is found to be close to Gaussian. The results of the analysis are compared with other data on slow ground motion

  2. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.20 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  3. Fabrication of magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide for high-efficiency water remediation.

    Hu, Lihua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xuefei; Wang, Yaoguang; Cui, Limei; Wei, Qin; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite (MWHPO-GO) was successfully prepared and applied to water remediation in this paper. MWHPO-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetization curve, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses. MWHPO-GO exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of synthetic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) and heavy metal (Pb(II)). Moreover, MWHPO-GO could be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation. The pseudo-second order equation and the Langmuir model exhibited good correlation with the adsorption kinetic and isotherm data, respectively, for these three pollutants. The thermodynamic results (ΔG < 0, ΔH < 0, ΔS < 0) implied that the adsorption process of MB, MV and Pb(II) was feasible, exothermic and spontaneous in nature. A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed where π-π stacking interactions, H-bonding interaction and electrostatic attraction dominated the adsorption of MB/MV and chelation and electrostatic attraction dominated the adsorption of Pb(II). In addition, the excellent reproducibility endowed MWHPO-GO with the potential for application in water remediation. PMID:27354318

  4. Fabrication of magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide for high-efficiency water remediation

    Hu, Lihua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xuefei; Wang, Yaoguang; Cui, Limei; Wei, Qin; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Liangguo; Du, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic water-soluble hyperbranched polyol functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite (MWHPO-GO) was successfully prepared and applied to water remediation in this paper. MWHPO-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), magnetization curve, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses. MWHPO-GO exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of synthetic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV)) and heavy metal (Pb(II)). Moreover, MWHPO-GO could be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation. The pseudo-second order equation and the Langmuir model exhibited good correlation with the adsorption kinetic and isotherm data, respectively, for these three pollutants. The thermodynamic results (ΔG < 0, ΔH < 0, ΔS < 0) implied that the adsorption process of MB, MV and Pb(II) was feasible, exothermic and spontaneous in nature. A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed where π-π stacking interactions, H-bonding interaction and electrostatic attraction dominated the adsorption of MB/MV and chelation and electrostatic attraction dominated the adsorption of Pb(II). In addition, the excellent reproducibility endowed MWHPO-GO with the potential for application in water remediation. PMID:27354318

  5. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  6. Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide

    Shi, X. R.; Wang, Shengguang; Hu, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slab...

  7. On the analyticity of periodic gravity water waves with integrable vorticity function

    Escher, Joachim; Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2013-01-01

    We prove that the streamlines and the profile of periodic gravity water waves traveling over a flat bed with wavespeed which exceeds the horizontal velocity of all fluid particles are real-analytic graphs if the vorticity function is merely integrable.

  8. Zwitterion functionalized carbon nanotube/polyamide nanocomposite membranes for water desalination.

    Chan, Wai-Fong; Chen, Hang-yan; Surapathi, Anil; Taylor, Michael G; Shao, Xiaohong; Marand, Eva; Johnson, J Karl

    2013-06-25

    We have shown from both simulations and experiments that zwitterion functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used to construct highly efficient desalination membranes. Our simulations predicted that zwitterion functional groups at the ends of CNTs allow a high flux of water, while rejecting essentially all ions. We have synthesized zwitterion functionalized CNT/polyamide nanocomposite membranes with varying loadings of CNTs and assessed these membranes for water desalination. The CNTs within the polyamide layer were partially aligned through a high-vacuum filtration step during membrane synthesis. Addition of zwitterion functionalized CNTs into a polyamide membrane increased both the flux of water and the salt rejection ratio. The flux of water was found to increase by more than a factor of 4, from 6.8 to 28.7 GFD (gallons per square foot per day), as the fraction of CNTs was increased from 0 to 20 wt %. Importantly, the ion rejection ratio increased slightly from 97.6% to 98.6%. Thus, the nanotubes imparted an additional transport mechanism to the polyamide membrane, having higher flow rate and the same or slightly better selectivity. Simulations show that when two zwitterions are attached to each end of CNTs having diameters of about 15 Å, the ion rejection ratio is essentially 100%. In contrast, the rejection ratio for nonfunctionalized CNTs is about 0%, and roughly 20% for CNTs having five carboxylic acid groups per end. The increase in ion rejection for the zwitterion functionalized CNTs is due to a combination of steric hindrance from the functional groups partially blocking the tube ends and electrostatic repulsion between functional groups and ions, with steric effects dominating. Theoretical predictions indicate that an ideal CNT/polymer membrane having a loading of 20 wt % CNTs would have a maximum flux of about 20000 GFD at the conditions of our experiments. PMID:23705642

  9. Supervised Learning in Adaptive DNA Strand Displacement Networks.

    Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-08-19

    The development of engineered biochemical circuits that exhibit adaptive behavior is a key goal of synthetic biology and molecular computing. Such circuits could be used for long-term monitoring and control of biochemical systems, for instance, to prevent disease or to enable the development of artificial life. In this article, we present a framework for developing adaptive molecular circuits using buffered DNA strand displacement networks, which extend existing DNA strand displacement circuit architectures to enable straightforward storage and modification of behavioral parameters. As a proof of concept, we use this framework to design and simulate a DNA circuit for supervised learning of a class of linear functions by stochastic gradient descent. This work highlights the potential of buffered DNA strand displacement as a powerful circuit architecture for implementing adaptive molecular systems. PMID:27111037

  10. Displacement cross sections of electron irradiated graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Yan, Qiang [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chen, Di; Gigax, Jonathan [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We calculate the displacement cross-sections (DCS) of low dimensional carbon systems under electron irradiation and present an analytical formula being able to evaluate displacement creations under various conditions. The calculations consider Mott scattering, charge screening effects and thermal vibrations of target atoms. DCS values of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a function of electron beam energies, substrate temperatures, and tube diameters are calculated through combination with carbon threshold displacement energies obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. For SWNTs, the smaller the tube diameters the higher the DCS values. Such diameter dependence is the most pronounced for low energy electron beams. Furthermore, DCS values are most sensitive to temperatures when electron beam energy is low. However, the temperature sensitivity disappears at higher electron energy, specifically at 200 keV and beyond.

  11. Laboratory imaging of stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures

    Tidwell, V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, M. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to physically investigate the processes governing stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures. Experiments were performed on two scales: meter-scale in a 1500 cm{sup 2} sand pack and core-scale in a 65 cm{sup 2} API linear conductivity cell. High-resolution light transmission imaging was employed at the meter-scale to visualize and quantify processes governing fluid displacement. For comparison, complimentary tests were performed using an API conductivity cell under ambient test conditions and at elevated closure stress. In these experiments viscous fingering and gravity drainage were identified as the dominant processes governing fluid displacement. Fluid viscosity was found to dictate the relative importance of the competing displacement processes and ultimately determine the residual liquid saturation of the sand pack. The process by which fluid displacement occurs was seen to effect the shape of both the gas and liquid phase relative permeability functions. Knowledge of such viscosity/relative permeability relationships may prove useful in bounding predictions of post-stimulation recovery of gels from the fracture pack.

  12. Molecular Density Functional Theory of Water describing Hydrophobicity at Short and Long Length Scales

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Borgis, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We present an extension of our recently introduced molecular density functional theory of water [G. Jeanmairet et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 619, 2013] to the solvation of hydrophobic solutes of various sizes, going from angstroms to nanometers. The theory is based on the quadratic expansion of the excess free energy in terms of two classical density fields, the particle density and the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input a molecular model of water and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities. The fine three-dimensional water structure around small hydrophobic molecules is found to be well reproduced. In contrast the computed solvation free-energies appear overestimated and do not exhibit the correct qualitative behavior when the hydrophobic solute is grown in size. These shortcomings are corrected, in the spirit of the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory, by complementing the functional ...

  13. Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

  14. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-12-01

    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination. PMID:26588699

  15. Scattering phase function for particulates-in-water: modeling and validation

    Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2016-05-01

    Scattering phase function plays a crucial role in studies and calculations based on radiative transfer theory in water as well as atmosphere. A model based on Mie theory is developed for estimating the particulates-in-water scattering phase function for forward angles (0.1° - 90°). Particle size distribution (PSD) slope (ξ) and bulk refractive index (n) are chosen as key inputs for this proposed model. The PSD slope can be estimated from the attenuation spectrum measured directly in-situ and the bulk refractive index can be calculated by an inversion model using measured backscattering ratio (BP) and PSD slope. The attenuation spectrum and backscattering ratio can be easily measured in-situ using commercially available instruments in real time. The entire range of forward angles is divided into two ranges and phase function is modeled separately in the ranges 0.1° - 5° and 5° - 90°, from numerically calculated Volume Scattering Function (VSF) using Mie theory. The division boundary is decided owing to the fact that the scattering phase functions, for different oceanic conditions, exhibit a change in slope at approximately 5°. Performance of the present model is evaluated by comparing with existing empirical and analytical models as well as measured phase functions. The proposed phase function model shows a considerable improvement upon existing models, and will have important applications in remote sensing applications and underwater studies.

  16. The thermotidal exciting function for water vapour absorption of solar radiation

    M. BONAFEDE

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermotidal exciting function J is considered, for
    the absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, according to the model
    derived by Siebert. The Mugge-Moller formula for water vapour absorption
    is integrated numerically, using experimental data for the water vapour
    concentration in the troposphere and the stratosphere. It appears that
    Siebort's formula is a reasonable approximation at low tropospheric levels
    but it dramatically overestimates the water vapour thermotidal heating
    in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. It seems thus possible
    that, if the correct vertical profile is employed for J , the amplitudes and
    phases of the diurnal temperature oscillations and of the tidal wind speeds
    may suffer significant changes from those previously calculated and possibly explain the three hours delay of the observed phases from the computed values.

  17. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  18. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system.

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology. PMID:26724077

  19. Rock displacements measured during URL shaft sinking

    During sinking of the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) shaft, borehole extensometers were used to obtain rock displacement measurements and a tape extensometer was used to measure total convergences. The instruments, instrument modifications, and methods used are described. The measurements are summarized and assessed, with particular emphasis on the influence of natural fractures on rock-mass response and the performance of the instrumentation. Displacements varied from 0.09 mm to 1.75 mm. The frequency of sub-vertical fractures in the rock appeared to be the main factor causing the variation in the measured displacements. Although the displacement instrumentation met certain operational requirement well, lack of precision was a problem. Displacement instrumentation used in future URL experiments should have more measuring points, greater sensitivity, and greater accuracy to better measure small displacements

  20. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Lucy Hovil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  1. Policies for Displaced Workers: An American Perspective

    O'Leary, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    American employment policy for displaced workers started in the Great Depression with programs for the employment service, unemployment insurance, work experience, and direct job creation. Assistance for workers displaced by foreign competition emerged in the 1960s along with formalized programs for occupational job skill training. The policy focus on displaced workers was sharpened in the 1980s through the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act and the Economic Dislocation and Wor...

  2. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

  3. Displacing AIDS: therapeutic transitions in Northern Uganda

    Wilhelm-Solomon, M. M.; Alexander, Jocelyn; Daley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral project, entitled 'Displacing AIDS: Therapeutic Transitions in Northern Uganda' examines the biosocial transitions engendered by the treatment of HIV, focusing on antiretroviral therapy (ART/ARV) interventions, and the ways these are intertwined with the social transitions of conflict, displacement and return. The research involved an inter-disciplinary qualitative study with internally displaced communities living with HIV in northern Uganda, during 10 months fieldwork between ...

  4. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  5. Bacterial and archaeal dynamics in phylogeny and function in the North Atlantic deep waters

    Herndl, G. J.; Brink, M.; Agogue, H.

    2009-04-01

    The diversity and specific functional aspects linked to the N cycle of the bacterio- and archaeoplankton were investigated in the major deep water masses of the North Atlantic following the main driver of the thermohaline circulation, the North Atlantic Deep Water, from 65°N to 5°S. The phylogenetic composition of Bacteria and Archaea is not only depth-dependent but, specific water masses harbor specific prokaryotic communities. The specific composition of these communities in a particular water mass is maintained even over large distances. The distribution of archaeal and bacterial amoA genes were also determined. Archaeal amoA copy numbers decreased drastically with depth especially in the eastern subtropical Atlantic. This coincides with the lower nutrient concentration of the deep waters in the southern parts of the North Atlantic and the older age of the deep-water masses there. These data demonstrate that the diversity and potential nitrification activity are closely linked to the hydrology and chemical characteristics of the major water masses in the North Atlantic.

  6. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States.

    Fedorov, Kirill G; Zhong, L; Pogorzalek, S; Eder, P; Fischer, M; Goetz, J; Xie, E; Wulschner, F; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Di Candia, R; Las Heras, U; Sanz, M; Solano, E; Menzel, E P; Deppe, F; Marx, A; Gross, R

    2016-07-01

    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power. PMID:27447495

  7. Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2016-07-01

    Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.

  8. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  9. "Sticky"-Ends-Guided Creation of Functional Hollow Nanopores for Guest Encapsulation and Water Transport.

    Huo, Yanping; Zeng, Huaqiang

    2016-05-17

    Commercial uses of water-transporting aquaporins for seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation/reuse are being investigated in both academia and the industry. Presently, structural complexity, stability, scalability, and activity reconstitution of these costly channel proteins still present substantial challenges to scientists and engineers. An attractive strategy is to develop robust synthetic water channels able to mimic the water-transporting function of aquaporins for utility in the making of next generation of water channel-based biomimetic porous membranes for various water purification applications. In sharp contrast to burgeoning development in constructing synthetic ion channels over the past four decades, very limited progress has been made in the area of synthetic water channels. A handful of such examples include the first report by Percec in 2007 (Percec et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 11698-11699), which was followed by Barboiu in 2011 (Barboiu et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 11366-11372), Gong and Hou in 2012 (Gong et al. Nat. Commun. 2012, 3, 949; Hou et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 8384-8387), and Zeng in 2014 (Zeng et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 14270-14276). Radically deviating from the fact that the discovery of novel synthetic channel systems with desired transport selectivity is most often empirical and very often serendipitous, we have instead adopted a more rational designer approach whereby molecular building blocks have been carefully designed from scratch to perform their intended built-in functions. Our designer journey started in 2008, two years after I started leading a group at the National University of Singapore. Since then, we have been actively investigating the use of designed water-binding "aquafoldamers" to construct synthetic water channels for the rapid and selective transport of water molecules ideally with the exclusion of all other nonproton molecular species. Toward this goal, we designed and

  10. Removal of metals from aqueous solution and sea water by functionalized graphite nanoplatelets based electrodes.

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Ramaprabhu, S

    2011-01-15

    In the present wok, we have demonstrated the simultaneous removal of sodium and arsenic (pentavalent and trivalent) from aqueous solution using functionalized graphite nanoplatelets (f-GNP) based electrodes. In addition, these electrodes based water filter was used for multiple metals removal from sea water. Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by acid intercalation and thermal exfoliation. Functionalization of GNP was done by further acid treatment. Material was characterized by different characterization techniques. Performance of supercapacitor based water filter was analyzed for the removal of high concentration of arsenic (trivalent and pentavalent) and sodium as well as for desalination of sea water, using cyclic voltametry (CV) and inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic characteristics were studied for the simultaneous removal of sodium and arsenic (both trivalent and pentavalent). Maximum adsorption capacities of 27, 29 and 32 mg/g for arsenate, arsenite and sodium were achieved in addition to good removal efficiency for sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium from sea water. PMID:20933328

  11. Theoretical Investigation on the Solubilization in Water of Functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Michael Mananghaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important technique to increase the solubility and reactivity of carbon nanotube is through functionalization. In this study, the effects of functionalization of some single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were investigated with the aid of density functional theory. The SWCNT model used in the study consists of a finite, (5, 0 zigzag nanotube segment containing 60 C atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the dangling bonds of the perimeter carbons. There are three water-dispersible SWCNTs used in this study that were functionalized with (a formic acid, as a model of carboxylic acid, (b isophthalic acid, as a model aromatic dicarboxylic acid, and (c benzenesulfonic acid, as a model aromatic sulfonic acid. Binding energies of the organic radicals to the nanotubes are calculated, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gaps and dipole moments of both nanotubes and functionalized nanotubes. Binding was found out to be thermodynamically favorable. The functionalization increases the electrical dipole moments and results in an enhancement in the solubility of the nanotubes in water manifested through favorable changes in the free energies of solvation. This should lower the toxicity of nanotubes and improve their biocompatibility.

  12. Theoretical Investigation on the Solubilization in Water of Functionalized Single-Wall Carbon Nano tubes

    An important technique to increase the solubility and reactivity of carbon nano tube is through functionalization. In this study, the effects of functionalization of some single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) were investigated with the aid of density functional theory. The SWCNT model used in the study consists of a finite, (5, 0) zigzag nano tube segment containing 60 C atoms with hydrogen atoms added to the dangling bonds of the perimeter carbons. There are three water-dispersible SWCNTs used in this study that were functionalized with (a) formic acid, as a model of carboxylic acid, (b) isophthalic acid, as a model aromatic dicarboxylic acid, and (c) benzenesulfonic acid, as a model aromatic sulfonic acid. Binding energies of the organic radicals to the nano tubes are calculated, as well as the HOMO-LUMO gaps and dipole moments of both nano tubes and functionalized nano tubes. Binding was found out to be thermodynamically favorable. The functionalization increases the electrical dipole moments and results in an enhancement in the solubility of the nano tubes in water manifested through favorable changes in the free energies of solvation. This should lower the toxicity of nano tubes and improve their biocompatibility.

