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Sample records for water displacement functions

  1. The estimation of oil water displacement functions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. B., Savioli; E. M., Fernández-Berdaguer.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an algorithm to solve an inverse problem for a non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. It can be used to estimate the oil-fractional flow function from the Buckley-Leverett equation. The direct model is non-linear: the sought for parameter is a function of the solution of t [...] he equation. Traditionally, the estimation of functions requires the election of a fitting parametric model. The algorithm that we develop does not require a predetermined parameter model. Therefore, the estimation problem is carried out over a set of parameters which are functions. The parameter is inferred from measurements of saturation at different spatial points as a function of time. The estimation procedure is carried out linearizing the solution of the direct model with respect to the parameter and then computing the least-squares solution in functional spaces. The sensitivity equations are derived. We test the algorithm with several numerical experiments.

  2. Displacement of light oil by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Dadash-zade, K.I.; Orudzhaliev, F.G.

    1981-01-01

    The research results provided clearly show that the process of displacement of light oil by water has its own specific features which make it significantly different from the process of displacing gasified oil with water. Predicting the indices of developing formations of light oils using the water-pressure method must be done only based on a model of the flow in a porous medium of substantially mutually soluble hydrocarbon fluids.

  3. Monitoring Changes in Soil Water Content Using Subsurface Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C. J.; Miller, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L. N.; Gates, J. B.; Volkmer, A.; Weinburg, A.

    2013-12-01

    Closing the water balance is important in many research and water resource applications, but it can be difficult to accomplish due to a variety of factors. A new technique that measures vertical displacement of soil in order to estimate the change in mass of water stored in overlying material is being developed. The measurement technique uses an extensometer that functions as a lysimeter, and we refer to the technique as Displacement Extensometry for Lysimetric Terrain Analysis (DELTA). DELTA extensometers are 2-m-long devices deployed by creating a friction fit with intact soil below a cased borehole. The instrument measures small displacements (better than 10 nm resolution) in response to changes of mass in the overlying soil, or other factors. The instrument averages over a region that scales with the depth of installation (the radius of influence is approximately 2x the depth). The spatial averaging of this instrument extends over regions representative of agricultural fields, hydrologic model grid blocks, and small watersheds. Five DELTA extensometers have been deployed at a field site near Clemson, SC at depths of 3, 6, and 9 m within saprolite derived from biotite gneiss. Barometric pressure, precipitation, and soil moisture are being measured along with displacement. Signals from the co-located extensometers are remarkably similar, demonstrating reproducibility of the technique. Rainfall causes soil compression, and at 6 m depth there is approximately 200 nm of compression per 1 mm of rainfall. There is gradual expansion, which ranges from 0.15 to 1.75 ?m/day, following rainfall. The gradual unloading of the soil is interpreted as water loss due to evapotranspiration. Superimposed on the signal are diurnal fluctuations of 0.5 to 1 ?m, which correlate to changes in barometric pressure. Four DELTA extensometers were recently deployed in hard, clayey sediments at two field locations south of Amarillo, TX. The instruments will compliment current research on groundwater recharge in playas. Two other extensometers were deployed in loess at a field site near Holdredge, NE, where they will be used to help characterize water cycling beneath irrigated agriculture. Calibration data has been obtained and the instruments appear to be functioning properly. The preliminary data suggest that the DELTA technique should be applicable in a variety of soil types.

  4. Studying the mechanism of gas displacement by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Dzhalilov, Z.I.; Tairov, N.D.; Vezirov, D.Sh.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies in the area of gas output of beds with gas displacement from the porous medium by water under conditions of constant pressure. They make it possible to pinpoint the effect of initial bed pressure, permeability and gas saturation of the bed on gas output.

  5. Displacement of a gas-condensate mixture by water in a compressible water-drive regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Kuliev, A.M.; Orudzhaliev, F.G.

    1969-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of gas-condensate displacement by injected water under incompressible flow conditions was discussed. In this study, the problem is considered under compressible flow conditions. Both linear and radial displacements are considered in a homogeneous porous system. The problem is solved by material balance calculations, with the assumption that water completely displaces gas condensate. The derived solution can be modified to fit the case of a heterogeneous porous system, and the case of incomplete nonpiston-like displacement of condensate by the injected water.

  6. Liquid CO2 displacement of water in a dual-permeability pore network micromodel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Mart; Grate, Jay W; Wietsma, Thomas W; Warner, Marvin G

    2011-09-01

    Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale displacements, liquid CO(2) (LCO(2))-water displacement was evaluated in a pore network micromodel with two distinct permeability zones. Due to the low viscosity ratio (logM = -1.1), unstable displacement occurred at all injection rates over 2 orders of magnitude. LCO(2) displaced water only in the high permeability zone at low injection rates with the mechanism shifting from capillary fingering to viscous fingering with increasing flow rate. At high injection rates, LCO(2) displaced water in the low permeability zone with capillary fingering as the dominant mechanism. LCO(2) saturation (S(LCO2)) as a function of injection rate was quantified using fluorescent microscopy. In all experiments, more than 50% of LCO(2) resided in the active flowpaths, and this fraction increased as displacement transitioned from capillary to viscous fingering. A continuum-scale two-phase flow model with independently determined fluid and hydraulic parameters was used to predict S(LCO2) in the dual-permeability field. Agreement with the micromodel experiments was obtained for low injection rates. However, the numerical model does not account for the unstable viscous fingering processes observed experimentally at higher rates and hence overestimated S(LCO2). PMID:21774502

  7. Applying local Green's functions to study the influence of the crustal structure on hydrological loading displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, R.; Klemann, V.; Martinec, Z.; Tesauro, M.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of the elastic Earth properties on seasonal or shorter periodic surface deformations due to atmospheric surface pressure and terrestrial water storage variations is usually modeled by applying a local half-space model or an one dimensional spherical Earth model like PREM from which a unique set of elastic load Love numbers, or alternatively, elastic Green's functions are derived. The first model is valid only if load and observer almost coincide, the second model considers only the response of an average Earth structure. However, for surface loads with horizontal scales less than 2500 km2, as for instance, for strong localized hydrological signals associated with heavy precipitation events and river floods, the Earth elastic response becomes very sensitive to inhomogeneities in the Earth crustal structure. We derive a set of local Green's functions defined globally on a 1° × 1° grid for the 3-layer crustal structure TEA12. Local Green's functions show standard deviations of ±12% in the vertical and ±21% in the horizontal directions for distances in the range from 0.1° to 0.5°. By means of Green's function scatter plots, we analyze the dependence of the load response to various crustal rocks and layer thicknesses. The application of local Green's functions instead of a mean global Green's function introduces a variability of 0.5-1.0 mm into the hydrological loading displacements, both in vertical and in horizontal directions. Maximum changes due to the local crustal structures are from -25% to +26% in the vertical and -91% to +55% in the horizontal displacements. In addition, the horizontal displacement can change its direction significantly. The lateral deviations in surface deformation due to local crustal elastic properties are found to be much larger than the differences between various commonly used one-dimensional Earth models.

  8. Dynamical modes of a graphite surface, on top and in the middle- by unfolding the observed temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making use of the unfolding technique to determine the phonon frequency distribution function (FDF) from the temperature dependent displacement-displacement auto-correlation function suggested by the authors, the experimentally observed displacement-displacement auto-correlation functions of a graphite surface located either at the top or in the middle of the crystal have been unfolded. The final unfolded FDF shows marked differences for the two cases, exhibiting the potentiality of the unfolding technique to accurately determine the dynamics and hence the difference in the FDF of the two layers, located at different sites in a crystal

  9. Weight Function Method for computations of crack face displacements and stress intensity factors of center cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Fan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weight function method provides a powerful and reliable tool for the determination of the stress intensity factor around the crack tip in a linearly elastic cracked solid subjected to arbitrary loading conditions. However, it is difficult to exactly compute the crack face displacement whose partial derivative is responsible for the weight function calculation. In the present paper, only one reference stress intensity factor is used for the purpose of establishing a general expression of the crack face displacement. Then, the generalized and simple expression is applied to calculate the weight function and the stress intensity factor of the center crack configuration. The calculation of the weight function is reduced to the simple integration of the correction function and of the partial derivative of the crack face displacement. It is shown that the present expressions for the computations of the crack face displacement and its partial derivative are in good agreement with their exact solutions.

  10. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the increase in both cadence and displacement results in significant cardiorespiratory responses as a result of deep water running. This finding is important for adapting exercise prescription to the goals of participants.

  11. Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. PMID:25231556

  12. Displacing Androcracy: Cosmopolitan Partnerships in Bapsi Sidhwa’s Water

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mercanti

    2011-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of Gandhi’s Freedom Movement, Water pushes the boundaries of India’s male-dominant cultural narratives beyond patriarchal predicaments by questioning the religious tradition and the oppressive constraints imposed on Hindu widows. This paper aims to show how Sidhwa’s characters move toward more caring and life-enhancing scenarios by portraying relationships of mutual support in which human beings give evidence of ‘other’ possible patterns of construction of the self an...

  13. Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states

    CERN Document Server

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first the dynamical generation at time $t$ of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time $\\tau \\geq 0$ apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier ensures that the temporal second-order coherence function depends only on $\\tau$, via $\\tau/t$, for given Gaussian state parameters, Gaussian state preparation time $t$, and average number $\\bar{n}$ of thermal photons. It is interesting that the time evolution for displaced thermal states shows a power decay in $\\tau/t$ rather than an exponential one as is the case for general, displaced-squeezed thermal states.

  14. Fall with Linear Drag and Wien's Displacement Law: Approximate Solution and Lambert Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for…

  15. Fall with linear drag and Wien's displacement law: approximate solution and Lambert function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approximate solution for the downward time of travel in the case of a mass falling with a linear drag force. We show how a quasi-analytical solution implying the Lambert function can be found. We also show that solving the previous problem is equivalent to the search for Wien's displacement law. These results can be of interest for undergraduate students, as they show that some transcendental equations found in physics may be solved without purely numerical methods. Moreover, as will be seen in the case of Wien's displacement law, solutions based on series expansion can be very accurate even with few terms. (paper)

  16. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, Japan was struck by an 8.9-magnitude earthquake near its Northeastern coast. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars and caused massive human losses. To predict tsunami wave parameters better and faster, we propose to improve data inversion scheme and achieve the performance gain of data processing. One of the reasons of inaccurate predictions of tsunami parameters is that very little information is available about the initial disturbance of the sea bed at tsunami source. In this paper, we suggest a new way of improving the quality of tsunami source parameters prediction. Modern computational technologies can accurately calculate tsunami wave propagation over the deep ocean provided that the initial displacement (perturbation of the sea bed at tsunami source) is known [4]. Direct geophysical measurements provide the location of an earthquake hypocenter and its magnitude (the released energy evaluation). Among the methods of determination of initial displacement the following ones should be considered. Calculation through the known fault structure and available seismic information. This method is widely used and provides useful information. However, even if the exact knowledge about rock blocks shifts is given, recalculation in terms of sea bed displacement is needed. This results in a certain number of errors. GPS data analysis. This method was developed after the December 2004 event in the Indian Ocean. A good correlation between dry land based GPS sensors and tsunami wave parameters was observed in the particular case of the West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This approach is very unique and can hardly been used in other geo locations. Satellite image analysis. The resolution of modern satellite images has dramatically improved. In the future, correct data of sea surface displacement will probably be available in real time, right after a tsunamigenic earthquake. However, today it is not yet possible. Ground-based sea radars. This is an effective tool for direct measurement of tsunami wave. At the same time, the wave is measured at a rather narrow area in front of the radar and does not include information about neighboring parts of the wave. Direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water [2]. Today, this technology is certainly among the most useful and promising. The DART II® system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system, capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. We focus our research on improving the later method, direct measurement of tsunami wave at deep water. We suggest the new way to analyze DART data, modifying the methodology originally proposed by V. Titov. Smaller system of unit sources [3] should be considered to approximate all typical shapes of initial disturbance by several suitable basis functions. To successfully implement it, performance of data analysis should be dramatically improved. This could be done by using a signal orthogonalization procedure for considered system of unit sources and calculation of Fourier coefficients of the measured time series with respect to orthogonal basis. The approach suggested was used as a part of computerized workstation for tsunami hazard monitoring [5-6]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/honshu20110311/ National Data Buoy Center. URL: http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://sift.pmel.noaa.gov/thredds/dodsC/uncompressed/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research. URL: http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/model.html Alexey Romanenko, Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Vasily Titov, "Modern Architecture for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation" // Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS-2012), ISBN 978-981-07-2049-0 Mikhail Lavrentiev-jr, Andrey Marchuk, Alexey Romanenko, Konstantin Simonov, and Vasiliy T

  17. Resolution Effects on the Mean Square Displacement as Obtained by the Self-Distribution-Function Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present contribution, a procedure for molecular motion characterization based on the evaluation of the Mean Square Displacement (MSD), through the Self-Distribution Function (SDF), is presented. It is shown how MSD, which represents an important observable for the characterization of dynamical properties, can be decomposed into different partial contributions associated to system dynamical processes within a specific spatial scale. It is also shown how the SDF procedure allows us to evaluate both total MSD and partial MSDs through total and partial SDFs. As a result, total MSD is the weighed sum of partial MSDs in which the weights are obtained by the fitting procedure of measured Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) intensity. We apply SDF procedure to data collected,by IN13, IN10 and IN4 spectrometers (Institute Laue Langevin), on aqueous mixtures of two homologous disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose) and on dry and hydrated (H2O and D2O) lysozyme with and without disaccharides. It emerges that the hydrogen bond imposed network of the water-trehalose mixture appears to be stronger with respect to that of the water-sucrose mixture. This result can justify the higher bioprotectant effectiveness of trehalose. Furthermore, it emerges that partial MSDs of sucrose and trehalose are equivalent in the low Q domain (0÷1.7) ??1 whereas they are different in the high Q domain (1.7÷4) ??1. This suggests that the higher structure sensitivity of sucrose should be related to the small spatial observation windows. Moreover, the role of the instrumental resolution in EINS is considered. The nature of the dynamical transition is highlighted and it is shown that it occurs when the system relaxation time becomes shorter than the instrumental energy time. Finally, the bioprotectants effect on protein dynamics and the amplitude of vibrations in lysozyme are presented.

  18. Three-dimensional point spread function characterization of a radially displaced scatterer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Uttam K.; Temple, Michael A.; Minardi, Michael J.; Zelnio, Edmund G.

    2007-04-01

    For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems utilizing a circular aperture for target recognition, it is important to know how a target's point spread function (PSF) behaves as a function of various radar functional parameters and target positional changes that may occur during data collection. The purpose of this research is characterizing the three dimensional (3D) point spread function (3D PSF) behavior of a radially displaced point scatterer for circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR). For an automatic target recognition (ATR) systems requiring target identification with a high degree of confidence, CSAR processing represents a viable alternative given it can produce images with resolution less than a wavelength. With very large CSAR apertures (90°r or more) three dimensional imaging is possible with a single phase center and a single pass. Using a backprojection image formation process, point target PSF responses are generated at various target locations at a given radar bandwidth, depression angle and full 360°r CSAR apertures. Consistent with previous studies, the 3D PSF for a point target located at the image center is cone shaped and serves as the basis for comparing and characterizing the 3D PSFs for radially displaced scatterers. For radially displaced point target, simulated results show 3D PSF response is asymmetric and tends to become an elliptic shape.

  19. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish; Upadhyay, Govinda; Abeysekera, Muditha; Salehin, Sayedus; Appleyard, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and...... encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced...

  20. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish; Upadhyay, Govinda; Abeysekera, Muditha; Salehin, Sayedus; Appleyard, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced......The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and...

  1. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  2. Constant load and constant displacement stress corrosion in simulated water reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion behaviour of selected water reactor constructional materials, as determined by constant load or constant displacement test techniques, is reviewed. Experimental results obtained using a very wide range of conditions have been collected in a form for easy reference. A discussion is given of some apparent trends in these data. The possible reasons for these trends are considered together with a discussion of how the observed discrepancies may be resolved. (author)

  3. Large-Deformation Displacement Transfer Functions for Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Slender Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    Large deformation displacement transfer functions were formulated for deformed shape predictions of highly flexible slender structures like aircraft wings. In the formulation, the embedded beam (depth wise cross section of structure along the surface strain sensing line) was first evenly discretized into multiple small domains, with surface strain sensing stations located at the domain junctures. Thus, the surface strain (bending strains) variation within each domain could be expressed with linear of nonlinear function. Such piecewise approach enabled piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations [classical (Eulerian), physical (Lagrangian), and shifted curvature equations] to yield closed form slope and deflection equations in recursive forms.

  4. Heavy metal displacement in salt-water-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In regions where phytoremediation is carried out, brackish water must often be used. However, no information exists concerning the consequences of saline-water irrigation on the mobility of heavy metals in sludge applied to soil during phytoremediation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of NaCl irrigation on displacement of seven heavy metals in sludge (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) applied to the surface of soil columns containing barley plants. Half the columns received NaCl irrigation (10,000 mg L-1) and half the columns received tap-water irrigation. Half the columns were treated with the chelating agent EDTA. With no EDTA, irrigation with the NaCl solution increased the concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb in the drainage water above drinking-water standards. Irrigation of sludge farms with brackish water is not recommended, because saline water increased the mobility of the heavy metals and they polluted the drainage water. - Irrigation with brackish water mobilizes heavy metals in contaminated soils

  5. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? 150.445 Section 150.445 Navigation and...-OTS) displaced with water? (a) The oil in an SPM-OTS must be displaced with water, and the valve at the pipeline end manifold must be closed whenever: (1) A storm warning forecasts weather...

  6. High-efficiency cell-substrate displacement acquisition via digital image correlation method using basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianyong; Pan, Xiaochang; Peng, Xiaoling; Zhu, Tao; Qin, Lei; Xiong, Chunyang; Fang, Jing

    2010-11-01

    Cellular traction force microscopy (CTFM) has become an emerging technique to investigate spatio-temporal dynamics of cell-substrate interaction. The displacement field acquisition in CTFM, however, is essentially quite time-consuming due to the computational complexity using digital image correlation (DIC) method. Addressing the intrinsic feature of substrate fluorescent images, this paper introduces the concept of basis function to simplify the zero-normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC) expression used in the conventional DIC calculation. By approximating fluorescent particles inside single reference subsets as a series of basis functions, all the terms in the modified ZNCC formula can be efficiently evaluated with the help of a sum-table approach. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed fast algorithm are verified through simulations and actual cell-substrate displacement computations, which indicate that the integer-pixel correlation calculation based upon the new algorithm is about 10-20 times faster than that founded upon the conventional DIC algorithm where the ZNCC computation is performed in a straightforward way.

  7. Nozzle optimization for water jet propulsion with a positive displacement pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, You-sheng; Xie, Ying-chun; Nie, Song-lin

    2014-06-01

    In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.

  8. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy and water services are a key need in long-term displacement situations. • At present electricity is supplied mostly with diesel generators and water is imported. • On-site electricity and clean water production can decrease costs and increase security. • The proposed containerized solution produces electricity and purifies water locally. • Model results show the cost-competitiveness and technical potential of the solution. - Abstract: The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency situations, and is already cost competitive with the current water and energy supply solutions for emergency situations

  9. Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Youngeui

    2013-01-01

    We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on th...

  10. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency situations, and is already cost competitive with the current water and energy supply solutions for emergency situations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stresses and Displacements in Functionally Graded Materials of Semi-Infinite Extent Induced by Rectangular Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Qi Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stress and displacement fields in a functionally graded material (FGM caused by a load. The FGM is a graded material of Si3N4-based ceramics and is assumed to be of semi-infinite extent. The load is a distributed loading over a rectangular area that is parallel to the external surface of the FGM and either on its external surface or within its interior space. The point-load analytical solutions or so-called Yue’s solutions are used for the numerical integration over the distributed loaded area. The loaded area is discretized into 200 small equal-sized rectangular elements. The numerical integration is carried out with the regular Gaussian quadrature. Weak and strong singular integrations encountered when the field points are located on the loaded plane, are resolved with the classical methods in boundary element analysis. The numerical integration results have high accuracy.

  12. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  13. Water displacement by sewer infrastructure in the Grote Nete catchment, Belgium, and its hydrological regime effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vrebos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and especially impervious areas, in combination with wastewater treatment infrastructure, can exert several pressures on the hydrological cycle. These pressures were studied for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium (8.18% impervious area and 3.89% effective impervious area, based on a combination of empirical and model-based approaches. The effective impervious area, combined with the extent of the wastewater collection regions which do not coincide with the natural catchment boundaries, was used as an indicator for the urbanization pressure. Our study revealed changes in the total upstream areas of the subcatchments between ?16% and +3%, and in upstream impervious areas between ?99% and +64%. These changes lead to important inter-catchment water transfers. Based on simulations with a physically-based and spatially-distributed hydrological catchment model, profound impacts of effective impervious area on infiltration and runoff were found. The model results show that the changes in impervious areas and related water displacements in and between catchments due to the installation of the wastewater treatment infrastructure severely impacted low flows, peak flows and seasonal trends. They moreover show that it is difficult, but of utmost importance, to incorporate these pressures and artificial processes in an accurate way during the development of hydrological models for urbanized catchments.

  14. Top end support for water displacement rod guides of pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a top end support for rod guides disposed in closely spaced, parallel axial relationship in an inner barrel assembly of a pressurized water reactor vessel. The inner barrel assembly occupies a central portion of the vessel and is of a vertical height extending from a first plate of lower elevation to a second plate of higher elevation within the vessel. Each of the rod guides has a thin sidewall portion of elongated configuration and of an axial length corresponding substantially to the vertical height of the inner barrel assembly and having a generally square cross-section. Each rod guide accommodating in axial, sliding relationship therewithin a respectively associated cluster of elongated rods interconnected to extend in parallel axial relationship

  15. In vivo relationship between pelvis motion and deep fascia displacement of the medial gastrocnemius: anatomical and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; González Blanche, Alberto; López Sánchez, David; Cerda, Mauricio; Sanzana-Cuche, Rodolfo; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Different authors have modelled myofascial tissue connectivity over a distance using cadaveric models, but in vivo models are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pelvic motion and deep fascia displacement in the medial gastrocnemius (MG). Deep fascia displacement of the MG was evaluated through automatic tracking with an ultrasound. Angular variation of the pelvis was determined by 2D kinematic analysis. The average maximum fascia displacement and pelvic motion were 1.501?±?0.78?mm and 6.55?±?2.47?°, respectively. The result of a simple linear regression between fascia displacement and pelvic motion for three task executions by 17 individuals was r?=?0.791 (P?displacement of the MG (r?=?0.449, P?functional concept of force transmission through synergistic muscle groups, and grant new perspectives for the role of fasciae in restricting movement in remote zones. PMID:26467242

  16. Study of the influence of temperature and water level of the reservoir about the displacement of a concrete dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, S. R.; Mafioleti, T. R.; Chaves Neto, A.; Garcia, S. R. P.; Neumann Júnior, C.

    2016-02-01

    Multivariate techniques are used in this study to analyze the monitoring data displacements of a concrete dam, measured by means of pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rod extensometers, taking into account the action of environmental conditions, bounded by the surface temperature of the concrete at ambient temperature and the tank water level. The canonical correlation analysis is used to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and dam foundations. The factor analysis is used to identify data sources of variability and order the sensors according to the action of factors. The dates of the measurements are grouped according to similarities in the present observations, by applying the cluster analysis. Then the discriminant analysis is used to assess the groups as to their homogeneity. The results demonstrate that the techniques used for distinguishing the dam responses and identify the effects of changes in environmental conditions on the displacements of the structures and dam foundations.

  17. Pore-scale simulation of liquid CO2 displacement of water using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Kang, Oinjun; Oostrom, Martinus

    2014-11-01

    A lattice Boltzmann color-fluid model, which was recently proposed by Liu et al. [H. Liu, A.J. Valocchi, and Q. Kang. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. Phys. Rev. E, 85:046309, 2012.] based on a concept of continuum surface force, is improved to simulate immiscible two-phase flows in porous media. The new improvements allow the model to account for different kinematic viscosities of both fluids and to model fluid-solid interactions. The capability and accuracy of this model is first validated by two benchmark tests: a layered two-phase flow with a viscosity ratio, and a dynamic capillary intrusion. This model is then used to simulate liquid CO2 (LCO2) displacing water in a dual-permeability pore network. The extent and behavior of LCO2 preferential flow (i.e., fingering) is found to depend on the capillary number (Ca), and three different displacement patterns observed in previous micromodel experiments are reproduced. The predicted variation of LCO2 saturation with Ca, as well as variation of specific interfacial length with LCO2 saturation, are both in good agreement with the experimental observations. To understand the effect of heterogeneity on pore-scale displacement, we also simulate LCO2 displacing water in a randomly heterogeneous pore network, which has the same size and porosity as the dual-permeability pore network. In comparison to the dual-permeability case, the transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering occurs at a higher Ca, and LCO2 saturation is higher at low Ca but lower at high Ca. In either pore network, the LCO2-water specific interfacial length is found to obey a power-law dependence on LCO2 saturation.

  18. Displacing a gas condensate mixture in a cracked stratum in a hard water pumping mode. Vytesneniye gazokondensatnoy smesi v treshchinovatom plaste pri zhestkovodonapornom rezhime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Dzhamalbekov, M.A.; Orudzhaliyev, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The process of displacing a gas condensate mixture in a hard water pumping mode from a cracked formation is examined. A rating system is proposed for predicting the basic indicators of development of a gas condensate formation in the examined conditions. The solution of this particular problem presented in the work considers the dual phase state of flow in the gas condensate field, the mass exchange of the phases and the mass transfer of the components in both phases, the incompleteness of displacement of the hydrocarbon fluid by water and the nonstationary state of the displacement process in the internal water zone.

  19. Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, Joachim; Verschuren, Dirk; De Meester, Luc

    2006-11-22

    The huge ecological and economic impact of biological invasions creates an urgent need for knowledge of traits that make invading species successful and factors helping indigenous populations to resist displacement by invading species or genotypes. High genetic diversity is generally considered to be advantageous in both processes. Combined with sex, it allows rapid evolution and adaptation to changing environments. We combined paleogenetic analysis with continent-wide survey of genetic diversity at nuclear and mitochondrial loci to reconstruct the invasion history of a single asexual American water flea clone (hybrid Daphnia pulexxDaphnia pulicaria) in Africa. Within 60 years of the original introduction of this invader, it displaced the genetically diverse, sexual population of native D. pulex in Lake Naivasha (Kenya), despite a formidable numerical advantage of the local population and continuous replenishment from a large dormant egg bank. Currently, the invading clone has spread throughout the range of native African D. pulex, where it appears to be the only occurring genotype. The absence of genetic variation did not hamper either the continent-wide establishment of this exotic lineage or the effective displacement of an indigenous and genetically diverse sibling species. PMID:17015310

  20. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. PMID:26814628

  1. Influence of basin characteristics on the effectiveness and downstream reach of interbasin water transfers: displacing a problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ryan E.; Buckley, John J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; McNulty, Steven G.; Sun, Ge

    2015-12-01

    Interbasin water transfers are globally important water management strategies, yet little is known about their role in the hydrologic cycle at regional and continental scales. Specifically, there is a dearth of centralized information on transfer locations and characteristics, and few analyses place transfers into a relevant hydrological context. We assessed hydrological characteristics of interbasin transfers (IBTs) in the conterminous US using a nationwide inventory of transfers together with historical climate data and hydrological modeling. Supplying and receiving drainage basins share similar hydroclimatological conditions, suggesting that climatological drivers of water shortages in receiving basins likely have similar effects on supplying basins. This result calls into question the effectiveness of transfers as a strategy to mitigate climate-driven water shortages, as the water shortage may be displaced but not resolved. We also identified hydrologically advantageous and disadvantageous IBTs by comparing the water balances of supplying and receiving basins. Transfer magnitudes did not vary between the two categories, confirming that factors driving individual IBTs, such as patterns of human water demand or engineering constraints, also influence the continental-scale distribution of transfers. Some IBTs impact streamflow for hundreds of kilometers downstream. Transfer magnitude, hydroclimate and organization of downstream river networks mediate downstream impacts, and these impacts have the potential to expand downstream nonlinearly during years of drought. This work sheds new light on IBTs and emphasizes the need for updated inventories and analyses that place IBTs in an appropriate hydrological context.

  2. High Displacement Actuator (HDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Positioned beneath a fiber optic displacement sensor is the new High Displacement Actuator (HDA) developed by scientists at NASA Langley Research Center. The high displacement actuator significantly improves the state-of-the-art piezoelectric technology and provides inordinately large mechanical displacements. The HDA is also applicable to high performance sensor applications such as microphones, non-destructive testing, and vibration sensing. Test results on the high displacement actuators show displacements 50 times greater than device thickness and several orders of magnitude increase over state-of-the-art devices. The actuators can be used from DC to frequencies in excess of a megahertz and with displacement loads exceeding 10 Kg (25 lbs). The actuator can also produce displacements comparable to state-of-the-art devices with an order reduction in operating voltage. The high displacement actuators are reliable. They have been laboratory tested to beyond 400 million cycles without failure. The highly efficient electrically- insulated actuator can be operated in a vacuum, in liquids, and in the upper atmosphere. The HDA is versatile and rugged allowing for use in harsh environments for hundreds of commercial applications. In many device applications the high displacement actuator wafer itself can serve the function of several components, e.g. in simple pumps it take the place of piston, piston-rod and crank. The HDA is a packaged flexible laminate of pre-stressed polymeric materials and a piezoelectric ceramic that form a robust, low cost, user friendly device.

  3. A forcefield with discrete displaceable waters and desolvation entropy for hydrated ligand docking

    OpenAIRE

    Forli, Stefano; Olson, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    In modeling ligand-protein interactions, the representation and role of water is of great importance. We introduce a forcefield and hydration docking method that enables the automated prediction of waters mediating the binding of ligands with target proteins. The method presumes no prior knowledge of the apo or holo protein hydration state, and is potentially useful in the process of structure-based drug discovery. The hydration forcefield accounts for the entropic and enthalpic contributions...

  4. Effect of a Selected Physical Exercise on the Development of Displacement Movement Skills in Highly Functional Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keyhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study is about to examine the effect of the selective physical exercises on the development of displacement skills in High Function Autistic (HFA children. Materials and Methods: In this research, 10 children (7.9±1.4 years among of 33 children with HFA in Sahr-e-Kord city (in Iran based on their pre-test scores randomly were selected. The measuring tool was Test of Gross Motor Development-2000 (TGMD-2. Selected motor program (SPARK motor program in this research includes motor strengthening activities, games and sports for children that were performed for 12 sessions by our subjects. Normal distribution of data checked by K-S test and appropriate statistical Levine's and ANOVA tests (dependent and independent types were used for compare mean values (?=0.05. Results: Twelfth sessions of selected physical exercises training in experiment group made significant differences in some research variables but it was not the case for the control group. There were significant differences in running (p=0.002, trotting (p=0.08, jumping (p=0.002 and gliding (p=0.004 and there were non-significant differences in hop (p=0.035 and leaping (p=0.02. Conclusion: According to the results of this research we suggest that the selected physical exercise programs that derived from SPARK motor program can improve displacement motor skills in children with HFA.

  5. Effective electron displacements: A tool for time-dependent density functional theory computational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guido, Ciro A., E-mail: ciro.guido@ecp.fr; Cortona, Pietro [Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides (SPMS), CNRS UMR 8580, École Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92295 Châtenay-Malabry (France); Adamo, Carlo [Laboratoire d’Électrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modélisation pour l’Energie, CNRS UMR-7575, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Bd Saint-Michel, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-03-14

    We extend our previous definition of the metric ?r for electronic excitations in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory [C. A. Guido, P. Cortona, B. Mennucci, and C. Adamo, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 3118 (2013)], by including a measure of the difference of electronic position variances in passing from occupied to virtual orbitals. This new definition, called ?, permits applications in those situations where the ?r-index is not helpful: transitions in centrosymmetric systems and Rydberg excitations. The ?-metric is then extended by using the Natural Transition Orbitals, thus providing an intuitive picture of how locally the electron density changes during the electronic transitions. Furthermore, the ? values give insight about the functional performances in reproducing different type of transitions, and allow one to define a “confidence radius” for GGA and hybrid functionals.

  6. Complications and functional outcome after internal fixation of dorsally displaced distal radial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Jeppe; Viberg, Bjarke; Greisen, Pernille; Hansen, Jan Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recently there has been an increasing interest in open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures. Even so further studies are still needed. Purpose: To document the functional outcome and identify complica- tions among patients treated with a volar locking plate (DVR-locking plate, DePuy Orthopaedics) newly introduced in our department. Methods: The study was designed as a historical cohort study. 37 females and 6 males with a mean (CI) age of 72,6 (69,5-75,6) were i...

  7. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and 15N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D2O, bromide and [15N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers

  8. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  9. Tests of Dielectric Model Descriptions of Chemical Charge Displacements in Water

    CERN Document Server

    Tawa, G J; Tawa, Gregory J.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for: a) formation of a sodium chloride ion pair; b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; and c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to mediocre. It is argued that: a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for solvation of classical electrostatic interactions the diele...

  10. Tests of dielectric model descriptions of chemical charge displacements in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for (a) pairing of sodium and/or chloride ions; (b) the symmetric SN2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; (c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to poor. It is argued that: (a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; (b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and (c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for salvation of classical electrostatic interactions the dielectric models appear to perform as well as the more detailed XRISM theory

  11. Indicator displacement assay for cholesterol electrochemical sensing using a calix[6]arene functionalized graphene-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yucong; Ran, Xin; Deng, Guogang; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ye, Hanzhang; Zhao, Genfu; Li, Can-Peng

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical method has been developed towards cholesterol detection based on competitive host-guest interaction by selecting methylene blue (MB) and calix[6]arene functionalized graphene (CX6-Gra) as the "reporter pair". In the presence of cholesterol, the MB molecules are displaced by cholesterol in the CX6-Gra.MB complex, leading to a "switch off" electrochemical response. A linear response range of 0.50 to 50.00 ?M for cholesterol with a low detection limit of 0.20 ?M (S/N = 3) was obtained by using the proposed method. This method could be successfully utilized to detect cholesterol in serum samples, and may be expanded to the analysis of other non-electroactive species. Besides, the host-guest interaction between cholesterol and CX6 was studied by molecular modeling calculations, which revealed that the complexation could reduce the energy of the system and the complex of a 1?:?1 host-guest stoichiometry had the lowest binding free energy of -8.01 kcal mol(-1). In addition, the constructed electrochemical sensing platform is important as it does not use any enzyme or antibody for the detection of cholesterol efficiently and selectively over common interfering species. PMID:26626104

  12. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that comes from runoff derived from snowpack in the Rocky Mountains. The analysis is composed of a Base simulation, designed to represent selected features of the agricultural economy several decades in the future, and then three alternative climatic scenarios are run. The Base starts with a reduction in agricultural water by 10.3% from increased municipal and industrial water demand, and assumes a 75% increase in corn extracted-ethanol production. From this, the first simulation (S1 reduces agricultural water availability by a further 14.0%, for a combined decrease of 24.3%, due to climatic factors and related groundwater depletion. The second simulation (S2-WET describes wet year conditions, which negatively affect yields of irrigated corn and milking cows, but improves yields for important crops such as non-irrigated wheat and forages. In contrast, the third simulation (S3-DRY describes a drought year, which leads to reduced dairy output and reduced corn and wheat. Consumer and producer surplus losses are approximately $10 million in this simulation. The simulation results also demonstrate the importance of the modeling trade when studying climate change in a small open economy, and of linking crop and livestock activities to quantify overall sector effects. This model has not taken into account farmers’ adaptation strategies, which would reduce the climate impact on yields, nor has it reflected climate-induced shifts in planting decisions and production practices that have environmental impacts or higher costs. It also focuses on a comparative statics approach to the analysis in order to identify several key effects of changes in water availability and yields, without having a large number of perhaps confounding assumptions.

  13. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a hum...

  14. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment in the...

  15. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system.

  16. Assessment of Volume Measurement of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema by Three Methods: Circumference Measurement, Water Displacement, and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Caroline; Zerahn, B.; Hendel, Helle Westergren

    2010-01-01

    Background: Following treatment for breast cancer 12%-60% develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). There are several ways of assessing BCRL. Circumference measurement (CM) and water displacement (WD) for volume measurements (VM) are frequently used methods in practice and research, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate CM and WD for VM of the BCRL arm and the contralateral arm, comparing the results with regional dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods and Results: ...

  17. Displaced Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Peter W; Rajendran, Surjeet; Saraswat, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The apparent absence of light superpartners at the LHC strongly constrains the viability of the MSSM as a solution to the hierarchy problem. These constraints can be significantly alleviated by R-parity violation (RPV). Bilinear R-parity violation, with the single operator L H_u, does not require any special flavor structure and can be naturally embedded in a GUT while avoiding constraints from proton decay (unlike baryon-number-violating RPV). The LSP in this scenario can be naturally long-lived, giving rise to displaced vertices. Many collider searches, particularly those selecting b-jets or leptons, are insensitive to events with such detector-scale displaced decays owing to cuts on track quality and impact parameter. We demonstrate that for decay lengths in the window ~1-1000 mm, constraints on superpartner masses can be as low as ~450 GeV for squarks and ~40 GeV for LSPs. In some parts of parameter space light LSPs can dominate the Higgs decay width, hiding the Higgs from existing searches. This framewor...

  18. The 'wet mind': water and functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional neuroimaging has emerged as an important approach to study the brain and the mind. Surprisingly, although they are based on radically different physical approaches both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make brain activation imaging possible through measurements involving water molecules. So far, PET and MRI functional imaging have relied on the principle that neuronal activation and blood flow are coupled through metabolism. However, a new paradigm has emerged to look at brain activity through the observation with MRI of the molecular diffusion of water. In contrast with the former approaches diffusion MRI has the potential to reveal changes in the intrinsic water physical properties during brain activation, which could be more intimately linked to the neuronal activation mechanisms and lead to an improved spatial and temporal resolution. However, this link has yet to be fully confirmed and understood. To shed light on the possible relationship between water and brain activation, this introductory paper reviews the most recent data on the physical properties of water and on the status of water in biological tissues, and evaluates their relevance to brain diffusion MRI. The biophysical mechanisms of brain activation are then reassessed to reveal their intimacy with the physical properties of water, which may come to be regarded as the 'molecule of the mind'. (invited topical review)

  19. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    OpenAIRE

    Thirunavu S. R.; Neale G. H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effec...

  20. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [99mTc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1?6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.)

  1. Short-range ordering by displacement of Tl and O atoms in Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 studied by pair distribution function and rietveld analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic pair distribution function analysis has demonstrated displacements of Tl and O atoms within the Tl-O layers with short-range ordering of lower symmetry than the crystallographic lattice. Two models have been proposed for these displacements. Rietveld analysis neither confirms not contradicts these models. Temperature-dependent PDF measurements show changes in local structure correlating with temperature

  2. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita, E-mail: charus@chemistry.iitd.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Murari [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor [Science Institute, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-11-07

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O–O–O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O–O–O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed.

  3. Triplet correlation functions in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplet correlations have been shown to play a crucial role in the transformation of simple liquids to anomalous tetrahedral fluids [M. Singh, D. Dhabal, A. H. Nguyen, V. Molinero, and C. Chakravarty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 147801 (2014)]. Here we examine triplet correlation functions for water, arguably the most important tetrahedral liquid, under ambient conditions, using configurational ensembles derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) datasets fitted to experimental scattering data. Four different RMC data sets with widely varying hydrogen-bond topologies fitted to neutron and x-ray scattering data are considered [K. T. Wikfeldt, M. Leetmaa, M. P. Ljungberg, A. Nilsson, and L. G. M. Pettersson, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 6246 (2009)]. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for two rigid-body effective pair potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) and the monatomic water (mW) model. Triplet correlation functions are compared with other structural measures for tetrahedrality, such as the O–O–O angular distribution function and the local tetrahedral order distributions. In contrast to the pair correlation functions, which are identical for all the RMC ensembles, the O–O–O triplet correlation function can discriminate between ensembles with different degrees of tetrahedral network formation with the maximally symmetric, tetrahedral SYM dataset displaying distinct signatures of tetrahedrality similar to those obtained from atomistic simulations of the SPC/E model. Triplet correlations from the RMC datasets conform closely to the Kirkwood superposition approximation, while those from MD simulations show deviations within the first two neighbour shells. The possibilities for experimental estimation of triplet correlations of water and other tetrahedral liquids are discussed

  4. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by water plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were functionalized by H2O plasma treatment. Through a controlled functionalization process of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) we were able to modify and tune their chemical reactivity, expanding the range of potential applications in the field of energy and environment. In particular, different oxygen groups were attached to the surfaces of the nanotubes (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl), which changed their physicochemical properties. In order to optimize the main operational parameters of the H2O plasma treatment, pressure and power, a Box–Wilson experimental design was adopted. Analysis of the morphology, electrochemical properties and functional groups attached to the surfaces of the CNTs allowed us to determine which treatment conditions were suitable for different applications. After water plasma treatment the specific capacitance of the nanotubes increased from 23 up to 68 F g−1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s−1. (paper)

  5. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by water plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S.; Amade, R.; Jover, E.; Bertran, E.

    2012-09-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were functionalized by H2O plasma treatment. Through a controlled functionalization process of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) we were able to modify and tune their chemical reactivity, expanding the range of potential applications in the field of energy and environment. In particular, different oxygen groups were attached to the surfaces of the nanotubes (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl), which changed their physicochemical properties. In order to optimize the main operational parameters of the H2O plasma treatment, pressure and power, a Box-Wilson experimental design was adopted. Analysis of the morphology, electrochemical properties and functional groups attached to the surfaces of the CNTs allowed us to determine which treatment conditions were suitable for different applications. After water plasma treatment the specific capacitance of the nanotubes increased from 23 up to 68 F g-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1.

  6. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by water plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S; Amade, R; Jover, E; Bertran, E

    2012-09-28

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were functionalized by H(2)O plasma treatment. Through a controlled functionalization process of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) we were able to modify and tune their chemical reactivity, expanding the range of potential applications in the field of energy and environment. In particular, different oxygen groups were attached to the surfaces of the nanotubes (e.g. carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl), which changed their physicochemical properties. In order to optimize the main operational parameters of the H(2)O plasma treatment, pressure and power, a Box-Wilson experimental design was adopted. Analysis of the morphology, electrochemical properties and functional groups attached to the surfaces of the CNTs allowed us to determine which treatment conditions were suitable for different applications. After water plasma treatment the specific capacitance of the nanotubes increased from 23 up to 68 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1). PMID:22947598

  7. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  8. Combined effects of Mass and Velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: a functional measurement approach to the Momentum metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel-Ange Amorim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Representational Momentum (RepMo refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as a second-order isomorphism between mental representations and principles of the physical world. However, very few studies have addressed the effects of mass on RepMo, and consistent replications of the null effect are lacking. The extent of motor engagement of the observers in RepMo tasks has, on the other hand, been suggested to determine the occurrence of the phenomenon; however, no systematic investigations were made of the degree to which it might modulate the effect of target mass. In the present work, we use Information Integration Theory to study the joint effects of different motor responses, target velocity and target mass on RepMo, and also of velocity and target mass on rating responses. Outcomes point not only to an effect of mass on RepMo, as to a differential effect of response modality on kinematic (e.g., velocity and dynamic (e.g., mass variables. Comparisons of patterns of mislocalisation with phenomenological ratings suggest that simplification of physical principles, rather than strict internalization or isomorphism per se, might underlie RepMo.

  9. Impurities in the [18O]water target and their effect on the yield of an aromatic displacement reaction with [18F]fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 in the form of fluoride ion has widespread utility in PET radiochemistry. This paper explores the effect of possible metal ion contamination of the water on the yield of the displacement of a nitro group of dinitrobenzene by fluoride has been investigated as a model reaction for fluoride displacement. The metal ions were found to have a profound effect if they were at the level of the carbonate added to the synthetic procedure. The yields from the reaction are best fit by a model in which the metal ions complex the carbonate ion and thus reduce the pH which in turn reduces the efficiency of the reaction. The formation of [18F]fluoroacetate in the target was explored as a mode for making the fluoride in the target unreactive. It was found that essentially no fluoracetate was formed under our irradiation conditions. The sources of carrier fluoride were examined. It was found that carrier fluoride was introduced during the transfer of water into and out of the target and not during the irradiation. (Author)

  10. Structure–function analysis of the RNA polymerase cleft loops elucidates initial transcription, DNA unwinding and RNA displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Naji, Souad; Bertero, Michela G.; Spitalny, Patrizia; Cramer, Patrick; Thomm, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The active center clefts of RNA polymerase (RNAP) from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) and of yeast RNAP II are nearly identical, including four protruding loops, the lid, rudder, fork 1 and fork 2. Here we present a structure–function analysis of recombinant Pfu RNAP variants lacking these cleft loops, and analyze the function of each loop at different stages of the transcription cycle. All cleft loops except fork 1 were required for promoter-directed transcription and efficient elong...

  11. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Louis, Ard A

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the to...

  12. Irradiation damage 'displacement zone'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that a charged particle (ion, primary atom, etc...) moving in a solid slows down and can cause a cascade of displacements of the atoms in the solid. A study is made here of the extent to which the cascade is made up, or not, of independent collisions, as a function of the energy of the initial charged particle. When the distance between the collisions is small, these latter are no longer independent; the cascade, which then has to be considered as a whole, perturbs and locates, in the irradiated solid , a zone which has been named a 'displacement zone'. It is shown that the proportion of displacement zones increases with increasing atom size (high atomic number Z), with decreasing atomic distance D in the substance considered and with decreasing energy of the ion undergoing the slowing down process (although always remaining above a few hundred eV). The proportions obtained are higher than those corresponding to the calculations of J. A. Brinkman [3]. An interatomic potential required for this work has also been determined. (author)

  13. Structure–function analysis of the RNA polymerase cleft loops elucidates initial transcription, DNA unwinding and RNA displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Souad; Bertero, Michela G.; Spitalny, Patrizia; Cramer, Patrick; Thomm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The active center clefts of RNA polymerase (RNAP) from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) and of yeast RNAP II are nearly identical, including four protruding loops, the lid, rudder, fork 1 and fork 2. Here we present a structure–function analysis of recombinant Pfu RNAP variants lacking these cleft loops, and analyze the function of each loop at different stages of the transcription cycle. All cleft loops except fork 1 were required for promoter-directed transcription and efficient elongation. Unprimed de novo transcription required fork 2, the lid was necessary for primed initial transcription. Analysis of templates containing a pre-melted bubble showed that rewinding of upstream DNA drives RNA separation from the template. During elongation, downstream DNA strand separation required template strand binding to an invariant arginine in switch 2, and apparently interaction of an invariant arginine in fork 2 with the non-template strand. PMID:18073196

  14. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  15. Temperature dependence of mean square displacement by IN13: a comparison between trehalose and sucrose water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis in terms of elastic scans of the neutron intensity in mixtures of homologues disaccharides (i.e., trehalose and sucrose)/D2O as a function of temperature has been carried out. The study provides an effective way for characterizing the dynamical behavior, furnishing a set of parameters characterizing the 'flexibility' and the 'rigidity' that justifies the better cryptobiotic effect of trehalose in respect to sucrose. Elastic scans make evident a non-Gaussian behavior of the intensity profiles which is more marked for sucrose, with a dynamical transition at T?253 K and T?250 K for trehalose/D2O and sucrose/D2O mixtures, respectively

  16. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2007-09-01

    Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:17927413

  17. Electrochemical determination of microRNAs based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction coupled with multienzyme functionalized magnetic micro-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Situ, Bo; Lv, Weifeng; Li, Bo; Yin, Xiaomao; Vadgama, Pankaj; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Wen

    2016-06-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) show great potential for disease diagnostics due to their specific molecular profiles. Detection of miRNAs remains challenging and often requires sophisticated platforms. Here we report a multienzyme-functionalized magnetic microcarriers-assisted isothermal strand-displacement polymerase reaction (ISDPR) for quantitative detection of miRNAs. Magnetic micro-carriers (MMCs) were functionalized with molecular beacons to enable miRNAs recognition and magnetic separation. The target miRNAs triggered a phi29-mediated ISDPR, which can produce biotin-modified sequences on the MMCs. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase was then conjugated to the MMC surface through biotin-streptavidin interactions. In the presence of 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid, miRNAs were quantitatively determined on a screen-printed carbon electrode from the anodic current of the enzymatic product. We show that this method enables detection of miRNAs as low as 9fM and allows the discrimination of one base mismatched sequence. The proposed method was also successfully applied to analyze miRNAs in clinical tumor samples. This paper reports a new strategy for miRNAs analysis with high sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. It would be particularly useful for rapid point-of-care testing of miRNAs in clinical laboratory. PMID:26855164

  18. Optimization of an exchange-correlation density functional for water

    CERN Document Server

    Fritz, Michelle; Soler, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method, that we call data projection onto parameter space (DPPS), to optimize an energy functional of the electron density, so that it reproduces a dataset of experimental magnitudes. Our scheme, based on Bayes theorem, constrains the optimized functional not to depart unphysically from existing ab initio functionals. The resulting functional maximizes the probability of being the \\correct" parametrization of a given functional form, in the sense of Bayes theory. The application of DPPS to water sheds new light on why density functional theory has performed rather poorly for liquid water, on what improvements are needed, and on the intrinsic limitations of the generalized gradient approximation to electron exchange and correlation. Finally, we present tests of our water-optimized functional, that we call vdW-DF-w, showing that it performs very well for a variety of condensed water systems.

  19. Displacement solid-phase extraction on mercapto-functionalized magnetite microspheres for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric determination of trace noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection online displacement solid-phase extraction (DSPE) via magnetic immobilization of mercapto-functionalized magnetite microspheres onto the inner walls of a knotted reactor (KR) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed for selective preconcentration and determination of trace noble metals (Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au) in complex matrices. Online DSPE of 2.7 mL aqueous solution gave the enhancement factors of 32-46 for the six noble metals in comparison with direct nebulization of aqueous sample solution, and the detection limits (3 s) of 2.1 ng L-1 for Ru, 1.9 ng L-1 for Rh, 2.5 ng L-1 for Pd, 1.8 ng L-1 for Ir, 1.9 ng L-1 for Pt and 1.7 ng L-1 for Au. The sample throughput of the developed method was about 20 samples h-1, and the relative standard deviation for eleven replicate determinations of the noble metals at the 30 ng L-1 level ranged from 1.2% to 2.1%. The recoveries of Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au still maintained 90% even after successive 140 cycles of DSPE. The developed method was successfully applied to selective determination of trace Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir and Au in complex matrices.

  20. Influence of water on the work function of certain metals

    OpenAIRE

    MUSUMECI, FRANCESCO; Pollack, Gerald H

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to explore the effect of light on Au, Pt and Cu surfaces immersed in water, in order to study the changes of work function arising from the interaction between the metallic surfaces and water. The results show an action of liquid water about three times larger than that of low-temperature ice. Theoretical calculations, present in literature, have predicted values much lower than those we measured. The substantial changes in work function measured here appear to ar...

  1. Functional systems of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics, discussed in the present paper, are: - Principle design of the reactor coolant system - reactor pressure vessel with internals - containment design - residual heat removal and emergency cooling systems - nuclear component cooling systems - emergency feed water systems - plant electric power supply system. (orig./RW)

  2. A molecular density functional theory to study solvation in water

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A classical density functional theory is applied to study solvation of solutes in water. An approx- imate form of the excess functional is proposed for water. This functional requires the knowledge of pure solvent direct correlation functions. Those functions can be computed by using molecular simulations such as molecular dynamic or Monte Carlo. It is also possible to use functions that have been determined experimentally. The functional minimization gives access to the solvation free energy and to the equilibrium solvent density. Some correction to the functional are also proposed to get the proper tetrahedral order of solvent molecules around a charged solute and to reproduce the correct long range hydrophobic behavior of big apolar solutes. To proceed the numerical minimization of the functional, the theory has been discretized on two tridimensional grids, one for the space coordinates, the other for the angular coordinates, in a functional minimization code written in modern Fortran, mdft. This program i...

  3. Influence of water on the work function of certain metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUSUMECI, FRANCESCO; POLLACK, GERALD H.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to explore the effect of light on Au, Pt and Cu surfaces immersed in water, in order to study the changes of work function arising from the interaction between the metallic surfaces and water. The results show an action of liquid water about three times larger than that of low-temperature ice. Theoretical calculations, present in literature, have predicted values much lower than those we measured. The substantial changes in work function measured here appear to arise from the complex structure of water in the vicinity of the metal surface. PMID:22639466

  4. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Šulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  5. Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Eric J.; Schulte, Jeff B.; Roundy, David [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-03-28

    We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment.

  6. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ? 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f – an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f < 0.4, and almost no change in flux for higher f values, similar to the change in water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior

  7. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, Ian; Snyder, Mark A.; Mittal, Jeetain, E-mail: jeetain@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ? 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f – an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f < 0.4, and almost no change in flux for higher f values, similar to the change in water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior.

  8. MACROSCOPIC APPROACHES TO MODELING ROOT WATER UPTAKE AS A FUNCTION OF WATER AND SALINITY STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyzing irrigation, soil salinization, or crop production problems often requires simulations of root water uptake as a function of water and salinity stress. We give an overview of macroscopic modeling approaches that are based on the Richards equation with a sink term specifying water uptake. ...

  9. Density-Functional Theory Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Hydrogen Bonds in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Santra, Biswajit

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen bonds (HBs) involving water molecules are ubiquitous in nature. However an accurate description of HBs with simulation techniques, including even quantum mechanical approaches such as density-functional theory (DFT), is a major challenge. Mainly because of a good balance between computational cost and accuracy, DFT has been routinely applied to study water in various environments, for example, liquid water, ice, adsorbed, and confined water, yet how well DFT exchange-correlation xc f...

  10. Displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A displacer rod for use in a mechanical spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor comprises a sectioned substantially hollow low neutron absorbing metal rod capable of displacing reactor coolant without absorbing a high amount of neutrons. The tubular sections preferably consist of stainless steel and Zircaloy tubing interconnected by a solid Zircaloy metal rod and may contain pellets for weighting the displacer rod. (author)

  11. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  12. Displacement Data Assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, W Steven; Mariano, Arthur J; Restrepo, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information important. While the displacement transformation is not tied to any particular assimilation scheme, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  13. ATP hydrolysis in water: a density functional study

    OpenAIRE

    Akola, J.; Jones, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a basic energy carrier in cellular metabolism. As a high-energy intermediate, it provides a way to convert energy from one biochemical process to another via an environment-dependent hydrolysis reaction. Two paths for ATP hydrolysis in water with Mg2+ are studied here using the density functional method: an associative reaction involving a nucleophilic attack of one water molecule, and a dissociative reaction involving a scission of the terminal bridging P-O...