  13. Molecular density functional theory of water describing hydrophobicity at short and long length scales

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We present an extension of our recently introduced molecular density functional theory of water [G. Jeanmairet et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 619 (2013)] to the solvation of hydrophobic solutes of various sizes, going from angstroms to nanometers. The theory is based on the quadratic expansion of the excess free energy in terms of two classical density fields: the particle density and the multipolar polarization density. Its implementation requires as input a molecular model of water and three measurable bulk properties, namely, the structure factor and the k-dependent longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities. The fine three-dimensional water structure around small hydrophobic molecules is found to be well reproduced. In contrast, the computed solvation free-energies appear overestimated and do not exhibit the correct qualitative behavior when the hydrophobic solute is grown in size. These shortcomings are corrected, in the spirit of the Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory, by complementing the functional with a truncated hard-sphere functional acting beyond quadratic order in density, and making the resulting functional compatible with the Van-der-Waals theory of liquid-vapor coexistence at long range. Compared to available molecular simulations, the approach yields reasonable solvation structure and free energy of hard or soft spheres of increasing size, with a correct qualitative transition from a volume-driven to a surface-driven regime at the nanometer scale.

  14. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  15. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system. PMID:26509282

  16. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi;

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations...... neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch....

  17. On the Abundance of Water in Extrasolar Planetary Systems as a Function of Stellar Metallicity

    Dominguez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The discovery, to date, of several hundred confirmed extra solar planets and a statistical analysis of their properties has revealed intriguing patterns in the abundance and types of extrasolar planets. The metallicity of the host star appears to be a driver in determining extrasolar planetary system characteristics, although a mechanistic understanding of these relationships is not currently available. Understanding the broad relationship(s) between the characteristics of extrasolar planets and stellar metallicity thus appears timely.Recent work examining the timescales for water production in protoplanetary disks suggest that ionizing radiation required to drive surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks is insufficient and production timescales too slow to account for a significant amount of water in protoplanetary disks. Here we focus on the timescales for water production in cold molecular clouds and examine the relationship of this timescale as a function of molecular cloud metallicity. To do this, we consider the distribution of surface area concentration (dA/dV) in molecular clouds as a function of their metallicity and various MRN-like dust grain size distributions. We find that molecular cloud metallicity is a significant factor in determining upper-limits to the availability of water in molecular clouds and by extension, protoplanetary disks. The spectral index of the MRN distribution affects the upper-limits to H2O abundance, but the effect is not as significant as metallicity. We find that the ratio of H2O/SiO2 produced in a molecular cloud of solar metallicity can easily account for Earth’s present day ratio , supporting the “wet” hypothesis for the origins of Earth’s water. Future studies will focus on the retention of water on interstellar dust grain surfaces in protoplanetary disk environments inside the water line, the abundance of other volatile species, more detailed estimates of H2O destruction timescales in molecular clouds, and

  18. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  19. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  20. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10-5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  1. Displacement of Colloidal Dispersions in Porous Media: Experimental & Numerical Approaches

    AHMADI-SENICHAULT, Azita; OMARI, Aziz; BERTIN, Henri

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of colloidal dispersions is of particular interest in many applications ranging from environmental issues to petroleum recovery. Natural porous media such as soils, aquifers or reservoirs contain colloidal particles of different nature (bacteria, viruses, clay, metal complexes …). Colloids can act as vehicles for micro organisms’ transport in aquifers causing danger for human health. In petroleum recovery techniques, water containing colloids is sometimes injected and their r...

  2. QUESPOWR MRI: QUantification of Exchange as a function of Saturation Power On the Water Resonance.

    Randtke, Edward A; Pagel, Mark D; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-09-01

    QUantification of Exchange as a function of Saturation Power On the Water Resonance (QUESPOWR) MRI is a new method that can estimate chemical exchange rates. This method acquires a series of OPARACHEE MRI acquisitions with a range of RF powers for the WALTZ16(∗) pulse train, which are applied on the water resonance. A QUESPOWR plot can be generated from the power dependence of the % water signal, which is similar to a QUESP plot that is generated from CEST MRI acquisition methods with RF saturation applied off-resonance from water. A QUESPOWR plot can be quantitatively analyzed using linear fitting methods to provide estimates of average chemical exchange rates. Analyses of the shapes of QUESPOWR plots can also be used to estimate relative differences in average chemical exchange rates and concentrations of biomolecules. The performance of QUESPOWR MRI was assessed via simulations, an in vitro study with iopamidol, and an in vivo study with a mouse model of mammary carcinoma. The results showed that QUESPOWR MRI is especially sensitive to chemical exchange between water and biomolecules that have intermediate to fast chemical exchange rates and chemical shifts that are close to water, which are notoriously difficult to assess with other CEST MRI methods. In addition, in vivo QUESPOWR MRI detected acidic tumor tissues relative to normal tissues that are pH-neutral, and therefore may be a new paradigm for tumor detection with MRI. PMID:27404128

  3. QUESPOWR MRI: QUantification of Exchange as a function of Saturation Power On the Water Resonance

    Randtke, Edward A.; Pagel, Mark D.; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-09-01

    QUantification of Exchange as a function of Saturation Power On the Water Resonance (QUESPOWR) MRI is a new method that can estimate chemical exchange rates. This method acquires a series of OPARACHEE MRI acquisitions with a range of RF powers for the WALTZ16∗ pulse train, which are applied on the water resonance. A QUESPOWR plot can be generated from the power dependence of the % water signal, which is similar to a QUESP plot that is generated from CEST MRI acquisition methods with RF saturation applied off-resonance from water. A QUESPOWR plot can be quantitatively analyzed using linear fitting methods to provide estimates of average chemical exchange rates. Analyses of the shapes of QUESPOWR plots can also be used to estimate relative differences in average chemical exchange rates and concentrations of biomolecules. The performance of QUESPOWR MRI was assessed via simulations, an in vitro study with iopamidol, and an in vivo study with a mouse model of mammary carcinoma. The results showed that QUESPOWR MRI is especially sensitive to chemical exchange between water and biomolecules that have intermediate to fast chemical exchange rates and chemical shifts that are close to water, which are notoriously difficult to assess with other CEST MRI methods. In addition, in vivo QUESPOWR MRI detected acidic tumor tissues relative to normal tissues that are pH-neutral, and therefore may be a new paradigm for tumor detection with MRI.

  4. Regional resilience to displacements: Explaining the regional capacity to re-employ displaced workers

    Nyström, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Job displacement, which is defined as an involuntary loss of job due to economic downturns or structural changes, hit millions of workers each year. According to OECD (2013) 2-7 percent of workers are displaced every year. For Sweden, OECD (2013) reports an average displacement rate of about 2 percent for the period 2000-2008. Our knowledge on the individual consequences of displacement, in terms of, for example, unemployment duration, and earning losses is comprehensive (See e.g. Hammermesh ...

  5. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a)...

  6. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  7. Capacitive Displacement Sensor With Frequency Readout

    Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Simple displacement-measuring circuit senses capacitance between two parallel conducting plates and produces output signal, with frequency proportional to distance between plates. Principle of circuit provides advantages over other methods because of frequency-encoded output and high linearity. Used to measure displacements.

  8. Fractal dimensionality of cascades of atomic displacements

    The cascades of opening displacements, formed during irradiation of solids are the most typical process of dissipation of the energy of incident particles and the generation of radiation defects. The aim of the present work is the examination of the energy dependence of the fractal dimensionality of the cascades of atomic displacements in the solid

  9. Methodology of functionality selection for water management software and examples of its application.

    Vasilyev, K N

    2013-01-01

    When developing new software products and adapting existing software, project leaders have to decide which functionalities to keep, adapt or develop. They have to consider that the cost of making errors during the specification phase is extremely high. In this paper a formalised approach is proposed that considers the main criteria for selecting new software functions. The application of this approach minimises the chances of making errors in selecting the functions to apply. Based on the work on software development and support projects in the area of water resources and flood damage evaluation in economic terms at CH2M HILL (the developers of the flood modelling package ISIS), the author has defined seven criteria for selecting functions to be included in a software product. The approach is based on the evaluation of the relative significance of the functions to be included into the software product. Evaluation is achieved by considering each criterion and the weighting coefficients of each criterion in turn and applying the method of normalisation. This paper includes a description of this new approach and examples of its application in the development of new software products in the are of the water resources management. PMID:24355845

  10. Accounting for multiple functions in environmental life cycle assessment of storm water management solutions

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rygaard, Martin

    Copenhagen, Denmark, where extensive implementation of green infrastructure is planned to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. This « green » scenario is compared to a traditional « grey » solution, utilizing pipes and basins. The environmental impacts, which are dominated by material production...... environments by adding green and blue elements, and they change the water balance compared to traditional, underground approaches. Additionally, different implementation and maintenance processes are required. All of these transformations affect the environmental impacts of urban storm water management (SWM......) systems, which can be quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This study aims to define the multiple functions provided by a SWM system at sub-catchment scale, and to assess the environmental impacts arising from fulfilling these functions. The approach is tested using the Nørrebro catchment in...

  11. Effect of displacement on resistance and capacitance of polyaniline film

    Khasan Sanginovich Karimov; Muhammad Tariq Saeed; Fazal Ahmad Khalid; Syed Abdul Moiz

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of displacement sensors based on polyaniline(PANI)films. About 1 wt% of PANI micropowder is mixed and stirred in a solution of 90 wt% water and 10 wt% alcohol at room temperature. The films of PANI are deposited from solution by drop-casting on Ag electrodes, which are preliminary deposited on glass substrates. The thicknesses of the PANI films are in the range of 20 jun-80 p.m. A displacement sensor with polyaniline film as an active material is designed and fabricated. The investigations showed that, on average, the AC resistance of the sensor decreases by 2 times and the capacitance accordingly increases by 1.6 times as the displacement changes in the range of 0 mm-0.5 mm. The polyaniline is the only active material of the displacement sensor. The resistance and capacitance of the PANI changes under the pressure of spring and elastic rubber, and this pressure is created by the downward movement of the micrometer.

  12. Effect of displacement on resistance and capacitance of polyaniline film

    Khasan Sanginovich, Karimov; Muhammad Tariq, Saeed; Fazal, Ahmad Khalid; Syed, Abdul Moiz

    2011-04-01

    This paper investigates the properties of displacement sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) films. About 1 wt% of PANI micropowder is mixed and stirred in a solution of 90 wt% water and 10 wt% alcohol at room temperature. The films of PANI are deposited from solution by drop-casting on Ag electrodes, which are preliminary deposited on glass substrates. The thicknesses of the PANI films are in the range of 20 μm-80 μm. A displacement sensor with polyaniline film as an active material is designed and fabricated. The investigations showed that, on average, the AC resistance of the sensor decreases by 2 times and the capacitance accordingly increases by 1.6 times as the displacement changes in the range of 0 mm-0.5 mm. The polyaniline is the only active material of the displacement sensor. The resistance and capacitance of the PANI changes under the pressure of spring and elastic rubber, and this pressure is created by the downward movement of the micrometer.

  13. Simulation and Visualisation of Functional Landscapes: Effects of the Water Resource Competition Between Plants

    Vincent Le Chevalier; Marc Jaeger; Xing Mei; Paul-Henry Cournède

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation ecosystem simulation and visualisation are challenging topics involving multidisciplinary aspects. In this paper, we present a new generic frame for the simulation of natural phenomena through manageable and interacting models. It focuses on the functional growth of large vegetal ecosystems, showing coherence for scales ranging from the individual plant to communities and with a particular attention to the effects of water resource competition between plants. The proposed approach is based on a model of plant growth in interaction with the environmental conditions. These are deduced from the climatic data (light, temperature, rainfall) and a model of soil hydrological budget. A set of layers is used to store the water resources and to build the interfaces between the environmental data and landscape components: temperature, rain, light, altitude, lakes, plant positions, biomass, cycles, etc. At the plant level, the simulation is performed for each individual by a structural-functional growth model, interacting with the plant's environment. Temperature is spatialised, changing according to altitude, and thus locally controls plant growth speed. The competition for water is based on a soil hydrological model taking into account rainfalls, water runoff, absorption, diffusion, percolation in soil. So far, the incoming light radiation is not studied in detail and is supposed constant. However, competition for light between plants is directly taken into account in the plant growth model. In our implementation, we propose a simple architecture for such a simulator and a simulation scheme to synchronise the water resource updating (on a temporal basis) and the plant growth cycles (determined by the sum of daily temperatures). The visualisation techniques are based on sets of layers, allowing both morphological and functional landscape views and providing interesting tools for ecosystem management. The implementation of the proposed frame leads to encouraging

  14. Field-Obtained Soil Water Characteristic Curves and Hydraulic Conductivity Functions

    Elvis, Ishimwe

    A compacted clay liner (test pad) was constructed and instrumented with volumetric water content and soil matric potential sensors to determine soil water characteristic curves (SWCC) and hydraulic conductivity (k) functions. Specifically, the compacted clay liner was subjected to an infiltration cycle during a sealed double ring infiltrometer (SDRI) test followed by a drying cycle. After the drying cycle, Shelby tube samples were collected from the compacted clay liner and flexible wall permeability (FWP) tests were conducted on sub-samples to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, two computer programs (RETC and UNSAT-H) were utilized to model the SWCCs and k-functions of the soil based on obtained measurements including the volumetric water content, the soil matric potential, and the saturated hudraulic conductivity (ks). Results obtained from the RETC program (s, r, α, n and ks) were ingested into UNSAT-H program to calculate the movement of water (rate and location) through the compacted clay liner. Although a linear wetting front (location of water infiltration as a function of time) is typically utilized for SDRI calculations, the use of a hyperbolic wetting front is recommended as a hyperbolic wetting front was modeled from the testing results. The suggested shape of the wetting front is associated with utilization of the desorption SWCC instead of the sorption SWCC and with relatively high values of ks (average value of 7.2E-7 cm/sec) were measured in the FWP tests while relatively low values of ks (average value of 1.2E-7 cm/sec) were measured in the SDRI test.

  15. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling.

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-22

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities. PMID:27116250

  16. Energy Deposition in the TESLA Water Dump As a Function of its Size

    The water dump of the future electron-positron collider TESLA has a very special regime. Each pulse of the electron or positron beam should, after crossing the interaction zone, be dumped in a cylindrical water dump. There is a quite important energy to be absorbed by the dump i.e. 8 MW for 250 GeV energy of the beam and 12 MW if the energy of the electrons is raised to 400 GeV. We should be prepared for an intensity of 2.04x1014 electrons/s for 250 GeV and 2.8x1014 electrons/s for 400 GeV case. The energy to be absorbed is important, therefore we tried to calculate the energy losses by all surfaces of the cylindrical water dump as a function of its size. (author)

  17. Molecular density functional theory of water including density–polarization coupling

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle’s density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density–polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density–polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  18. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: ($i$) a scalar density and a vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and ($ii$) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  19. Sound radiation of a functionally graded material cylindrical shell in water by mobility method

    2011-01-01

    Based on the fundamental dynamic equations of functionally graded material (FGM) cylindrical shell, this paper investigates the sound radiation of vibrational FGM shell in water by mobility method. This model takes into account the exterior fluid loading due to the sound press radiated by the FGM shell. The FGM cylindrical shell was excited by a harmonic line radial force uniformly distributing along the generator. The FGM shell equations of motion, the Helmholtz equation in the exterior fluid medium and th...

  20. Functional and residual capital values as criteria for water pipe renewal

    Nafi, A.; Tlili, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Water pipes are considered as tangible assets designed to provide a level of service throughout an expected lifetime. The asset can be characterised by two types of values: capital or accounting value and functional value. The capital value of assets depreciates according to a specific rate per time period. The depreciation is assessed by the annual amortisation of the capital asset, which constitutes a potential self-budgeting for future renewal. The development in the last 20 years of pu...

  1. Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water

    J. Škvor; I.Nezbeda

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a physical relevance (meaning) of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However...

  2. Catalytic water dissociation by greigite Fe3S4 surfaces: density functional theory study

    Roldan, A.; de Leeuw, N. H.

    2016-01-01

    The iron sulfide mineral greigite, Fe3S4, has shown promising capability as a hydrogenating catalyst, in particular in the reduction of carbon dioxide to produce small organic molecules under mild conditions. We employed density functional theory calculations to investigate the {001},{011} and {111} surfaces of this iron thiospinel material, as well as the production of hydrogen ad-atoms from the dissociation of water molecules on the surfaces. We systematically analysed the adsorption geomet...

  3. Evaluation of water retention capacity and flood control function of the forest catchment

    Sawai, Nobuhiko; TAKARA, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kenichiro

    2013-01-01

    This research quantitatively evaluates the water retention capacity and flood control function of the forest catchments by using hydrological data of the large flood events which happened after the serious droughts. The objective sites are the Oodo Dam and the Sameura Dam catchments in Japan. The kinematic wave model, which considers saturated and unsaturated sub-surface soil zones, is used for the rainfall-runoff analysis. The result shows that possible storage volume of the Oodo Dam catchme...

  4. The first discovered water channel protein, later called aquaporin 1: molecular characteristics, functions and medical implications.

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2012-01-01

    After a decade of work on the water permeability of red blood cells (RBC) Benga group in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, discovered in 1985 the first water channel protein in the RBC membrane. The discovery was reported in publications in 1986 and reviewed in subsequent years. The same protein was purified by chance by Agre group in Baltimore, USA, in 1988, who called in 1991 the protein CHIP28 (CHannel forming Integral membrane Protein of 28 kDa), suggesting that it may play a role in linkage of the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer. In 1992 the Agre group identified CHIP28's water transport property. One year later CHIP28 was named aquaporin 1, abbreviated as AQP1. In this review the molecular structure-function relationships of AQP1 are presented. In the natural or model membranes AQP1 is in the form of a homotetramer, however, each monomer has an independent water channel (pore). The three-dimensional structure of AQP1 is described, with a detailed description of the channel (pore), the molecular mechanisms of permeation through the channel of water molecules and exclusion of protons. The permeability of the pore to gases (CO(2), NH(3), NO, O(2)) and ions is also mentioned. I have also reviewed the functional roles and medical implications of AQP1 expressed in various organs and cells (microvascular endothelial cells, kidney, central nervous system, eye, lacrimal and salivary glands, respiratory apparatus, gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary compartments, female and male reproductive system, inner ear, skin). The role of AQP1 in cell migration and angiogenesis in relation with cancer, the genetics of AQP1 and mutations in human subjects are also mentioned. The role of AQP1 in red blood cells is discussed based on our comparative studies of water permeability in over 30 species. PMID:22705445

  5. Structural, Dynamical, and Electronic Properties of Liquid Water: A Hybrid Functional Study.

    Ambrosio, Francesco; Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    We study structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water through ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on a hybrid functional which includes nonlocal van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The water dimer, the water hexamer, and two phases of ice are studied as benchmark cases. The hydrogen-bond energy depends on the balance between Fock exchange and vdW interactions. Moreover, the energetic competition between extended and compact structural motifs is found to be well described by theory provided vdW interactions are accounted for. Applied to the hydrogen-bond network of liquid water, the dispersion interactions favor more compact structural motifs, bring the density closer to the experimental value, and improve the agreement with experimental observables such as radial distribution functions. The description of the self-diffusion coefficient is also found to improve upon the combined consideration of Fock exchange and vdW interactions. The band gap and the band edges are found to agree with experiment within 0.1 eV. PMID:27404717

  6. Molecular density functional theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume, E-mail: g.jeanmairet@fkf.mpg.de; Levesque, Maximilien, E-mail: maximilien.levesque@ens.fr [École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, Sorbonne Universités - UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 8640 PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr [SIS2M, LIONS, CEA, Saclay (France); Borgis, Daniel [École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, Sorbonne Universités - UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 8640 PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Maison de la Simulation, USR 3441, CEA - CNRS - INRIA - Univ. Paris-Sud - Univ. de Versailles, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-04-21

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. The solvation free energy of small molecular solutes like n-alkanes and hard sphere solutes whose radii range from angstroms to nanometers is now in quantitative agreement with reference all atom simulations. The macroscopic liquid-gas surface tension predicted by the theory is comparable to experiments. This theory gives an alternative to the empirical hard sphere bridge correction used so far by several authors.

  7. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be

  8. 3D laboratory-scale simulation of unstable displacement of heavy oil

    Hofstee, C.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Wilschut, F.; Gyllensten, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Water-flooding or intrusion of aquifer water in heavy oil reservoirs may result in instabilities that lead to early water breakthrough and low oil production. Here, the first part of efforts to arrive at reliable production forecasts for heavy oil fields under unstable displacement conditions is pre

  9. Evaluation of Iodine and Water Co-adsorption on Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, S. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walker, J. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The co-adsorption of iodine and water on silver-functionalized silica aerogel was evaluated using research quantities of the aerogel prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A macro thermogravimetric analyzer was used to measure weight changes in a thin bed of the aerogel as air streams containing moisture and/or iodine flowed through the bed. The total gas flow in all tests was adjusted to achieve a velocity of 10 m/min through the bed. Initial heating of the aerogel sample to 150°C in dry air (dew point < -60°C) resulted in weight loss on the order of 1 wt %. Because subsequent phases of the tests indicated that the aerogel did not sorb water, the weight loss was speculated to be caused by volatilization of material that may have been used in the manufacture of the aerogel. Follow-on tests are recommended to ascertain if the aerogel sorbs water at low temperatures, such as 25°C—this would help to determine if a manufacturing reagent is volatilized when raising the sample to iodine sorption temperatures (i.e., 150°C). Alternatively, the off-gas released upon heating could be condensed and analyzed. In tests using humidified air streams with dew points between -60°C and +10°C, the aerogel did not adsorb water at test temperatures of either 75°C or 150°C. Because water alone was not adsorbed, tests were performed to ascertain if iodine sorption varied between cases when nearly no water was present in the gas stream and when water was present. In one experiment, the gas stream consisted of dry air (dew point < -60°C) with an iodine concentration of 50 ppmv. In the other experiment, the gas stream consisted of air with a water dew point of 0°C and an iodine concentration of 50 ppmv. The ultimate weight gain was nearly the same in both experiments and was presumed to be due entirely to adsorption of iodine. However, a reduced rate of iodine uptake is indicated when water vapor is present. The reason for this is unclear. In both cases, purging the

  10. Gravitational dual of the R\\'{e}nyi twist displacement operator

    Balakrishnan, Srivatsan; Faulkner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We give a recipe for computing correlation functions of the displacement operator localized on a spherical or planar higher dimensional twist defect using AdS/CFT. Such twist operators are typically used to construct the $n$'th Renyi entropies of spatial entanglement in CFTs and are holographically dual to black holes with hyperbolic horizons. The displacement operator then tells us how the Renyi entropies change under small shape deformations of the entangling surface. We explicitly construct the bulk to boundary propagator for the displacement operator insertion as a linearized metric fluctuation of the hyperbolic black hole and use this to extract the coefficient of the displacement operator two point function $C_D$ in any dimension. The $n \\rightarrow 1$ limit of the twist displacement operator gives the same bulk response as the insertion of a null energy operator in vacuum, which is consistent with recent results on the shape dependence of entanglement entropy and modular energy.

  11. Inhibition of nitrobenzene adsorption by water cluster formation at acidic oxygen functional groups on activated carbon.

    Kato, Yuichi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    2008-06-15

    The inhibition effect of nitrobenzene adsorption by water clusters formed at the acidic groups on activated carbon was examined in aqueous and n-hexane solution. The activated carbon was oxidized with nitric acid to introduce CO complexes and then outgassed in helium flow at 1273 K to remove them completely without changing the structural properties of the carbon as a reference adsorbent. The amounts of acidic functional groups were determined by applying Boehm titration. A relative humidity of 95% was used to adsorb water onto the carbon surface. Strong adsorption of water onto the oxidized carbon can be observed by thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption kinetic rate was estimated to be controlled by diffusion from the kinetic analysis. Significant decline in both capacity and kinetic rate for nitrobenzene adsorption onto the oxidized carbon was also observed in n-hexane solution by preadsorption of water to the carbon surface, whereas it was not detected for the outgassed carbons. These results might reveal that water molecules forming clusters at the CO complexes inhibited the entrance of nitrobenzene into the interparticles of the carbon. PMID:18440013

  12. A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance

    Haval Yacoob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance. The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes. The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

  13. Assessing Soil Water Retention Characteristics and Their Spatial Variability Using Pedotransfer Functions

    LIAO Kai-Hua; XU Shao-Hui; WU Ji-Chun; JI Shu-Hua; LIN Qing

    2011-01-01

    A total of 107 soil samples were taken from the city of Qingdao,Shandong Province,China.Soil water retention data at 2.5,6,10,33,100,300,and 1500 kPa matric potentials were measured using a pressure membrane apparatus.Multiple hnear regression (MLR) was used to develop pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for single point estimation and van Genuchten parameter estimation based on readily measurable soil properties,i.e.,MLR-based point (MLRP) PTF and MLR-based parametric (MLRV) PTF.The double cross-validation method was used to evaluate the accuracy of PTF estimates and the stability of the PTFs developed in this study.The performance of MLRP and MLRV PTFs in estimating water contents at matric potentials of -10,-33,and -1 500 kPa was compared with that of two existing PTFs,the Rawls PTF and the Vereecken PTF.In addition,geostatistical analyses were conducted to assess the capabilities of these PTFs in describing the spatial variability of soil water retention characteristics.Results showed that among all PTFs only the Vereecken PTF failed to accurately estimate water retention characteristics.Although the MLRP PTF can be used to predict retention characteristics through traditional statistical analyses,it failed to describe the spatial variability of soil water retention characteristics.Although the MLRV and Rawls PTFs failed to describe the spatial variability of water contents at a matric potential of -10 kPa,they can be used to quantify the spatial variability of water contents at matric potentials of -33 and -1500 kPa.

  14. Transit times of water particles in the vadose zone across catchment states and catchments functional units

    Sprenger, Matthias; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the water movement in the vadose zone and its associated transport of solutes are of major interest to reduce nutrient leaching, pollution transport or other risks to water quality. Soil physical models are widely used to asses such transport processes, while the site specific parameterization of these models remains challenging. Inverse modeling is a common method to adjust the soil physical parameters in a way that the observed water movement or soil water dynamics are reproduced by the simulation. We have shown that the pore water stable isotope concentration can serve as an additional fitting target to simulate the solute transport and water balance in the unsaturated zone. In the presented study, the Mualem- van Genuchten parameters for the Richards equation and diffusivity parameter for the convection-dispersion equation have been parameterized using the inverse model approach with Hydrus-1D for 46 experimental sites of different land use, topography, pedology and geology in the Attert basin in Luxembourg. With the best parameter set we simulated the transport of a conservative solute that was introduced via a pulse input at different points in time. Thus, the transit times in the upper 2 m of the soil for different catchment states could be inferred for each location. It has been shown that the time a particle needs to pass the -2 m depth plane highly varies from the systems state and the systems forcing during and after infiltration of that particle. Differences in transit times among the study sites within the Attert basin were investigated with regards to its governing factors to test the concept of functional units. The study shows the potential of pore water stable isotope concentration for residence times and transport analyses in the unsaturated zone leading to a better understanding of the time variable subsurface processes across the catchment.

  15. Sub-stoichiometric functionally graded titania fibres for water-splitting applications

    The photo–electro–chemical (PEC) splitting of water requires semiconductor materials with a minimum energy gap of 1.23 eV along with conduction and valence bands overlapping the oxidation of H2O and reduction of H+ respectively. This work overcomes the limitations of stoichiometric titania by manufacturing fine scale fibres that exhibit a compositional gradient of oxygen vacancies across the fibre length. In such a fibre configuration the fibre end that is chemically reduced to a relatively small extent performs as the photoanode and the oxygen vacancies enhance the absorption of light. The fibre end that is reduced the most consists of Magnéli phases and exhibits metallic electrical conductivity that enhances the electron–hole separation. The structure and composition of the functionally graded fibres, which were manufactured through extrusion, pressureless sintering and carbo-thermal reduction, are studied using XRD and electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical system and showed that the oxygen vacancies in the functionally graded fibres affect the flat band potential and have increased carrier density. The efficiency of the system was evaluated with PEC measurements that shows higher efficiency for the functionally graded fibres compared to homogeneous TiO2 or Magnéli phase fibres. The functionally graded and fine scale fibres have the potential to be used as an array of active fibres for water splitting applications. (paper)

  16. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions.

  17. Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water

    A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment

  18. Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: sultanmeo@hotmail.com; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 (Saudi Arabia); Meo, Imran M.U. [Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Hamdard University, Karachi (Pakistan); Al-Saadi, Muslim M. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Azeem, Muhammad Abdul [Department of Physiology, Ummal Qura University, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-01-15

    A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV{sub 1}), forced expiratory flow (FEF{sub 25-75%}) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.

  19. New aspects in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement.

    Doll, Klaus; Sickinger, Marlene; Seeger, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Impaired abomasal motility and an increased accumulation of gas are prerequisites for displacement of the abomasum in the cow. Predisposing factors are the breed (e.g. Holstein-Friesian, Simmental-Red-Holstein cross breeds and Guernsey), genetic background, twin pregnancy, first weeks of lactation, metabolic disorders (ketosis, increased lipomobilisation, insulin resistance), high-concentrate and low-fibre diets, as well as other concomitant diseases, such as endometritis, mastitis and claw disorders. There does not appear to be a strong correlation between increased milk yield or endotoxaemia and abomasal displacement. Recent studies have focused on possible functional disorders of the enteric nervous system within the abomasal wall, since cattle with abomasal displacement have an increased activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, as well as decreased acetylcholine sensitivity. In addition, there appear to be significant differences between breeds in the levels of the neurotransmitters substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the abomasal wall. For example, SP (stimulatory) was significantly less in German Holsteins in comparison to the German Fleckvieh, whereas VIP (inhibitory) was markedly increased. These risk factors may explain why Holstein cows are more susceptible to abomasal displacement than other breeds. PMID:18397836

  20. Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Kardassis Dimitris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C. Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

  1. Water

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  2. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-01

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women. PMID:8331759

  3. Geostationary Satellite Observation of Precipitable Water Vapor Using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) based Reconstruction Technique over Eastern China

    Man Sing Wong; Xiaomeng Jin; Zhizhao Liu; Janet Elizabeth Nichol; Shirong Ye; Peng Jiang; Pak Wai Chan

    2015-01-01

    Water vapor, as one of the most important greenhouse gases, is crucial for both climate and atmospheric studies. Considering the high spatial and temporal variations of water vapor, a timely and accurate retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is urgently needed, but has long been constrained by data availability. Our study derived the vertically integrated precipitable water vapor over eastern China using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) data, which is in geostationary orbit ...

  4. Surgical treatment of displaced fractures of the glenoid cavity

    Adam, Faisal F.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1999 ten patients with displaced glenoid cavity fractures were treated operatively. Nine of the fractures were the result of road traffic accidents. There were eight men and two women patients, their average age was 38 (range 22–54) years, and the follow-up ranged from 18 to 84 months. Functional outcome was assessed in terms of pain, range of movement, muscle power, and performance of daily activities, and the results were excellent or good in eight patients.

  5. Displacement of leisure reinforcers by food during preference assessments.

    DeLeon, I G; Iwata, B A; Roscoe, E M

    1997-01-01

    Identification of reinforcers for individuals with developmental disabilities is often based on the outcome of preference assessments in which participants make selections from among a variety of items. We determined the extent to which individuals might show a general preference for food items over leisure items during such assessments and whether leisure items that are "displaced" by food items might nevertheless function as reinforcers. Arrays consisting of food items only and then nonfood...

  6. Evaluation of thermal water in patients with functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome accompanying constipation

    Giovanni Gasbarrini; Marcello Candelli; RiccardoGiuseppe Graziosetto; Sergio Coccheri; Ferdinando Di Iorio; Giuseppe Nappi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of water supplementation treatment in patients with functional dyspepsia or irritable bowe syndrome (IBS) accompanying predominant constipation.METHODS: A total of 3 872 patients with functional dyspepsia and 3609 patients with irritable bowel syndrome were enrolled in the study by 18 Italina thermal centres.Patients underwent a first cycle of thermal therapy for 21 d. A year later patients were re-evaluated at the same centre and received another cycle of thermal therapy.A questionnare to collect personal data on social and occupational status, family and pathological case history,life style, clinical records, utilisation of welfare and health structure and devices was administered to each patient at basal time and one year after each thermal treatment.Sixty patients with functional dyspepsia and 20 with IBS and 80 healthy controls received an evaluation of gastric output and oro-cecal transit time by breath test analysis.Breath test was performed at basal time and after water supplementaton therapies. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated at the same time points. Breath samples were analyzed with a mass spectometer and a gascromatograph. Results were expressed as T1/2 and T-lag for octanoic acid breath test and as oro-cecal transit time for lactulose breath test.RESULTS: A significant reduction of prevalence of symptoms was observed at the end of the first and second cycles of thermal therapy in dyspeptic and IBS patients.The analysis of variance showed a real and persistant improvement of symptoms in all patients. After water supplementation for 3 wk a reduction of gastric output was observed in 49 (87.5%) of 56 dyspeptic patients.Both T1/2 and T-lag were significantly reduced after the therapy compared to basal values [91± 12 (T1/2) and 53 ± 11 (T-lag), Tables 1 and 2] with results of octanoic acid breath test similar to healthy subjects. After water supplementation for 3 wk oro-cecal transit time was shorter than that at the

  7. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels.

    Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Chaari, Fatma; Maktouf, Sameh; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouz

    2016-08-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from potato peel waste (PPW). The structure of the polysaccharides from PPW (PPPW) was examined by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the extracted polysaccharides form a semi-crystalline polymer constituted essentially of the functional groups CO, CH and OH. Acid hydrolysis of this polymer yielded glucose (76.25%) as the dominant sugar functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) of this polymer were studied. The PPPW showed interesting water-holding and fat-binding capacities which were 4.097 ± 0.537 g/g and 4.398 ± 0.04 g/g, respectively. In addition, it presented good foaming and emulsion properties. The antioxidant activity of this polymer was also studied and revealed that the polysaccharides showed interesting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 PPPW=11.578 mg/mL), reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activities, and also a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 PPPW=2mg/mL). Overall, the results suggest that the polysaccharide is a promising source of natural antioxidants and can be used as additive in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:27006219

  8. Intramolecular cyclization of aspartic acid residues assisted by three water molecules: a density functional theory study

    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (l-Asp) are known to undergo spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions to form l-β-Asp, d-Asp, and d-β-Asp residues. The formation of these abnormal Asp residues in proteins may affect their three-dimensional structures and hence their properties and functions. Indeed, the reactions have been thought to contribute to aging and pathologies. Most of the above reactions of the l-Asp residues proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, a novel three-water-assisted mechanism is proposed for cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a gem-diol precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for an Asp-containing model compound (Ace−Asp−Nme, where Ace = acetyl and Nme = NHCH3). The three water molecules act as catalysts by mediating ‘long-range’ proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form (iminolization). Then, reorientation of a water molecule and a conformational change occur successively, followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen on the carboxyl carbon of the Asp side chain to form the gem-diol species. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  9. Fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades: A molecular dynamics study

    Highlights: • The subcascades formation in copper and iron is studied by molecular dynamics method. • A two-point density correlation function is a tool for detecting subcascade formation. • A fractal analysis served to determine the subcascade formation threshold energy. • The temporal evolution of displacement cascades is investigated. - Abstract: The fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades in copper and iron has been investigated through the molecular dynamics technique. A two-point density correlation function has been used to analyze the cascades as a function of the primary knock-on (PKA) energy. This approach is used as a tool for detecting subcascade formation. The fragmentation can already be identified at the end of the ballistic phase. Its resulting evolution in the peak damage state discriminates between unconnected and connected subcascades. The damage zone at the end of the ballistic phase is the precursor of the extended regions that contain the surviving defects. A fractal analysis of the cascade exhibits a dependence on both the stage of the cascade development and the PKA energy. This type of analysis enables the minimum and maximum displacement spike energies together with the subcascade formation threshold energy to be determined

  10. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.