  14. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  15. Effects of wettability and pore-level displacement on hydrocarbon trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suicmez, V. Sander; Piri, Mohammad; Blunt, Martin J.

    2008-03-01

    We use a three-dimensional mixed-wet random network model representing Berea sandstone to extend our previous work on relative permeability hysteresis during water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection cycles [Suicmez, VS, Piri, M, Blunt, MJ, 2007, Pore-scale simulation of water alternate gas injection, Transport Porous Med 66(3), 259-86]. We compute the trapped hydrocarbon saturation for tertiary water-flooding, which is water injection into different initial gas saturations, Sgi, established by secondary gas injection after primary drainage. Tertiary water-flooding is continued until all the gas and oil is trapped. We study four different wettability conditions: water-wet, weakly water-wet, weakly oil-wet and oil-wet. We demonstrate that the amounts of oil and gas that are trapped show surprising trends with wettability that cannot be captured using previously developed empirical trapping models. We show that the amount of oil that is trapped by water in the presence of gas increases as the medium becomes more oil-wet, which is opposite from that seen for two-phase flow. It is only through a careful analysis of displacement statistics and fluid configurations that these results can be explained. This illustrates the need to have detailed models of the displacement processes that represent the three-phase displacement physics as carefully as possible. Further work is needed to explore the full range of behavior as a function of wettability and displacement path.

  16. MACROSCOPIC APPROACHES TO ROOT WATER UPTAKE AS A FUNCTION OF WATER AND SALINITY STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing site-specific irrigation, soil salinization, or crop production problems. For many of these problems, computer analyses require simulations of root water uptake as a function of water and salinity stress. We give an over...

  17. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO3H and -NH2 groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D2O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D2O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D2O with bare SBA. (authors)

  18. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation. PMID:26242051

  19. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  20. Performance of an agricultural tractor in no tillage as a function of displacement speed and the seeders' tire inflation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Cortez, Jorge Wilson; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Grotta, Danilo Cesar Checchio; Toledo, Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlani@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of an agricultural tractor under field conditions results from the tire wheel interaction together with its displacement speed. This work was developed to assess the performance of an agricultural tractor under the (75, 70, and 60 psi) tire inflation pressure conditions of a seeder and in two different gears providing speeds of 3.0 and 6.0 km h{sup -1}. The experiment took place at Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), at the Jaboticabal Campus, and was conducted by Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization (LAMMA) at the Department of Rural Engineering. The delineation used was entirely randomized in a 2-factor factorial scheme (3 x 2) with 4 repetitions. We also observed that fuel consumption was influenced only by the tractor gear. Energy consumption was greater as speed increased, caused by gear shifting. The displacement speed was greater for the 75-psi pressure due to a lesser slippage in the seeder when under this pressure. Tractor slippage and initial stand did not change with the tested factors. (author)

  1. Effects of Bridge Functions on Radial Distribution Functions of Liquid Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigenori; Nakano, Miki

    2015-06-01

    In this report the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of liquid water are calculated on the basis of the classical density functional theory combined with the reference interaction site model for molecular liquids. The bridge functions, which are neglected in the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation, are taken into account through the density expansion for the Helmholtz free energy functional up to the third order. A factorization approximation to the ternary direct correlation functions in terms of the site-site pair correlation functions is then employed in the expression of the bridge functions, thus leading to a closed set of integral equations for the determination of the RDFs. It is confirmed through numerical calculations that incorporation of the oxygen-oxygen bridge function substantially improves the poor descriptions by the HNC approximation at room temperature, e.g., for the second peak of the oxygen-oxygen RDF. PMID:26188390

  2. Time-dependent Displaced and Squeezed Number States

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S P

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the wave functions of the displaced and squeezed number states, found by Nieto, to a time-dependent harmonic oscillator with variable mass and frequency. These time-dependent displaced and squeezed number states are obtained by first squeezing and then displacing the exact number states and are exact solutions of the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. Further, these wave functions are the time-dependent squeezed harmonic-oscillator wave functions centered at classical trajectories.

  3. Uranium enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural Uranium contains 0.72% of fissile isotope 235U. Need for 235U enriched uranium for light water moderated reactors and other uses are well known. Uranium enrichment is a highly complex and tedious process owing to extremely small separation factor. Several processes have been tried; however, gaseous diffusion and centrifugation techniques based on mass dependent isotope effect are being exploited for producing enriched uranium. In the recent past, Isotope fractionation based on mass independent isotope effect such as LASER technique, ion exchange displacement chromatography etc. have drawn the attention of separation scientist and efforts are being made for development and industrial deployment of these technologies. Indian Nuclear Power Programme is based on use of natural uranium (PHWRs) and slightly enriched uranium (BWRs, PWRs) with emphasis on use of vast resources of thorium. Spent fuel from PHWRs, which is depleted in 235U (0.2 to 0.3%), appears to be a promising source of slightly enriched uranium (1 to 3% 235U). Harnessing this source for 235U enrichment would augment fuel supply for PHWR and light water reactors. Ion exchange displacement chromatography is a proliferation resistant novel technique for 235U enrichment. It is based on nuclear field shift - an isotope shift in orbital electrons resulting from the isotopic difference in nuclear size and shape. Due to this effect lighter isotope (235U) exhibits a stronger tendency for a higher valence i.e. UO22+ as compared to heavier isotope (238U). Preliminary laboratory study is being carried out at HWP, Manuguru for exploring feasibility of using ion exchange displacement chromatography for enriching 235U using 4-vinyl pyridine based anion exchange resin

  4. Growing and displacing infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Course control of growing and displacing cerebral infarcts by means of computerized tomography is illustrated by 5 patients' histories. In all cases, CT is to be preferred to conventional neuroradiological diagnostic methods due to its exact marking of the space occupied by the infarcts. (AJ)

  5. Bacterial diversity and ecological function in lake water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The healthy development of lake ecosystems is a global issue. Bacteria are not only an integral component of food webs, but also play a key role in controlling and regulating water quality in lake ecosystems. Hence, in order to provide some suggestions for maintaining the long-term and healthy development of lake ecosystems, this review discusses and analyses concepts and assessment of bacterial diversity, the distribution of bacteria communities, mechanisms of formation, and the ecological functions of such communities in lake water bodies. In total, there are 21 freshwater bacterial phyla typically found in lake waters at present. Among them, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are the most important. The Beijerinck and Baas-Becking perspective and the meta- community hypothesis suggest that bacterial community diversity and species distributions in lake water bodies are caused by the combinedaction of stochastic and determinate processes. Research on the function of lake bacteria has mainly focused on processes that bacteria are involved in, for example water quality and elemental biogeochemical cycles. Despite efforts over the past 10 years, knowledge on lake bacterial community diversity and function is still very limited. Lake bacterial ecology is still a young science, which restricts people further understanding of microbial communities in lake bodies. Future research is required on: (1 integrating bacterialphenotype, genotype, phylogeny and ecological features to define the concept of bacterial “species”; (2 the dispersal of bacteria between different locations at a regional scale; (3 bacterial community diversity and functional characteristics at the micro scale; (4 ecological theories and hypotheses of bacterial community diversity in lake ecosystems to improve the theoretical framework of microbial ecology.

  6. Experimental determinations of correction factors as a function of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the radionuclide calibrators of the CRCN-NE, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceiao de Farias; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, the accurate knowledge of the activity of radio-pharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients is an important factor to ensure the success of diagnosis or therapy. The activity measurements are performed in reentrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. These equipment are sensitive to changes in radioactive sample geometry and its position within the chamber well. The purpose this work was to evaluate the behavior of radionuclide calibrators by means of vertical displacement of radioactive sources in the well and to determine experimentally the correction factors for each radionuclide, recognizing the specific positions in which the measurements must be made to ensure the highest sensitivity. The highest activity was obtained between 6 and 8 cm from the bottom of the well for both radionuclide calibrators utilized at this work. (author)

  7. Displacement convexity of generalized entropies

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the $m$-relative entropy, which stems from the Bregman divergence, on weighted Riemannian and Finsler manifolds. We prove that the displacement convexity of the $m$-relative entropy is equivalent to the combination of a lower Ricci curvature bound and the convexity of the weight function. We use this to show appropriate variants of the Talagrand, HWI and the logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, as well as the concentration of measures. We also prove that the gradient flow of the $m$-relative entropy produces a solution to the porous medium equation.

  8. Study of Xe poisoning effect on fuel displacement strategies in a nuclear electric plant equipped with a natural uranium - heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Xenon poisoning on fuel handling strategies in a natural uranium reactor was studied. A computer code, called PRODFIS was devised to have a permanent control on the concentrations of fission products, allowing to obtain the concentration values for a fission product, at any moment. This computer code can simultaneously follow 19 fission products and supply information at different time intervals depending on the computer storage used. The problems concerning the behaviour of Xe and Sm concentrations in the reactor and their influence on its functioning were mathematically treated. The influence of Xe concentration oscillations on the functioning of a natural uranium-heavy water reactor was analysed by means of a computer code called OSCXEN that allowed us to obtain the radial and axial values for fast and thermal neutron flows at certain time intervals and iodine and Xenon concentration values on different time ranges. Dynamic programming methods were applied to the study of the control of Xe and Sm poisoning, obtaining the solutions for two aspects of this problem, namely the minimization of the Xe concentration value and Xe concentration maximum. This problem is solved by using a control system of ''bang-bang'' type. A computer code called XENPROG was devised to determine the best version for the neutron flow when the reactor is stopped in such a way as the two conditions imposed by Xe concentration minimization or minimization of Xe concentration maximum to be fulfilled. Ex.perimental measurements were performed on the V/V. R-S reactor in order to verify the results obtained with XENPROG channel. Agreement between experimental results, applying XENPROG code indications, and results obtained bY means of calculation confirms the correctness of the computer code. (author)

  9. Perceived displacement explains wolfpack effect

    OpenAIRE

    Šimkovic, Matúš; Träuble, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent's body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit jud...

  10. DISPLACEMENT-DISPERSIVE LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION BASED ON SOLIDIFICATION FLOATING ORGANIC DROP TRACE AMOUNTS OF LEAD IN WATER SAMPLE PRIOR TO FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY DETERMINATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DARYOUSH, AFZALI; MARYAM, FAYAZI; ALIMOSTA, FAVI.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel method using displacement-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop in complicated samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination was developed. This method involves two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid m [...] icroextraction based on solidification. In step I, Zn(II) ions reacted with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio carbamate (APDC) to form Zn-APDC complex and was extracted with the solidified floating organic drop microextraction procedure using 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) and ethanol (dispersive solvent). In step II, after centrifugation and solidification, the separated drop was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) and then dispersed into the sample solution containing lead ion and another dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification procedure was carried out. Due to the greater stability of Pb-APDC, Pb displaces Zn from the pre-extracted Zn-APDC and preconcentration of Pb was achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 4-700 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.7 ng mL-1(3a b). The relative standard deviation of ±1.6% was obtained (n=7) and the enrichment factor was found to be 35.0.

  11. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  12. Theoretical Investigations of Water Clusters, Ice Clathrates and Functionalized Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Nanosized structures are of intermediate size between individual molecules and bulkmaterials which gives them several unique properties. At the same time their relative limitedsizes make them suitable for studies by the methods of computational chemistry. In this thesiswater clusters, ice clathrates and functionalized metal-oxide nanoparticles have been studiedby quantum-chemical calculations and statistical thermodynamics. The stabilities of water clusters composed of up to 100 molecules hav...

  13. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

  14. Tunable beam displacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José [ICFO-Institut de Ciènces Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona),Spain (Spain); Quantum Optics Laboratory, Universidad de los Andes, AA 4976 Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Valencia, Alejandra [Quantum Optics Laboratory, Universidad de los Andes, AA 4976 Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Torres, Juan P. [ICFO-Institut de Ciènces Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona),Spain (Spain); Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  15. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins will be formed close to the SFR-1. The catchment to this former lake constitutes the inner model area that is studied in more detail. The landscape evolution in this area is also illustrated as a time series of digital maps in Power Point format 'Elevinre.ppt'. The sea bottom directly above SFR-1 will start to drain approximately 2400 AD and will be completely dry approximately 3500 AD. The inner model area will be without brackish water approximately 5000 AD and at least 20 new basins (>10000 m2 )will be formed within this area. Most of them will be shallow basins and will therefore quickly be transformed into peat or bogs. When the inner model area is drained of brackish water approximately 75% of the area will be bedrock or wave washed till and 25% peat, bog or lake

  16. Ab initio liquid water from PBE0 hybrid functional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    For reasons of computational efficiency, so far most ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water have been based on semi-local density functional approximations, such as PBE and BLYP. These approaches yield a liquid structure that, albeit qualitatively correct, is overstructured compared to experiment, even after nuclear quantum effects have been taken into account.footnotetextJ. A. Morrone and R. Car, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 017801(2008) A major cause of this inaccuracy is the delocalization error associated to semi-local density functional approximations, which, as a consequence, overestimate slightly the hydrogen bond strength in the liquid. In this work we adopt the PBE0 hybrid functional approximation, which, by mixing a fraction of exact (Hartree-Fock) exchange, reduces significantly the delocalization error of semi-local functionals. Our approach is based on a numerically efficient order-N implementation of exact exchange.footnotetextX. Wu, A. Selloni, and R. Car, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085102(2009) We find that PBE0 systematically improves the agreement of the simulated liquid with experiment. Our conclusion is substantiated by the calculated radial distribution functions, H-bond statistics, and molecular dipole distribution.

  17. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwers, K; Breynaert, E; Rombouts, I; Delcour, J A; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-15

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic study of different electrolyte components showed that especially CaCl2 improved the oxidation rate of GSH. However, this effect was not observed for CYS, which indicated a strong impact of the local chemical environment on thiol oxidation kinetics. PMID:26675862

  18. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  19. Rehabilitation and improvement of Guilin urban water environment: function-oriented management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuansheng; Zuo, Hua; Luan, Zhaokun; Gao, Sijia

    2013-07-01

    Economic development and population growth have deeply damaged the urban water environment of Guilin City, China. Main problems involved structural damage and functional deterioration of the urban waters. An integrated technical scheme was developed to rehabilitate the urban water environment and to enhance the waters' functions during 1998-2008. Improvement of waters' functions included water system reconstruction, water pollution control, water safety assurance, and aquatic ecological restoration. The water system was reconstructed to connect different waters and clean water supplies to the lakes. Moreover, water pollution was controlled to improve water quality by endogenous pollutant elimination and extraneous pollutant interception. In addition, ecological measures put in place serve to enhance water system functions and better benefit both nature and humans. The project has brought about sound ecological, economic and social benefits in Guilin City, which can potentially be extended to similar cities. PMID:24218862

  20. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  1. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  2. The Reliability of a Functional Agility Test for Water Polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05. The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88. The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

  3. Density-functional study of photoinduced water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dynamics of water splitting on dye-sensitized metal (Ti, Cu) oxide surfaces, induced by direct sunlight excitation. In this study, we will consider the typical photoexcitation-followed-by-injection scheme, treating electron-injection and water splitting dynamics as independent events. The simultaneous modeling of the molecular motion and the quantum nonadiabatic transitions is achieved via the computation of the low-lying electronic states along several alternative reaction paths. Electronic structure calculations are based on a B3LYP-DFT Hamiltonian. The proposed approach combines an atomistic description of the reactants and of the immediate region of the surface, while the vibrational dynamics of the substrate is modeled as an effective bath leading to dissipation effects. The use of density-functional theory to solve the many- body electronic problem allows investigating the atomic motion of the water molecules and of a representative part of the substrate, thereby providing a theoretical and computational model capable to account simultaneously for the molecular character of the dye molecule and for the bulk properties of the surface. Furthermore, the insight emerging from this fundamental modeling can be used to optimize the chemical composition of the system to attain high incident-photon-flux-to-hydrogen-yield ratios. (full text)

  4. Electrical conductivity of shocked water from density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of water in a region of phase space of interest in shock experiments. The onset of electrical conductivity in shocked water is determined by ionic conductivity, with the electron contribution dominating at higher pressures. The ionic contribution to the conduction is calculated from proton diffusion (Green-Kubo formula) and the electronic contribution is calculated using the Kubo-Greenwood formula (1). The calculations are performed with VASP, a plane-wave pseudopotential code. At 2000K and a density of 2.3 g/cc, we find a significant dissociation of water into H, OH, and H3O, not only intermittent formation of OH - H3O pairs as suggested earlier for 2000 K and 1.95 g/cc (2). The calculated conductivity is compared to experimental data (3). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Safety Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This project was supported by the Sandia LDRD office. (1) M. P. Desjarlais, J. D. Kress, and L. A. Collins; Phys. Rev. B 66, 025401 (2002). (2) E. Schwegler, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 265501 (2001). (3) P.M. Celliers, et. al. Physics of Plasmas 11, L41 (2004).

  5. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented. PMID:6048876

  6. Nonlinear Brownian motion - mean square displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Ebeling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic dynamics of self-propelled Brownian particles is studied by means of the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck approach. We model the driving by a nonlinear friction function which has a negative part at small velocities, leading to active Brownian motion of the particles. The mean square displacement is estimated analytically and compared with numerical simulations.

  7. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  8. Exercising divers' thermal protection as a function of water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, David R; Mollendorf, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Physiological adjustments and passive thermal insulation are not sufficient to protect divers in the cold and warm waters experienced by sport, professional and military divers. In a previous study of resting subjects, divers were protected by actively heated/cooled water that perfused a six-zone (head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet) tube suit. Subsequently a self-contained diver thermal protection system (DTPS) was developed and used in this study to test male divers (n = 8) wearing a 6-mm foam neoprene wetsuit in water temperatures (T(W)) of 10 degrees C-39 degrees C at 4 feet in depth. The DTPS is a scuba backpack containing five thermoelectric devices that heat/cool water to 30 degrees C, six pumps that circulate the water through a six-zone tube suit via two manifolds, and an electronic controller. Skin temperatures (T(S), n = 17) and core temperature (T(C), capsule) were measured. The DTPS and each zone of the tube suit were also instrumented. Divers were tested with the DTPS operational (protected) and turned off (unprotected) for 90 minutes. In the unprotected condition, T(S) decreased and approached T(W), while T(C) trended to decrease over the exposure time. Mean T(S) as a function of T(W) was T(S) = 0.44 T(W) + 21.23 degrees C while unprotected, but T(S) = 0.19 T(W) + 27.1 degrees C when the diver was protected. The average total heating/cooling power required to protect the diver was 166 +/- 78W, 86 +/- 95W, 9 +/- 75W, 72 +/- 45W, 135 +/- 73W, 279 +/- 87W and 336 +/- 95W at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 39 degrees C water temperatures, respectively. This power requirement was nominally split 4%, 22%, 22%, 14%, 25% and 13% for head, torso, arms, hands, legs and feet, respectively. While unprotected, divers T(S) and T(C) did not remain within acceptable limits in T(W) below 25 degrees C or above 30 degrees C. When using the DTPS, however, they did remain within acceptable limits, and the divers reported they were comfortable. PMID:21510272

  9. Pulmonary function in children after open water SCUBA dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, B E; Tetzlaff, K; Muth, C-M; Hebestreit, H

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of children and adolescents is diving with Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA). SCUBA diving is associated with health risks such as pulmonary barotrauma, especially in children and in individuals with airflow limitation. As no data has been published on the effects of open-water diving on pulmonary function in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCUBA dives on airflow in children. 16 healthy children aged 10-13 years underwent spirometry and a cycle-exercise challenge while breathing cold air. They subsequently performed dives to 1-m and 8-m depth in random order. Pulmonary function was measured before and after the exercise challenge and the dives. There were statistically significant decreases in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MEF25 and MEF50 after the cold-air exercise challenge and the dives. Changes in lung function following the exercise challenge did not predict the responses to SCUBA diving. In 3 children the post-dive decrements in FEV1 exceeded 10%. These children had a lower body weight and BMI percentile. SCUBA diving in healthy children may be associated with relevant airflow limitation. A low body mass might contribute to diving-associated bronchoconstriction. In the majority of subjects, no clinically relevant airway obstruction could be observed. PMID:20677123

  10. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per RØnsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface.

  11. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    (market orientation), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...... as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter...

  12. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  13. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to provide a guideline for a sustainable exploration of groundwater resources within the investigated regions, relating to population movements and potential of aquifers. To achieve these objectives a) groundwater samples are collected and analyzed (microbiologically, chemically and physically) from all types of water points, boreholes and "protected" springs, during rainy, dry and intermediate seasons, b) a network of piezometers is being installed for monitoring groundwater level, and comparison with available rainfall data will define groundwater balance. During these steps results are compared with the population's displacement and density in order to quantify the consequences towards the groundwater resources. Preliminary results after microbiological analysis show the inadequacy of traditional "protected" springs in providing safe water. Feacal pollution is observed in "protected" springs even though it was not being observed before and during rehabilitation. It is mainly due to recent population concentration around the available water resources and the lack of comprehensive hydrogeological study of the functioning of the near surface aquifers. Accordingly all operations concerning spring rehabilitation are on hold. No evidence regarding microbiological contamination was found from borehole water samples. However, high concentration in ferrous iron and total iron was found in several boreholes. Concentrations in the water of weathered bedrock are expected and specific treatment is necessary.

  14. Understanding the Impact of Open-Framework Conglomerates on Water-Oil Displacements: Victor Interval of the Ivishak Reservoir, Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ritzi, Robert W; Dominic, David F

    2014-01-01

    The Victor Unit of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield is characterized by high net-to-gross fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. The highest permeability is found within sets of cross-strata of open-framework conglomerate (OFC). They are preserved within unit bar deposits and assemblages of unit bar deposits within compound (braid) bar deposits. They are thief zones limiting enhanced oil recovery. We incorporate recent research that has quantified important attributes of their sedimentary architecture within preserved deposits. We use high-resolution models to demonstrate the fundamental aspects of their control on oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. We found that when the pressure gradient is oriented perpendicular to the paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller, than when it is oriented parallel to paleoflow. The pressure differe...

  15. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  16. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/

  17. Does oxidation affect the water functionality of myofibrillar proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Kristensen, Mette; Østdal, Henrik; Baron, Caroline P; Young, Jette F; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen

    2007-03-21

    Water-binding properties of myofibrils extracted from porcine muscle, and added hemoglobin with and without exposure to H2O2, were characterized using low-field proton NMR T2 relaxometry. The effects of pH and ionic strength in the samples were investigated as pH was adjusted to 5.4, 6.2, and 7.0 and ionic strength was adjusted to 0.29, 0.46, and 0.71 M, respectively. The formation of dityrosine as a measure of oxidative protein cross-linking revealed a significant increase in dityrosine concentrations upon H2O2 activation. The formation of dityrosine was strongly pH-dependent and increased with decreasing pH. In addition, increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were observed upon addition of H2O2, implying that lipid oxidation was enhanced, however, with a different oxidation pattern as compared to the myofibrillar proteins. Low-field NMR relaxation measurements revealed reduced T2 relaxation times upon H2O2 activation, which corresponds to reduced water-holding capacity upon oxidation. However, a direct relationship between degree of oxidation and T2 relaxation time was not observed with various pH values and ionic strengths, and further studies are needed for a complete understanding of the effect of oxidation on myofibrillar functionality. PMID:17316016

  18. Linking Species Traits to the Abiotic Template of Flowing Waters: Contrasting Eco physiologies Underlie Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in a Large River-Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, A. F.

    2005-05-01

    The St. Lawrence River-Estuary was the gateway of entry for dreissenids to North America and holds some of the oldest populations. The St. Lawrence also has four distinct physical-chemical water masses (a regional scale abiotic template) that both species inhabit. Despite their ecological similarities, quagga mussels are supplanting zebra mussels in much of their shared range. In order to try to better understand the changing distributions of these two species we compared glycogen, shell mass and tissue biomass in each of the water masses. This comparative physiological combined with experimental approaches (estuarine salinity experiments and reciprocal transplants) showed that while quagga mussels should dominate in most habitats, that abiotic/bioenergetic constraints in two regions (the Ottawa River plume and the freshwater-marine transition zone) might prevent them from dominating these locations. These findings are an example of how the interaction of landscape scale abiotic heterogeneity and a species-specific physiology can have strong impacts of distribution of biota large rivers.

  19. Displacement Ventilation : theory and design

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Peter V

    2010-01-01

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text i...

  20. Job displacement penalties in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Bognanno, Michael; Delgado, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The costs of job displacement are examined on a sample of Japanese workers successfully provided job placement services from 2000 to 2003, a period of economic stagnation and structural change in Japan. We find that displaced workers suffer a loss of approximately $1,100 for each additional year of age. Workers also incur a large penalty when they change industries after being displaced. The age-earnings loss relationship is consistent with the operation of a delayed compensation scheme in la...

  1. National response to internal displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McLean

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In many cases the international community acts to protect and assist the world's internally displaced people in absence of responsible and effective national action. This is, at least partly, because countries experiencing crises of internal displacement are unlikely to possess national institutions capable of effectively providing their displaced citizens with the necessary support. Strengthening national capacity for response is essential in order that governments themselves can assume immediate responsibility in humanitarian emergencies without having to depend on external aid.

  2. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  3. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  4. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  5. Canal Lock Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Blanton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project we determine the time needed for a pump to raise the water level in a canal lock in order for a boat to continue upstream. Using calculus methods and elementary physics, it was determined that it would take roughly 5 minutes for a single 60 horsepower pump to raise the water level the required 10 feet. We conclude that the lock is fairly efficient but offer some suggestions to increase the time efficiency of the lock system.

  6. Canal Lock Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Blanton

    2010-01-01

    In this project we determine the time needed for a pump to raise the water level in a canal lock in order for a boat to continue upstream. Using calculus methods and elementary physics, it was determined that it would take roughly 5 minutes for a single 60 horsepower pump to raise the water level the required 10 feet. We conclude that the lock is fairly efficient but offer some suggestions to increase the time efficiency of the lock system.

  7. Preserving and adapting functions to limited fresh water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    For agriculture/horticulture and nature, adaptation to decreasing fresh water availability is crucial in the growing seasons. Rainfall becomes concentrated in fewer, but heavier showers, the inlet of good quality water from main water courses will be under pressure, while evapotranspirative demand grows. Particularly for coastal provinces, this causes an increasing influence of brackish/saline ground water that upwells or directly enters the water courses. This influences which plants can be ...

  8. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Yao; Zhen You; Bo Liu

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biologi...

  9. Mathematic Model of Green Function with Two-Dimensional Free Water Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Sujing Jin; Xing Wang; Junjun Du; Shesheng Zhang; Shengping Jin

    2013-01-01

    Adopting complex number theory, a mathematic model of Green function is built for two dimension free water surface, and an analytic expression of Green function is obtained by introducing two parameters. The intrinsic properties of Green function are discussed on vertical line and horizontal line. At last, the derivation expression of Green function is obtained from the formula of Green function.

  10. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bekerom, Michel P.J; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2009-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle fractures is based on the notion of elevated intraarticular contact pressures with lateral displacement. To diagnose these injuries, we presumed that in patients with a fibular fracture with at least ...

  11. Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

  12. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew; Garcia, Clement; Eggleton, Jaqueline; Dinesen, Grete E.; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Smith, Chris; Kalogeropoulou, Vicky; Gumus, Aysun; Hiddink, Jan Geert; Hoey, Gert Van; Kooten, Tobias van; Hansen, Jørgen

    on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between...

  13. Job Displacement Insurance: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    Earnings losses from permanent job separations are a serious threat to the financial security of long-tenured workers. Job displacement insurance is presumably designed to offset these losses, but evidence suggests that consumption smoothing among the long-tenured displaced is seriously incomplete, at least in lightly regulated labor markets. Unemployment and reemployment wage insurance could fully cover these losses, but are costly to provide. Severance pay has emerged as a supplemental, if ...

  14. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  15. Inherent Properties of Two Dimension Green Function with Linear Boundary Condition of Free Water Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Wang; Chao Liu; Zhenli Sun; Mingyan Wu; Shesheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A mathematic model of Green function is build for two dimension free water surface. The analytic expression of Green function is obtained by introducing a parameter of complex number. The intrinsic properties of Green function are discussed for the special parameter values. The real and imaginary parts of H function are shown in the paper.

  16. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden/Wasser-Pflanze. Eigene Untersuchungen mit D{sub 2}O, Bromid und [{sup 15}N]Nitrat in Lysimetern mit verschiedenen Boeden weisen aber darauf hin, dass die obigen Annahmen fuer Bromid-Tracer unter den Bedingungen von biologisch aktiven Boeden nur bedingt zutreffen und lassen eine gute Einschaetzung der Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Tracer zu, wie nachstehende Ausfuehrungen zeigen. (orig.)

  17. Fog and Rain Water Influences on Tree Physiology and Ecosystem Function in a California Redwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, H. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Dawson, T. E.; Templer, P. H.; Firestone, M. K.; Elliott, A. M.; Boukili, V. K.

    2008-12-01

    Fog is thought to influence ecological function in coastal forests worldwide, yet few data are available that illuminate the mechanisms underlying this influence. In a California redwood forest we measured water fluxes from horizontally moving fog and vertically delivered rain as well as redwood tree function. The spatial heterogeneity of water fluxes, water availability, tree water use, and water movement varied greatly across seasons. Across the forest as a whole, 98% of water flux to the soil occurred in the rain season and was relatively even across the whole forest. In contrast, below-canopy flux of fog water declined exponentially from the windward edge to the forest interior. Following large fog events, soil moisture was greater at the windward edge than anywhere else in the forest. Physiological activity in redwoods reflected these differences in inputs across seasons: tree physiological responses did not vary spatially in the rain season, but in the fog season, water use was greater, yet water stress was less, in trees at the windward edge of the forest versus the interior. In both seasons, vertical passage through the forest changed the amount of water, revealing the role of both the tree canopy and roots in processing atmospheric inputs. While total fog water inputs were comparatively small, they may have important ecosystem functions, including relief of canopy water stress and, where there is fog drip, functional coupling of above- and below-ground processes.

  18. Examples of oil cavitation erosion in positive displacement pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halat, J. A.; Ellis, G. O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of cavitation flow on piston type, positive displacement, hydraulic pumps are discussed. The operating principles of the pump and the components which are most subject to erosion effects are described. The mechanisms of cavitation phenomena are identified from photographic records. Curves are developed to show the solubility of air in water, oil-water emulsion, and industrial hydraulic oil.

  19. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavi? in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trep?a industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 ?g of lead, 20.09 ?g of cadmium and 22.89 ?g of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 ?g/dm3 of lead, 29.21 ?g/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 ?g/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals from the river water are 19.01 ?g of lead, 21.85 ?g of cadmium and 23.96 ?g of zinc in grams dry matter. The obtained results indicate that the willow can contribute to the decontamination of moderately contaminated river water from Pb, Cd and Zn.

  20. Thermodynamic properties, gradients and functions for saturated steam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tables presented in this report were produced to provide steam and water properties required in dynamic simulations of steam/water systems. In addition to the usual thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid and vapour at saturation, the tables provide certain partial derivatives of one thermodynamic property with respect to another, covering the pressure range from 0.1 to 22.0 MPa. Also tabulated are surface tension, acoustic velocities and isentropic expansion exponents for dry and wet saturated steam, shown only graphically, or not at all, in conventional steam tables. (author)

  1. Temporomandibular joint - normal features and disc displacements: magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint has been defined as an abnormal relationship between the articular disc and the mandibular condyle, fossa and articular eminence. Disc displacements may occur without immediate interference in the function of the joint. Magnetic resonance imaging shows high diagnostic accuracy in the determination of articular disc position and has been indicated as the diagnostic method of choice for soft tissue abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint. The aim of this study is to review the literature including the normal features and different types of disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint as well as the imaging findings, emphasizing the role of magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  2. Water homeostasis, frailty and congnitive function in the nursing home

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to develop and test a practical clinical method to assess frailty in nursing homes and to investigate the relationship between cognitive status of the elderly and the balance between water compartments of their body composition. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted a...

  3. Functional polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for water purification applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? LBL film on the surface and in to the pores was prepared via flow through method. ? The membranes showed high rejection of Congo Red with sufficiently high flux. ? High antifouling ability in terms of both organic and bio fouling was observed. -- Abstract: A diverse set of supported multilayer assemblies with controllable surface charge, hydrophilicity, and permeability to water and solute was fabricated by pressure driven permeation of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) solution through poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) track-etched membranes. The polyelectrolyte multilayer fabrication was confirmed by means of FTIR, SEM, AFM, ellipsometry, zetapotential, and contact angle characterization. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of their pure water permeability, flux recovery, and resistance to organic and biofouling properties. The antifouling behavior of the membranes was assessed in terms of protein adsorption and antibacterial behavior. Finally, the membranes were tested for rejection of selected water soluble dyes to establish their usefulness for organic contaminant removal from water. The membranes were highly selective and capable of nearly complete rejection of congo red with sufficiently high fluxes. The feasibility of regenerating the prepared membranes fouled by protein was also demonstrated and good flux recovery was obtained. In summary, the multilayer approach to surface and pore modification was shown to enable the design of membranes with the unique combination of desirable separation characteristics, regenerability of the separation layer, and antifouling behavior

  4. Single-Mode Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Terhal, Barbara M.; Duivenvoorden, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    We show that one can determine both parameters of a displacement acting on an oscillator with an accuracy which scales inversely with the square root of the number of photons in the oscillator. Our results are obtained by using a grid state as a sensor state for detecting small changes in position and momentum (displacements). Grid states were first proposed in [1] for encoding a qubit into an oscillator: an efficient preparation protocol of such states, using a coupling to a qubit, was devel...

  5. Thermal Care of Functional Dyspepsia Based on Bicarbonate-Sulphate-Calcium Water: A Sequential Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ferruccio Bonino; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Filippo Oliveri; Nadia Rocca; Federico Dioni; Giuseppe Rocca

    2007-01-01

    Drug treatment of functional dyspepsia is often unsatisfactory. We assessed the efficacy of a bicarbonate-sulphate-calcium thermal water cycle of 12 days, in patients with functional dyspepsia. Patients with functional dyspepsia were sent by their general practitioners to 12 days of treatment with thermal water, 200–400 ml in the morning, at temperature of 33°C (91.4 F) and were evaluated on a strict intention to treat basis. Four efficacy endpoints were analyzed as follows: (i) reduction of ...

  6. Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

    2014-01-01

    Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrop...

  7. Long-time correlation effects on displacement distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of displacements in a fluid of hard disks is found by molecular dynamics to be non-Gaussian in the long-time limit, as surmised from the moments of the distribution that yield divergent diffusion and Burnett coefficients. On the other hand, for the Lorentz gas of hard disks, the distribution of displacements is Gaussian in the long-time limit and the diffusion coefficient exists, though the autocorrelation functions have power law tails, which lead to divergent Burnett coefficients

  8. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms. The responses of the compliant mechanisms are modelled using a total Lagrangian finite element formulation, the sensitivity analysis is performed using the adjoint method and the optimization problem...

  9. Water ecosystem service function assessment based on eco-hydrological process in Luanhe Basin,China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Hao, C.; Qin, T.; Wang, G.; Weng, B.

    2012-12-01

    At present, ecological water are mainly occupied by a rapid development of social economic and population explosion, which seriously threat the ecological security and water security in watershed and regional scale. Due to the lack of a unified standard of measuring the benefit of water resource, social economic and ecosystem, the water allocation can't take place in social economic and ecosystem. The function which provided by water in terrestrial, aquatic and social economic system can be addressed through water ecosystem service function research, and it can guide the water allocation in water resource management. The function which provided by water in terrestrial, aquatic and social economic system can be addressed through water ecosystem service function research, and it can guide the water allocation in water resource management. Throughout the researches of water ecosystem service, a clear identification of the connection of water ecosystem service function has not been established, and eco-economic approach can't meet the practical requirement of water allocation. Based on "nature-artificiality" dual water cycle theory and eco-hydrological process, this paper proposes a connection and indicator system of water ecosystem service function. In approach, this paper establishes an integrated assessment approach through prototype observation technology, numerical simulation, physical simulation and modern geographic information technology. The core content is to couple an eco-hydrological model, which involves the key processes of distributed hydrological model (WEP), ecological model (CLM-DGVM), in terms of eco-hydrological process. This paper systematically evaluates the eco-hydrological process and evolution of Luanhe Basin in terms of precipitation, ET, runoff, groundwater, ecosystem's scale, form and distribution. According to the results of eco-hydrological process, this paper assesses the direct and derived service function. The result indicates that the general service function of 2010 has minor increase than 2007, however the general function of two years are in common level; Compare with different region, the upstream, middle stream and downstream indicates "worse", "common" and "good" level respectively. The first three derived functions are leisure, offer products and industrial water use. In the end, this paper investigates the evolution of water ecosystem service function under rising temperatures and elevated CO2 concentration scenarios in Luanhe Basin through eco-hydrological model. The results elaborate that the water ecosystem service functions would decline when temperature rising, and warming to 1.5 degree is the mutation point of sharp drop; Increased CO2 concentration scenario will improve the direct service function in the whole Basin; under the overlying scenario, different region shows different results, the direct service function will increased in upstream and middle stream, direct service function will drop in downstream. A comprehensive analysis indicates that the rising temperature is the major driven of water ecosystem service function in Luanhe Basin.

  10. Additional longitudinal displacement for contaminant dispersion in wetland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xudong; Gao, Ran; Wu, Zi

    2016-01-01

    When there is a sudden and uniform release of contaminant over the depth of wetland, the centroid of resulted solute cloud will travel downstream at the cross-sectional mean velocity of the flow. However, if the initial release is not uniform, there will be an additional longitudinal displacement of the centroid, which is important for predicting the concentration distribution but cannot be revealed by the classical one-dimensional Taylor dispersion model. For the most typical case of an initial point source release at the free-water-surface of the wetland, an idealized case modeling accidental leakage of toxic chemicals in waters, in the present paper we analytically deduce the longitudinal displacement by the method of concentration moment. The result is then incorporated in the analytical solutions of concentration distribution, which are further verified by our numerical simulations. The effects of the longitudinal displacement on the concentration distribution are analyzed in detail. It is shown that without considering the displacement, for vertical planes close to the edges of the contaminant cloud, the analytical solution can over- or under-estimate the vertical distribution of concentration for over 20% of the maximum concentration in the plane even at a large dimensionless time of t? = 5 . The longitudinal displacement is shown to decrease with the increase of the important damping factor ?, which characterizes the effects of vegetation in wetlands. A simple application is given at the end of this paper to illustrate the evolution of the additional longitudinal displacement.

  11. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    OpenAIRE

    Loay A. Elalfy; Wael N. Akl; Walid M. I. Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs) to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that ex...

  12. Water Load Test in Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: No Relation to Food Intake and Nutritional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; da Graça Leite Speridião, Patricia; Batista de Morais, Mauro

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the relations between the water load test in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders with food intake and nutritional status. Patients with functional dyspepsia required a lower maximum water intake to produce fullness (n?=?11, median?=?380 mL) than patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n?=?10, median?=?695 mL) or functional abdominal pain (n?=?10, median?=?670 mL) (P?560 mL (n?=?14) in the water load test, there was no relation between the maximum drinking capacity and food intake, body mass index, or height. PMID:26317680

  13. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin; Back, Soren Nohr; Lorenzen, J; Schweitzer, Avi; Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Gola, Secondo; Klopmann, Wolfram; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and...... technologies which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial......The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...

  14. Functional bacteria as potential indicators of water quality in Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyuan; Shen, Zhenyao; Niu, Junfeng; He, Ya; Hong, Qian; Wang, Ying

    2010-04-01

    The distributions of culturable bacteria and functional bacteria associated with nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) in the backwater areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were investigated. Results from seven locations in the TGR indicated that the abundance of total bacteria was high, with 8.12 x 10(6), 2.70 x 10(7), and 6.73 x 10(10) colony-forming units per milliliter or per gram dry weight in surface water, bottom water, and sediments, respectively. Aquatic environments with higher nutrient loadings possessed higher bacteria densities and lower bacteria community diversities. Eight kinds of functional bacteria ratios, including surface water to bottom water and ratios of water to sediments, were calculated, in which four kinds of functional bacteria, namely, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and organophosphate-solubilizing bacteria, displayed obvious differences in different locations. Based on the functional bacteria ratios of water to sediments, it was found that the obtained result of location grouping from cluster analysis was similar to that based on the community-level physiological profiles studies. The above results showed that the ratios of functional bacteria could distinguish the aquatic environments with different trophic conditions in the TGR. This demonstrated that the distribution ratios of functional bacteria in aquatic environments could work as potential bioindicators to reflect the trophic condition of the water. PMID:19333770

  15. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies’ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies’ functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident’s origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people’s life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water’s recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  16. A methodology for probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, R.R.; Arabasz, W.J.; Anderson, R.E.; Ramelli, A.R.; Ake, J.P.; Slemmons, D.B.; McCalpin, J.P.; Doser, D.I.; Fridrich, C.J.; Swan, F. H., III; Rogers, A.M.; Yount, J.C.; Anderson, L.W.; Smith, K.D.; Bruhn, R.L.; Knuepfer, P.L.K.; Smith, R.B.; DePolo, C.M.; O'Leary, D. W.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Schwartz, D.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Olig, S.S.; Toro, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a methodology for conducting a site-specific probabilistic analysis of fault displacement hazard. Two approaches are outlined. The first relates the occurrence of fault displacement at or near the ground surface to the occurrence of earthquakes in the same manner as is done in a standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for ground shaking. The methodology for this approach is taken directly from PSHA methodology with the ground-motion attenuation function replaced by a fault displacement attenuation function. In the second approach, the rate of displacement events and the distribution for fault displacement are derived directly from the characteristics of the faults or geologic features at the site of interest. The methodology for probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA) was developed for a normal faulting environment and the probability distributions we present may have general application in similar tectonic regions. In addition, the general methodology is applicable to any region and we indicate the type of data needed to apply the methodology elsewhere.

  17. Theory of Metallic Work Functions Between Metals and Layers of Exclusion Zone Ordered Water

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of the work function to bring an electron from a metal into the exclusion zone water layer making hydrophilic contact with the metallic interface is theoretically computed. The agreement with recent experimental measurements is satisfactory.

  18. A facile method to fabricate functionally integrated devices for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe; Lv, Kaikai; Luan, Xinglong; Zhang, Qian; Shi, Feng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we present a facile method for the fabrication of a functionally integrated device, which has the multi-functions of the oil-containment boom, oil-sorption material, and water/oil-separating film, through a single immersion step in an ethanol solution of stearic acid. During the simple immersion process, the two dominant factors of superhydrophobicity, surface roughness and low-surface-energy coatings, could be accomplished simultaneously. The as-prepared functionally integrated device with superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity displayed a lower density than that of water, such that it could float on water and act as an oil-containment boom; an efficient oil-absorbing property, which was attributed to the capillary effect caused by micrometer-sized pore structures and could be used as oil-sorption materials; a high oil/water separating efficiency which was suitable for water/oil-separating film. In this way, the functions of oil collection, absorption, and water/oil separation are integrated into a single device, and these functions could work independently, reducing the cost in terms of energy consumption and being versatile for a wide range of applications.In this paper, we present a facile method for the fabrication of a functionally integrated device, which has the multi-functions of the oil-containment boom, oil-sorption material, and water/oil-separating film, through a single immersion step in an ethanol solution of stearic acid. During the simple immersion process, the two dominant factors of superhydrophobicity, surface roughness and low-surface-energy coatings, could be accomplished simultaneously. The as-prepared functionally integrated device with superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity displayed a lower density than that of water, such that it could float on water and act as an oil-containment boom; an efficient oil-absorbing property, which was attributed to the capillary effect caused by micrometer-sized pore structures and could be used as oil-sorption materials; a high oil/water separating efficiency which was suitable for water/oil-separating film. In this way, the functions of oil collection, absorption, and water/oil separation are integrated into a single device, and these functions could work independently, reducing the cost in terms of energy consumption and being versatile for a wide range of applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00026b

  19. A density functional theory study of the benzene-water complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shen; Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, T; Puzder, Aaron; Langreth, David C

    2008-09-25

    The intermolecular interaction of the benzene-water complex is calculated using real-space pseudopotential density functional theory utilizing a van der Waals density functional. Our results for the intermolecular potential energy surface clearly show a stable configuration with the water molecule standing above or below the benzene with one or both of the H atoms pointing toward the benzene plane, as predicted by previous studies. However, when the water molecule is pulled outside the perimeter of the ring, the configuration of the complex becomes unstable, with the water molecule attaching in a saddle point configuration to the rim of the benzene with its O atom adjacent to a benzene H. We find that this structural change is connected to a change in interaction from H (water)/pi cloud (benzene) to O (water)/H (benzene). We compare our results for the ground-state structure with results from experiments and quantum-chemical calculations. PMID:18729422

  20. Enhancement of Hydrophobic Solvation by Hydrophilic Functional Groups: Trehalose and Kojibiose in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer Campen, R.; Vila Verde, Ana

    2010-03-01

    The structure and dynamics of water around biomacromolecules differs significantly from that of water in bulk in ways critical for biological function. The manner in which water structure differs is a function of both chemical and topological heterogeneity. Attempts to disentangle these effects have generally focussed on solvation of large molecules at either particular locations or in an averaged sense. In either case, understanding how chemical and topological heterogeneity combine can be difficult. Here we circumvent this problem by examining, in all atom simulations, water structure around the disaccharides Trehalose and Kojibiose. Taken together water structure around these molecules provides a series of internal control experiments for disentangling topological and chemical effects and allows us to conclude that, in the case of Trehalose, topological effects can lead to slow down of water reorientation by a factor of 2 relative to a chemically equivalent system.

  1. Structural Waters Define a Functional Channel Mediating Activation of the GPCR, rhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Gupta, S; Jastrzebska, B; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2009-01-01

    Structural water molecules may act as prosthetic groups indispensable for proper protein function. In the case of allosteric activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), water likely imparts structural plasticity required for agonist-induced signal transmission. Inspection of structures of GPCR superfamily members reveals the presence of conserved embedded water molecules likely important to GPCR function. Coupling radiolytic hydroxyl radical labeling with rapid H2O18 solvent mixing, we observed no exchange of these structural waters with bulk solvent in either ground state or for the Meta II or opsin states. However, the radiolysis approach permitted labeling of selected side chain residues within the transmembrane helices and revealed activation-induced changes in local structural constraints likely mediated by dynamics of both water and protein. These results suggest both a possible general mechanism for water-dependent communication in family A GPCRs based on structural conservation, and a strategy for probing membrane protein structure.

  2. Catchment water quality: the inconvenient but necessary truth of fractal functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This commentary concerns catchment water quality functioning in relation to environmental impact assessment, with a view to proposing that much more emphasis be placed on issues of within-catchment complexity and its manifestation within stream water chemistry: fractal dynamics. The commentary is based, with closure, on my long-term research. Encouragement is given for new avenues to be pursued, including dealing with the complexities of within-stream biological functioning, and their integra...

  3. A fibre optic displacement sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Sohlström, Hans; Holm, Ulf

    1982-01-01

    Fibre optics is beginning to find use for sensing purposes. Fibre optic sensors have many interesting features, e.g., their immunity to interference from electromagnetic fields. The paper briefly discusses different sensor principles. A displacement sensor using multimode, step index fibres is desccribed. Measurement data showing a resolution of 0.05 nm/sqrt(Hz) in a 150 µm linear range is given. In this sensor, the light coupling between two fibre ends varies with the position of a movable ...

  4. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  5. Polymeric nanospheres as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Zhang, Julien

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the investigation of using nanoscale polyacrylamide-based spheres (nanospheres) as a displacement fluid in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Coreflood experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of nanospheres and its concentration dispersed in model formation water on oil recovery during a tertiary oil recovery process. The coreflood results showed that nanospheres can enhance residual oil recovery in the sandstone rock samples and its concentration showed a significant impact into incremental oil. By evaluating the contact angle, it was observed that wettability alteration also might be involved in the possible oil displacement mechanism in this process together with fluid behavior and permeability to water that might divert injected fluid into unswept oil areas and enhance the residual oil recovery. These investigations promote nanospheres aqueous disperse solution as a potential displacement fluid in EOR.

  6. Residual value and production function approaches to valuation of irrigation water in sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Sacolo, Thabo Thandokuhle

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to estimate non-market value of irrigation water as an input in sugar cane production in the Lowveld of Swaziland. This study used two independent approaches to non-market valuation, the residual value and production function approaches, to calculate the value that sugar cane farmers in the Lowveld region of Swaziland attach to irrigation water. The former estimated the average value of water, while the latter estimated the marginal value. Th...

  7. A computationally efficacious free-energy functional for studies of inhomogeneous liquid water

    OpenAIRE

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Letchworth-Weaver, Kendra; Arias, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present an accurate equation of state for water based on a simple microscopic Hamiltonian, with only four parameters that are well-constrained by bulk experimental data. With one additional parameter for the range of interaction, this model yields a computationally efficient free-energy functional for inhomogeneous water which captures short-ranged correlations, cavitation energies and, with suitable long-range corrections, the non-linear dielectric response of water, making it an excellen...

  8. Radionuclide migration as a function of the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth migration of radionuclides (137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co) and their different chemical forms available as a function of the quality of the irrigation water were investigated in two types of soils. The notion of irrigation water quality should be introduced in order to assess the potential radioactive contamination of soils

  9. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  10. Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and Spain, provide an excellent experimental network to study the water dynamics and community functioning in natural ecosystems of high ecological value. To fulfill the main objective, a stable isotope approach (leaf ?13C and xylem+water sources ?18O) was used as a tool to assess physiological performance and water strategies integrated in spatio-temporal water dynamics. Plant functional groups' water use was characterized in a water changing situation (at different seasons) in a climatic gradient. We evaluated stress sensitivity of the functional groups to seasonal changes in water availability in different communities and tried to understand their water use strategy.

  11. Artificial Neural Network for Displacement Vectors Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohmann

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network (NN for displacement vectors (DV determination is presented in this paper. DV are computed in areas which are essential for image analysis and computer vision, in areas where are edges, lines, corners etc. These special features are found by edges operators with the following filtration. The filtration is performed by a threshold function. The next step is DV computation by 2D Hamming artificial neural network. A method of DV computation is based on the full search block matching algorithms. The pre-processing (edges finding is the reason why the correlation function is very simple, the process of DV determination needs less computation and the structure of the NN is simpler.

  12. Computational study of glycine-(water)3 complex by density functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycine-(water)3 complexes have been studied by means of B3LYP density functional method using 6-311++G* basis set. In the complex considered here, the three water molecule are either attached to the carboxylic group or bridge between the amino group and carboxylic group of glycine. Four such complexes are studied. Relaxation energies, two-, three- and four-body interaction energies are obtained by applying many-body analysis to know their role in binding energy of the complex. The results are compared with recent work on glycine-(water)3 complex with (-NH3+) group as proton donor [A. Chaudhari, P.K. Sahu, S.L. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 120 (2004) 170]. In the most stable structure of glycine-(water)3 complex, the three water molecules are attached to the carboxylic group of glycine and it is 5.3 kcal/mol lower in energy than that of the most stable structure reported earlier. The three-body term from water-water-water interaction in the most stable in this work and that reported earlier is unique since the distances between the water molecules are almost same. The two-body term from water-water interaction has significant contribution to the total two-body term when the distance between water molecules is less than 3 A

  13. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin; Back, Søren Nøhr; Lorenzen, J.; Schweitzer, Avi; Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Gola, Secundo; Klopmann, Wolfgram; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    technologies which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial...

  14. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel filters and heavy-metal specific adsorption materials. Decentralised compact pressurised membrane biobooster (MBR), was able to remove up to 99.99% of the inlet Escherichia coli and 98.52% of total coliforms. E. coli was completely removed from irrigation water in 53% of the samples by the last MBR prototype version. In 2008, 100% of samples fulfilled WHO standards (1989) and Global Gap requirement for faecal contamination. MBR removed from inlet flow in the average 82% of arsenic, 82% of cadmium, 97% of chromium, 93% of copper and 99% of lead. Boron and manganese were not removed from permeate. The field treatment system (FTS) proved to be effective against faecal contamination when applied with its complete set up including UV treatment. The sole gravel filter and heavy metal removal device (HMR) cannot provide sufficient and steadily treatment for microbial contamination. Nevertheless, gravel filter can remove up to 60% of E. coli but the removal process was not stable nor predictable. FTS removed 76% of arsenic, 80% of cadmium and copper, 88% of chromium and lead, and up to 97% of zinc. Like the MBR, boron and manganese were not removed from the irrigation water. Gravel filter directly fed with secondary treated wastewater was found able to remove 41% of arsenic, 36% of cadmium and lead, 48% of chromium and 46% of copper. The residual heavy metals concentration after the gravel filter was further reduced by the HMR: 35% for arsenic, 22% for cadmium, 25% for chromium, 33% for copper and 53% for lead.

  15. Functional groups in North Chilean desert shrub species, based on the water sources used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary productivity and vegetation structure in arid ecosystems are determined by water availability. In studies conducted in the coastal dry land of North Central Chile (29 degrees 43'S; 71degrees 14'0, 300m), the mechanisms to use different water sources by shrubs species, in two contrasting rainfall years were compared. Information on pheno logical studies, root architecture and water sources used by shrubs through the use of stable isotopes is are discussed. Six functional groups based on water uptake and water use are recognized. The functional groups were defined based on their habits (deciduous and evergreen), their root systems, (shallow, dimorphic and deep), and their ability to use different water sources (surficial and/or deep). Because of the differential impact of the goat overgrazing on different functional groups, this would result on a lower utilization of surficial waters. A management and/or restoration plan should maximize the use of all water sources available to recover the primary productivity and the system stability

  16. Heavy water effects on the structure, functions and behavior of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H2O substitution for D2O either in environment or in the culture medium of the living systems generates changes in their main functions and composition. In this paper some of the heavy water effects in biological systems such as structural and functional changes were reviewed: normal cell architecture alterations, cell division and membrane functions disturbance, muscular contractility and the perturbations of biological oscillators such as circadian rhythm, heart rate, respiratory cycle, tidal and ultradian rhythm. (authors)

  17. Molecular Density Functional Theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. With this correction, molecular density functional theory gives, at a modest computational cost, quantita...