    2009-12-15

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface

  11. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    J. Moeys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisation usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedotransfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved.

    Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42. Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = −0.26 due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72. Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably

  12. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    J. Moeys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedotransfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved.

    Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42. Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = −0.26 due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72. Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is

  13. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Moeys, J.; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L.; Brown, C. D.; Coquet, Y.; Jarvis, N. J.

    2012-07-01

    Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = -0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the

  14. Evaluation of renal function by dynamic MR imaging. Effect of water load

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of renal function, with particular attention to the effects of water load. Ten healthy volunteers underwent dynamic MR imaging after an injection of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a contrast agent to evaluate renal function by the following four methods: the positive method [longitudinal relaxation time (T1) shortening is the dominant effect], the negative method [transverse relaxation time (T2) shortening is the dominant effect] and two intermediate methods by switching the Gd-DTPA concentrations used in the positive and negative methods. A prolonged cortical peak time and a reduced medullary peak level were observed by the positive method under a dehydrated condition, suggesting that these variables were slightly influenced by Gd-DTPA concentrated in the medulla. By the negative method, low signals due to T2* (T2* is the effective transverse relaxation time, typically shorter than T2) shortening appeared in the medulla under normal conditions, but these signals were unclear when the subject was under an overhydrated condition. These results indicate that water metabolism, in addition to imaging parameters and Gd-DTPA dose levels, should be considered when renal function is evaluated by dynamic MR imaging. Analysis of both the pattern of MR images and the time-signal intensity curves may be useful in the evaluation of renal function. The results also indicate that the positive method is perferred when the patient is overhydrated as it allows the evaluation of the local renal kinetic function by recording changes in the regional contract agent levels. (author)

  15. Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers

    Kelkkanen, Kari André; Lundqvist, Bengt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2009-01-01

    A recent extensive study has investigated how various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals treat hydrogen bonds in water hexamers and has shown traditional generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functionals used in density-functional (DF) theory to give the wrong dissociation-energy trend...

  16. A hybrid model for river water temperature as a function of air temperature and discharge

    Water temperature controls many biochemical and ecological processes in rivers, and theoretically depends on multiple factors. Here we formulate a model to predict daily averaged river water temperature as a function of air temperature and discharge, with the latter variable being more relevant in some specific cases (e.g., snowmelt-fed rivers, rivers impacted by hydropower production). The model uses a hybrid formulation characterized by a physically based structure associated with a stochastic calibration of the parameters. The interpretation of the parameter values allows for better understanding of river thermal dynamics and the identification of the most relevant factors affecting it. The satisfactory agreement of different versions of the model with measurements in three different rivers (root mean square error smaller than 1oC, at a daily timescale) suggests that the proposed model can represent a useful tool to synthetically describe medium- and long-term behavior, and capture the changes induced by varying external conditions. (letter)

  17. Heat Transfer Analysis of MHD Water Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Flow over a Static/Moving Wedge

    Waqar A. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MHD flow and heat transfer from water functionalized CNTs over a static/moving wedge are studied numerically. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of both single and multiple wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs within a base fluid (water of similar volume are investigated to determine the impact of these properties on thermofluid performance. The governing partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear, ordinary, and coupled differential equations and are solved using an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization techniques. The effects of volume fraction of CNTs and magnetic and wedge parameters are investigated and presented graphically. The numerical results are compared with the published data and are found to be in good agreement. It is shown that the magnetic field reduces boundary layer thickness and increases skin friction and Nusselt numbers. Due to higher density and thermal conductivity, SWCNTs offer higher skin friction and Nusselt numbers.

  18. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  19. Making work safe for displaced women

    Dale Buscher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displaced women need opportunities to make a living for themselves and their families but these opportunities should not increase their vulnerability. Understanding risk factors and protection strategies allows practitioners to ensure appropriate programme design and implementation.

  20. A flexible sensor measuring displacement and bending

    Nishijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes a new sensor that is capable of measuring both linear displacement and bending. The sensor is designed to be used with an electrostatic film motor that features mechanical flexibility, but can also be used as an independent sensor. The sensor employs three-phase electrodes both in sliding and stationary parts and estimates displacement and bending from the change of the capacitance between the electrodes. The paper describes an equivalent capacitance-network model for the sensor. Based on the model, sensing principles for both displacement and bending are presented and analyzed. The analyses are experimentally verified using a prototype sensor. The experimental results show that the prototype sensor could measure both displacement and bending with little interference between them.

  1. Displacement cross section and DPA calculations using NMTC/JAERI

    A new function calculating displacement cross sections using the Lindhard-Robinson model is implemented in the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI. The nucleon-nucleus cross sections in the energy region above 950 MeV and the angular distribution data of elastic scattering are also modified to evaluate the displacement cross sections as accurate as possible. The displacement cross sections of Cr, Fe Ni, and type 316 stainless steel are calculated with the updated version of NMTC/JAERI. It is confirmed that the calculated displacement cross sections caused by the elastic scattering connect smoothly with the value of the JENDL PKA File at 20 MeV. With these calculation values, the displacement per atoms (DPA) in the beam window and target vessel of a mercury target are estimated in a framework of the neutronics design study of the spallation target bombarded with 1.5 GeV protons with a power of 5 MW. The following three beam conditions are selected in this calculation; (a) uniform distribution with average current density of 48 μA/cm2, (b) parabolic distribution with average current density of 48 μA/cm2, and (c) that with average current density of 24 μA/cm2. The DPAs are estimated as (a) 68, (b) 114, and (c) 70 DPA/yr at the beam windows, and (a) 41, (b) 52, and (c) 37 DPA/yr at the target vessel for the three cases, respectively. It is found that the DPAs obtained in this study are almost the same as the results of other design studies for spallation neutron source facilities. (author)

  2. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    Lyons, Kevin; Pang, Shengshi; Kwiat, Paul G.; Jordan, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons a...

  3. Effect of antidepressant treatment on water load test and cortisol changes in patients with functional dyspepsia

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that patients with functional dyspepsia have experiences social life stress events, and accompanied by psychological disorders, mainly manifested as depression and anxiety.Mental factors can lead to excessive gastrointestinal consensual reaction, and result in different brain-gut axis disturbance, and then cause the gastrointestinal sensorimotor abnormality and endocrine changes.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of antidepressant treatment on the changes of water load and serum cortisol in patients with functional dyspepsia, and analyze the therapeutic mechanism.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: The First Affiliated Hospital o Zhengzhou University.PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five patients with functional dyspepsia accompanied by depression were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from July 2004 to July 2006, and they were 25 - 65 years of age, and their disease courses ranged 1 - 10 years. They were all accorded with the diagnostic standards for Rome Ⅱ functional dyspepsia functional dyspepsia. As the patients' will, they were divided into treatment group (n =30, 12 males and 18 females) and control group (n =15, 6 males and 9 females), and there were no significant differences in the data between the two groups (P > 0.05). The programs were discussed and agreed by the committee of medical ethics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Informed contents were obtained from all the patients.METHODS: In the treatment group, the patients were treated with venlafaxine sustained release capsule (75 mg per day), and those with sleep disorder were added by benzodiazepines (alprazolam). In the control group, the patients were given routine treatments of antacid, prokinetics, etc. Before and after 8-week treatment, the following examinations were performed: ① The gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed according to the symptoms; ② The severity of

  4. Mantle Melting as a Function of Water Content beneath the Mariana Arc

    Kelley, Katherine A.; Plank, Terry; Newman, Sally; Stolper, Edward M.; Grove, Timothy L.; Parman, Stephen; Erik H. Hauri

    2010-01-01

    Subduction zone magmas are characterized by high concentrations of pre-eruptive H_2O, presumably as a result of an H_2Oflux originating from the dehydrating, subducting slab. The extent of mantle melting increases as a function of increasing water content beneath back-arc basins and is predicted to increase in a similar manner beneath arc volcanoes. Here, we present new data for olivine-hosted, basaltic melt inclusions from the Mariana arc that reveal pre-eruptive H_2O c...

  5. Silicon Application Increases Drought Tolerance of Kentucky Bluegrass by Improving Plant Water Relations and Morphophysiological Functions

    Shah Saud; Xin Li; Yang Chen; Lu Zhang; Shah Fahad; Saddam Hussain; Arooj Sadiq; Yajun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L−1) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, tra...

  6. SENSITIVITY AND VALIDITY OF A FUNCTIONAL TEST FOR AGILITY PERFORMANCE IN WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Tucher, Guilherme; A. de S. Castro, Flávio; J.R.M. da Silva, António; D. Garrido, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and validity of the Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP) in water polo players. Six elite junior (aged 16.33±0.82 years) male players and 65 competitive men (aged 18.1±4.3 years) who were classified in three groups (G1-3), participated in different phases of the test. The scores accomplished in FTAP at two periods (initial and final) were compared. They were correlated with the scores in Sprint/Agility Test and differences bet...

  7. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros; Quirijn de Jong van Lier; Aline de Holanda Nunes Maia; Fábio Vale Scarpare

    2013-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTF) were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs) of the van Genuchten model (1980) to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf), totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets:...

  8. Non-dimensional gradient functions for water vapor and carbon dioxide in the marine boundary layer

    Vahlberg, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the exchange processes taking place over the oceans is of great importance since the oceans cover about 70 % of the Earth’s surface. With better knowledge the turbulent fluxes can be more accurate parameterized, which is essential in order to improve the weather- and climate models. In this study, the non-dimensional gradient functions for water vapor (Φq) and carbon dioxide (Φc) in the marine boundary layer have principally been studied. The quality of the instrumen...

  9. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects...... the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR...

  10. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  11. Modeling the Impact of Fracture Growth on Fluid Displacements in Deformable Porous Media

    Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The flow of a fluid through a deformable porous media is present in manyenvironmental, industrial, and biological processes,such as the removal of pollutants from underground water bodies, enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. However, the injection of a fluid can generate or propagate fractures, which are preferential flow paths. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between injection and rock mechanics, and elucidate fracture propagation as a function of injection rate, initial crack topology and mechanical rock properties. Finally, we discuss the role of fracture growth on fluid displacements in porous media. Figure: An example of fracture (in red) propagated in a porous media (in blue)

  12. Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water

    J. Škvor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a physical relevance (meaning of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However, unlike the findings for simple fluids, the loci of the response function extrema exhibit density/pressure dependence quite different from that of the percolation line. The only potential coincidence between the loci of the extrema of a thermodynamic property and a detectable structural change is found for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility and Voronoi neighbors distribution skewness maximum.

  13. Modeling the influence of irradiation temperature and displacement rate on hardening due to point defect clusters in ferritic steels

    The influence of irradiation temperature and displacement rate have been investigated using a detailed kinetic model that incorporates an explicit description of point defect clustering. These clusters are potentially responsible for the fraction of the radiation-induced hardening that is attributed to the so-called ''matrix defect.'' The model considers both interstitial and vacancy clustering, with the former treated as Frank loops and the later treated as microvoids. The point defect clusters can be formed either directly in the displacement cascade or by diffusive encounters between free point defects. The results indicate that the assumption of steady state point defect concentrations is not valid for temperatures much below the light water reactor pressure vessel operating temperature of about 288 degrees C. At lower temperatures, the time required for the point defect concentrations to reach steady state can exceed an operating reactor's lifetime. Even at 288 degrees C, the length of the point defect transient could influence the interpretation of irradiation experiments conducted at accelerated damage rates. The hardening due to point defect clusters was calculated using a simple dislocation barrier model. The model predicts that both cluster types can give rise to significant hardening. The relative importance of each type is shown to be a function of irradiation temperature and displacement rate

  14. Impaired water maze learning performance without altered dopaminergic function in mice heterozygous for the GDNF mutation.

    Gerlai, R; McNamara, A; Choi-Lundberg, D L; Armanini, M; Ross, J; Powell-Braxton, L; Phillips, H S

    2001-10-01

    Exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent survival-promoting effects on dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway that is implicated in Parkinson's disease and also protects neurons in forebrain ischemia of animal models. However, a role for endogenous GDNF in brain function has not been established. Although mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the GDNF gene have been generated, these mice die within hours of birth because of deficits in kidney morphogenesis, and, thus, the effect of the absence of GDNF on brain function could not be studied. Herein, we sought to determine whether adult mice, heterozygous for a GDNF mutation on two different genetic backgrounds, demonstrate alterations in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or in cognitive function. While both neurochemical and behavioural measures suggested that reduction of GDNF gene expression in the mutant mice does not alter the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, it led to a significant and selective impairment of performance in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. A standard panel of blood chemistry tests and basic pathological analyses did not reveal alterations in the mutants that could account for the observed performance deficit. These results suggest that endogenous GDNF may not be critical for the development and functioning of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system but it plays an important role in cognitive abilities. PMID:11683907

  15. Functional evaluation of the field capacity concept for water balance analysis under climatic seasonality conditions

    Ceres, Francesca; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Romano, Nunzio

    2010-05-01

    Some types of hydrologic models, such as the bucket model, rely on the concept of field water capacity, θFWC. In this study, the techniques traditionally proposed for determining this parameter have been critically analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in computing soil water budget. Two basic aspects of the problem will be presented: (i) to set up techniques for a suitable parameterization of hydrologic models, (ii) to implement simulation models that describe the various processes with different levels of complexity and compare their results. The following models are considered: the Richards equation based model and the simplified bucket-type model. Soil water content at the condition of field capacity has been determined for both uniform and layered soil profiles by using the numerical model developed by Romano et al. (1998) and verified by Brunone et al. (2003). This model solves the Richards equation with the Crank-Nicolson finite difference technique and uses a numerical algorithm specifically designed in case of layered soils for calculating the hydraulic conductivity at the layer interface. For layered soil profiles, which actually represent the rule rather than an exception, soil layer sequence and the reciprocal differences in the soil hydraulic properties (soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions) strongly influence the attainment of the field capacity condition. Simulations of soil water balance using the Richards-based model or the bucket-type model have been compared. It is shown that climatic seasonality typical of the Mediterranean environments exerts some influence on the dynamics of surficial water contents in soil and this influence can be kept only in part by the bucket model if not parameterized adequately. Rainfall variability during the vegetative season and that one evolving during the quiescent phase is responsible for different transpiration conditions and for evolutions of the water content in the soil characterized

  16. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group ...

  17. Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers

    Kelkkanen, Kari André; Lundqvist, Bengt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2009-01-01

    A recent extensive study has investigated how various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals treat hydrogen bonds in water hexamers and has shown traditional generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functionals used in density-functional (DF) theory to give the wrong dissociation-energy trend of low-lying isomers and van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces to give key contributions to the dissociation energy. The question raised whether functionals that incorporate vdW forces implicitly int...

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF MOVING COIL ACTUATORS FOR DIGITAL DISPLACEMENT MACHINES

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck;

    actuating annular seat valves in a digital displacement machine. The optimization objectives are to the minimize the actuator power, the valve flow losses and the height of the actuator. Evaluation of the objective function involves static finite element simulation and simulation of an entire operation...... cycle using a single chamber Digital Displacement lumped parameter model. The optimization results shows that efficient operation is achievable using all of the proposed moving coil geometries, however some geometries require more space and actuator power. The most appealing of the optimized actuator...... designs requires approximately 20 W on average and may be realized in 20 mm Ø 22.5 mm (height diameter) for a 20 kW pressure chamber. The optimization is carried out using the multi-objective Generalized Differential Evolution optimization algorithm GDE3 which successfully handles constrained multi...

  19. Search for R-parity violating supersymmetry with displaced vertices

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for $R$-parity violating supersymmetry has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of $17.6~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. This search assumes a minimal flavor violating model where the lightest supersymmetric particle is a long-lived neutralino or gluino, leading to a signal with jets emanating from displaced vertices. Based on a sample of events with two displaced vertices, the pair production cross section is bounded as a function of mass and lifetime of the neutralino or gluino. For a mass of 400 GeV and mean proper decay length of 10 mm, the analysis excludes cross sections above $0.6~\\mathrm{fb}$ at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  20. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash

    2007-08-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the atomic interactions in transition metal-based interstitial alloys. The strain field is calculated in the discrete lattice model using Kanzaki method. The total energy and hence atomic forces between interstitial hydrogen and transition metal hosts are calculated using DFT. The norm-conserving pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. The dynamical matrices are evaluated considering interaction up to first nearest neighbors whereas impurity-induced forces are calculated with M32H shell (where M = Cu and Pd). The atomic displacements produced by interstitial hydrogen at the octahedral site in Cu and Pd show displacements of 7.36% and 4.3% of the first nearest neighbors respectively. Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and the obtained average lattice expansion / = 0.177 for Cu and 0.145 for Pd.

  1. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  2. The key role of water in the dioxygenase function of Escherichia coli flavohemoglobin.

    Ferreiro, Dardo N; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Darío A; Martí, Marcelo A

    2013-02-01

    Flavohemoglobins (FHbs) are members of the globin superfamily, widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes that have been shown to carry out nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) activity. In prokaryotes, such as Escherichia coli, NOD activity is a defence mechanism against the NO release by the macrophages of the hosts' immune system during infection. Because of that, FHbs have been studied thoroughly and several drugs have been developed in an effort to fight infectious processes. Nevertheless, the protein's structural determinants involved in the NOD activity are still poorly understood. In this context, the aim of the present work is to unravel the molecular basis of FHbs structural dynamics-to-function relationship using state of the art computer simulation tools. In an effort to fulfill this goal, we studied three key processes that determine NOD activity, namely i) ligand migration into the active site ii) stabilization of the coordinated oxygen and iii) intra-protein electron transfer (ET). Our results allowed us to determine key factors related to all three processes like the presence of a long hydrophobic tunnel for ligand migration, the presence of a water mediated hydrogen bond to stabilize the coordinated oxygen and therefore achieve a high affinity, and the best possible ET paths between the FAD and the heme, where water molecules play an important role. Taken together the presented results close an important gap in our understanding of the wide and diverse globin structural-functional relationships. PMID:23220591

  3. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Apgaua, Deborah M G; Ishida, Françoise Y; Tng, David Y P; Laidlaw, Melinda J; Santos, Rubens M; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A M; Laurance, Susan G W

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios. PMID:26087009

  4. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees.