  18. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment is thus believed to have potentials to offer new insights into water management and advance the source apportionment framework as an operational basis for national and local governments. PMID:21147494

  19. Monitoring Changes in Moisture Load Using Elastic Displacements in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C. J.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L. N.; Weinberg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring changes in mass over scales of several meters to hundreds of meters or more has many applications to characterization of the Critical Zone, including assessing changes in soil moisture, erosion or deposition of sediment, and melting or accumulation of snow or ice. A technique has been developed to monitor average changes in mass on those scales using continuous high-resolution measurements of displacement made with a vertical extensometer (called a DELTA extensometer). An increase of mass above the extensometer causes the soil to contract, which causes the extensometer to function similar to a weighing lysimeter. DELTA extensometers have been deployed at field sites near Clemson, South Carolina, and in northern Texas. The extensometers in South Carolina are in saprolite derived from biotite gneiss, whereas the ones in Texas are in clayey silt underlying playas. The instruments are in the vadose zone at depths of 3m to 6m. Signals from co-located extensometers are remarkably similar, demonstrating reproducibility of the technique. The extensometers respond to loading from a person or vehicle, and this load is used to estimate the Young's modulus of soil enveloping the extensometer. Displacement during small to moderate rainfalls is typically linear with the accumulated rain (~0.2 micron/mm of rain, for example). The displacement levels out during large rainfalls, potentially due to the onset of overland flow that would limit the water load during precipitation. This suggests that the onset of overland flow could be evaluated using this technique. Seasonal temperature fluctuations at the soil surface can penetrate to the depths of the extensometers causing displacement from thermal expansion and contraction. Thermal effects account for approximately 100 ?m of displacement over an annual cycle at one instrument. It appears that much of the thermal signal can be removed by data analysis. Pore pressure changes in the vicinity of the extensometer can also affect displacement and we are currently measuring pressures in an effort to identify this component of the signal. At one of the Texas sites, a series of step-like compressions totally 100 microns accompanied several rainfalls as water accumulated and filled the playa.

  20. Displaced Children: The Psychological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Paramjit T; Fayyad, John A

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people across the world have been displaced or live in exile and/or as refugees largely as a consequence of wars, acts of terrorism, and catastrophic natural disasters. There are serious psychological consequences as a result of these extremely difficult life circumstances. Adults often can express their needs and have them be heard, whereas children are unable to do so. The children may be provided food, shelter, and clothing and have their medical needs attended to, but their emotional and psychological needs go unrecognized and unmet, with dire and monumental long-term consequences. PMID:26346385

  1. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced

  2. Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  3. Comparison of shock-induced displacements with displacements produced by a centrifuge acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification of the functional reliability of some electrical components under the action of mechanical shock is often desired. As an example, contact chatter (the closure for short-time intervals) of the normally open contact points in a thermal switch is a possible failure model which must be screened out by testing. Theoretically, it should be possible to do this acceptance testing with a centrifuge at a lower cost if one could determine the centrifuge acceleration level needed to produce the maximum displacement that could be realized under a given shock loading. A method was derived to determine this displacement relationship for the two different types of loads. A superposition-of-modes technique was used to develop the relationship. Numerical results are presented for a simple cantilever where closed-form solutions for modal parameters are readily available. The peak response in each mode is determined and all such peaks are summed to determine the maximum that could be realized from a based-excited, haversine acceleration pulse. This numerical result is then compared with the centrifuge-induced displacement to determine the desired relationship. This result was then successfully used to infer the cntrifuge level needed to test a small, mechanically complicated, thermal switch. 3 references, 3 figures

  4. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-01

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  5. Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovi?, Marko; Radovanovi?, Dragan; Oki?i?, Tomislav; Madi?, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years’ experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball. The factor analysis was used for the estimation of the structure of specific motor skills. The influence of functional abilities on specific motor skills was estimated by regression analysis. Out of 15 correlations in total between the variables of space of functional abilities of water polo players, 6 were significant at the level of 95% (between the variables of aerobic power and lung function) and all of the correlations (15) between the variables of specific motor skills in water polo players were significant at the 99% level. Only one principal component, the General factor of specific motor skills in water polo (GFSWP) was obtained by way of factorization of the tests of specific motor skills, so the GFSWP represents the latent space of specific motor skills as a criterion. The regression analysis showed that functional abilities (as group predictors) (p= 0.00) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (as a separate variable) have a significant influence on GFSWP (the criterion). The results of the study pointed out the impact of functional abilities on specific motor skills of selected young water polo players. This may be important for the selection and effective coaching in the early period of training and can affect the development of more appropriate and specific training programmes for optimal physical fitness preparation in young water polo players. PMID:23486729

  6. Optimum Small Optical Beam Displacement Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, M T L; Lam, P K; Bowen, W P; Hsu, Magnus T.L.; Delaubert, Vincent; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick

    2004-01-01

    We derive the quantum noise limit for the optical beam displacement of a TEM00 mode. Using a multimodal analysis, we show that the conventional split detection scheme for measuring beam displacement is non-optimal with 80% efficiency. We propose a new displacement measurement scheme that is optimal for small beam displacement. This scheme utilises a homodyne detection setup that has a TEM10 mode local oscillator. We show that although the quantum noise limit to displacement measurement can be surpassed using squeezed light in appropriate spatial modes for both schemes, the TEM10 homodyning scheme out-performs split detection for all values of squeezing.

  7. Testing peatland water-table depth transfer functions using high-resolution hydrological monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Holden, Joseph; Raby, Cassandra L.; Turner, T. Edward; Blundell, Antony; Charman, Dan J.; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Transfer functions are now commonly used to reconstruct past environmental variability from palaeoecological data. However, such approaches need to be critically appraised. Testate amoeba-based transfer functions are an established method for the quantitative reconstruction of past water-table variations in peatlands, and have been applied to research questions in palaeoclimatology, peatland ecohydrology and archaeology. We analysed automatically-logged peatland water-table data from dipwells located in England, Wales and Finland and a suite of three year, one year and summer water-table statistics were calculated from each location. Surface moss samples were extracted from beside each dipwell and the testate amoebae community composition was determined. Two published transfer functions were applied to the testate-amoeba data for prediction of water-table depth (England and Europe). Our results show that estimated water-table depths based on the testate amoeba community reflect directional changes, but that they are poor representations of the real mean or median water-table magnitudes for the study sites. We suggest that although testate amoeba-based reconstructions can be used to identify past shifts in peat hydrology, they cannot currently be used to establish precise hydrological baselines such as those needed to inform management and restoration of peatlands. One approach to avoid confusion with contemporary water-table determinations is to use residuals or standardised values for peatland water-table reconstructions. We contend that our test of transfer functions against independent instrumental data sets may be more powerful than relying on statistical testing alone.

  8. q-exponential distribution in time correlation function of water hydrogen bonds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. G., Campo; G. L., Ferri; G. B., Roston.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In a series of molecular dynamics simulations we analyzed structural and dynamics properties of water at different temperatures (213 K to 360 K), using the Simple Point Charge-Extended (SPC/E) water. We detected a q-exponential behavior in the history-dependent bond correlation function of hydrogen [...] bonds. We found that q increases with T -1 below approximately 300 K and is correlated to the increase of the tetrahedral structure of water and the subdiffusive motion of the molecules.

  9. Determination of scattering functions and their effects on remote sensing of turbidity in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghovanlou, A. H.; Gupta, J. N.; Henderson, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    The development of quantitative analytical procedures for relating scattered signals, measured by a remote sensor, was considered. The applications of a Monte Carlo simulation model for radiative transfer in turbid water are discussed. The model is designed to calculate the characteristics of the backscattered signal from an illuminated body of water as a function of the turbidity level, and the spectral properties of the suspended particulates. The optical properties of the environmental waters, necessary for model applications, were derived from available experimental data and/or calculated from Mie formalism. Results of applications of the model are presented.

  10. Searching for Displaced Higgs Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-01-01

    We study a simplified model of the SM Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs decays below $10$ cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 $ TeV. With 20 fb$^{-1}$ of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to $7 \\times 10^{-4}$ can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  11. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  12. The putative role of some conserved water molecules in the structure and function of human transthyretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Dasgupta, Subrata; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu P; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2015-11-01

    Human transthyretin (hTTR) is a multifunctional protein that is involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. Besides the transportation of thyroxin and vitamin A, it is also involved in the proteolysis of apolipoprotein A1 and A? peptide. Extensive analyses of 32 high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction structures of hTTR followed by molecular-dynamics simulation studies using a set of 15 selected structures affirmed the presence of 44 conserved water molecules in its dimeric structure. They are found to play several important roles in the structure and function of the protein. Eight water molecules stabilize the dimeric structure through an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. The absence of some of these water molecules in highly acidic conditions (pH ? 4.0) severely affects the interfacial hydrogen-bond network, which may destabilize the native tetrameric structure, leading to its dissociation. Three pairs of conserved water molecules contribute to maintaining the geometry of the ligand-binding cavities. Some other water molecules control the orientation and dynamics of different structural elements of hTTR. This systematic study of the location, absence, networking and interactions of the conserved water molecules may shed some light on various structural and functional aspects of the protein. The present study may also provide some rational clues about the conserved water-mediated architecture and stability of hTTR. PMID:26527142

  13. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.20 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  14. Steering of H- ion beamlet by aperture displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focussing of multibeamlets produced from a large accelerator grid is a key issue of ion beam application to the neutral beam injector (NBI) of fusion devices. Another issue is highlighted in a case of negative ion based NBI to compensate beamlet deflection inside the extractor, where magnetic field is applied for suppression of electron extraction. Steering of H- beamlet was carried out by displacing apertures in an electrostatic extractor/accelerator composed of four grids, where the beam energy was in the range of ?50 keV. Out of a few combination of grid displacement, displacement of ESG (3rd grid) and/or GRG (4th grid) was found to be successful: 1) The beamlet steering angle of 50 mrad was obtained by displacing the apertures of 9 mm dia. up to 3 mm. It was confirmed that the steering angle was proportional fairly well to the displacement. The characteristic of the steering, i.e., the steering angle as a function of displacement, agrees well with the analysis based on the linear optics theory. 2) Neither significant divergence growth nor the beam interception were observed in the steered beams over a wide range of operation. The H- beams, of which divergent angle was 5 mrad, was obtained even under the beamlet steering. Thus the steering by displacement is suitable for the focusing of negative ion beam generated from multi-aperture grids. 3) It was found that the steering angle was independent of the magnetic field direction in the present extractor structure. This is an advantage of the steering technique for compensation of the beam deflection inside the extractor by magnetic field. (author)

  15. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip surveillance programme for children with CP with radiographic examinations based on the child's age and GMFCS level.

  16. Water-Dispersible Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Obtained from Citric-Acid-Assisted Oxygen Plasma Functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jellur Rahman; Tetsu Mieno

    2014-01-01

    A new and safe method has been developed to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with fewer surface defects, which significantly increases their dispersibility in water. MWCNTs are pretreated in pure ethanol by a supersonic homogenizer. Then, the mixture is dried and soaked in weak citric acid solution. Finally, the MWCNTs in the citric acid solution are treated with radio frequency (13.56 MHz) oxygen plasma. As a result, many carboxyl functional groups are attached onto the MW...

  17. Estimating marginal value of water for irrigated olive grove with the production function method

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa-Jurado, M. A.; Berbel, J.; Orgaz Rosua, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Economic valuation of irrigation water is done through the use of production functions for the case of the olive grove. In order to do so the integration of an agronomic model (based on the production function) and an economic model linked to the profitability of the crop (the ratio of revenue and operating costs) in the area under study is proposed. The study case encompasses the Guadalbullon River Sub-basin area, belonging to the Guadalquivir River Hydrologic Demarcation (Southern Spain). W...

  18. Lungfish Axial Muscle Function and the Vertebrate Water to Land Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Angela M.; Jayne, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of axial form and function during the vertebrate water to land transition is poorly understood, in part because patterns of axial movement lack morphological correlates. The few studies available from elongate, semi-aquatic vertebrates suggest that moving on land may be powered simply from modifications of generalized swimming axial motor patterns and kinematics. Lungfish are an ideal group to study the role of axial function in terrestrial locomotion as they are the sister taxon to ...

  19. Displacement cross sections of electron irradiated graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Di; Gigax, Jonathan; Shao, Lin

    2015-05-01

    We calculate the displacement cross-sections (DCS) of low dimensional carbon systems under electron irradiation and present an analytical formula being able to evaluate displacement creations under various conditions. The calculations consider Mott scattering, charge screening effects and thermal vibrations of target atoms. DCS values of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a function of electron beam energies, substrate temperatures, and tube diameters are calculated through combination with carbon threshold displacement energies obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. For SWNTs, the smaller the tube diameters the higher the DCS values. Such diameter dependence is the most pronounced for low energy electron beams. Furthermore, DCS values are most sensitive to temperatures when electron beam energy is low. However, the temperature sensitivity disappears at higher electron energy, specifically at 200 keV and beyond.

  20. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW. PMID:25661817

  1. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2010-01-01

    model was used to convert WR-θ (where θ is the volumetric water content) to WR-pF. The TRWR model fitting parameters, slopes, and intercepts, were all highly correlated with SOC (R2 > 0.8). The TRWR model was tested against an independent data set for five soils with 2 to 12% SOC and predicted well the......Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...

  2. Functional water flow pathways and hydraulic regulation in the xylem network of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonghyuk; Kim, Hae Koo; Ryu, Jeongeun; Ahn, Sungsook; Lee, Sang Joon; Hwang, Ildoo

    2015-03-01

    In vascular plants, the xylem network constitutes a complex microfluidic system. The relationship between vascular network architecture and functional hydraulic regulation during actual water flow remains unexplored. Here, we developed a method to visualize individual xylem vessels of the 3D xylem network of Arabidopsis thaliana, and to analyze the functional activities of these vessels using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography with hydrophilic gold nanoparticles as flow tracers. We show how the organization of the xylem network changes dynamically throughout the plant, and reveal how the elementary units of this transport system are organized to ensure both long-distance axial water transport and local lateral water transport. Xylem vessels form distinct clusters that operate as functional units, and the activity of these units, which determines water flow pathways, is modulated not only by varying the number and size of xylem vessels, but also by altering their interconnectivity and spatial arrangement. Based on these findings, we propose a regulatory model of water transport that ensures hydraulic efficiency and safety. PMID:25520406

  3. Water on TiO2 studied by work function change: adsorption in cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of water adsorption on TiO2(110) rutile surface attracts a lot of attention for quite some time. In spite of the considerable experimental and theoretical efforts a lot of details remain unclear. We have been using work function study to follow the adsorption of water on TiO2 at room temperature, and interpreted the results in terms of fast dissociative adsorption on bridging oxygen vacancies (BOV) and much slower non-dissociative adsorption on Ti5f rows. Additionally, we concluded that water from Ti5f rows efficiently desorbs at room temperature which is not the case for BOV adsorption sites. Here we propose a novel experimental approach which consists of monitoring in real-time the work function change during cycles of water adsorption. Since desorption at BOVs does not take place at room temperature, this method allows us to resolve the adsorption dynamics on the two adsorption sites. The first results changed our understanding of the phenomenon: we show that both, adsorption on BOVs and Ti5f are both very fast. Additionally, slow exponential decay of the work function is observed, which is not directly related to water adsorption. The possible explanation of the third slow contribution could be related to the migration of hydrogen atoms along the bridging oxygen rows.

  4. Long-Time Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Derya; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, $I_{inc}(Q,t)$, for finite times. The infinite time MSD, $$, appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite time $I_{inc}(Q,t)$. Specifically, the $$ is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as $I(Q,t = \\infty) = \\exp(- Q^2 /3)$. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD $$ of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic $$ obtained from data out to 1 ns and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsi...

  5. CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle FunctionGayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan41California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

  6. Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, X. R.; Wang, Shengguang; Hu, J.; Wang, H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Qin, Z. F.; Wang, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slabs...

  7. Do displaced workers lose occupational prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Stephen; Rosenthal, Jeffrey E

    2008-06-01

    Worker displacement has become a common feature of employment in the "flexible economy." While studies of income losses and the duration of unemployment after displacement abound, and popular accounts argue that workers often lose status, less empirical attention has been paid to the quality or prestige of employment displaced workers are able to secure after a downsizing event. This paper helps to fill this gap in the literature by focusing on changes in occupational prestige among a nationally representative sample of displaced workers who became reemployed from the January 2004 Displaced Workers and Employee Tenure Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Our findings show that displaced workers with higher levels of education, net of other factors, fared significantly better than others in job quality upon reemployment, highlighting the importance of education in retaining status and privilege in the new economy. PMID:19069063

  8. Density functional description of water condensation in proximity of nanoscale asperity

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, P B; Paramonov, Pavel B.; Lyuksyutov, Sergei F.

    2005-01-01

    We apply non-local density functional formalism to describe an equilibrium distribution of the water-like fluid in the asymmetric nanoscale junction presenting an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip dwelling above an arbitrary surface. The hydrogen bonding dominating in intermolecular attraction is modeled as a square well potential with two adjustable parameters (energy and length) characterizing well's depth and width. A water meniscus formed inside nanoscale junction is explicitly described for different humidity. Furthermore, we suggest a simple approach using polymolecular adsorption isotherms for the evaluation of an energetic parameter characterizing fluid (water) attraction to substrate. This model can be easily generalized for more complex geometries and effective intermolecular potentials. Our study establishes a framework for the density functional description of fluid with orientational anisotropy induced by non-uniform external electric field.

  9. Displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly : treatment with arthroplasties

    OpenAIRE

    Inngul, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly with arthroplasties has become standard practice during the last decade and results in good and predictable outcomes regarding hip function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There is, however, a lack of evidence concerning certain types of arthroplasties and different subgroups of patients. Patients with severe cognitive dysfunction have a very limited life expectancy after a hip fracture and low functional ...

  10. Preventing re-displacement through genuine reintegration in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Hovil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict anddisplacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only aboutpreventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do notget re-displaced.

  11. Unlocking protracted displacement: An Iraqi case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chatty, D; Mansour, N

    2011-01-01

    The displaced from Iraq now constitute one of the largest refugee populations worldwide manifesting the evolving conditions of "protracted displacement". Unlocking this protracted crisis of displacement requires analysis of the perceptions of solutions, durable and not-so-durable, among all stakeholders. This article focuses on the local-level perceptions of practitioners, policy-makers, and Iraqi refugees in Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. It is based on desk research and interviews in the field...

  12. Policies for displaced workers: An american perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O'Leary, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    American employment policy for displaced workers started in the Great Depression with programs for the employment service, unemployment insurance, work experience, and direct job creation. Assistance for workers displaced by foreign competition emerged in the 1960s along with formalized programs for occupational job skill training. The policy focus on displaced workers was sharpened in the 1980s through the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act and the Economic Dislocation and Wor...

  13. Light-induced effects on Brownian displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Anish S.; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier work on particles in aqueous solution indicated that particle hydration could be expanded by incident light. To assess the effects of expanded hydration we measured Brownian displacements of microspheres exposed to light of varying intensities and wavelengths. Displacements were consistently diminished in an intensity-dependent and wavelength-dependent fashion, and center-to-center distances between microspheres were shifted to higher values. We conclude that suspended microspheres are surrounded by hydration zones substantial enough to impact Brownian displacements. PMID:21287689

  14. Linear Efficient Antialiased Displacement and Reflectance Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Jonathan; Heitz, Eric; Iehl, Jean-Claude; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice; Ostromoukhov, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We present Linear Efficient Antialiased Displacement and Reflectance (LEADR) mapping, a reflectance filtering technique for displacement mapped surfaces. Similarly to LEAN mapping, it employs two mipmapped texture maps, which store the first two moments of the displacement gradients. During rendering, the projection of this data over a pixel is used to compute a noncentered anisotropic Beckmann distribution using only simple, linear filtering operations. The distribution is then injected in a...

  15. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-12-01

    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination. PMID:26588699

  16. Fabrication of amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles for water treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Candace C. P. [University of South Australia, Ian Wark Research Institute (Australia); Gallard, Herve [Universite de Poitiers, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau (LCME)-UMR CNRS 6008 (France); Majewski, Peter, E-mail: peter.majewski@unisa.edu.au [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering (Australia)

    2012-03-15

    Amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by a one pot water based process using N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylenetriamine (TRIS) as surfactant. The prepared functionalised nanoparticles are characterised by BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, zeta potential measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The results clearly show the presence of TRIS on the surface of the nanoparticles. XPS analysis indicates the presence of very small amounts of maghemite on the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles. Water treatment test shows that the prepared nanoparticles are capable to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from natural water samples. The removal of NOM by the prepared particles is characterized by analysing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV{sub 254}) after the treatment of the water samples at various doses and treatment times.

  17. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  18. The thermotidal exciting function for water vapour absorption of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONAFEDE

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermotidal exciting function J is considered, for
    the absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, according to the model
    derived by Siebert. The Mugge-Moller formula for water vapour absorption
    is integrated numerically, using experimental data for the water vapour
    concentration in the troposphere and the stratosphere. It appears that
    Siebort's formula is a reasonable approximation at low tropospheric levels
    but it dramatically overestimates the water vapour thermotidal heating
    in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. It seems thus possible
    that, if the correct vertical profile is employed for J , the amplitudes and
    phases of the diurnal temperature oscillations and of the tidal wind speeds
    may suffer significant changes from those previously calculated and possibly explain the three hours delay of the observed phases from the computed values.

  19. Separation of heavy metals from water by functionalized glycidyl methacrylate poly (high internal phase emulsions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huš, Sebastjan; Kolar, Mitja; Krajnc, Peter

    2016-03-11

    Removal of silver, lead and cadmium ions from both model solutions and real contaminated water was achieved, in a flow through manner, by using highly porous functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) materials, prepared by the polymerisation of high internal phase emulsions (polyHIPE), with significant sorption differences between metals allowing for selective removal. PolyHIPEs, initially prepared from glycidyl methacrylate as a functional monomer, were functionalized with pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate), 1,9-nonanedithiol and 2-aminobenzenethiol via the epoxy ring opening on the polymer supports and applied in a flow-through manner via encasements into dedicated disk holders. Capacity of 21.7mg Ag per gram of polymer was found for 1,9-nonanedithiol functionalized polymers, while the capacity was decreasing with the decreasing ionic radius of the metal; the dynamics of sorption also depended on metal ion size and furthermore on the thiol used for the polymer functionalization. PMID:26875120

  20. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria and Displacement by DNA Constituents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.M., Shoukry; Ayser, Al-Alousi; Sameya M., Tarek.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of methionine methyl ester with dimethyltin(IV) (DMT), dibutyltin(IV) (DBT) and diphenyltin(IV) (DPT) was investigated at 25 °C and 0.1 mol dm-3 ionic strength in water for dimethyltin(IV) and in 50 % dioxane-water mixture for dibutyltin(IV) and diphenyltin(IV). Methionine methyl es [...] ter forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with diorganotin(IV). The corresponding formation constants were calculated by using the non-linear least-squares program MINIQUAD-75. The concentration distribution of the various complex species was evaluated as a function of pH. The displacement of coordinated methionine methyl ester with some DNA constituents was calculated based on equilibrium aspects.

  1. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 ?g/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 122:1343–1350;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307918 PMID:25260096

  2. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC, -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP, -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay were measured. Organic carbon percentage and soil texture were also determined for each soil sample at each location. Three different techniques including pattern recognition approach (k nearest neighbour, k-NN, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and pedotransfer functions (PTF were used to predict the soil water at each sampling location. Mean square deviation (MSD and its components, index of agreement (d, root mean square difference (RMSD and normalized RMSD (RMSDr were used to evaluate the performance of all the three approaches. Our results showed that k-NN and PTF performed better than ANN in prediction of water content at both FC and PWP matric potential. Various statistics criteria for simulation performance also indicated that between kNN and PTF, the former, predicted water content at PWP more accurate than PTF, however both approach showed a similar accuracy to predict water content at FC.

  3. Searches for new physics with displaced vertex signatures at the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Heather; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Results from a selection of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV ATLAS searches for new physics with displaced signatures are presented. Displaced decays are reconstructed in either the inner detector, hadronic calorimeter, or muon spectrometer. No events over the expected background were observed, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are set.

  4. Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, M; Rizzello, C G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Urbani, S; Mazzacane, F; Di Maio, I; Selvaggini, R; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

    2011-05-14

    Functional milk beverages (FMB100 and FMB200) fortified with phenolic compounds (100 and 200mg/l) extracted from olive vegetable water, and fermented with ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)-producing (Lactobacillus plantarum C48) and autochthonous human gastro-intestinal (Lactobacillus paracasei 15N) lactic acid bacteria were manufactured. A milk beverage (MB), without addition of phenolic compounds, was used as the control. Except for a longer latency phase of FMB200, the three beverages showed an almost similar kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose and synthesis of lactic acid. Apart from the beverage, Lb. plantarum C48 showed a decrease of ca. Log 2.52-2.24 cfu/ml during storage. The cell density of functional Lb. paracasei 15N remained always above the value of Log 8.0 cfu/ml. During fermentation, the total concentration of free amino acids markedly increased without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. The concentration of GABA increased during fermentation and further storage (63.0 ± 0.6-67.0 ± 2.1mg/l) without significant (P > 0.05) differences between beverages. After fermentation, FMB100 and FMB200 showed the same phenolic composition of the phenol extract from olive vegetable water but a different ratio between 3,4-DHPEA and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA. During storage, the concentrations of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA and verbascoside of both FMB100 and FMB200 decreased. Only the concentration of 3,4-DHPEA increased. As shown by SPME-GC-MS analysis, diactetyl, acetoin and, especially, acetaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found. The concentration of phenolic compounds does not interfere with the volatile composition. Sensory analyses based on triangle and paired comparison tests showed that phenolic compounds at the concentrations of 100 or 200mg/l were suitable for addition to functional milk beverages. PMID:21458095

  5. [The bacteriocidal effect of the electrolysed functioning water against Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M; Yokota, K; Oguma, K; Takai, K

    2000-02-01

    The bacteriocidal effect of electrolysed functioning water against Helicobacter pylori was examined by both the culture method (viable count on agar plate) and the bacterial ATP content analysis (biolumminescence assay). The culture method revealed the water's reduced bacteriocidal effect on organic substances such as horse serum and bovine serum albumin. The bacterial ATP content determined by the treatment with lysis solution correlated with the bacterial cell count. The ATP of bacteria treated with electrolysed functioning water, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine gluconate was still present after contact with these solutions for 30 minutes, while the bacterial growth was completely inhibited by the culture method. Therefore, it was suggested that the bacterial ATP was derived from the coccoid form which was observed morphologically due to the action of these solutions. These results demonstrate that these solutions are not effective bacteriocidally against the coccoid form. Consequently, when we utilize functioning water in the field, we should keep in mind its nonbacteriocidal effect against the coccoid form, as well as its reduced effect under the condition of the contamination by organic substances. PMID:10741002

  6. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10-5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  7. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulphate droplets initiated by Humic Like Substances as a function of water activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Y. J.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

    2013-02-01

    Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing Leonardite (LEO) and Pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for Humic Like Substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85-1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5-15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw, ?aw, by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5)×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4)×104 cm-2 s-1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by ?aw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (?(T)-model) to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, ?(T)-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for entire population (single-? model) is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of ?-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Thus, from fitting frozen fractions only, the underlying ice nucleation mechanism and nature of the ice nucleating sites cannot be inferred. In contrast to using fitted functions obtained to represent experimental conditions only, we suggest to use experimentally derived Jhet as a function of temperature and aw that can be applied to conditions outside of those probed in laboratory. This is because Jhet(T) is independent of time and IN surface areas in contrast to the fit parameters obtained by representation of experimentally derived frozen fractions.