    Deborah M G Apgaua

    Full Text Available Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees. We characterised the species' hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios.

  5. Molecular orbital estimation of reduced partition function ratios of small water clusters

    Structures of water clusters, (H2O)n, up to n=10 were optimized at the HF/6-31G(d) level of theory, and H/D and 16O/18O isotopic reduced partition function ratios (RPFRs) at the optimized structures were calculated. The H/D RPFR values were distinctly different between hydrogen-bonded hydrogen atoms and non-hydrogen-bonded hydrogen atoms, but were nearly independent of the cluster size for n equal to 3 or larger when only the lowest-energy conformers are taken into consideration. The 16O/18O RPFR values were also distinct between hydrogen-bonded oxygen atoms and non-hydrogen-bonded oxygen atoms, but little difference in RPFR value was observed between oxygen atoms with one hydrogen bond and those with two hydrogen bonds. The 16O/18O RPFR values were cluster size independent above n=6. The estimation of RPFRs of liquid water thus seemed possible by considering the lowest energy conformers of small water clusters (n=6-10). (author)

  6. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water

  7. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj, E-mail: torajmohammadi@iust.ac.ir

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water.

  8. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. PMID:26727278

  9. CuO-Functionalized Silicon Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Devices.

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Han, Tingting; Berardi, Serena; Lanza, Mario; Llobet, Antoni

    2016-01-13

    One main difficulty for the technological development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting (WS) devices is the fabrication of active, stable and cost-effective photoelectrodes that ensure high performance. Here, we report the development of a CuO/Silicon based photoanode, which shows an onset potential for the water oxidation of 0.53 V vs SCE at pH 9, that is, an overpotential of 75 mV, and high stability above 10 h. These values account for a photovoltage of 420 mV due to the absorbed photons by silicon, as proven by comparing with analogous CuO/FTO electrodes that are not photoactive. The photoanodes have been fabricated by sputtering a thin film of Cu(0) on commercially available n-type Si wafers, followed by a photoelectrochemical treatment in basic pH conditions. The resulting CuO/Cu layer acts as (1) protective layer to avoid the corrosion of nSi, (2) p-type hole conducting layer for efficient charge separation and transportation, and (3) electrocatalyst to reduce the overpotential of the water oxidation reaction. The low cost, low toxicity, and good performance of CuO-based coatings can be an attractive solution to functionalize unstable materials for solar energy conversion. PMID:26651152

  10. Complex electrical properties of shale as a function of frequency and water content

    Adisoemarta, Paulus Suryono

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the change in complex electrical permittivity of shale as a function of water content. An experimental research program has been initiated to investigate the electrical properties of swelling shales, shales that have been exposed to water and are therefore expanding, across a wide frequency range, 5 Hz to 1.3 GHz. This range spans the spectrum of the commonly used down-hole logging measurements from the deep laterologs to the microwave dielectric tools. Two distinct measurement techniques have been used to span the range: four-electrode with balanced bridge for the low frequencies, and open-ended coaxial probe with network analyzer at the high end. The probe technique is simple to use, potentially enabling field measurements of complex permittivity to be taken, although some accuracy is sacrificed. The effects of swelling are most pronounced at the lowest frequencies. This investigation discovered a phenomenon of shale: it will generate a direct electrical current under stress that has a potential for a wellbore diagnostic tool. Also the best fluid for shale preservation was found to be Isopar M TM, a mineral oil saturated with deionized water.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  12. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  13. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

  14. Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface

    Bedolla, Pedro O.; Feldbauer, Gregor; Wolloch, Michael; Gruber, Christoph; Eder, Stefan J.; Dörr, Nicole; Mohn, Peter; Redinger, Josef; Vernes, András

    2014-01-01

    The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our ...

  15. Equilibrium isotopic fractionation in the kaolinite, quartz, water system : Prediction from first-principles density-functional theory

    Meheut, M.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, Etienne; Mauri, F.

    2007-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation factors for oxygen, hydrogen and silicon have been calculated using first-principles methods for the kaolinite, quartz, water (ice and gas water) system. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for mineral-water oxygen isotope fractionation. This approach gives reliable results on isotopic fractionation factors as a function of temperature, within a relative precision of typically 5%. These calculations provide independent quantitative constraints on th...

  16. Structure and functions of water-membrane interfaces and their role in proto-biological evolution

    Pohorille, A.; Wilson, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Among the most important developments in proto-biological evolution was the emergence of membrane-like structures. These are formed by spontaneous association of relatively simple amphiphilic molecules that would have been readily available in the primordial environment. The resulting interfacial regions between water and nonpolar interior of the membrane have several properties which made them uniquely suitable for promoting subsequent evolution. They can (1) selectively attract organic material and mediate its transport, (2) serve as simple catalysts for chemical reactions, and (3) promote the formation of trans-membrane electrical and chemical gradients which could provide energy sources for proto-cells. Understanding the structure of interfaces, their interactions with organic molecules and molecular mechanisms of their functions is an essential step to understanding proto-biological evolution. In our computer simulation studies, we showed that the structure of water at interfaces with nonpolar media is significantly different from that in the bulk. In particular, the average surface dipole density points from the vapor to the liquid. As a result, negative ions can approach the interface more easily than positive ions. Amphiphilic molecules composed of hydrocarbon conjugated rings and polar substituents (e.g., phenol) assume at the interface rigid orientations in which polar groups are buried in water while hydrocarbon parts are located in the nonpolar environment. These orientational differences are of special interest in connection with the ability of some of these molecules to efficiently absorb photons. Flexible molecules with polar substituents often adopt at interfaces conformations different from those in the bulk aquaeous solution and in the gas phase. As a result, in many instances both specificity and kinetics of chemical reactions in which these molecules can participate is modified by the presence of surfaces. Of special interest is the mechanism by

  17. Investigation of the Buffering Function of Aluminum being in Equilibrium with the Mineral Kaolinite in Acidic Natural Water

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a computer model to investigate the buffering function of aluminum being in equilibrium with mineral kaolinite in acidic natural water. Factors affecting the theoretical pH values are discussed. The model is verified by analyzing practical water samples.

  18. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash

    2007-04-01

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and Harrison interatomic potential is used to calculate the atomic force constants, the dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces. We have thoroughly investigated the atomic displacements using impurities from 3d, 4d and 5d series in the same host metal and the same impurity in different hosts. We have observed a systematic pattern in the atomic displacements for Cr-, Fe-, Nb-, Mo-, Ta- and W-based dilute alloys. The atomic displacements are found to increase with increase in the number of d electrons for all alloys considered except for V dilute alloys. The 3d impurities are found to be more easily dissolved in the 3d host metals than 4d or 5d TMs whereas 4d and 5d impurities show more solubility in 4d and 5d TMs. In general, the relaxation energy calculation suggests that impurities may be easily solvable in 5d TM hosts when compared to 3d or 4d TMs.

  19. Bioassessment of water quality status using a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-09-15

    The feasibility of a potential ecological indicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates for bioassessment of water quality status were studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different water quality status during a 1-year period. The multivariate approach based on "bootstrap-average" analysis was used to summarize the spatial variation in functional structure of the samples. The functional patterns represented a significant spatial variability, and were significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients (mainly nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N), alone or in combination with dissolve oxygen and salinity among five stations. The functional diversity represented a clear spatial variation among five stations, and was found to be significantly related to the nutrient NO3-N. According to the results, we suggest that the ecological parameter based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystems. PMID:27318762

  20. Factors shaping bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Boras, Julia A.; Vaqué, Dolors; Maynou, Francesc; Sà, Elisabet L.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sala, Maria Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the main factors shaping bacterioplankton phylogenetic and functional diversity in marine coastal waters, we carried out a two-year study based on a monthly sampling in Blanes Bay (NW Mediterranean). We expected the key factors driving bacterial diversity to be (1) temperature and nutrient concentration, together with chlorophyll a concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and, hence, a carbon source for bacteria (here called bottom-up factors), and (2) top-down pressure (virus- and protist-mediated mortality of bacteria). Phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA. Functional diversity was assessed by using monomeric carbon sources in Biolog EcoPlates and by determining the activity of six extracellular enzymes. Our results indicate that the bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in this coastal system is shaped mainly by bottom-up factors. A dendrogram analysis of the DGGE banding patterns revealed three main sample clusters. Two clusters differed significantly in temperature, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration, and the third was characterized by the highest losses of bacterial production due to viral lysis detected over the whole study period. Protistan grazing had no effect on bacterial functional diversity, since there were no correlations between protist-mediated mortality (PMM) and extracellular enzyme activities, and utilization of only two out of the 31 carbon sources (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and α-cyclodextrin) was correlated with PMM. In contrast, virus-mediated mortality correlated with changes in the percentage of use of four carbon sources, and also with specific leu-aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activity. This suggests that viral lysate provides a pool of labile carbon sources, presumably including amino acids and glucose, which may inhibit proteolytic and glucosidic activity. Our results indicate that bottom-up factors play a more important role than

  1. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  2. Water Eco-Function Zoning in China Based on Water Footprints%基于水足迹的中国水生态功能分区

    盖力强; 谢高地; 陈龙; 裴厦; 范娜

    2012-01-01

    Water resources are the basic elements of ecological environments, the indispensable basis for our survival, and the key to sustainable socioeconomic development. In the wake of population growth and development, the demand-supply imbalance of global water resources has become serious, and water shortages have become an important limiting factor for the sustainable development of many nations. Water shortages, water pollution, floods and water-logging disasters have threatened and restricted sustainable development and so it is necessary to evaluate the water resources management concept. Water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks at direct water use and indirect water use, and can be regarded as a comprehensive indicator of freshwater resources appropriation, next to the traditional and restricted measure of water withdrawal. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of water stress, and the water footprint of production in China. Water eco-function zoning in China was conducted according to three-order basins and combined with water ecosystem service assessment theory. The water coo-function zoning scheme in China revealed six first level eco-function zones: the Northeast Songliao Mountain and Plain Less Water Zone, North China Huang Sea and Huai Sea Plain Less Water Zone, Northeast Inland Dry Scarce Water Zone, South Mountain Hill Wet Zone, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Water Tower Zone, Southwest Plateau Valley Wet Zone. There were 100 second level zones according to functional: water and water products supply function zone (life and production water, water products, shipping, hydropower, etc); water resources habitat sustain function zone (biodiversity sustain, aquatic habitat, spawning ground, wintering ground, etc); water resources environment regulation function zone (climate regulate, water self purification, reservation flood, etc); and water recreation service function zone (tourism, culture and education

  3. Optimum design of seat region in valves suitable for digital displacement machines

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2014-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency in variable displacement fluid power pumps and motors. In the present work, an annular seat valve suitable for use in digital displacement units is considered, and the valve geometry...... the actual load of the seat valve connected to a fluid pressure chamber. Valve pressure losses are modelled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). On basis of an overall physical size requirement and material specification, optimum valve geometry and stroke length are given as function of a defined...

  4. Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea : functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier

    Eckhard, A.; Müller, M.; Salt, A; Smolders, J.; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Löwenheim, H

    2014-01-01

    The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. However, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the CDE allows for rapid water exchange between fluid compartments. The molecular mechanism governing water permeation across the CDE remains elusive. We computationally determined the diffusional (P D) and os...

  5. Understanding the interaction of water with anatase TiO2 (101) surface from density functional theory calculations

    The behavior of water molecule on anatase TiO2 (101) surface has been investigated by density functional theory calculations. The primary purpose of this Letter is to clarify the distinctions between molecular adsorption and dissociative adsorption of water on anatase TiO2 (101) surface. By analyzing interaction potential forms and bonding mechanism, it is found that the dipole interaction is the crucial factor for water adsorption on anatase TiO2 (101) surface. The adiabatic potential energy surface calculations indicate that the on-surface diffusion of water molecule is anisotropy: its diffusion energy barrier along [010] direction is smaller than that of along [111-bar]/[11-bar 1-bar] direction. -- Highlights: → We model the water adsorption on anatase TiO2 (101) surface. → Water favors molecular adsorption to dissociation adsorption on this surface. → The dipole interaction cannot be ignored in this case. → The on-surface diffusion of water molecule is anisotropy.

  6. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes. PMID:20132270

  7. Imaging of small radioactive point source displacement

    A new technique for three dimensional recording of a patient mandibular movement is described. A small and harmless radioactive source is fixed at the point of interest. Using proper collimation, the motion of the point source is recorded via a gamma camera and minicomputer. Image enhancement techniques are used and physiological displacement is reproduced. We measured the vertical, lateral and protrusive envelopes of motion of a point on a tooth from a full denture set mounted on a semiadjustable articulator. All displacements were calibrated. Multiple sources in a single experiment may be recorded to describe the displacement of several points of interest. First experiments were run on patients. This method, derived from Nuclear Medicine techniques, offers a powerful tool of general interest for the tracking of dynamic events in many fields of Dental Medicine, for instance temporo-mandibular joint disfunction as well as Prosthetics. (author)

  8. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar;

    2002-01-01

    the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves......This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught as...... blocked the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the...

  9. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  10. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case...

  11. Field measurement of relative ground displacement

    Protection of existing structures is a major requirement during underground nuclear blasts detonated as part of the Plowshare Program. Instrumental arrays to record ground motion are routinely established prior to blasts. These provide data on particle motions during the event but do not provide direct information concerning ground strains and relative displacements which may effect bridges, buildings, irrigation channels and other structures with large plan dimension. An experimental technique which was hastily developed and deployed to measure relative displacements during the Rio Blanco event of May 17, 1973 is described. The work was performed in anticipation of the Project Wagon Wheel in an area of Wyoming with many concrete lined irrigation channels

  12. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle with abomasal displacement.

    Irmak, K; Turgut, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (pcattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292

  13. EDSPA, 1-D Mechanical Displacement for Elastic, Thermoelastic, Viscoelastic Behaviour

    1 - Description of program or function: EDSPA solves the one dimensional mechanical displacement equation in radial (sphere) axisymmetric cylindrical (infinite cylinder, slab) coordinates. The constitutive laws for the material to be considered can comprise the - elastic and/or - thermoelastic and/or - viscoplastic behaviour. The boundary conditions allow to prescribe displacement and/or stress values. The delivered version of EDSPA is especially suitable for the calculation of borehole problems in rock salt (heater boreholes or free converging boreholes or caverns) where convergence rates and/or contact pressures are of interest. 2 - Method of solution: The coarse-mesh method is used to transform the displacement differential equation (quasi-stationary case: second order ordinary differential equation as a two point boundary value problem) into a system of algebraic equations. This three-diagonal system is solved with the Thomas algorithm (direct solver). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Because of EDSPA's simple one-dimensional formulation there are no restrictions for storage allocation and argument ranges

  14. A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs

  15. Effect of heavy water on structure-function relationship of lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei

    Structural and functional behaviour of lactate dehydrogenase purified from Lactobacillus casei was compared in H2O and heavy water (D2O). The enzyme showed reduced activity in D2O, being only 45% of that observed in H2O. The modulations of the enzyme caused by the substrate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate examined at varying pH and pD values indicated decreased cooperativity in D2O. The elution profiles of the enzyme on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of the substrate and fructose 1, 6-diphosphate at varying pD values showed a shift towards lower molecular weight species. At pD 5,4 fructose diphosphate did not cause any further shift in the elution pattern which was otherwise observed in H2O. (author)

  16. Photon-added and photon-subtracted displaced Fock states and their non-classical properties

    Si Kun; Zhang Miao; Jia Huan-Yu

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of quantum optical state, photon-added and -subtracted displaced Fock states, is introduced by applying the inverse of bosonic creation and annihilation operators to displaced Fock states. The quantum statistical properties of these states are investigated by numerical methods. Numerical results indicate that these states reveal some interesting non-classical properties, such as anti-bunching effects, sub-Poisson distributions and negativities of their Wigner functions.

  17. Interspecific aggression and character displacement of competitor recognition in Hetaerina damselflies

    Anderson, C. N; Grether, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    In zones of sympatry between closely related species, species recognition errors in a competitive context can cause character displacement in agonistic signals and competitor recognition functions, just as species recognition errors in a mating context can cause character displacement in mating signals and mate recognition. These two processes are difficult to distinguish because the same traits can serve as both agonistic and mating signals. One solution is to test for sympatric shifts in re...

  18. Mean-squared atomic displacements in hydrated lysozyme, native and denatured

    Mamontov, Eugene; O’Neill, Hugh; Zhang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    We use elastic neutron scattering to demonstrate that a sharp increase in the mean-squared atomic displacements, commonly observed in hydrated proteins above 200 K and often referred to as the dynamical transition, is present in the hydrated state of both native and denatured lysozyme. A direct comparison of the native and denatured protein thus confirms that the presence of the transition in the mean-squared atomic displacements is not specific to biologically functional molecules.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONING OF WATER TRAMS IN GDAŃSK, BYDGOSZCZ AND KRAKÓW

    Emilia Miszewska-Urbańsk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is to identify and juxtapose solutions implemented in transport provided by water trams for the following cities: Gdańsk, Bydgoszcz and Kraków. As a result of the conducted analysis of transport factors, the degree of conformity of project objectives to the actual role of the water tram has been determined. It was found that the Kraków Water Tram (also known as Cracow Water Tram is characterized by the greatest degree of conformity with project objectives. The solutions adopted in the project can be used to develop organizational and functional standards for this type of transport in Poland, since the lack of system solutions and little experience in implementation of water trams resulted in different organizational and technical approaches in their functioning.

  20. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Elidiane da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for Yellow Argisol and Yellow Latosol from the Brazilian Coastal Plains region. The Coastal Plains soils are mostly developed from Barreiras formation (pre-weathered sediments and their main uses are sugarcane, livestock, forestry and fruticulture. The database to generate the PTFs was composed from the selection of information derived from scientific works and soil survey reports of the region. Specific PTFs were generated for each soil class, in their respective A and B horizons and for solum, through multiple regression by stepwise package of R language programming. Due to the small pedological variability (small number of soil classes containing great geographical expression and mineralogical uniformity, usually observed in this environment, non-stratification of soil classes to create general PTFs presented similar or superior results compared to equations for each soil class. The adjustment of data demonstrated that water retention values at -33 kPa and -1500 kPa potentials can be estimated with adequate accuracy for the main soils of the Brazilian Coastal Plains through PTFs mainly from particle size distribution and secondarily from organic matter data.

  1. Evaluation of two-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure relations for unstable displacements in a pore network

    Dehoff, Karl J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Changyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grate, Jay W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    A series of displacement experiments was conducted using five wetting-nonwetting immiscible fluid pairs in a homogenous and uniform pore network. The micromodel was initially saturated with either polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG) or water as a wetting fluid, which was subsequently displaced by a nonwetting fluid (dodecane, hexadecane, or mineral oil) at different flow rates. The experiments were designed to allow determinations of nonwetting fluid relative permeabilities ( ), fluid saturations ( ), and capillary pressure heads ( ). In the displacements, nonwetting fluid saturations increased with increasing flow rates for all five fluid pairs, and viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement were observed. Viscous fingering occurred when PEG was displaced by either dodecane or hexadecane. For the water displacements, capillary fingers were observed at low capillary numbers. Due to unstable fingering phenomena, values for the PEG displacements were smaller than for the water displacements. A fitting exercise using the Brooks-Corey (1964) relationship showed that the fitted entry pressure heads are reasonably close to the computed entry pressure head. The fitted pore geometry factor, Sn values for the displacements are considerably lower than what is expected for displacements in homogeneous, highly uniform, porous systems, demonstrating the impact of unstable displacement on the apparent value of Sn. It was shown that a continuum-based multiphase model could be used to predict the average behavior for wetting fluid drainage in a pore network as long as independently fitted - and - relations are used. The use of a coupled approach through the Brooks-Corey pore geometry factor underpredicts observed values.

  2. Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): A density-functional theory study

    SrTiO3 is a technological oxide, with applications as photo-catalyst, gas-sensor or as substrate for film growth. In many of these applications the surface of SrTiO3 is deliberately or unintended in contact with water molecules. Aiming for the atomic-scale details of this interaction we perform density-functional theory calculations addressing the adsorption of H2O on both regular terminations of the SrTiO3(001) surface. We find that the binding energetics is crucially controlled by long-range surface relaxations. Using this energetics to construct a thermodynamic phase diagram we obtain a different propensity for hydroxylation of the two terminations that is consistent with recent experiments by Iwahori et al. Around room temperature the SrO-termination becomes hydroxylated already at lowest background humidity, whereas the TiO2-terminated domains stay practically water-free in the range of low and moderate H2O vapor pressures.

  3. Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi.

    Zhou, Kang; Gui, Meng; Li, Pinglan; Xing, Shaohua; Cui, Tingting; Peng, Zhaohui

    2012-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 °C) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (μmax) and lag phase durations (LPD, λ) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r(2), MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model. PMID:24031965

  4. Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi

    Kang Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 ºC and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4% on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (µmax and lag phase durations (LPD, λ obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r², MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model.

  5. Trimethylamine oxide accumulation as a function of depth in Hawaiian mid-water fishes

    Bockus, Abigail B.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2016-06-01

    Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is a common osmolyte and counteracting solute. It is believed to combat the denaturation induced by hydrostatic pressure as some deep-sea animals contain higher TMAO levels than their shallow water counterparts. It has also been proposed that TMAO may accumulate passively during lipid storage resulting in a correlation between lipid content and TMAO levels in some groups. Previous research showed that lipid content decreased with depth in species of Hawaiian fishes presenting a novel test of these competing hypotheses. TMAO ranged from 20.4 to 92.8 mmol/kg. Lipid content ranged from 0.50 to 4.7% WW. After completing a comprehensive search for depths available in the literature, provided here, we analyzed TMAO and lipid as a function of average, minimum and maximum depth of occurrence for 27 species of fishes from nine orders. We found that TMAO is positively correlated with all measures of habitat depth (hydrostatic pressure) but the relationship is strongest with average depth. We further showed using phylogenetic independent contrasts that this relationship was not influenced by the evolutionary relatedness of these species. Interestingly, we found that lipid content increased with depth, in direct contrast to previous studies. TMAO is thus also positively correlated with lipid content. While we are unable to distinguish between these hypotheses, we show that TMAO is strongly correlated with depth in mid-water fishes.

  6. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, October 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: characterization of functional groups of running water organisms, particularly macroconsumers; studies on relationship of functional groups to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of organic inputs to stream ecosystems; studies on relationship of functional groups to thermal regimes; and dimensioning the control of feeding and growth by temperature and food quality and quantity and determining the extent of compensatory action of each. (HLW)

  7. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Anick, David J.

    2013-04-01

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI-VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is "atypical": they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called "Hexagonal Bilayer Water" (HBW) and "Pleated Sheet Water" (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A "microlattice model version 1" (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs' RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial microlattice

  8. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the decontamination of water polluted with cesium

    Ahmed S. Helal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are attracting considerable interest because of their potential applications in practically all fields of science and technology, including the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters. It is, therefore, of great importance to adapt the surfaces of these nanoparticles according to the application. In this work advanced nanoparticles (NPs with well-tailored surface functionalities were synthesized using the polyol method. The efficiency of a chelating agent, succinyl-β-cyclodextrin (SBCD, was first investigated spectrophotometrically and by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC. SBCD was then grafted onto nanoparticles previously functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxsilane (NP-APTES. The resulting NP-SBCD system was then incubated with a solution of cesium. After magnetic separation, the solid residue was removed from the supernatant and characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron spectrometry (XPS, X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometry. These characterizations show the presence of cesium in the solid residue, which indicates Cs uptake by the NP-SBCD system. This nanohybrid system constitutes a promising model for heavy metal decontamination.

  9. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the decontamination of water polluted with cesium

    Helal, Ahmed S.; Decorse, Philippe; Perruchot, Christian; Novak, Sophie; Lion, Claude; Ammar, Souad; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel; Hémadi, Miryana

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are attracting considerable interest because of their potential applications in practically all fields of science and technology, including the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters. It is, therefore, of great importance to adapt the surfaces of these nanoparticles according to the application. In this work advanced nanoparticles (NPs) with well-tailored surface functionalities were synthesized using the polyol method. The efficiency of a chelating agent, succinyl-β-cyclodextrin (SBCD), was first investigated spectrophotometrically and by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). SBCD was then grafted onto nanoparticles previously functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxsilane (NP-APTES). The resulting NP-SBCD system was then incubated with a solution of cesium. After magnetic separation, the solid residue was removed from the supernatant and characterized by X-Ray Photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. These characterizations show the presence of cesium in the solid residue, which indicates Cs uptake by the NP-SBCD system. This nanohybrid system constitutes a promising model for heavy metal decontamination.

  10. A Simple Condition for Bounded Displacement

    Solomon, Yaar

    2011-01-01

    We study separated nets that correspond to substitution tilings of the Euclidean space. We give a simple condition, in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenspaces of the substitution matrix, to know whether the separated net is a bounded displacement of the integer lattice or not.

  11. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Suba Mahalingam

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  12. Wien's Displacement Law in Rindler Space

    De, Sanchari; Ghosh, Sutapa; Chakrabarty, Somenath

    2015-01-01

    In this article we have developed a formalism to obtained the modified form of Wien's displacement law when the wall of the enclosure containing a photon gas is expanding adiabatically with a uniform acceleration. We have also studied the gravitational redshift of photons inside the enclosure using the prescription of extended relativistic dynamics with an upper limit of acceleration.

  13. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  14. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled sm...... convective boundary layer flow around the body....

  15. Toward a unified picture of the water self-ions at the air-water interface: a density functional theory perspective.

    Baer, Marcel D; Kuo, I-Feng W; Tobias, Douglas J; Mundy, Christopher J

    2014-07-17

    The propensities of the water self-ions, H3O(+) and OH(-), for the air-water interface have implications for interfacial acid-base chemistry. Despite numerous experimental and computational studies, no consensus has been reached on the question of whether or not H3O(+) and/or OH(-) prefer to be at the water surface or in the bulk. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the bulk vs interfacial behavior of H3O(+) and OH(-) that employs forces derived from density functional theory with a generalized gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional (specifically, BLYP) and empirical dispersion corrections. We computed the potential of mean force (PMF) for H3O(+) as a function of the position of the ion in the vicinity of an air-water interface. The PMF suggests that H3O(+) has equal propensity for the interface and the bulk. We compare the PMF for H3O(+) to our previously computed PMF for OH(-) adsorption, which contains a shallow minimum at the interface, and we explore how differences in solvation of each ion at the interface vs in the bulk are connected with interfacial propensity. We find that the solvation shell of H3O(+) is only slightly dependent on its position in the water slab, while OH(-) partially desolvates as it approaches the interface, and we examine how this difference in solvation behavior is manifested in the electronic structure and chemistry of the two ions. PMID:24762096

  16. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. PMID:26311481

  17. Functional analysis and association state of water channel (AQP-1) isoforms purified from six mammals.

    Schulte, D J; van Hoek, A N

    1997-09-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) or CHIP28 occurs in glycosylated (glyCHIP) and non-glycosylated (CHIP) forms and solubilization in octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG) results in a tight association of glyCHIP and CHIP to form a heterodimer. The tight association did not permit separation of the two forms by affinity chromatography. We examined the mechanism of the tight association by enzymatic removal of sugar moieties, utilized organic solvents for preferential solubilization and purified CHIP28 from six mammals for inspection of glycosylation and association state in OG. Removal of terminal saccharides sustained the dimeric state of human CHIP28, while endo-glycosidases induced the transition into monomers, without leaving an affinity tag for separation purposes. Separation was achieved by preferential solubilization of non-glycosylated CHIP28 in CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures. The two CHIP28 forms were solubilized in SDS, chromatographed in OG, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes; pf values were 1.5 and 1.6 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). Among erythrocytes from cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, dog, and horse CHIP28, one out of two molecules was glycosylated and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis also indicated heterodimers in OG; functional analysis of reconstituted proteoliposomes gave single channel water permeabilities, pf's, ranging from 2.0-3.4 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). The results indicate that CHIP28 structure, function, and association in OG are conserved among mammals and establish procedures to obtain glycosylated and non-glycosylated CHIP28 in functional form. PMID:9417990

  18. Forced Displacement : Moving from Managing Risk to Facilitating Opportunity

    Lakhani, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Displacement is most commonly perceived as a situation of crisis; a time in which risks to the displaced and to host communities need to be mitigated and managed. However, if managed well, displacement can also bring new opportunities for the displaced and host communities to improve their lives. This paper looks at the predominant reasons why displacement is viewed and assisted by the aid community as a humanitarian issue, rather than as a phenomenon for which development thinking and develo...

  19. Electrically induced displacement transport of immiscible oil in saline sediments.

    Pamukcu, Sibel; Shrestha, Reena A; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo P

    2016-08-01

    Electrically assisted mitigation of coastal sediment oil pollution was simulated in floor-scale laboratory experiments using light crude oil and saline water at approximately 1/10 oil/water (O/W) mass ratio in pore fluid. The mass transport of the immiscible liquid phases was induced under constant direct current density of 2A/m(2), without water flooding. The transient pore water pressures (PWP) and the voltage differences (V) at and in between consecutive ports lined along the test specimen cell were measured over 90days. The oil phase transport occurred towards the anode half of the test specimen where the O/W volume ratio increased by 50% over its initial value within that half-length of the specimen. In contrast, the O/W ratio decreased within the cathode side half of the specimen. During this time, the PWP decreased systematically at the anode side with oil bank accumulation. PWP increased at the cathode side of the specimen, signaling increased concentration of water there as it replaced oil in the pore space. Electrically induced transport of the non-polar, non-conductive oil was accomplished in the opposing direction of flow by displacement in absence of viscous coupling of oil-water phases. PMID:27064863

  20. Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers

    Kelkkanen, André K.; Lundqvist, Bengt I.; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2009-07-01

    A recent extensive study has investigated how various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals treat hydrogen bonds in water hexamers and has shown traditional generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functionals used in density-functional (DF) theory to give the wrong dissociation-energy trend of low-lying isomers and van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces to give key contributions to the dissociation energy. The question raised whether functionals that incorporate vdW forces implicitly into the XC functional predict the correct lowest-energy structure for the water hexamer and yield accurate total dissociation energy is here answered affirmatively for the vdW-DF [M. Dion et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 246401 (2004)].

  1. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  2. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  3. On the accuracy of density-functional theory exchange-correlation functionals for H bonds in small water clusters. II. The water hexamer and van der Waals interactions

    Santra, Biswajit; Michaelides, Angelos; Fuchs, Martin; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Filippi, Claudia; Scheffler, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Second order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory at the complete basis set limit and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo are used to examine several low energy isomers of the water hexamer. Both approaches predict the so-called prism to be the lowest energy isomer, followed by cage, book, and cyclic isomer

  4. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a “beam on” tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ≥30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ≥30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  5. Do displacement activities help preschool children to inhibit a forbidden action?

    Pecora, Giulia; Addessi, Elsa; Schino, Gabriele; Bellagamba, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Displacement activities are commonly recognized as behavioral patterns, mostly including self-directed actions (e.g., scratching, self-touching), that often occur in situations involving conflicting motivational tendencies. In ethology, several researchers have suggested that displacement activities could facilitate individuals in dealing with the stress experienced in a frustrating context. In child developmental research, some authors have assessed whether distraction strategies could help children to inhibit a dominant response during delay of gratification tasks. However, little is known about the displacement activities that young children may produce in such situations. This study was aimed at investigating whether displacement activities had an effect on preschool children's ability to postpone an immediate gratification (i.e., interacting with an attractive toy, a musical box), thereby functioning as regulators of their emotional state. To this end, we administered 143 2- to 4-year-olds with a delay maintenance task and related their performance with displacement activities they produced during the task and with actions with an external object. Children's latency to touch the musical box was positively related to their rate of displacement activities. However, the rate of displacement activities increased progressively as long as the children were able to inhibit the interaction with the musical box. In addition, the rate of displacement activities during the first 1 min of test did not predict the ability of children to inhibit the interaction with the box. These results suggest that displacement activities represented a functionless by-product of motivational conflict rather than a strategy that children used to inhibit their response to an attractive stimulus. PMID:24907630

  6. Functional reconstitution and characterization of AqpZ, the E. coli water channel protein.

    Borgnia, M J; Kozono, D; Calamita, G; Maloney, P C; Agre, P

    1999-09-01

    Understanding the selectivity of aquaporin water channels will require structural and functional studies of wild-type and modified proteins; however, expression systems have not previously yielded aquaporins in the necessary milligram quantities. Here we report expression of a histidine-tagged form of Escherichia coli aquaporin-Z (AqpZ) in its homologous expression system. 10-His-AqpZ is solubilized and purified to near homogeneity in a single step with a final yield of approximately 2.5 mg/l of culture. The histidine tag is removed by trypsin, yielding the native protein with the addition of three N-terminal residues, as confirmed by microsequencing. Sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis showed that the native, solubilized AqpZ protein is a trypsin-resistant tetramer. Unlike other known aquaporins, AqpZ tetramers are not readily dissociated by 1% SDS at neutral pH. Hydrophilic reducing agents have a limited effect on the stability of the tetramer in 1% SDS, whereas incubations for more than 24 hours, pH values below 5.6, or exposure to the hydrophobic reducing agent ethanedithiol cause dissociation into monomers. Cys20, but not Cys9, is necessary for the stability of the AqpZ tetramer in SDS. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, AqpZ displays very high osmotic water permeability (pf > or = 10 x 10(-14) cm3 s-1 subunit-1) and low Arrhenius activation energy (Ea = 3.7 kcal/mol), similar to mammalian aquaporin-1 (AQP1). No permeation by glycerol, urea or sorbitol was detected. Expression of native and modified AqpZ in milligram quantities has permitted biophysical characterization of this remarkably stable aquaporin tetramer, which is being utilized for high-resolution structural studies. PMID:10518952

  7. Geostationary Satellite Observation of Precipitable Water Vapor Using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF based Reconstruction Technique over Eastern China

    Man Sing Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor, as one of the most important greenhouse gases, is crucial for both climate and atmospheric studies. Considering the high spatial and temporal variations of water vapor, a timely and accurate retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV is urgently needed, but has long been constrained by data availability. Our study derived the vertically integrated precipitable water vapor over eastern China using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT data, which is in geostationary orbit with high temporal resolution. The missing pixels caused by cloud contamination were reconstructed using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF decomposition method over both spatial and temporal dimensions. GPS meteorology data were used to validate the retrieval and the reconstructed results. The diurnal variation of PWV over eastern China was analyzed using harmonic analysis, which indicates that the reconstructed PWV data can depict the diurnal cycle of PWV caused by evapotranspiration and local thermal circulation.