  8. Cationic sulfonium functionalization renders Znsalens with high fluorescence, good water solubility and tunable cell-permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juan; Xie, Da; Yin, Hao-Yan; Jing, Jing; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report for the first time that incorporation of cationic sulfonium to the Znsalens skeleton achieves water soluble fluorescent metal complex probes for living cell imaging. To circumvent Znsalen aggregation arising from intermolecular ZnO interactions (found between Zn and the phenoxyl group of another Znsalen molecule), we synthesized a series of sulfonium Znsalens based on alkylation of the 3-thioether or 3,5-dithioether moieties of salicylaldehydes. Such functionalization not only provides positive charge(s) to enhance electrostatic repulsion, but also increases steric hindrance, which renders the Znsalen complex water soluble as a monomeric species in aqueous media as revealed by diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY). More interestingly, these sulfonium Znsalens display "switched on" fluorescence when compared to thioether analogues, which was attributed to the electron-withdrawing sulfonium moiety that perturbs the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process as suggested by computational calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Most interestingly, live cell imaging experiments showed that modulation of the sulfonium moieties, such as the number or alkyl substituents, significantly tunes the cell-permeability of the fluorescent Znsalens. Thus, this study has demonstrated the importance of sulfonium functionalization on dissociating the intermolecular metal-ligand interactions and thus, modulating water solubility, photophysical properties and even cell-permeability of the fluorophores, which provides a new approach to the design of functional metal complexes for biological studies. PMID:26883310

  9. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  10. Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, X. R.; Wang, Shengguang; Hu, J.; Wang, H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Qin, Z. F.; Wang, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slabs. The pathway for water-gas-shift reaction on both terminations has been carefully studied where the most favorable reaction path precedes the redox mechanism, namely the reaction takes place as follows...

  11. Streamtube relative permeability functions for flashing steam-water flow in fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, J.S.; Horne, R.M.; Menzies, A.J.

    1983-03-01

    The flow of steam-water mixtures into geothermal wells is analyzed by using a two-phase model for flashing flow. The model includes the effect of heat transfer from the formation rock to the two-phase mixture. In the reservoir-well system as analyzed, the two-phase flashing flow is assumed to occur in fractures. The model can be used to forecast the mass flow and enthalpy characteristics of two-phase geothermal wells. Relative permeability functions are derived for flashing steam-water flow in the feedzone fractures of geothermal wells.

  12. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  13. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  14. Displacement Sensor Using A Compensated Fibre Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. E. N.; Chaimowicz, J.; Economou, G.; Foley, J.

    1984-11-01

    The paper describes a remote (intensity based) displacement or pressure sensor. It includes work on a scheme for compensating variations in optical power, receiver sensitivity and fibre transmission loss in addition to tarnishing of the displacement (pressure) diaphragm. Results are presented for a prototype (uncompensated) sensor plus laboratory results for the compensated scheme.

  15. Optical measurement of large transient mechanical displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method suitable for extracting large mechanical displacements from the phase modulation of an optical beam reflected from the moving surface is presented. In the MHz range, transient displacements larger than 1 ?m have been measured with a standard heterodyne interferometer. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Displacement measurement based on TWAIN interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xuanze; Zhong, Yuning; Lv, Qinghua

    2008-12-01

    The standard of technology without an interesting name (TWAIN) was introduced and a displacement measurement method was presented. Based on the theories of image capture and image measurement, a displacement measurement system was developed and subpixel and centroid technique were used to improve the measurement precision. The Experiment results show that the proposed method has low cost and high precision.

  17. Young Children's Understanding of Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael G.; Miller, Patricia H.

    1983-01-01

    Examines early phases of understanding of causes of moderately and extremely displaced aggression. Preschool and kindergarten children three to five years of age viewed eight videotaped episodes of displaced aggression. Comprehension was assessed by means of open-ended questions and forced-choice picture selections. (Author/RH)

  18. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  19. Unusual renal displacement due to massive splenomegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report of a case of unusual renal displacement due to massive splenomegaly. The left kidney was displaced upwards by massive enlargement of the spleen. The own findings of ultrasonography, abdominal computed tomography and intravenous urogram are described and compared with the findings in the literature. (orig.)

  20. Regional resilience to displacements: Explaining the regional capacity to re-employ displaced workers

    OpenAIRE

    NYSTRÖM, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Job displacement, which is defined as an involuntary loss of job due to economic downturns or structural changes, hit millions of workers each year. According to OECD (2013) 2-7 percent of workers are displaced every year. For Sweden, OECD (2013) reports an average displacement rate of about 2 percent for the period 2000-2008. Our knowledge on the individual consequences of displacement, in terms of, for example, unemployment duration, and earning losses is comprehensive (See e.g. Hammermesh ...

  1. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-09-15

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling. PMID:26102555

  2. Disulfuric acid dissociated by two water molecules: ab initio and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Kyu; Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-11-21

    We have studied geometries, energies and vibrational spectra of disulfuric acid (H2S2O7) and its anion (HS2O7(-)) hydrated by a few water molecules, using density functional theory (M062X) and ab initio theory (SCS-MP2 and CCSD(T)). The most noteworthy result is found in H2S2O7(H2O)2 in which the lowest energy conformer shows deprotonated H2S2O7. Thus, H2S2O7 requires only two water molecules, the fewest number of water molecules for deprotonation among various hydrated monomeric acids reported so far. Even the second deprotonation of the first deprotonated species HS2O7(-) needs only four water molecules. The deprotonation is supported by vibration spectra, in which acid O-H stretching peaks disappear and specific three O-H stretching peaks for H3O(+) (eigen structure) appear. We have also kept track of variations in several geometrical parameters, atomic charges, and hybrid orbital characters upon addition of water. As the number of water molecules added increases, the S-O bond weakens in the case of H2S2O7, but strengthens in the case of HS2O7(-). It implies that the decomposition leading to H2SO4 and SO3 hardly occurs prior to the 2nd deprotonation at low temperatures. PMID:26400266

  3. UO2 surface oxidation by mixtures of water vapor and hydrogen as a function of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espriu-Gascon, A.; Llorca, J.; Domínguez, M.; Giménez, J.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the effect of water vapor on the UO2 surface as a function of temperature. The experiments were performed in situ inside a high pressure chamber attached to the XPS instrument. UO2 samples were put in contact with either hydrogen or argon streams, saturated with water at room temperature, and the sample surface evolution was analyzed by XPS. In the case of the water vapor/argon experiments, one experiment at 350 °C was performed and, in the case of the water vapor/hydrogen experiments, the temperatures used inside the reactor were 60, 120, 200 and 350 °C. On one hand, in presence of argon, the results obtained showed that the water vapor in the argon stream oxidized 93% of the U(IV) in the sample surface. On the other hand, the degree of UO2 surface oxidation showed a different dependence on the temperature in the experiments performed in the presence of hydrogen: the maximum surface oxidation occurred at 120 °C, where 65.4% of U(IV) in the sample surface was oxidized, while at higher temperatures, the surface oxidation decreased. This observation is attributed to the increase of hydrogen reducing effect when temperature increases which prevents part of the oxidation of the UO2 surface by the water vapor.

  4. Displacement of Monolithic Rubble-Mound Breakwater Crown-Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, JØrgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the validity of a simple one-dimensional dynamic analysis as well as a Finite-Element model to determine the sliding of a rubble-mound breakwater crown-wall. The evaluation is based on a case example with real wave load time-series and displacements measured from two-dimensional physical model tests. The outcome is a more reliable evaluation of the applicability of simple dynamic calculations for the estimation of displacement of rubble-mound superstructures. The case example clearly demonstrates that a simplified one-dimensional sliding model provides a safe estimate of the accumulated sliding distance of crown-wall superstructures, which is in contrast to findings from previous similar studies on caisson breakwaters. The calculated sliding distance is approximately three times larger than the measured one when using the original one-dimensional model suggested in previous studies on caisson breakwaters, but correction terms are suggested in the present paper to obtain almost equal measured and estimated displacements. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble-mound crown-walls are subjected to increasing wave loads due to rising sea water level from climate changes. Reliable and safe estimates are needed to determine whether displacements of crown wall superstructures during extreme situations would be acceptable or whether they lead to total failure of the structures.

  5. Using a 2D displacement sensor to derive 3D displacement information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Schubert F. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A 2D displacement sensor is used to measure displacement in three dimensions. For example, the sensor can be used in conjunction with a pulse-modulated or frequency-modulated laser beam to measure displacement caused by deformation of an antenna on which the sensor is mounted.

  6. Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent

  7. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  8. Functional Abilities as a Predictor of Specific Motor Skills of Young Water Polo Players

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrovi?, Marko; Radovanovi?, Dragan; Oki?i?, Tomislav; Madi?, Dejan; Georgiev, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of functional abilities on specificmotor skills. A total number of 92 male water polo players (age 12±0.5 years, body height 156.96±22.3 cm, body weight 51.02±33.18 kg) with at least two years’ experience, were enrolled in the study. The investigation protocol consisted of standardized anthropometric measurements, estimation of maximum oxygen uptake, determination of the lung function values, specific swim tests and swim tests with a ball....

  9. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations...... from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model)4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs), the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error...

  10. Ab-inito liquid water with hybrid functionals and dispersion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wu, Xifan; Distasio, Robert, Jr.; Car, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    We report ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water using the hybrid PBE0 functional plus self-consistent dispersion forces based on the scheme of Ref.ootnotetextA. Tkatchenko and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073005 (2009). Simulations were performed at T=300K and at T=330K to approximately account for nuclear quantum effect on the oxygen-oxygen(O-O) RDF, as suggested by previous path integral simulations. Focusing on O-O RDF, we find that the combined effect of the hybrid functional and of the dispersion interactions significantly improves the agreement of the simulated structure with experiment.

  11. Noninvasive measurement of a input function using beta camera for 15O-water injection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic images of positron distribution in artery were measured for noninvasive measurement of input function using beta camera. The beta camera was attached from the skin surface on the artery of arm during the PET measurement using the 15O-water injection method. Beta camera used had a field of view of 20 mm in diameter. After injection of 15O-water, time sequence images of the artery of 10 sec interval 15 frames were obtained. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set on the artery and on the adjacent area of the artery. By subtracting average counts in the latter ROI from in the former ROI, time activity curve similar to input function was noninvasively obtained. (author)

  12. Density Functional Theory Meta-GGA+U Study of Water Incorporation in the Metal Organic Framework Material Cu-BTC

    OpenAIRE

    Cockayne, Eric; Nelson, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Water absorption in the metal-organic framework (MOF) material Cu-BTC, up to a concentration of 3.5 H$_2$O per Cu ion, is studied via density functional theory at the meta-GGA+U level. The stable arrangements of water molecules show chains of hydrogen-bonded water molecules and a tendency to form closed cages at high concentration. Water clusters are stabilized primarily by a combination of water-water hydrogen bonding and Cu-water oxygen interactions. Stability is further e...

  13. Energy Deposition in the TESLA Water Dump As a Function of its Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water dump of the future electron-positron collider TESLA has a very special regime. Each pulse of the electron or positron beam should, after crossing the interaction zone, be dumped in a cylindrical water dump. There is a quite important energy to be absorbed by the dump i.e. 8 MW for 250 GeV energy of the beam and 12 MW if the energy of the electrons is raised to 400 GeV. We should be prepared for an intensity of 2.04x1014 electrons/s for 250 GeV and 2.8x1014 electrons/s for 400 GeV case. The energy to be absorbed is important, therefore we tried to calculate the energy losses by all surfaces of the cylindrical water dump as a function of its size. (author)

  14. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory (MDFT) of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: ($i$) a scalar density and a vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and ($ii$) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  15. Evaluation of water retention capacity and flood control function of the forest catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Sawai, Nobuhiko; Takara, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kenichiro

    2013-01-01

    This research quantitatively evaluates the water retention capacity and flood control function of the forest catchments by using hydrological data of the large flood events which happened after the serious droughts. The objective sites are the Oodo Dam and the Sameura Dam catchments in Japan. The kinematic wave model, which considers saturated and unsaturated sub-surface soil zones, is used for the rainfall-runoff analysis. The result shows that possible storage volume of the Oodo Dam catchme...

  16. Condition evaluation of water retaining structures by a functional approach: comparative practices in Canada and France

    OpenAIRE

    L. Peyras; Gervais, R.; D. Serre; Chouinard, L; Diab, Y.; Tourment, R

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-Québec and Cemagref have implemented condition evaluation methods for water retaining structures: the condition index (CI) method for embankment dams in Quebec, and SIRS Digue for fluvial dykes in France. These methods were developed from similar approaches, including functional analysis, gathering and formalization of knowledge about failure mechanisms, and definition of performance indicators. Development of both methods was done within a group of experts and lead to technical guides ...

  17. How do hybrid functionals, dispersion interactions and quantum nuclei affect the structure of liquid water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Car, Roberto; Wu, Xifan

    2011-03-01

    We report ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water at STP and at the volume corresponding to experimental equilibrium density. These simulations are based on the hybrid functional PBE0 for the electrons and include approximate dispersion interactions according to Ref. Nuclear quantum corrections were included as estimated by Ref. We find that all of these components are important to significantly improve the agreement of the simulated structure with recent experimental analyses based on neutron and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Merete Badger; Charlotte Bay Hasager; Katsutoshi Kozai; Yuko Takeyama; Teruo Ohsawa

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model)4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical m...

  19. Simulation and Visualisation of Functional Landscapes: Effects of the Water Resource Competition between Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Le Chevalier, Vincent; Jaeger, Marc; Mei, Xing; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation ecosystem simulation and visualisation are challenging topics involving multidisciplinary aspects. In this paper, we present a new generic frame for the simulation of natural phenomena through manageable and interacting models. It focuses on the functional growth of large vegetal ecosystems, showing coherence for scales ranging from the individual plant to communities and with a particular attention to the effects of water resource competition between plants. The proposed approach ...

  20. Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, P.; Straub, J.; Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.; Gallagher, J. S.

    1990-05-01

    Based on a comprehensive collection of data previously obtained by Thormählen et al. on the experimental refractive index of water and steam from the 1870s to the present, a new formulation is presented for the range of 0.2 to 2.5 ?m in wave-length, -10 to +500 °C in temperature and 0 to 1045 kg m-3 in density. The Lorentz-Lorentz function or molar refraction, a strong function of wavelength but only weakly dependent on density and temperature, is fitted to a selected set of accurate refractive index data. The NBS/NRC equation of state for water and steam, the new international standard, is used to convert the experimental pressures to density. The deviations of all experimental data from the formulation are shown. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of the formulation is presented. Although the formulation does not represent to within their accuracy the data from the best sets in the visible range for liquid water below the boiling point, we show that inconsistencies between data sets, and minor deficiencies of the equation of state, prevent further improvement of a formulation based on data over as wide a range as considered here. It is shown that the best refractive index data can be used to discriminate between the various formulations of the equation of state of water and steam. It is demonstrated that several recent formulations of optical properties of liquid water over large ranges of wavelength need improvement in the range covered here. The new formulation is used to generate tables of the refractive index of water and steam at six wavelengths in the visible, near-infrared and near-ultraviolet, from 0 to 500 °C and up to 100 MPa in pressure.

  1. Water Transport and Functional Dynamics of Aquaporins in Osmoregulatory Organs of Fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Engelund, Morten B

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins play distinct roles for water transport in fishes as they do in mammals-both at the cellular, organ, and organismal levels. However, with over 32,000 known species of fishes inhabiting almost every aquatic environment, from tidal pools, small mountain streams, to the oceans and extreme salty desert lakes, the challenge to obtain consensus as well as specific knowledge about aquaporin physiology in these vertebrate clades is overwhelming. Because the integumental surfaces of these animals are in intimate contact with the surrounding milieu, passive water loss and uptake represent two of the major osmoregulatory challenges that need compensation. However, neither obligatory nor regulatory water transport nor their mechanisms have been elucidated to the same degree as, for example, ion transport in fishes. Currently fewer than 60 papers address fish aquaporins. Most of these papers identify "what is present" and describe tissue expression patterns in various teleosts. The agnathans, chondrichthyans, and functionality of fish aquaporins generally have received little attention. This review emphasizes the functional physiology of aquaporins in fishes, focusing on transepithelial water transport in osmoregulatory organs in euryhaline species - primarily teleosts, but covering other taxonomic groups as well. Most current knowledge comes from teleosts, and there is a strong need for related information on older fish clades. Our survey aims to stimulate new, original research in this area and to bring together new collaborations across disciplines.

  2. Water transport and functional dynamics of aquaporins in osmoregulatory organs of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Engelund, Morten B; Cutler, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins play distinct roles for water transport in fishes as they do in mammals-both at the cellular, organ, and organismal levels. However, with over 32,000 known species of fishes inhabiting almost every aquatic environment, from tidal pools, small mountain streams, to the oceans and extreme salty desert lakes, the challenge to obtain consensus as well as specific knowledge about aquaporin physiology in these vertebrate clades is overwhelming. Because the integumental surfaces of these animals are in intimate contact with the surrounding milieu, passive water loss and uptake represent two of the major osmoregulatory challenges that need compensation. However, neither obligatory nor regulatory water transport nor their mechanisms have been elucidated to the same degree as, for example, ion transport in fishes. Currently fewer than 60 papers address fish aquaporins. Most of these papers identify "what is present" and describe tissue expression patterns in various teleosts. The agnathans, chondrichthyans, and functionality of fish aquaporins generally have received little attention. This review emphasizes the functional physiology of aquaporins in fishes, focusing on transepithelial water transport in osmoregulatory organs in euryhaline species - primarily teleosts, but covering other taxonomic groups as well. Most current knowledge comes from teleosts, and there is a strong need for related information on older fish clades. Our survey aims to stimulate new, original research in this area and to bring together new collaborations across disciplines. PMID:26338871

  3. Molecular density functional theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. The solvation free energy of small molecular solutes like n-alkanes and hard sphere solutes whose radii range from angstroms to nanometers is now in quantitative agreement with reference all atom simulations. The macroscopic liquid-gas surface tension predicted by the theory is comparable to experiments. This theory gives an alternative to the empirical hard sphere bridge correction used so far by several authors

  4. Molecular density functional theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr; Borgis, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. The solvation free energy of small molecular solutes like n-alkanes and hard sphere solutes whose radii range from angstroms to nanometers is now in quantitative agreement with reference all atom simulations. The macroscopic liquid-gas surface tension predicted by the theory is comparable to experiments. This theory gives an alternative to the empirical hard sphere bridge correction used so far by several authors.

  5. Molecular density functional theory for water with liquid-gas coexistence and correct pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume, E-mail: g.jeanmairet@fkf.mpg.de; Levesque, Maximilien, E-mail: maximilien.levesque@ens.fr [École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, Sorbonne Universités - UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 8640 PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr [SIS2M, LIONS, CEA, Saclay (France); Borgis, Daniel [École Normale Supérieure - PSL Research University, Département de Chimie, Sorbonne Universités - UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 8640 PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Maison de la Simulation, USR 3441, CEA - CNRS - INRIA - Univ. Paris-Sud - Univ. de Versailles, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-04-21

    The solvation of hydrophobic solutes in water is special because liquid and gas are almost at coexistence. In the common hypernetted chain approximation to integral equations, or equivalently in the homogenous reference fluid of molecular density functional theory, coexistence is not taken into account. Hydration structures and energies of nanometer-scale hydrophobic solutes are thus incorrect. In this article, we propose a bridge functional that corrects this thermodynamic inconsistency by introducing a metastable gas phase for the homogeneous solvent. We show how this can be done by a third order expansion of the functional around the bulk liquid density that imposes the right pressure and the correct second order derivatives. Although this theory is not limited to water, we apply it to study hydrophobic solvation in water at room temperature and pressure and compare the results to all-atom simulations. The solvation free energy of small molecular solutes like n-alkanes and hard sphere solutes whose radii range from angstroms to nanometers is now in quantitative agreement with reference all atom simulations. The macroscopic liquid-gas surface tension predicted by the theory is comparable to experiments. This theory gives an alternative to the empirical hard sphere bridge correction used so far by several authors.

  6. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: the key function of lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be efficient in extracting water from the subsoil and better tolerate periods of water shortage. However, in this case the xylem axial resistance could be the limiting factor for the uptake of water.

  7. Evaluation of Iodine and Water Co-adsorption on Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, S. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walker, J. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The co-adsorption of iodine and water on silver-functionalized silica aerogel was evaluated using research quantities of the aerogel prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A macro thermogravimetric analyzer was used to measure weight changes in a thin bed of the aerogel as air streams containing moisture and/or iodine flowed through the bed. The total gas flow in all tests was adjusted to achieve a velocity of 10 m/min through the bed. Initial heating of the aerogel sample to 150°C in dry air (dew point < -60°C) resulted in weight loss on the order of 1 wt %. Because subsequent phases of the tests indicated that the aerogel did not sorb water, the weight loss was speculated to be caused by volatilization of material that may have been used in the manufacture of the aerogel. Follow-on tests are recommended to ascertain if the aerogel sorbs water at low temperatures, such as 25°C—this would help to determine if a manufacturing reagent is volatilized when raising the sample to iodine sorption temperatures (i.e., 150°C). Alternatively, the off-gas released upon heating could be condensed and analyzed. In tests using humidified air streams with dew points between -60°C and +10°C, the aerogel did not adsorb water at test temperatures of either 75°C or 150°C. Because water alone was not adsorbed, tests were performed to ascertain if iodine sorption varied between cases when nearly no water was present in the gas stream and when water was present. In one experiment, the gas stream consisted of dry air (dew point < -60°C) with an iodine concentration of 50 ppmv. In the other experiment, the gas stream consisted of air with a water dew point of 0°C and an iodine concentration of 50 ppmv. The ultimate weight gain was nearly the same in both experiments and was presumed to be due entirely to adsorption of iodine. However, a reduced rate of iodine uptake is indicated when water vapor is present. The reason for this is unclear. In both cases, purging the sample with dry, iodine-free air resulted in some weight loss (~2 wt %). It is recommended that the gas phase chemistry of the iodine–water system be reviewed to ascertain if iodine species that are less reactive with silver than molecular iodine are present; this could explain the reduced sorption rates when water is present. Further evaluation of the desorption is recommended, especially to determine how raising the temperature would affect desorption.

  8. Superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers based on a water-soluble functional monomer for the recognition of gastrodin in water media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Huang, Luqi

    2015-12-18

    In this study, the first successfully developed superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gastrodin recognition have been described. MIPs were prepared via the bulk polymerization process in an aqueous solution using alkenyl glycosides glucose (AGG) as the water-soluble functional monomer. The non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were also synthesized using the same method without the use of the template. The dynamic water contact angles and photographs of the dispersion properties confirmed that the molecularly imprinted polymers displayed excellent superhydrophilicity. The results demonstrated that the MIPs exhibited high selectivity and an excellent imprinting effect. A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method was established. Optimization of various parameters affecting MISPE was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a wide linear range (0.001-100.0?gmL(-1)) and low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) (0.03 and 0.09ngmL(-1), respectively) were achieved. When compared with the NIPs, higher recoveries (90.5% to 97.6%) of gastrodin with lower relative standard deviations values (below 6.4%) using high performance liquid chromatography were obtained at three spiked levels in three blank samples. These results demonstrated one efficient, highly selective and environmentally-friendly MISPE technique with excellent reproducibility for the purification and pre-concentration of gastrodin from an aqueous extract of Gastrodia elata roots. PMID:26627582

  9. Density functional theory study of water interactions on Mn-doped CeO{sub 2}(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintos, Delfina García [Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Capital Federal (Argentina); Juan, Alfredo [Departamento de Física and IFISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, Avda. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Irigoyen, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz@di.fcen.uba.ar [Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Capital Federal (Argentina)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We studied geometric and electronic effects of water interactions on 12.5% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2}(1 1 1) surface through a spin-polarized DFT + U approach. • Water molecular and dissociative interactions were favored on Mn dopant compared to those on Ce sites. • Surface oxygen vacancies formation was not promoted by water adsorption. • OH species could attach on surface O-hole (left by surface oxygen remotion) causing important structural atomic relaxations, but without changing the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations. - Abstract: Spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT + U) periodic calculations have been performed to study water adsorption and dissociation on the 12.5% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2}(1 1 1) surface. Our results indicated that Mn cation is the surface active site for water adsorption and dissociation reactions. The H{sub 2}O molecule preferably adsorbs on a Mn cation, causing some relaxation of the surface O-layer and, thus, facilitating the bonding of one of the H{sub H{sub 2O}} with the nearest oxygen atom. After overcoming an energy barrier of 0.46 eV, the water molecule could dissociate into OH and H species. The latter configuration is about 50% more exothermic than the molecular one, suggesting the Ce{sub 0.875}Mn{sub 0.125}O{sub 1.9375}(1 1 1) surface would be easily hydroxylated under reaction conditions. In addition, the calculations showed that water adsorption on the Mn-doped CeO{sub 2}(1 1 1) surface did not favor the creation of surface oxygen vacancies as it has been reported for pure CeO{sub 2}(1 1 1). On the other hand, we created a surface oxygen defect in the slab with structural oxygen vacancies and computed water interactions on the reduced surface. Although, the adsorption of OH species in the O-hole caused many surface and subsurface atomic displacements, no changes in the oxidation state of Mn and Ce cations were detected.

  10. Forced and free displacement characterization of ionic polymer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Duncan, Andrew; Akle, Etienne; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Leo, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPT), sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, are known to generate a large bending strain and a moderate stress at low applied voltages (ionic polymer transducers. In this study, extensional IPTs are characterized under forced and free displacement boundary condition as a function of transducer architecture. The electrode thickness is varied from 10 ?m up to 40 ?m while three extensional actuators with Lithium, Cesium, and tetraethylammonium (TEA) mobile cations are characterized. Three fixtures are built in order to characterize the extensional actuation response. The first fixture measures the free displacement of an IPT sample sandwiched between two aluminum plates glued using the electrically conductive silver paste. In the second fixture a spring is compressed against the test sample with variable amounts to generate different levels of pre-stress and prevents the bending of the IPT. In the third fixture dead weights are placed on top of the sample in order to prevent bending. In the spring loaded fixture a thermocouple is placed in the proximity of the actuator and temperature is measured. The different transducers are characterized using a step voltage input and an alternating current (AC) sine wave input. The step input resulted in a logarithmic rise like displacement curve, while the low frequency (ionic liquid based transducers. A correlation between the strain and charge buildup in the polymer is also characterized. Cesium (Cs) mobile cation outperformed all other tested mobile charges, while Potassium displaced the least. Keywords: Ionic Polymers, Transducer, Actuator, Electroactive Polymer, Extensional Actuator.

  11. A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haval Yacoob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance. The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes. The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

  12. Sub-stoichiometric functionally graded titania fibres for water-splitting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaki, Vaia; Sergejevs, A.; Clarke, C.; Clemens, F.; Marken, F.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-06-01

    The photo-electro-chemical (PEC) splitting of water requires semiconductor materials with a minimum energy gap of 1.23 eV along with conduction and valence bands overlapping the oxidation of H2O and reduction of H+ respectively. This work overcomes the limitations of stoichiometric titania by manufacturing fine scale fibres that exhibit a compositional gradient of oxygen vacancies across the fibre length. In such a fibre configuration the fibre end that is chemically reduced to a relatively small extent performs as the photoanode and the oxygen vacancies enhance the absorption of light. The fibre end that is reduced the most consists of Magnéli phases and exhibits metallic electrical conductivity that enhances the electron-hole separation. The structure and composition of the functionally graded fibres, which were manufactured through extrusion, pressureless sintering and carbo-thermal reduction, are studied using XRD and electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical system and showed that the oxygen vacancies in the functionally graded fibres affect the flat band potential and have increased carrier density. The efficiency of the system was evaluated with PEC measurements that shows higher efficiency for the functionally graded fibres compared to homogeneous TiO2 or Magnéli phase fibres. The functionally graded and fine scale fibres have the potential to be used as an array of active fibres for water splitting applications.

  13. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions.

  14. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-01

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women. PMID:8331759

  15. Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: sultanmeo@hotmail.com; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461 (Saudi Arabia); Meo, Imran M.U. [Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry, Hamdard University, Karachi (Pakistan); Al-Saadi, Muslim M. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Azeem, Muhammad Abdul [Department of Physiology, Ummal Qura University, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-01-15

    A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV{sub 1}), forced expiratory flow (FEF{sub 25-75%}) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.

  16. A displacement formulation for cylindrical shells under radial loads

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Luísa; Fonseca, E.M.M. (Coord.); Barros, Rui Carneiro de

    2013-01-01

    A displacement formulation for cylindrical shells subjected to radial loads is presented. Static loads are applied to straight thin pipes using a variational method and results are compared both to finite element analysis and a shell element from Ansys program. The formulation includes a combination of trigonometric functions in two variables, longitudinal and circumferential direction. Then a system of differential equations is solved for two different load cases and the vertical displacemen...

  17. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or multiple frequency RGB monitor (EGA or better), a math co-processor, and a pointing device. The printers supported by the graphical analysis routines are the HP Laserjet+, Series II, and Series III with at least 1.5 MB memory. The data acquisition routines require the EPIX 4-MEG video board and optional 12.5MHz oscillator, and associated EPIX software. Data can be acquired from any CCD or RS-170 compatible video camera with pixel resolution of 600hX400v or better. PDT is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. Due to the use of required proprietary software, executable code is not provided on the distribution media. Compiling the source code requires the Microsoft C v5.1 compiler, Microsoft QuickC v2.0, the Microsoft Mouse Library, EPIX Image Processing Libraries, the Microway NDP-Fortran-386 v2.1 compiler, and the Media Cybernetics HALO Professional Graphics Kernal System. Due to the complexities of the machine requirements, COSMIC strongly recommends the purchase and review of the documentation prior to the purchase of the program. The source code, and sample input and output files are provided in PKZIP format; the PKUNZIP utility is included. PDT was developed in 1990. All trade names used are the property of their respective corporate owners.

  18. Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardassis Dimitris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity and exercise are well-known cardiovascular protective factors. Many elderly patients with heart failure find it difficult to exercise on land, and hydrotherapy (training in warm water could be a more appropriate form of exercise for such patients. However, concerns have been raised about its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate, with echocardiography and Doppler, the acute effect of warm water immersion (WWI and effect of 8 weeks of hydrotherapy on biventricular function, volumes and systemic vascular resistance. A secondary aim was to observe the effect of hydrotherapy on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Methods Eighteen patients [age 69 ± 8 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, peakVO2 14.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg/min] were examined with echocardiography on land and in warm water (34°C. Twelve of these patients completed 8 weeks of control period followed by 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly. Results During acute WWI, cardiac output increased from 3.1 ± 0.8 to 4.2 ± 0.9 L/min, LV tissue velocity time integral from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm and right ventricular tissue velocity time integral from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 2.5 ± 0.8 cm (land vs WWI, p There was no change in the cardiovascular response or BNP after 8 weeks of hydrotherapy. Conclusion Hydrotherapy was well tolerated by all patients. The main observed cardiac effect during acute WWI was a reduction in heart rate, which, together with a decrease in afterload, resulted in increases in systolic and diastolic biventricular function. Although 8 weeks of hydrotherapy did not improve cardiac function, our data support the concept that exercise in warm water is an acceptable regime for patients with heart failure.

  19. An interpretation of the symbolic function of Water Myth and itsmanifestations in Firdowsi’s Shahname based on mythological criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ????? ?????

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mythological or archetypical criticism is an interdisciplinary approach which analyzes the literary text based on the findings of such sciences like psychology, anthropology, history of religion and history of civilization. In the present paper, the writers have studied the function of the aqueous archetype image in the myth of creation and the resulting mysteries in the context of mythological doctrines centered around Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh (Epic of Kings. Water myth, as one of the four contradictory elements forming the mythological material world, has assumed certain roles and is a common phenomenon in the world myths and Shahnameh. The symbolic functions of the water myth have been divided into three parts: 1. In different human cultures, the aqueous myth is a symbol of the beginning of material creation and life cycle in the universe. This function is symbolized in the primal creation of the world out of water and its symbolic end in it. 2. Water Myth is the main symbol of eternity and continuity of material life. This function is symbolized in the "life-sustaining water" and "the healing water". 3. The third function of Water Myth is manifested in the myth of passage through water (water test and symbolic washing by it (baptism myth; this is used as a test for the human catharsis, passage from a former stage into a new, exalted stage symbolized as the archetype of death and rebirth. Keywords: Water Myth, Four Elements, Mythological Criticism (Archetypical criticism, Archetype, Jung, Shahnameh

  20. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulphate droplets initiated by Humic Like Substances as a function of water activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Rigg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH42SO4 droplets containing Leonardite (LEO and Pahokee peat (PP serving as surrogates for Humic Like Substances (HULIS has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85–1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5–15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw, ?aw, by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4×104 cm?2 s?1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by ?aw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (?(T-model to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, ?(T-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for entire population (single-? model is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of ?-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Thus, from fitting frozen fractions only, the underlying ice nucleation mechanism and nature of the ice nucleating sites cannot be inferred. In contrast to using fitted functions obtained to represent experimental conditions only, we suggest to use experimentally derived Jhet as a function of temperature and aw that can be applied to conditions outside of those probed in laboratory. This is because Jhet(T is independent of time and IN surface areas in contrast to the fit parameters obtained by representation of experimentally derived frozen fractions.

  1. Fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The subcascades formation in copper and iron is studied by molecular dynamics method. • A two-point density correlation function is a tool for detecting subcascade formation. • A fractal analysis served to determine the subcascade formation threshold energy. • The temporal evolution of displacement cascades is investigated. - Abstract: The fragmentation of displacement cascades into subcascades in copper and iron has been investigated through the molecular dynamics technique. A two-point density correlation function has been used to analyze the cascades as a function of the primary knock-on (PKA) energy. This approach is used as a tool for detecting subcascade formation. The fragmentation can already be identified at the end of the ballistic phase. Its resulting evolution in the peak damage state discriminates between unconnected and connected subcascades. The damage zone at the end of the ballistic phase is the precursor of the extended regions that contain the surviving defects. A fractal analysis of the cascade exhibits a dependence on both the stage of the cascade development and the PKA energy. This type of analysis enables the minimum and maximum displacement spike energies together with the subcascade formation threshold energy to be determined

  2. Dielectric constant of water as a function of separation in a slab geometry: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hidenosuke; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Water in confining geometries shows various anomalous properties related to its structure and dynamics compared with bulk water. Here, the dielectric constant of water as a function of separation in a graphite slab geometry was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The dielectric constants of water were calculated from the orientational polarization of water molecules when an external electric field was applied parallel and normal to the slabs. The reduction of the dielectric constant of water compared with bulk water can be explained by investigating the structure and dynamics of water in slab geometries. We found a preferred orientation of water molecules in the layer closest to the graphite surface. The self-diffusion coefficient distribution of water molecules along the direction normal to the slabs was also computed. Highly mobile water molecules in the intermediate region were generated by the weak hydrogen bonding produced by the preferred orientation of water molecules in the layer. We concluded that the dielectric constant of water in the slab geometry is lower than that of bulk water because of the reduction of the polarization of water and the highly mobile water molecules in the intermediate region arising from the preferred orientation of water molecules.

  3. Functioning of Water Users Associations or Pani Panchayat in Orissa: Principle, Procedure, Performance and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper deals with an evaluation of water management through community participation and emergence of Pani Panchayat (PP in a case study of the Vir Bajrang Bali Pani Panchayat under Lift Irrigation Project of the Hirakud Command Area (HCA, Orissa state in Eastern India . The broad objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of Water User Association (WUA or Pani Panchayat promoted by the State and the local traditional irrigation institutions in the HCA, Orissa and to evaluate their functioning & characteristics in the context of local water management. The precise objectives are: (1 to analytically review the Orissa Farmers Management of Irrigation Systems Act and study the functioning of the Pani Panchayat, (2 to examine people's participation (3 study the apparatus of water management and control, and the impact of such management on productivity among the members and (4 to recommend policy interventions to make the formal institutions more successful. The paper concludes that the Pani Panchayats performance as regulatory institutions in charge of water distribution on equitable basis has been weak and unsuccessful. Even though the Pani Panchayat has been initiated and endorsed in the State for more than a couple of years, the acceptance of this model have been lethargic and scattered. As Pani Panchayat is a new concept needing experimentation and experience before finalisation of its content in greater detail, the irrigation agency is not in a position to spell out the different components of the programme in concrete terms. A detailed action plan should be prepared by the irrigation authority in consultation with the water users through Participatory Rural Appraisal method. A feasibility study should be under taken by examining the caste/class conflict, groupism, political differences and history of confrontation and conflict, if any. It is necessary to apply a bottom-up approach instead of a top-down one for sustainability. There must also be mechanisms to ensure that the benefits of the project are equally distributed to all concerned stakeholders.

  4. Intramolecular cyclization of aspartic acid residues assisted by three water molecules: a density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (l-Asp) are known to undergo spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions to form l-β-Asp, d-Asp, and d-β-Asp residues. The formation of these abnormal Asp residues in proteins may affect their three-dimensional structures and hence their properties and functions. Indeed, the reactions have been thought to contribute to aging and pathologies. Most of the above reactions of the l-Asp residues proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, a novel three-water-assisted mechanism is proposed for cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a gem-diol precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for an Asp-containing model compound (Ace−Asp−Nme, where Ace = acetyl and Nme = NHCH3). The three water molecules act as catalysts by mediating ‘long-range’ proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form (iminolization). Then, reorientation of a water molecule and a conformational change occur successively, followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen on the carboxyl carbon of the Asp side chain to form the gem-diol species. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  5. Intramolecular cyclization of aspartic acid residues assisted by three water molecules: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Aspartic acid (Asp) residues in peptides and proteins (l-Asp) are known to undergo spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions to form l-?-Asp, d-Asp, and d-?-Asp residues. The formation of these abnormal Asp residues in proteins may affect their three-dimensional structures and hence their properties and functions. Indeed, the reactions have been thought to contribute to aging and pathologies. Most of the above reactions of the l-Asp residues proceed via a cyclic succinimide intermediate. In this paper, a novel three-water-assisted mechanism is proposed for cyclization of an Asp residue (forming a gem-diol precursor of the succinimide) by the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) density functional theory calculations carried out for an Asp-containing model compound (Ace-Asp-Nme, where Ace = acetyl and Nme = NHCH3). The three water molecules act as catalysts by mediating ‘long-range’ proton transfers. In the proposed mechanism, the amide group on the C-terminal side of the Asp residue is first converted to the tautomeric iminol form (iminolization). Then, reorientation of a water molecule and a conformational change occur successively, followed by the nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen on the carboxyl carbon of the Asp side chain to form the gem-diol species. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental energetics.

  6. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moeys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedotransfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved.

    Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42. Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = ?0.26 due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72. Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

  7. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeys, J.; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L.; Brown, C. D.; Coquet, Y.; Jarvis, N. J.

    2012-07-01

    Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved. Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42). Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = -0.26) due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72). Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

  8. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moeys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisation usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedotransfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accounts for preferential flow in soil macropores. We used tracer monitoring data from 16 lysimeter studies, carried out in three European countries, to evaluate the ability of MACRO and this "blind parameterisation" scheme to reproduce measured solute leaching at the base of each lysimeter. We focused on the prediction of early tracer breakthrough due to preferential flow, because this is critical for pesticide leaching. We then calibrated a selected number of parameters in order to assess to what extent the prediction of water and solute leaching could be improved.

    Our results show that water flow was generally reasonably well predicted (median model efficiency, ME, of 0.42. Although the general pattern of solute leaching was reproduced well by the model, the overall model efficiency was low (median ME = ?0.26 due to errors in the timing and magnitude of some peaks. Preferential solute leaching at early pore volumes was also systematically underestimated. Nonetheless, the ranking of soils according to solute loads at early pore volumes was reasonably well estimated (concordance correlation coefficient, CCC, between 0.54 and 0.72. Moreover, we also found that ignoring macropore flow leads to a significant deterioration in the ability of the model to reproduce the observed leaching pattern, and especially the early breakthrough in some soils. Finally, the calibration procedure showed that improving the estimation of solute transport parameters is probably more important than the estimation of water flow parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging for the use of this modelling set-up to estimate pesticide leaching risks at the regional-scale, especially where the objective is to identify vulnerable soils and "source" areas of contamination.

  9. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  10. Assisting the return of displaced Dinka Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murphy

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues involved in supporting the return of internally displaced Dinka Bor communities highlight the complex, and often ignored, challenges of addressing the consequencesof South-South conflict.

  11. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasili? Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  12. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.

    2009-12-15

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface, and the results provide an ideal basis for testing theoretical predictions of characteristic surface properties such as pK{sub a}, sorption equilibria, and surface water permittivity.

  13. High Precision Displacement Measurement Using Fiber Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovic, G; Scandale, Walter; Shafir, E; Todesco, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    We describe laboratory experiments with a fiber-optic sensor employing a chirped laser that detects, with 20-30 micrometer accuracy, displacements of a remote reflective target at distance of 200-500 mm. The requirements of chirp linearity and laser coherence in order to achieve this sensitivity are elaborated. This sensor can be employed for remotely sensing minute displacements of objects in harsh environments, including cryo-magnets in particle accelerators.

  14. The intergenerational effects of worker displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Marianne; Stevens, Ann Huff; Oreopoulos, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses variation induced by firm closures to explore the intergenerational effects of worker displacement. Using a Canadian panel of administrative data that follows almost 60,000 father-child pairs from 1978 to 1999 and includes detailed information about the firms at which the father worked, we construct narrow treatment and control groups whose fathers had the same level of permanent income prior to 1982 when some of the fathers were displaced. We demonstrate that job loss leads t...

  15. Light-induced effects on Brownian displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalerao, Anish S.; Pollack, Gerald H

    2010-01-01

    Earlier work on particles in aqueous solution indicated that particle hydration could be expanded by incident light. To assess the effects of expanded hydration we measured Brownian displacements of microspheres exposed to light of varying intensities and wavelengths. Displacements were consistently diminished in an intensity-dependent and wavelength-dependent fashion, and center-to-center distances between microspheres were shifted to higher values. We conclude that suspended microspheres ar...

  16. Symmetry breaking oxygen displacements in superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses atomic pair distribution analysis of pulsed neutron scattering data for superconducting oxides which indicates that some of the atoms, notably oxygen atoms, are displaced from the crystallographic high-symmetry sites, breaking the local symmetry. Anomalous displacements are seen in Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, suggesting an unusual nature of the superconducting state of this compound

  17. A new model for the structure function of integrated water vapor in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent fluctuation of integrated water vapor in the troposphere is one of the major noise sources in radio interferometry. Processed integrated water vapor estimates from microwave radiometers colocated with interferometers have been used to set bounds on this uncertainty. The bound has been in the form of a calculated structure function, which is a measure of temporal or spatial decorrelation of fluctuations. In this paper a new model is presented for the estimation of the structure function in the absence of radiometer measurements. Using this model, the structure function can be estimated using measurements or estimates of a limited number of meteorological parameters. These parameters include boundary layer depth, surface heat and humidity fluxes, entrainment humidity flux, average virtual potential temperature in the boundary layer, and geostrophic wind speed. These parameters can be found or estimated from radiosonde and surface eddy correlation system data. The model is based on a framework of turbulence meteorology and provides excellent agreement when compared with state-of-the-art atmospheric turbulence simulations. Results of preliminary comparisons with ground truth show some excellent agreement, as well as some problems. The performance of the new model exceeds that of one current model. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  18. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G

    2009-07-21

    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity. PMID:19419792

  19. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.

    2009-07-01

    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  20. Instability in Immiscible Fluids Displacement from Cracks and Porous Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Ivashnyov, O. E.

    2002-01-01

    problems of terrestrial engineering and technology. Surface tension affected flows in porous media could be much better understood in microgravity studies eliminating the masking effects of gravity. Saffman-Taylor instability of the interface could bring to formation and growth of "fingers" of gas penetrating the bulk fluid. The growth of fingers and their further coalescence could not be described by the linear analysis. Growth of fingers causes irregularity of the mixing zone. The tangential velocity difference on the interface separating fluids of different densities and viscousities could bring to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting in "diffusion of fingers" partial regularization of the displacement mixing zone. Thus combination of the two effects would govern the flow in the displacement process. fracture under a pressure differential displacing the high viscosity residual fracturing fluid. There are inherent instability and scalability problems associated with viscous fingering that play a key role in the cleanup procedure. Entrapment of residual fracturing fluid by the gas flow lowers down the quality of a fracture treatment leaving most of fluid in the hydraulic fracture thus decreasing the production rate. The gravity effects could play essential role in vertical hydraulic fractures as the problem is scale dependent. displacement of viscous fluid by a less viscous one in a two-dimensional channel with vertical breaks, and to determine characteristic size of entrapment zones. Extensive direct numerical simulations allow to investigate the sensitivity of the displacement process to variation of values of the main governing parameters. were found for the two limiting cases: infinitely wide cell, and narrow cell with an infinitely small gap between the finger and the side walls. governing parameters. The obtained solutions allowed to explain the physical meaning of the exiting empirical criteria for the beginning of viscous fingering and the growth of a number of fingers in the cell, and allowed us to make some additional suggestions for the cleanup procedure. depending on the resident fluid properties, for which the displacement still remains stable. viscous one were carried out. Validation of the code was performed by comparing the results of model problems simulations with the existing solutions published in literature. Being in a good agreement with the previously obtained results, nevertheless, the developed code is an advanced one. While the existing codes could operate with linear equations and regular geometry and initial disturbances only, the new code permits taking into account non-linear effects as well. characterizing the quality of displacement. The functional dependence of the dimensionless criteria on the values of governing parameters needs further investigations. Services, an international company in the oil and gas industry.

  1. Cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without horizontal displacement at different cadences / Respostas cardiorrespiratórias durante a corrida em piscina funda com e sem deslocamento horizontal em diferentes ritmos / Respuestas cardiorrespiratorias de la carrera en aguas profundas con y sin desplazamiento horizontal y en diferentes cadencias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Kanitz; G.V., Liedtke; S.S., Pinto; C.L., Alberton; L.F.M., Kruel.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar as respostas cardiorrespiratórias durante corrida em piscina funda profunda com e sem deslocamento horizontal em diferentes ritmos. Métodos: Doze mulheres jovens realizaram corrida aquática com e sem deslocamento durante quatro minutos, em três ritmos distintos: a) 60 bpm; b) 80 b [...] pm; e c) 100 bpm. A frequência cardíaca (FC), ventilação (VE) e o consumo de oxigênio (VO2) foram coletados no último minuto de cada teste. Two-way ANOVA para medidas repetidas foi utilizada com o teste post hoc Bonferroni's (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo: comparar las respuestas cardiorrespiratorias durante la carrera en aguas profundas con y sin desplazamiento horizontal y a diferentes cadencias. Método: Doce mujeres jóvenes realizaron la carrera en aguas profundas con y sin desplazamiento durante cuatro minutos a tres cadencias diferentes [...] : a) 60 bpm, b) 80 bpm, y c) 100 bpm. La frecuencia cardíaca (FC), la ventilación (VE) y el consumo de oxígeno (VO2) se recogieron en el último minuto de cada prueba. ANOVA de dos vías para medidas repetidas con post hoc de Bonferroni (p Abstract in english Objective: To compare the cardiorespiratory responses during deep water running with and without displacement at different cadences. Methods: Twelve young women performed deep water running with and without displacement during 4 min at three separate cadences: (a) 60 bpm; (b) 80 bpm; and (c) 100 bpm [...] . The heart rate (HR), ventilation (Ve) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were collected in the last minute of each test. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used with Bonferroni's post hoc test (p

  2. Study of Radioactivity and Decay Heat Value of Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel as Time Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of radioactivity and decay heat of light water reactor spent fuel as time function has been conducted. Two types of light water reactors - PWR and BWR - has been used as an example in the study, each reactor operates with burn-up 33000 and 27500 MWD/MTHM. Until 100 years storage the activity of spent fuel are dominated by fission product (> 82 %). Long life actinides dominate activity after 1000 years (> 98 %) and 10.000 years (> 94 %), while for extremely long period (100.000 years) two radio nuclides Pu-239 (actinide) an Tc-99 (fission product) dominate almost 50 % from the total activity. The decay heat generated from PWR and BWR spent fuel are 6766 W and 2262 W, 636 W and 292 W, 173 W and 79 W, and 36 W and 16 W for each on storage periods 1, 10, 100 and 1000 years respectively. (author)

  3. Water plasma functionalized CNTs/MnO2 composites for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahzad; Amade, Roger; Jover, Eric; Bertran, Enric

    2013-01-01

    A water plasma treatment applied to vertically-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition gives rise to surface functionalization and purification of the CNTs, along with an improvement of their electrochemical properties. Additional increase of their charge storage capability is achieved by anodic deposition of manganese dioxide lining the surface of plasma-treated nanotubes. The morphology (nanoflower, layer, or needle-like structure) and oxidation state of manganese oxide depend on the voltage window applied during charge-discharge measurements and are found to be key points for improved efficiency of capacitor devices. MnO2/CNTs nanocomposites exhibit an increase in their specific capacitance from 678?Fg(-1), for untreated CNTs, up to 750?Fg(-1), for water plasma-treated CNTs. PMID:24348189

  4. A hybrid model for river water temperature as a function of air temperature and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolon, Marco; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano

    2015-11-01

    Water temperature controls many biochemical and ecological processes in rivers, and theoretically depends on multiple factors. Here we formulate a model to predict daily averaged river water temperature as a function of air temperature and discharge, with the latter variable being more relevant in some specific cases (e.g., snowmelt-fed rivers, rivers impacted by hydropower production). The model uses a hybrid formulation characterized by a physically based structure associated with a stochastic calibration of the parameters. The interpretation of the parameter values allows for better understanding of river thermal dynamics and the identification of the most relevant factors affecting it. The satisfactory agreement of different versions of the model with measurements in three different rivers (root mean square error smaller than 1oC, at a daily timescale) suggests that the proposed model can represent a useful tool to synthetically describe medium- and long-term behavior, and capture the changes induced by varying external conditions.

  5. Photochemical degradation of phenanthrene as a function of natural water variables modeling freshwater to marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photolysis rates of phenanthrene as a function of ionic strength (salinity), oxygen levels and humic acid concentrations were measured in aqueous solution over the range of conditions found in fresh to marine waters. Photolysis followed first order kinetics, with an estimated photodegradation half-life in sunlight in pure water of 10.3 ± 0.7 h, in the mid-range of published results. Photolysis rate constants decreased by a factor of 5 in solutions with humic acid concentrations from 0 to 10 mg C L?1. This decrease could be modeled entirely based on competitive light absorption effects due to the added humics. No significant ionic strength or oxygen effects were observed, consistent with a direct photolysis mechanism. In the absence of significant solution medium effects, the photodegradation lifetime of phenanthrene will depend only on solar fluxes (i.e. temporal and seasonal changes in sunlight) and not vary with a freshwater to marine environment.

  6. The role of continuous and discrete water structures in protein function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Benjamin H.; Frauenfelder, Hans; Fenimore, Paul W.

    2014-04-01

    Proteins have evolved to perform numerous roles as specific catalysts and nano-machines. Some of the mechanisms exploited by evolution are clear. Hydrophobicity drives the stabilization energy of folding, charges mediate long-range interactions and facilitate catalysis, and specific geometries and hydrogen bonding patterns facilitate molecular recognition and catalysis. In this work, we examine the energy landscape of protein dynamics in terms of the continuous and discrete water structures that control protein dynamics. We observe that the internal structures at the active site of proteins are constantly shaped by strong interactions with hydration shell and bulk water motions. By describing the energy landscape of proteins in terms of its three component motions; conformational, hydration and protonation, and electronic structure, it is possible to systematically understand protein function.

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. Transient displacement induced in shear wave elastography: comparison between analytical results and ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkateb Hachemi, M; Callé, S; Remenieras, J P

    2006-12-22

    It is now accepted that an effective way to investigate the elastic properties of soft tissues is to generate a localized transient acoustic radiation force and to follow the associated displacements in the time/space domain. Shear waves induced by this stress field are particularly interesting in this kind of medium because they are governed by the shear elastic modulus mu, which is directly linked to the Young modulus, and spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the transient motion induced must therefore be obtained in detail. We report here a model based on the elastodynamic Green's function formalism to describe these displacements. 3D simulation of radiation force in homogenous elastic media was performed and the displacement curves computed at different radial distances for different temporal force profiles. Amplitude and duration of displacement were found to be reliable parameters to characterize the elastic properties of the medium. Experimental measurements were performed in a homogeneous agar-gelatin tissue-mimicking phantom, and two transducers were used to generate the radiation force and follow the induced displacements. Displacements obtained from different lateral locations around the applied force axis were then used to reconstruct the shear-wave propagation in a scan plane as a function of time. The experimental displacements/curves agreed with the theoretical profiles obtained by the elastodynamic Green's function formalism. PMID:16843510

  9. Graphene on ferromagnetic surfaces and its functionalization with water and ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshina Elena; Paulus Beate; Böttcher Stefan; Weser Martin; Dedkov Yuriy; Horn Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this article, an angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and density-functional theory (DFT) investigations of water and ammonia adsorption on graphene/Ni(111) are presented. The results of adsorption on graphene/Ni(111) obtained in this study reveal the existence of interface states, originating from the strong hybridization of the graphene ? and spin-polarized Ni 3d valence band states. ARPES and XAS data of the H2O (NH3)/grap...

  10. Aryl-derivatized, water-soluble functionalized carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functionalization of very-thin multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VT-MWNTs) with an aniline derivative, via the protocol of in situ generated aryl diazonium salts results, upon acidic deprotection of the terminal BOC group, on the formation of the water-soluble positively charged ammonium functionalized VT-MWNTs-NH3+ material. The new materials have been structurally and morphologically characterized by infra-red (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The quantitative calculation of the grafted aryl units onto the skeleton of VT-MWNTs has been estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while the quantitative Kaiser test showed the amine group loaded onto VT-MWNTs-NH3+ material. The aqueous solubility of this material has allowed the performance of some initial toxicological in vitro investigations

  11. Polymer functionalized nanocomposites for metals removal from water and wastewater: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Libralato, Giovanni; Domingos, Rute F; Markus, Arjen; Dini, Luciana; Gautam, Ravindra Kumar; Baldantoni, Daniela; Rossi, Marco; Sharma, Sanjay K; Chattopadhyaya, Mahesh Chandra; Giugni, Maurizio; Meric, Sureyya

    2016-04-01

    Pollution by metal and metalloid ions is one of the most widespread environmental concerns. They are non-biodegradable, and, generally, present high water solubility facilitating their environmental mobilisation interacting with abiotic and biotic components such as adsorption onto natural colloids or even accumulation by living organisms, thus, threatening human health and ecosystems. Therefore, there is a high demand for effective removal treatments of heavy metals, making the application of adsorption materials such as polymer-functionalized nanocomposites (PFNCs), increasingly attractive. PFNCs retain the inherent remarkable surface properties of nanoparticles, while the polymeric support materials provide high stability and processability. These nanoparticle-matrix materials are of great interest for metals and metalloids removal thanks to the functional groups of the polymeric matrixes that provide specific bindings to target pollutants. This review discusses PFNCs synthesis, characterization and performance in adsorption processes as well as the potential environmental risks and perspectives. PMID:26827255

  12. Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Škvor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a physical relevance (meaning of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However, unlike the findings for simple fluids, the loci of the response function extrema exhibit density/pressure dependence quite different from that of the percolation line. The only potential coincidence between the loci of the extrema of a thermodynamic property and a detectable structural change is found for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility and Voronoi neighbors distribution skewness maximum.

  13. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindberg Katarina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. Methods We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. Results The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Conclusions Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts.