  8. Incorporation of water into olivine during nebular condensation: Insights from density functional theory and thermodynamics, and implications for phyllosilicate formation and terrestrial water inventory

    Asaduzzaman, Abu; Muralidharan, Krishna; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    2015-04-01

    Using density functional theory, we have examined the hydration mechanism of olivine with the objective of understanding the reaction pathways toward the formation of crystalline serpentine and brucite. It is found that further supply of water beyond saturation of the adsorption sites on olivine surfaces leads to the formation of amorphous brucite and serpentine molecules, with the latter forming in the subsurface domain. The calculated activation energy for this process is ~25 kJ mol-1, which permits formation of the amorphous materials well within the life span of the solar nebula. In addition, molecular dynamic simulations show that the adsorbed water in olivine is stable at least up to 900 K—a finding that is in accord with independent experimental studies. Thus, adsorption plus subsurface reaction of H2O in olivine could have taken place at temperatures considerably higher than the stability limit of hydrous minerals in the nebular condition. Using the DFT derived enthalpy of adsorption data, and reasonable approximation for the entropy of adsorption, we have calculated the fractional coverage of the reactive surface sites of olivine grains of spherical geometry by adsorbed water, and the corresponding ocean equivalent water (OEW) that could have been accreted into the Earth. These results suggest that adsorption and the associated subsurface hydroxylation of olivine grains might have been responsible for a significant fraction of the Earth's water budget. The adsorption of water into olivine crystals in the solar nebula might also have led to the delivery of water to other planetary bodies.

  9. Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration

    Zhai, Chengxing; Goullioud, Renaud; Nemati, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    Precise centroid estimation plays a critical role in accurate astrometry using telescope images. Conventional centroid estimation fits a template point spread function (PSF) to the image data. Because the PSF is typically not known to high accuracy due to wavefront aberrations and uncertainties in optical system, a simple Gaussian function is commonly used. PSF knowledge error leads to systematic errors in the conventional centroid estimation. In this paper, we present an accurate centroid estimation algorithm by reconstructing the PSF from well sampled (above Nyquist frequency) pixelated images. In the limit of an ideal focal plane array whose pixels have identical response function (no inter-pixel variation), this method can estimate centroid displacement between two 32$\\times$32 images to sub-micropixel accuracy. Inter-pixel response variations exist in real detectors, {\\it e.g.}~CCDs, which we can calibrate by measuring the pixel response of each pixel in Fourier space. The Fourier transforms of the inter...

  10. Benchmark calculations of excess electrons in water cluster cavities: balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating diffuse functions.

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-14

    Diffuse functions have been proved to be especially crucial for the accurate characterization of excess electrons which are usually bound weakly in intermolecular zones far away from the nuclei. To examine the effects of diffuse functions on the nature of the cavity-shaped excess electrons in water cluster surroundings, both the HOMO and LUMO distributions, vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and visible absorption spectra of two selected (H2O)24(-) isomers are investigated in the present work. Two main types of diffuse functions are considered in calculations including the Pople-style atom-centered diffuse functions and the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions. It is found that augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions contributes to a better description of the HOMO (corresponding to the VDE convergence), in agreement with previous studies, but also leads to unreasonable diffuse characters of the LUMO with significant red-shifts in the visible spectra, which is against the conventional point of view that the more the diffuse functions, the better the results. The issue of designing extra floating functions for excess electrons has also been systematically discussed, which indicates that the floating diffuse functions are necessary not only for reducing the computational cost but also for improving both the HOMO and LUMO accuracy. Thus, the basis sets with a combination of partial atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions are recommended for a reliable description of the weakly bound electrons. This work presents an efficient way for characterizing the electronic properties of weakly bound electrons accurately by balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions and also by balancing the computational cost and accuracy of the calculated results, and thus is very useful in the relevant calculations of various solvated electron systems and weakly bound anionic systems. PMID:27522987

  11. The sum is more than its parts: Key species in the functioning of cold-water coral reef communities

    C. E. Mueller

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity and biogeochemistry in the deep-sea, solely fuelled by external energy sources. Hence, food input, processing and recycling play a major role in the functioning of these ecosystems. In this thesis we aimed to study energy flow and metabolism of cold-water coral reef ecosystems by assessing the uptake and processing of different food sources by key species of the community (corals, worms and sponges) while including their (non-) trophic inter...

  12. Pedotransfer functions to estimate retention and availability of water in soils of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    André da Costa; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Jaime Antônio de Almeida; Adriano da Costa; Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Studies on water retention and availability are scarce for subtropical or humid temperate climate regions of the southern hemisphere. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relations of the soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties with water retention and availability for the generation and validation of continuous point pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for soils of the State of Santa Catarina (SC) in the South of Brazil. Horizons of 44 profiles were sampled in areas under diff...

  13. Structure and functioning of Mediterranean lagoon fish assemblages: A key for the identification of water body types

    Franco, Anita; Franzoi, Piero; Torricelli, Patrizia

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge on the structure and functioning variability of transitional water fish assemblages may help in finding out the main descriptors for identifying different water body types for which specific biological reference conditions can be reliably derived. Fish assemblages from 19 Mediterranean lagoons were therefore investigated by evaluating the variability of their structure and functioning, and by relating it to the lagoons' environmental features. Fish assemblage structure was measured by its species richness. Functioning was measured by categorizing fish species into functional categories (or guilds) according to their use of lagoon habitat, feeding and reproduction, and by defining the functional structure of fish assemblages as the relative number of species per guild in each lagoon. Mediterranean lagoons' fish assemblages were found to be more similar to each other in their functional structure than in the taxonomical composition, thus confirming a shared functional role of these environments for biological communities. Lagoon local features, such as the lagoon area, its habitat heterogeneity and average salinity, significantly affected the total species richness and the different use that fish make of the lagoon environment, hence playing a primary role in the assessment of these water body types. Latitude also influenced the variability of fish assemblages in the Mediterranean lagoons investigated, with particular regard to their functioning as feeding and reproductive grounds for fish. These results are compared with previous studies and, although this limited the investigation to structural aspects only, were found to confirm in part the previous results and also added new insights about the key factors affecting the functioning of transitional water systems.

  14. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.cn; Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  15. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g−1. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g−1 to 20 A g−1) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode

  16. Water-dispersible triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene: Preparation, characterization and application as an amperometric glucose sensor.

    Ren, Qunxiang; Feng, Li; Fan, Ronghua; Ge, Xin; Sun, Yingying

    2016-11-01

    The triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene (TFGn) was prepared using graphene oxide (GO) and triethylenetetramine as raw materials through a one-step reaction under alkaline condition. The triethylenetetramine not only acted as cross-linker to combine GO, but also as reductant of GO. The TFGn was characterized by its ultraviolet spectrum (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that triethylenetetramine was successfully grafted onto the surface of the GO through covalent bonding between amine and epoxy groups. The resultant TFGn was uniformly dispersed in water over several weeks, suggesting that the introduction of amino groups greatly increased the hydrophilicity of TFGn. The triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene was then applied to fabricate glucose biosensors with IO4(-) oxidized glucose oxidase (GOx) through layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly by the covalent bonding between the aldehyde groups of GOx and amino groups of TFGn. The gold electrodes modified with the (GOx/TFGn)n multilayer films were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and showed outstanding electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocenemethanol was used as an artificial redox mediator. The response increased with an increasing number of GOx/TFGn bilayers, indicating that the analytical performance, such as the sensitivity of the glucose biosensor, could be adjusted by tuning the number of deposited GOx/TFGn bilayers. The linear response range of the biosensor constructed with six bilayers of GOx/TFGn to the concentration of glucose can extend to at least 8mM with a sensitivity of 19.9μAmM(-1)cm(-2). In addition, the sensor exhibited good stability due to the covalent interactions between the GOx and TFGn. PMID:27524025

  17. Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function

    Schoengold, Karina; Sunding, David L.; Moreno, Georgina

    2006-09-01

    Using panel data from a period of water rate reform, this paper estimates the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Price elasticity is decomposed into the direct effect of water management and the indirect effect of water price on choice of output and irrigation technology. The model is estimated using an instrumental variables strategy to account for the endogeneity of technology and output choices in the water demand equation. Estimation results indicate that the price elasticity of agricultural water demand is -0.79, which is greater than that found in previous studies.

  18. Reaction dynamics following electron capture of chlorofluorocarbon adsorbed on water cluster : a direct density functional theory molecular dynamics study

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; ABE, Shigeaki

    2007-01-01

    The electron capture dynamics of halocarbon and its water complex have been investigated by means of the full dimensional direct density functional theory molecular dynamics method in order to shed light on the mechanism of electron capture of a halocarbon adsorbed on the ice surface. The CF2Cl2 molecule and a cyclic water trimer (H2O)3 were used as halocarbon and water cluster, respectively. The dynamics calculation of CF2Cl2 showed that both C–Cl bonds are largely elongated after the electr...

  19. Study of Rayleigh-Benard convection by pattern of water molecular flow observation as function of temperature difference

    Poluakan, Cosmas; Yusuf, Yusril; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2012-06-01

    An observation set up of Rayleigh Benard Convection (RBC) phenomenon has been developed. Observation set up made from glass box limited by two reservoirs, i.e. bottom and top reservoirs. The bottom reservoir is hotter than the top reservoir which has function to heat horizontal layers of fluid from below. The used media to observe fluid dynamics is water which mixed by teak saw dust as representation of water molecular. The observation show that increasing of temperature difference (ΔT) between two reservoirs causes the pattern of water molecular flow was different i.e. laminar and turbulent.

  20. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    Lyons, Kevin; Kwiat, Paul G; Jordan, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons are strong, and falls off as the biphoton correlation weakens. More surprisingly, we find that the smallest resolvable parameter of a simple split detector scales as the inverse of the number of biphotons for small biphoton number ("Heisenberg scaling"), because the Fisher information diverges as the parameter to be estimated decreases in value. One usually sees this scaling only for systems with many entangled degrees of freedom. We discuss the transition for the split-detection scheme to the standard quantum limit scalin...

  1. Assessment of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curves for the amazon region

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil water retention curve (SWRC is essential for understanding and modeling hydraulic processes in the soil. However, direct determination of the SWRC is time consuming and costly. In addition, it requires a large number of samples, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties. An alternative is the use of models, called pedotransfer functions (PTFs, which estimate the SWRC from easy-to-measure properties. The aim of this paper was to test the accuracy of 16 point or parametric PTFs reported in the literature on different soils from the south and southeast of the State of Pará, Brazil. The PTFs tested were proposed by Pidgeon (1972, Lal (1979, Aina & Periaswamy (1985, Arruda et al. (1987, Dijkerman (1988, Vereecken et al. (1989, Batjes (1996, van den Berg et al. (1997, Tomasella et al. (2000, Hodnett & Tomasella (2002, Oliveira et al. (2002, and Barros (2010. We used a database that includes soil texture (sand, silt, and clay, bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and the SWRC. Most of the PTFs tested did not show good performance in estimating the SWRC. The parametric PTFs, however, performed better than the point PTFs in assessing the SWRC in the tested region. Among the parametric PTFs, those proposed by Tomasella et al. (2000 achieved the best accuracy in estimating the empirical parameters of the van Genuchten (1980 model, especially when tested in the top soil layer.

  2. Simulation of the radiolysis of water using Green's functions of the diffusion equation

    Radiation chemistry is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionising radiation, notably with regard to DNA damage by indirect effect (e.g. damage by .OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). In the recent years, Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDEs) have been used extensively in biochemistry, notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space. In the present work, an approach based on the GFDE will be used to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionising radiation on DNA. As a starting point, the code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) will be used to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of all radiolytic species formed during irradiation. The chemical reactions between these radiolytic species and with DNA will be done by using an efficient Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state that has been developed recently. These simulations should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage, particularly with regards to the formation of double-strand breaks. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of pedotransfer functions for estimating the soil water retention points

    Bahmani, Omid; Palangi, Sahar

    2016-06-01

    Direct measurement of soil moisture has been often expensive and time-consuming. The aim of this study was determining the best method to estimate the soil moisture using the pedotransfer functions in the soil par2 model. Soil samples selected from the database UNSODA in three textures include sandy loam, silty loam and clay. In clay soil, the Campbell model indicated better results at field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) with RMSE = (0.06, 0.09) and d = (0.65, 0.55) respectively. In silty loam soil, the Epic model had accurate estimation with MBE = 0.00 at FC and Campbell model had the acceptable result of WP with RMSE = 0.03 and d = 0.77. In sandy loam, Hutson and Campbell models had a better result to estimation the FC and WP than others. Also Hutson model had an acceptable result to estimation the TAW (Total Available Water) with RMSE = (0.03, 0.04, 0.04) and MBE = (0.02, 0.01, 0.01) for clay, sandy loam and silty loam, respectively. These models demonstrate the moisture points had the internal linkage with the soil textures. Results indicated that the PTFs models simulate the agreement results with the experimental observations.

  4. The credit market consequences of job displacement

    Benjamin J. Keys

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the important role of job displacement in the household bankruptcy decision. I develop a dynamic, forward-looking model of unemployment and bankruptcy where persistent negative income shocks increase a household's likelihood of filing for bankruptcy both immediately and in the future. Consistent with the model's predictions, I find that households in the NLSY are 2.5 times more likely to file for bankruptcy in the year immediately following a job loss, at a rate of an ...

  5. Forced displacement in Colombia: Magnitude and causes

    Ana María Ibáñez

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the magnitude, geographical extent, and causes of forced populationdisplacements in Colombia. Forced migration in Colombia is a war strategy adopted by armed groups to strengthen territorial strongholds, weaken civilian support to the enemy, seize valuable lands, and produce and transport illegal drugs with ease. Forced displacement in Colombia today affects 3.5 million people. Equivalent to 7.8 percent of Colombia’s population, and second worldwide only to Sudan, this s...

  6. Environmentally-induced displacement and human security

    Terminski, Bogumil

    2012-01-01

    We can distinguish two general causes of internal displacement worldwide: 1. the impact of threats to and ensuing decline in the level of human security below that needed for normal existence in the homeland territory, 2. administrative compulsion to leave the current place of residence. Every year, at least tens of millions of people on all continents are forced to leave their places of residence. The predominant cause is the occurrence of natural disasters, creating the most dynamic categor...

  7. Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Kaiser, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Improved class of compact, high-resolution capacitive displacement sensors operates at excitation frequency of 915 MHz and measures about 7.5 by 4 by 2 centimeters. Contains commercially available 915-MHz oscillator and transmission-line resonator. Resonator contains stripline inductor in addition to variable capacitor. Ultrahigh excitation frequency offers advantages of resolution and frequency response. Not deleteriously affected by mechanical overdriving, or contact between electrodes.

  8. Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

    Luca Cardelli

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions) in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are ...

  9. Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations

    Rampf, C.; Wiegand, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the fundamental Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully non-perturbative approach based on the ADM split. The la...

  10. Probing gaugino coannihilation with displaced vertex searches

    Nagata, Natsumi

    2016-01-01

    Bino-like dark matter in supersymmetric theories tends to suffer from over-production. This problem can be evaded if there is another gaugino which has a mass close to the bino mass so that it enhances the annihilation rate of bino dark matter through coannihilation. We study such possibilities in high-scale supersymmetric models, and show that searches for long-lived particles with displaced vertices can test the bino-gaugino coannihilation scenario in the forthcoming LHC experiments.

  11. Laser Measurement of Building Vibration and Displacement

    A.J. Bougard; B.R. Ellis

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers four laser systems used by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) to investigate the behaviour of structures. Lasers enable remote measurements of vibration and displacement to be taken where access to a structure is difficult or where fire, explosion or structural collapse creates a hazardous environment. Each system will be described, and its use illustrated using measurements taken on real structures.The four systems are:1. Laser Interferometer: This is used to meas...

  12. Study of variation in radiosensitivity of barley (Hardeum Vulgare) as a function of seed water content

    The study of the sorption curve representing the development of water content versus relative humidity, in barley seeds (CV. Thibaut), shows that water is present in three different states: Constitutive water at less than 8.1%, absorption water between 8.1 and 10.9%, and free water at more than 10.9%. Along with these states, radiosensitivity is respectively high, low, and high. The seeds detached from the rachis have less radioresistance than the attached ones. However, this difference in behaviour is reduced when the water content is high (presence of free water). We also observed that growth was stimulated by weak doses of irradiation (20 Gy), whatever the water content was. (author). 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  14. Vertical displacement and position control in tokamaks

    Free-boundary nearly rigid displacements are considered in a plasma confined by a magnetic field consisting of one part generated by the plasma current density, and one part being due to steady currents in fixed external conductors. An induced surface current effect and a related force on the plasma arise when the externally applied field is inhomogeneous in the direction of displacement. This additional force has not been taken into account in conventional MHD theory. In the particular case of tokamaks , the induced surface current effect has two impacts on vertical nearly rigid displacements. First, there arises an additional restoring force and a positive contribution to the change in potential energy when the externally applied field is inhomogeneous in the vertical direction. A special design of poloidal field coils can thus provide new means for vertical position control in tokamaks, also in the case of strongly elongated cross-sections. Second, an earlier simplified model, in which the plasma is represented by a line current, has to be modified since the plasma is a highly conducting body of finite size. 4 refs

  15. Water-Metal Surfaces : Insights from core-level spectroscopy and density functional theory

    Schiros, Theanne

    2008-01-01

    Computational methods are combined with synchrotron-based techniques to analyze the structure and bonding of water and water plus hydroxyl at metal surfaces under UHV and at near-ambient conditions. Water-metal interaction plays a crucial role in a multitude of cosmic, atmospheric and biological phenomena as well as heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry and corrosion. A spotlight of renewed interest has recently been cast on water-metal systems due to their relevance for surface chemical ...

  16. Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1995-07-01

    A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

  17. Barometric response functions from borehole water level records and quantification of aquifer vulnerability

    Odling, N. E.; Serrano, R. P.; Hussein, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.

    2013-12-01

    In confined and semi-confined aquifers, borehole water levels respond to fluctuations in barometric pressure and this response can be used to estimate the properties of aquifer confining layers. We use this response as indicator of groundwater vulnerability for the semi-confined Chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK. Time series data of borehole water levels are corrected for Earth tides and recharge, and barometric response functions (BRFs) estimated using cross-spectral deconvolution-averaging techniques. The resulting BRFs are fitted using a theoretical model of the BRF gain and phase for a semi-confined aquifer (Rojstaczer, 1988) to obtain confining layer properties. For all of the boreholes, non-zero hydraulic diffusivities for the confining layer were found indicating that the aquifer is semi-confined. A ';characteristic time scale' based on the hydraulic and pneumatic diffusivities of the confining layer is introduced as a measure of the degree of aquifer confinement and therefore groundwater vulnerability. The analytical model assumes that the confining layer and aquifer are homogeneous. However, in nature, confining layers are heterogeneous and groundwater vulnerability dominated by the presence of high diffusivity, high flow pathways through the confining layer to the aquifer. A transient numerical model (MODFLOW) was constructed to test the impact of such heterogeneities on the BRF. In the model, an observed barometric pressure time series is used as a boundary condition applied to the upper surface of the top unit of the model (representing the confining layer) and BRFs determined from the time series of model heads in the bottom unit (representing the aquifer). The results from a numerical model with a homogeneous confining layer were found to accurately reproduce the BRFs from a modified version of the analytical model. The introduction of a localized, high diffusive block in the confining layer was found to modify the BRF, reducing the gain amplitude

  18. Déplacements polyphasiques en milieu poreux. Injection de vapeur en conditions adiabatiques Multiphase Displacements in Porous Media. Steam Flooding under Adiabatic Conditions

    Koci X.

    2006-11-01

    that no heating collars are necessary. The experimental device shown in Figs. 1 and 2 can work under either isothermal or adiabatic conditions. It is designed to operate up to 250°C and 20 bar. The residual oil saturations after steam injection are calculated from the mass balance. Some of these results are shown in Table 1. The parameters modified were the injection flow rate (between 2 and 5 g/min. and the absolute pressure at the inlet of the porous medium (between 4 and 7 bar. Figures 3 to 6 correspond to an experiment performed under the following conditions :(a Initial condition: irreducible water saturation. (b Injection flow rate = 2 g/min. (c Injection temperature = 220°C. (d Absolute pressure at outlet = 3 bar. (e The injected steam was slightly overheated (this allows to know what is really injected and, due to the rather low enthalpy added compared to the enthalpy of saturated steam, this does not have any significant influence on the heat balance and therefore on the displacement. This experiment shows a very clearcut steam front moving all along the tube. The entire displacement occurs under conditions corresponding to vaporization/condensation equilibrium of steam (Table 2. Experiments were modeled by the TSAR (Thermal Simulator Applied to Reservoir simulator for thermal methods developed at IFP [2]. This 3-D model can be used to either simulate field processes or laboratory experiments. Relative permeabilities in function of saturations and temperatures obtained from previous isothermal experiments [1] were used in the simulator. Three-phase permeabilities were computed by the Stone method [4 to 6]. For computing, the following assumptions were made :(a The porous medium is considered to be as homogeneous and isotropic. (b There is no interaction between fluids and the mineral phase. (c Steam is considered to be a perfect gas. (d Steam is injected at a constant weight rate. (e Contact time between phases is long enough to assume that local

  19. Water

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  20. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints) referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  1. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Shigekazu eKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  2. Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G protein-coupled receptors

    Angel, T.; Chance, M; Palczewski, K

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane {alpha}-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A2A-adenosine, {beta}1- and {beta}2-adrenergic receptors, permits comparative analysis of features common to these and likely all GPCRs. We provide an analysis of the distribution of water molecules in the transmembrane region of these GPCR structures and find conserved contacts with microdomains demonstrated to be involved in receptor activation. Colocalization of water molecules associating with highly conserved and functionally important residues in several of these GPCR crystal structures supports the notion that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, in the absence of large conformational changes in rhodopsin after photoactivation, we propose that ordered waters contribute to the functional plasticity needed to transmit activation signals from the retinal-binding pocket to the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin and that fundamental features of the mechanism of activation, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors.

  3. A physical model for measuring thermally-induced block displacements

    Bakun-Mazor, Dagan; Feldhiem, Aviran; Keissar, Yuval; Hatzor, Yossef H.

    2016-04-01

    A new model for thermally-induced block displacement in discontinuous rock slopes has been recently suggested. The model consists of a discrete block that is separated from the rock mass by a tension crack and rests on an inclined plane. The tension crack is filled with a wedge block or rock fragments. Irreversible block sliding is assumed to develop in response to climatic thermal fluctuations and consequent contraction and expansion of the sliding block material. While a tentative analytical solution for this model is already available, we are exploring here the possibility of obtaining such a permanent, thermally-induced, rock block displacement, under fully controlled conditions at the laboratory, and the sensitivity of the mechanism to geometry, mechanical properties, and temperature fluctuations. A large scale concrete physical model (50x150x60 cm^3) is being examined in a Climate-Controlled Room (CCR). The CCR permits accurate control of ambient temperature from 5 to 45 Celsius degrees. The permanent plastic displacement is being measured using four displacement transducers and a high resolution (29M pixel) visual range camera. A series of thermocouples measure the heating front inside the sliding block, hence thermal diffusivity is evaluated from the measured thermal gradient and heat flow. In order to select the appropriate concrete mixture, the mechanical and thermo-physical properties of concrete samples are determined in the lab. Friction angle and shear stiffness of the sliding interface are determined utilizing a hydraulic, servo-controlled direct shear apparatus. Uniaxial compression tests are performed to determine the uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio of the intact block material using a stiff triaxial load frame. Thermal conductivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined experimentally using a self-constructed measuring system. Due to the fact that this experiment is still in progress, preliminary

  4. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  5. The sum is more than its parts: Key species in the functioning of cold-water coral reef communities

    Mueller, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity and biogeochemistry in the deep-sea, solely fuelled by external energy sources. Hence, food input, processing and recycling play a major role in the functioning of these ecosystems. In this thesis we aimed to study energy flow and metabolism of col

  6. A wire/extensometer method for measuring small displacements

    Wilson, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A method has been developed for making precise point-to-point displacement measurements on critical structures under structural, thermal, or gravity loading. The technique consists of attaching the gauge to the structure at one point, and connecting it to a second point on the structure by a thin (0.25 mm) tungsten wire. The wire provides a dual function: in addition to physically connecting the gauge to a remote point, it provides a calibrating function. Tests have demonstrated that measurements can be made within a micron over a length of a meter or two, even in the presence of severe thermal shock, such as exposure to a sun gun or to a refrigerant spray.

  7. Method and Practice on Water Function Division of the Yangtze River Region%长江片水功能区划分方法与实践

    袁弘任; 罗小勇

    2002-01-01

    Water function classification is to divide the waters in a basin or a region into different water function regions according to the natural features such as water resources condition, physical geographical location, environmental condition, etc. and social features such as the status quo of development and utilization, the requirement of social and economic development on water quantity and quality etc. Water function division has not ever been carried out in China and no ready-made theory and method can be complied with, in the meantime, it is a fundamental work with strong practical function. Therefore, the basic concept and theory foundation and research method are put forward on the base of summary of water resources management and developed and will be perfected in practice process of water function division. The Yangtze function zone covers the Yangtze river basin, the Lancang river basin and the rivers in the western area of the Lancang river in Southwest China. According to the technical outline of national water function division and combined with division practice of the Yangtze function zone, this paper presents the scope determination, procedure and method of water function division.

  8. Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades.

    Qian, Lulu; Winfree, Erik; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-07-21

    The impressive capabilities of the mammalian brain--ranging from perception, pattern recognition and memory formation to decision making and motor activity control--have inspired their re-creation in a wide range of artificial intelligence systems for applications such as face recognition, anomaly detection, medical diagnosis and robotic vehicle control. Yet before neuron-based brains evolved, complex biomolecular circuits provided individual cells with the 'intelligent' behaviour required for survival. However, the study of how molecules can 'think' has not produced an equal variety of computational models and applications of artificial chemical systems. Although biomolecular systems have been hypothesized to carry out neural-network-like computations in vivo and the synthesis of artificial chemical analogues has been proposed theoretically, experimental work has so far fallen short of fully implementing even a single neuron. Here, building on the richness of DNA computing and strand displacement circuitry, we show how molecular systems can exhibit autonomous brain-like behaviours. Using a simple DNA gate architecture that allows experimental scale-up of multilayer digital circuits, we systematically transform arbitrary linear threshold circuits (an artificial neural network model) into DNA strand displacement cascades that function as small neural networks. Our approach even allows us to implement a Hopfield associative memory with four fully connected artificial neurons that, after training in silico, remembers four single-stranded DNA patterns and recalls the most similar one when presented with an incomplete pattern. Our results suggest that DNA strand displacement cascades could be used to endow autonomous chemical systems with the capability of recognizing patterns of molecular events, making decisions and responding to the environment. PMID:21776082

  9. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    David J. Anick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW, they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP, various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs, one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1 is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure

  10. Voltage Gated Ion Channel Function: Gating, Conduction, and the Role of Water and Protons

    Alisher M. Kariev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels, which are found in every biological cell, regulate the concentration of electrolytes, and are responsible for multiple biological functions, including in particular the propagation of nerve impulses. The channels with the latter function are gated (opened by a voltage signal, which allows Na+ into the cell and K+ out. These channels have several positively charged amino acids on a transmembrane domain of their voltage sensor, and it is generally considered, based primarily on two lines of experimental evidence, that these charges move with respect to the membrane to open the channel. At least three forms of motion, with greatly differing extents and mechanisms of motion, have been proposed. There is a “gating current”, a capacitative current preceding the channel opening, that corresponds to several charges (for one class of channel typically 12–13 crossing the membrane field, which may not require protein physically crossing a large fraction of the membrane. The coupling to the opening of the channel would in these models depend on the motion. The conduction itself is usually assumed to require the “gate” of the channel to be pulled apart to allow ions to enter as a section of the protein partially crosses the membrane, and a selectivity filter at the opposite end of the channel determines the ion which is allowed to pass through. We will here primarily consider K+ channels, although Na+ channels are similar. We propose that the mechanism of gating differs from that which is generally accepted, in that the positively charged residues need not move (there may be some motion, but not as gating current. Instead, protons may constitute the gating current, causing the gate to open; opening consists of only increasing the diameter at the gate from approximately 6 Å to approximately 12 Å. We propose in addition that the gate oscillates rather than simply opens, and the ion experiences a barrier to its motion across the

  11. Spectral features of geomagnetic low point displacement and its mechanism

    ZHANG Xue-min; QIAN Jia-dong; WANG Ya-li; ZHAO Xu; OUYANG Xin-yan; ZHAO Shu-fan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, Changli station in Hebei Province was taken as an example, in which the minute data of geomagnetic Z component was used to analyze the spectral values of its main frequencies during normal time, geomagnetic storm time and low point displacement time interval respectively. After fitting of ten high spectral values to loga-rithmic functions, it is found that, by using same length of data, the spectral values at geomagnetic storm time in-crease apparently compared with those at normal time, especially at the high frequency segment. While low point displacement occurred, the spectral values at high frequency are approximate to those at normal time, but at period above 4 hours they are mostly lower than those at normal time. Comparison of accumulating of some FFT results at low point displacement and normal time shows that, spectral values at periods of 8.5 and 13.7 hours increase at low point displacement time relative to those at normal time. Compared with the images of Ne observed at DE-METER satellite, it is illuslxated that the occurrence of geomagnetic low point displacement is well corresponding with the increase of Ne in ionosphere. Finally it was discussed about those spectral features and the occurrence mechanism of geomagnetic low point displacement

  12. Water permeability of the mammalian cochlea: functional features of an aquaporin-facilitated water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier.

    Eckhard, A; Müller, M; Salt, A; Smolders, J; Rask-Andersen, H; Löwenheim, H

    2014-10-01

    The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. However, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the CDE allows for rapid water exchange between fluid compartments. The molecular mechanism governing water permeation across the CDE remains elusive. We computationally determined the diffusional (PD) and osmotic (Pf) water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating previously derived in vivo experimental data on fluid flow with expression sites of molecular water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). The PD of the entire CDE (PD = 8.18 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) and its individual partitions including Reissner's membrane (PD = 12.06 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) and the organ of Corti (PD = 10.2 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)) were similar to other epithelia with AQP-facilitated water permeation. The Pf of the CDE (Pf = 6.15 × 10(-4) cm s(-1)) was also in the range of other epithelia while an exceptionally high Pf was determined for an epithelial subdomain of outer sulcus cells in the cochlear apex co-expressing AQP4 and AQP5 (OSCs; Pf = 156.90 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)). The Pf/PD ratios of the CDE (Pf/PD = 7.52) and OSCs (Pf/PD = 242.02) indicate an aqueous pore-facilitated water exchange and reveal a high-transfer region or "water shunt" in the cochlear apex. This "water shunt" explains experimentally determined phenomena of endolymphatic longitudinal flow towards the cochlear apex. The water permeability coefficients of the CDE emphasise the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of water dynamics in the cochlea in particular for endolymphatic hydrops and Ménière's disease. PMID:24385019

  13. Displacement Mechanism of Polymer Flooding by Molecular Tribology

    YANG Er-Long; SONG Kao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Whether polymer flooding can enhance displacement efficiency or not is still a problem under debate. Laboratory experiment, numerical simulation and core data analysis are the commonly used means to study polymer flooding displacement efficiency.

  14. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    Tucher Guilherme

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92. The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  15. Density functional study on mechanism of CO oxidation with activated water on O/Au (111 ) surface

    ZHANG WenHua; LI ZhenYu; LUO Yi; YANG JinLong

    2009-01-01

    With density functional theory, the mechanism of water-enhanced CO oxidation on oxygen pre-covered Au (111) surface is theoretically studied. First, water is activated by the pro-covered oxygen atom and dissociates to OHad. group. Then, OHads reacts with COads to form chemisorbed HOCOads. Finally, with the aid of water, HOCOads dissociates to CO2. The whole process can be described as 1/2H2Oads + H2Oads + 1/2Oads+ COads→H3Oads + CO2,gas. One CO2 is formed with only 1/2 pro-covered oxygen atom. That is why more CO2 is observed when water is present on oxygen pro-covered Au (111) surface. Activation energy of each elementary step is low enough to allow the reaction to proceed at low temperature.

  16. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Amir LAKZIAN; Mohammad BANNAYAN AVAL; Nasrin GORBANZADEH

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC), -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP), -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay w...

  17. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin; Gallat, Francois-Xavier,; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Hydration ​water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between ​water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration ​water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human pr...

  18. Toward Coalescing Gene Expression and Function with QTLs of Water-Deficit Stress in Cotton

    Kebede, Hirut; Payton, Paxton; Pham, Hanh Thi My; Allen, Randy D.; Wright, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton exhibits moderately high vegetative tolerance to water-deficit stress but lint production is restricted by the available rainfed and irrigation capacity. We have described the impact of water-deficit stress on the genetic and metabolic control of fiber quality and production. Here we examine the association of tentative consensus sequences (TCs) derived from various cotton tissues under irrigated and water-limited conditions with stress-responsive QTLs. Three thousand sixteen mapped se...

  19. The Theme of Displacement in Contemporary Art

    John POTTS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les images et idées de dislocation dans des œuvres d'art récentes. Le thème du déplacement ou de la dislocation est traité dans le contexte de l'aspect globalisant de l'art contemporain, considéré lui-même comme un reflet de la mondialisation. Les principaux textes théoriques qui influencent et informent les pratiques en matière de conservation sont abordés, entre autres les écrits de Giorgio Agamben, Nicolas Bourriaud et Rex Butler. Le thème de la dislocation dans l'art contemporain est analysé au travers des œuvres de nombreux artistes, tels que Francis Alÿs, Bill Fontana, Allan Sekula, Chen Chieh-jen, Ai Wei Wei, Rosemary Laing, Mike Parr, Santiago Sierra, Rebecca Belmore et Tracey Moffatt.This essay considers images and ideas of displacement in recent works of art. The theme of displacement is examined in the context of the globalist aspect of contemporary art, itself a reflection of globalisation. Influential theoretical texts informing curatorial practice and the discourse of contemporary art theory are discussed, including the writings of Girogio Agamben, Nicolas Bourriaud and Rex Butler. The theme of displacement in contemporary art is analysed with regard to the work of many artists, including Francis Alÿs, Bill Fontana, Allan Sekula, Chen Chieh-jen, Ai Wei Wei, Rosemary Laing, Mike Parr, Santiago Sierra, Rebecca Belmore and Tracey Moffatt.

  20. Biochemical studies on the effect of different water resources in Hail region on liver and kidney functions of rats.

    Talkhan, Ola F A; Abd Elwahab, Safaa A E; Shalapy, Ebtessam M

    2016-08-01

    Low concentration of a heavy metal is toxic and can be classified as one of the pollution sources. Industrial and human waste can pollute water with heavy metals and soils breaking down under the effect of acidic rain, which release heavy metals into river, streams, lakes, and ground water. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vital organs of the human body damages these organs, including the liver and kidney, which are the main organs for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion. The present study aims to investigate into concentrations of such heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in both ground and tap water samples collected from different areas in Hail region, KSA. Then, this study moves forward to examine the effects of such concentrations on the biochemistry of serum in rats. In this regard, the results demonstrate the presence of significant differences (p alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, and globulin between all the studied groups that were exposed to heavy-metals-polluted water, when compared with the control group. In addition, there were significant differences (p metals-polluted water can cause disturbance in the liver and kidney function parameters, which highlights health risks of the water polluted with heavy metals. In this sense, the concerned authorities should regularly carry out survey and should monitor underground water, and people have to be aware of such risks. PMID:27461423