  14. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts

  15. Attempts to prevent displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Prevention has become a strategy increasingly adopted by the humanitarian community in addressing forced displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as responding to immediate emergency needs for families displaced or at risk of displacement.

  16. 48 CFR 952.226-74 - Displaced employee hiring preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Displaced employee hiring preference. 952.226-74 Section 952.226-74...226-74 Displaced employee hiring preference. As prescribed in 48 CFR (DEAR...clause. Displaced Employee Hiring Preference (JUN 1997) (a) Definition....

  17. Plant Functional Type Shifts in Big Sagebrush Ecosystems: Impacts on Dryland Ecosystem Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J. B.; Schlaepfer, D.; Lauenroth, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial vegetation influences hydrologic cycling. In water-limited, dryland ecosystems, altered ecohydrology as a consequence of vegetation change can impact vegetation structure, ecological functioning and ecosystem services. Shrub steppe ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) are widespread across western North America but have been altered over the past century, and changes are likely to continue. The ecohydrological consequences of sagebrush removal and reestablishment remains unclear. To characterize the immediate and medium-term patterns of water cycling and availability following sagebrush plant community alteration, we applied the SOILWAT ecosystem water balance model to 898 sites across the distribution of sagebrush ecosystems, representing the three primary big sagebrush ecosystem types: sagebrush shrublands, sagebrush steppe and montane sagebrush. At each site we examined three vegetation conditions representing intact sagebrush, recently disturbed sagebrush and recovered but grass-dominated vegetation. Transition from shrub to grass dominance decreased precipitation interception and transpiration and increased soil evaporation and deep drainage. Relative to intact big sagebrush vegetation, simulated soils in the herbaceous vegetation phases typically had drier surface layers and wetter deep layers. Our simulations suggested that alterations in ecosystem water balance may be most pronounced in vegetation representing recently disturbed conditions (herbaceous vegetation with low biomass) and modest in conditions representing recovered, but still grass-dominated, vegetation. The ecohydrological impact of simulated big sagebrush removal depended on climate; while short-term changes in water balance were greatest in wet areas represented by the montane sagebrush ecosystem type, medium-term impacts were greatest in dry areas of sagebrush shrublands and sagebrush steppe.

  18. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (?, n, ?r and ?s of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter content.

  19. Water in biological membranes at interfaces: does it play a functional role?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E. A., Disalvo; F., Lairion; F., Martini; H., Almaleck; S., Diaz; G., Gordillo.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la organización delaguaen la interfaz de una membrana biológica y su relevancia en las propiedades de superficie y en la adsorción de proteínas. El enfoque consiste en considerar que la función celular está confinada a un medio restringido en agua, el interio [...] r celular, en el cuaál la proximidad de la membrana puede ser clave para regular la actividad enzimática y la permeabilidad. Como la bicapa lipidica es la estructura básica de la membrana celular, los sitios de hidratación en la cabeza polar se analizan por medio de espectrometría infrarroja a transformada de Fourier. La contribución de la hidratación al potencial dipolar y la respuesta dinámica de monocapas de diferente composicioneslipídicas se investiganmediante determinación de potenciales de superficie yvoltametría cíclica. La modificación de esas propiedades a causa del reemplazo de agua por polioles como trehalosa y floretina y por la inserción de proteínas acuosolubles, ha sido también investigada. Abstract in english The purpose of this review is to examine and discuss the ways in which water is organized at the interface of a biological membrane. The relevance of this structure to the surface properties and to the adsorption of proteins in membranes is also analized. The approach is based on the idea that cell [...] functions are confined to a restricted water media, the cell interior, in which the proximity of the membrane may bekey to regulating the enzyme activity and the cell membrane permeability. As the lipid bilayer is the structural base ofcell membranes, the distribution of water in the surface sites of a phospholipid membrane is analyzed by means of Fourier Transform spectrometry. The polarization of water at the surface was looked into through the measure ofsurface potentials and the dynamics of the surface hydration by cyclic voltammetry. Modification of these properties by the replacement of water bypolyol molecules such as trehalose and phloretin and by the insertion of aqueous soluble enzymes, has also been investigated.

  20. Young's modulus of collagen at slow displacement rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, M D C; Beebe, D J; Crone, W C

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is a key structural component of extracellular matrix and its mechanical properties, particularly its stiffness, have been shown to influence cell function. This study explores the mechanical behavior of type I collagen gels at low rates relevant to that of cell motion. The Young's modulus, E, was obtained for collagen samples of concentrations 1.3, 2 and 3 mg/ml at varying crosshead displacement rates: 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mm/min. Local strain measurement in the gage section were used for both the strain and strain rate determination. The power law models for the modulus at these low strain rates show that the values converge as the displacement rate approaches a quasistatic state. This study provides data that was unavailable in the past on the Young's modulus of collagen at rates relevant to the cell. PMID:21263182

  1. Analysis of displacement damage effects on MOS capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Martínez, P., E-mail: pablo.fernandez@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Palomo, F.R., E-mail: rogelio@gte.esi.us.es [Electronic Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Hidalgo, S.; Fleta, C.; Campabadal, F.; Flores, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Displacement damage effect on MOS capacitors is analyzed in this work with the aid of TCAD simulations. A noticeable capacitance reduction in the accumulation mode is observed in the High Frequency C–V characteristic curve after a 24 GeV proton irradiation. This effect is clearly distinguishable from ionizing damage effects, otherwise negligible under the specific conditions of the experiment. The capacitance reduction is identified with the increase of the substrate resistivity, due to the modification of its effective doping concentration. Supported on a well-established traps model, the expected displacement damage defects are simulated as a function of the fluence, allowing the identification of donor trap levels as the responsible of the phenomenon for p-type substrate MOS capacitors.

  2. Analysis of displacement damage effects on MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Displacement damage effect on MOS capacitors is analyzed in this work with the aid of TCAD simulations. A noticeable capacitance reduction in the accumulation mode is observed in the High Frequency C–V characteristic curve after a 24 GeV proton irradiation. This effect is clearly distinguishable from ionizing damage effects, otherwise negligible under the specific conditions of the experiment. The capacitance reduction is identified with the increase of the substrate resistivity, due to the modification of its effective doping concentration. Supported on a well-established traps model, the expected displacement damage defects are simulated as a function of the fluence, allowing the identification of donor trap levels as the responsible of the phenomenon for p-type substrate MOS capacitors

  3. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash

    2007-08-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the atomic interactions in transition metal-based interstitial alloys. The strain field is calculated in the discrete lattice model using Kanzaki method. The total energy and hence atomic forces between interstitial hydrogen and transition metal hosts are calculated using DFT. The norm-conserving pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. The dynamical matrices are evaluated considering interaction up to first nearest neighbors whereas impurity-induced forces are calculated with M32H shell (where M = Cu and Pd). The atomic displacements produced by interstitial hydrogen at the octahedral site in Cu and Pd show displacements of $7.36$% and $4.3$% of the first nearest neighbors respectively. Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and the obtained average lattice expansion $\\Delta V /V = 0.177$ for Cu and 0.145 for Pd.

  4. Density functional for van der Waals forces accounts for hydrogen bond in benchmark set of water hexamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelkkanen, Kari André; Lundqvist, Bengt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2009-01-01

    A recent extensive study has investigated how various exchange-correlation (XC) functionals treat hydrogen bonds in water hexamers and has shown traditional generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functionals used in density-functional (DF) theory to give the wrong dissociation-energy trend of low-lying isomers and van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces to give key contributions to the dissociation energy. The question raised whether functionals that incorporate vdW forces implicitly into t...

  5. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  6. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs) for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model)4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs), the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error at both sites. All of the GMFs exhibit a negative bias in the retrieved wind speed. In order to understand the reason for this bias, all SAR-retrieved wind speeds are separated into two categories: onshore wind (blowing from sea to land) and offshore wind (blowing from land to sea). Only offshore winds were found to exhibit the large negative bias, and short fetches from the coastline may be a possible reason for this. Moreover, it is clarified that in both the unstable and stable conditions, CMOD5.N has atmospheric stability effectiveness, and can keep the same accuracy with CMOD5 in the neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch.

  7. Functional Traits and Water Transport Strategies in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgaua, Deborah M. G.; Ishida, Françoise Y.; Tng, David Y. P.; Laidlaw, Melinda J.; Santos, Rubens M.; Rumman, Rizwana; Eamus, Derek; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Laurance, Susan G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforest trees may respond to the precipitation extremes predicted in future climate change scenarios is paramount for their conservation and management. Tree species clearly differ in drought susceptibility, suggesting that variable water transport strategies exist. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we examined the hydraulic variability in trees in a lowland tropical rainforest in north-eastern Australia. We studied eight tree species representing broad plant functional groups (one palm and seven eudicot mature-phase, and early-successional trees). We characterised the species’ hydraulic system through maximum rates of volumetric sap flow and velocities using the heat ratio method, and measured rates of tree growth and several stem, vessel, and leaf traits. Sap flow measures exhibited limited variability across species, although early-successional species and palms had high mean sap velocities relative to most mature-phase species. Stem, vessel, and leaf traits were poor predictors of sap flow measures. However, these traits exhibited different associations in multivariate analysis, revealing gradients in some traits across species and alternative hydraulic strategies in others. Trait differences across and within tree functional groups reflect variation in water transport and drought resistance strategies. These varying strategies will help in our understanding of changing species distributions under predicted drought scenarios. PMID:26087009

  8. Dielectric constant and density of water as a function of pressure at constant temperature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wely Brasil, Floriano; Marco Antonio Chaer, Nascimento.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on protein folding/unfolding it is necessary to accurately describe the behavior of the dielectric constant and the density of the solvent (water), in the range of pressures (between 0.1 MPa and 2.0 GPa) and temperatures (below 75 ° C) require [...] d for pressure-induced unfolding. A simple equation of the form X = X (T, Pi) + a0 ln (a i+ P)/(a i + Pi) [were X is the property, Pi (in MPa) is the reference pressure and a i are coefficients adjusted to fit experimental values] is proposed to describe both properties as function of pressure, at constant temperatures. The equation reproduces available data for dielectric constant and density of water to an accuracy of 0.1%. Because of its simplicity and accuracy, the proposed equation is useful for simulation studies and for any other problem where the knowledge of those properties as a function of pressure is needed.

  9. Effect of hypoxaemia on water and sodium homeostatic hormones and renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1995-01-01

    Changes in body fluid homeostasis during acute hypoxaemia suggest a crucial role of renal function in acclimatization processes. Hypoxaemia stimulates sympathetic nervous activity, and also the cardiovascular system is affected with increases in heart rate and cardiac output. In most subjects, a hypoxic ventilatory response produces hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis. Acute hypoxaemia depresses aldosterone secretion secondary to a direct effect on adrenal cells. Also plasma renin is decreased in resting hypoxaemic conditions, but the mechanism remains unknown. These hormonal changes may have the advantage of opposing excessive sodium and water retention, which characterizes acute mountain sickness. Short-term isocapnic or hypocapnic hypoxaemia in spontaneously breathing humans causes moderate if any increases in renal blood flow and only minor changes in GFR. In contrast, renal blood flow and GFR decreases during hypercapnic hypoxaemia. Renal clearance studies in humans after 24-48 hours in altitude hypoxia (4,350 m) demonstrate that glomerular and tubular function is only slightly changed in spite of marked depression of the renin-aldosterone system and increased plasma levels of norepinephrine. However, renal vascular tone may increase most probably secondary to the increased adrenosympathetic activity. In the first hours, acute hypoxaemia may induce an increased excretion of sodium and water. Previous studies suggest that the natriuretic response is caused by decreased reabsorption of sodium and bicarbonate in the proximal tubules secondary to the associated hyperventilation and hypocapnia. After 6 hours, sodium and water excretion is normalized or even depressed, dependent on the severity of acute mountain sickness. In view of the prompt increase in sodium and water excretion found during short-term hypoxaemia, the absence of such a response to more prolonged hypoxaemia suggests an adaptive time-dependent course of renal functional changes in hypoxaemia. Taken together, previous studies suggest that effects of acute hypoxaemia on renal haemodynamics are minor compared with effects on cerebral and coronary circulation. This might be the result of an appropriate resetting of autoregulatory mechanisms that would maintain the role of the kidney as a major sense organ to hypoxaemia and, subsequently, as a mediator of plasma volume regulation and erythropoietin synthesis.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  11. Multi-functional electrospun nanofibres for advances in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Jin, Guorui; Li, Linlin; Li, Kai; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chen, Jun

    2016-02-29

    Tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment are some of the most critical challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In order to address such challenges, one-dimensional (1D) materials are projected to play a key role in developing emerging solutions for the increasingly complex problems. Eletrospinning technology has been demonstrated to be a simple, versatile, and cost-effective method in fabricating a rich variety of materials with 1D nanostructures. These include polymers, composites, and inorganic materials with unique chemical and physical properties. In this tutorial review, we first give a brief introduction to electrospun materials with a special emphasis on the design, fabrication, and modification of 1D functional materials. Adopting the perspective of chemists and materials scientists, we then focus on the recent significant progress made in the domains of tissue regeneration (e.g., skin, nerve, heart and bone) and conversion & storage of clean energy (e.g., solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors), where nanofibres have been used as active nanomaterials. Furthermore, this review's scope also includes the advances in the use of electrospun materials for the removal of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, gas and bacteria in water treatment applications. Finally a conclusion and perspective is provided, in which we discuss the remaining challenges for 1D electrospun nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, energy conversion & storage, and water treatment. PMID:26727278

  12. Characteristic of Water Pervaporation Using Hydrophilic Composite Membrane Containing Functional Nano Sized NaA zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Duckkyu; Lee, Yongtaek [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The NaA zeolite particles were dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to prepare a composite membrane. The nano sized zeolite particles of NaA were synthesized in the laboratory and the mean size was approximately 60 nm. Pervaporation characteristics such as a permeation flux and a separation factor were investigated using the membrane as a function of the feed concentration from 0.01 to 0.05 mole fraction and the weight % of NaA particles between 0 wt% and 5 wt% in the membrane. Also, the micro sized particles of 5 mm were dispersed in the membrane for a comparison purpose. When the ethanol concentration in the feed solution was 0.01 mole fraction, the flux of water significantly increased from 600 g/m{sup 2}/hr to 2000 g/m{sup 2}/hr as the content of the nano NaA particles in the membrane increased from 0 wt% to 5 wt%, while the NaA particles improved the separation factor from 1.5 to 7.9. When the flux of water through the membrane containing nano sized particles was roughly 15% increased compared to the micro sized particles, whereas the separation factor of water was found to be approximately 5% increased. It can be said that the role of the nano sized NaA particles is quite important since both the flux and the separation factor are strongly affected.

  13. Characteristic of Water Pervaporation Using Hydrophilic Composite Membrane Containing Functional Nano Sized NaA zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NaA zeolite particles were dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to prepare a composite membrane. The nano sized zeolite particles of NaA were synthesized in the laboratory and the mean size was approximately 60 nm. Pervaporation characteristics such as a permeation flux and a separation factor were investigated using the membrane as a function of the feed concentration from 0.01 to 0.05 mole fraction and the weight % of NaA particles between 0 wt% and 5 wt% in the membrane. Also, the micro sized particles of 5 mm were dispersed in the membrane for a comparison purpose. When the ethanol concentration in the feed solution was 0.01 mole fraction, the flux of water significantly increased from 600 g/m2/hr to 2000 g/m2/hr as the content of the nano NaA particles in the membrane increased from 0 wt% to 5 wt%, while the NaA particles improved the separation factor from 1.5 to 7.9. When the flux of water through the membrane containing nano sized particles was roughly 15% increased compared to the micro sized particles, whereas the separation factor of water was found to be approximately 5% increased. It can be said that the role of the nano sized NaA particles is quite important since both the flux and the separation factor are strongly affected

  14. Dynamics of supercooled water in nanotubes: Cage correlation function and diffusion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Mahdi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    Dynamics of low-temperature water in nanostructured materials is important to a variety of phenomena, ranging from transport in cement and asphaltene, to conformational dynamics of proteins in "crowded" cellular environments, survival of microorganisms at very low temperatures, and diffusion in nanogeoscience. Using silicon-carbide nanotubes as a prototype of nanostructured materials, extensive molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study the cage correlation function C (t ) and self-diffusivity D of supercooled water in the nanotubes. C (t ) , which measures changes in the atomic surroundings inside the nanotube, follows the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts law, C (t ) ˜exp[-(t/? ) ?] , where ? is a relaxation time and ? is a topological exponent. For the temperature range 220 Kwater does not freeze in the nanotube over the studied temperature range, and that the Stokes-Einstein relation breaks down.

  15. Conductive methyl blue-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with excellent stability and solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: MB-rGO was synthesized by making use of π stacking and water-solubility of MB to assist the hydrazine mediated reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous solution. The resulting MB-rGO shows excellent solubility and stability in aqueous solution, and the electrical conductivity of MB-rGO is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of GO. Highlights: ► Methyl blue (MB) stacks onto the plane of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by strong π–π interactions. ► Sulfo groups of MB prevent rGO from aggregating by electrostatic and steric repulsions. ► MB-functionalized rGO (MB-rGO) shows excellent solubility and stability in aqueous solution. ► Electrical conductivity of MB-rGO is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of GO. -- Abstract: π stacking and water-solubility of methyl blue (MB) are expected to facilitate the hydrazine mediated reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous environment. Our newly obtained MB-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (MB-rGO) exhibited excellent solubility and stability in water. The results showed that the MB molecules stacked non-covalently onto the basal plane of rGO while the sulfo groups of MB prevented the rGO from aggregation. In addition, the better electrical conductivity of MB-rGO than that of GO was analyzed. This novel conductive MB-rGO should have promising applications in diverse nanotechnological areas, such as electronic and optoelectronic devices, photovoltaics, sensors, and microfabrication.

  16. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hitesh Sharma; S Prakash

    2007-04-01

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and Harrison interatomic potential is used to calculate the atomic force constants, the dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces. We have thoroughly investigated the atomic displacements using impurities from 3d, 4d and 5d series in the same host metal and the same impurity in different hosts. We have observed a systematic pattern in the atomic displacements for Cr-, Fe-, Nb-, Mo-, Ta- and W-based dilute alloys. The atomic displacements are found to increase with increase in the number of d electrons for all alloys considered except for V dilute alloys. The 3d impurities are found to be more easily dissolved in the 3d host metals than 4d or 5d TMs whereas 4d and 5d impurities show more solubility in 4d and 5d TMs. In general, the relaxation energy calculation suggests that impurities may be easily solvable in 5d TM hosts when compared to 3d or 4d TMs.

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  18. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Garthe, Alexander; Kempermann, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this rev...

  19. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    AlexanderGarthe

    2013-01-01

    The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis. In this...

  20. Determining the impacts of trawling on benthic function in European waters : a biological traits approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, Stefan; Kenny, Andrew

    One of the most widespread yet manageable pressures we impose on the seabed is disturbance of the substrate by towed demersal fishing gear (bottom trawling and dredging). Over the past forty to fifty years, many studies have been conducted specifically aiming to understand the impacts of such fishing gear on the seabed communities. Their outcomes have demonstrated dramatic effects of bottom trawling on the structure of marine ecosystems although impacts tend to be wide-ranging, depending upon the gear, intensity, spatial area and the nature of the seabed habitats. However, understanding the functional impacts of this activity (as opposed to impacts on the structure of benthic assemblages) has only recently been attempted. Advances in the application of biological traits analysis (BTA) wherein the assemblages are described in terms of their life history, behavioural and morphological characteristics, have allowed us to better understand the interactions between the benthic fauna and their environment at a functional level. We present the initial findings of work conducted under the auspices of the EU-funded project ‘BENTHIS’ which aims to improve our understanding of the impacts of trawling on benthic ecosystem functioning over much larger spatial scales than previously undertaken. Biological traits information from 887 stations across European waters (Norwegian, UK, Belgian, Dutch, Danish waters, the Mediterranean and Black Sea) were analysed to: i) quantify the relationships between infaunal trait composition and environmental variables (depth, sediment granulometry); ii) determine the relationship between traits and habitat type (EUNIS level 4); and iii) assess the relationships between trawling pressure (using data derived under BENTHIS; see Eigaard et al., this volume) and traits composition

  1. Factors shaping bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras, Julia A.; Vaqué, Dolors; Maynou, Francesc; Sà, Elisabet L.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sala, Maria Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the main factors shaping bacterioplankton phylogenetic and functional diversity in marine coastal waters, we carried out a two-year study based on a monthly sampling in Blanes Bay (NW Mediterranean). We expected the key factors driving bacterial diversity to be (1) temperature and nutrient concentration, together with chlorophyll a concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and, hence, a carbon source for bacteria (here called bottom-up factors), and (2) top-down pressure (virus- and protist-mediated mortality of bacteria). Phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA. Functional diversity was assessed by using monomeric carbon sources in Biolog EcoPlates and by determining the activity of six extracellular enzymes. Our results indicate that the bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in this coastal system is shaped mainly by bottom-up factors. A dendrogram analysis of the DGGE banding patterns revealed three main sample clusters. Two clusters differed significantly in temperature, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration, and the third was characterized by the highest losses of bacterial production due to viral lysis detected over the whole study period. Protistan grazing had no effect on bacterial functional diversity, since there were no correlations between protist-mediated mortality (PMM) and extracellular enzyme activities, and utilization of only two out of the 31 carbon sources (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and ?-cyclodextrin) was correlated with PMM. In contrast, virus-mediated mortality correlated with changes in the percentage of use of four carbon sources, and also with specific leu-aminopeptidase and ?-glucosidase activity. This suggests that viral lysate provides a pool of labile carbon sources, presumably including amino acids and glucose, which may inhibit proteolytic and glucosidic activity. Our results indicate that bottom-up factors play a more important role than top-down factors (i.e. viral lysis and protistan grazing) in shaping bacterial community structure and activity. Furthermore, they suggest that viruses play a more important role than protists in modifying community structure and functional diversity of bacteria in oligotrophic marine coastal waters.

  2. Imaging of small radioactive point source displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for three dimensional recording of a patient mandibular movement is described. A small and harmless radioactive source is fixed at the point of interest. Using proper collimation, the motion of the point source is recorded via a gamma camera and minicomputer. Image enhancement techniques are used and physiological displacement is reproduced. We measured the vertical, lateral and protrusive envelopes of motion of a point on a tooth from a full denture set mounted on a semiadjustable articulator. All displacements were calibrated. Multiple sources in a single experiment may be recorded to describe the displacement of several points of interest. First experiments were run on patients. This method, derived from Nuclear Medicine techniques, offers a powerful tool of general interest for the tracking of dynamic events in many fields of Dental Medicine, for instance temporo-mandibular joint disfunction as well as Prosthetics. (author)

  3. Displacement Cascade Damage Production in Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Malerba, Lorenzo [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in microstructure and mechanical properties in structural materials are the result of a complex set of physical processes initiated by the collision between an energetic particle (neutron or ion) and an atom in the lattice. This primary damage event is called an atomic displacement cascade. The simplest description of a displacement cascade is to view it as a series of many billiard-ball-like elastic collisions among the atoms in the material. This chapter describes the formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the relevant variables such as cascade energy and irradiation temperature is discussed, and defect formation in different materials is compared.

  4. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked the diffusers by rearranging the furniture. Half of the surveyed occupants were not satisfied with the indoor air quality. The main conclusion is that displacement ventilation needs careful design and room furnishing in order to ensure a comfortable environment. Occupants must understand the underlying ventilation principle. This will ensure proper and efficient operation of the system and occupants´ satisfaction.

  5. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P.I. Fernandes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention and fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3 min was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1, and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2, 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16 and 27.5 (21 min, respectively (P = 0.10]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  6. Gastric emptying of water in children with severe functional fecal retention

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.P.I., Fernandes; M.C.L., Lima; E.E., Camargo; E.F., Collares; J.M., Bustorff-Silva; E.A., Lomazi.

    2013-03-15

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate gastric emptying (GE) in pediatric patients with functional constipation. GE delay has been reported in adults with functional constipation. Gastric emptying studies were performed in 22 children with chronic constipation, fecal retention an [...] d fecal incontinence, while presenting fecal retention and after resuming regular bowel movements. Patients (18 boys, median age: 10 years; range: 7.2 to 12.7 years) were evaluated in a tertiary pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Gastric half-emptying time of water (reference range: 12 ± 3?min) was measured using a radionuclide technique immediately after first patient evaluation, when they presented fecal impaction (GE1), and when they achieved regular bowel movements (GE2), 12 ± 5 weeks after GE1. At study admission, 21 patients had reported dyspeptic symptoms, which were completely relieved after resuming regular bowel movements. Medians (and interquartile ranges) for GE1 and GE2 were not significantly different [27.0 (16) and 27.5 (21) min, respectively (P = 0.10)]. Delayed GE seems to be a common feature among children with chronic constipation and fecal retention. Resuming satisfactory bowel function and improvement in dyspeptic symptoms did not result in normalization of GE data.

  7. Field measurement of relative ground displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of existing structures is a major requirement during underground nuclear blasts detonated as part of the Plowshare Program. Instrumental arrays to record ground motion are routinely established prior to blasts. These provide data on particle motions during the event but do not provide direct information concerning ground strains and relative displacements which may effect bridges, buildings, irrigation channels and other structures with large plan dimension. An experimental technique which was hastily developed and deployed to measure relative displacements during the Rio Blanco event of May 17, 1973 is described. The work was performed in anticipation of the Project Wagon Wheel in an area of Wyoming with many concrete lined irrigation channels

  8. Atomic displacement distribu< on during ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method to plot atomic displacement distribution in depth of solids irradiated by ions is suggested. This method leads to better agreement between measured dependences of displacement density on the depth and the sputtering factor per shooting on the target thickness in comparing with the known theory of linear cascades. The experimental results given in the paper and obtained for tungsten irradiated by iron ions (5 keV energy) are in satisfactorily agreement with theoretical data calculated according to the method suggested. 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Precision calibration of a laser displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Surface current coils with extremely precise magnetic fields can be designed using the magnetic scalar potential. These coils are constructed as curved 3-dimensional printed circuit boards with traces flowing along the equipotential contours. We are preparing to manufacture such coils using a high speed precision spindle controlled by a Staubli RX130 6 axis robotic arm. A laser displacement sensor is used to calibrate the robot and to determine the position of the circuit board substrate for accurate construction. In this poster, we describe a procedure to calibrate the laser displacement sensor to an accuracy of a few microns using linear least squares fits to the position of two coupled linear stages.

  10. Displacement, asymmetric information and heterogeneous human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Luojia; Taber, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    In a seminal paper Gibbons and Katz (1991; GK) develop and empirically test an asymmetric information model of the labor market. The model predicts that wage losses following displacement should be larger for layoffs than for plant closings, which was borne out by data from the Displaced Workers Survey (DWS). In this paper, we take advantage of many more years of DWS data to examine how the difference in wage losses across plant closing and layoff varies with race and gender. We find that the...

  11. A mathematical model of the shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shore level displacement in Fennoscandia (Scandinavia and Finland) is mainly due to two cooperative vertical movements, the glacio-isostatic uplift and the eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has recently been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake tilting phenomenon. This new information has made it possible to start an iteration process for detailed estimations of the uplift and the rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement. Arctan-functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the glacio-isostatic uplift. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in the glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow that can be linked to viscous flow, and one fast that might be explained by compression followed by decompression. The future development regarding the glacio-isostatic uplift, the eustasy and the shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modeling. The predictions are based on the assumption that the crustal and eustatic developments will follow the trends that exist today. 124 refs, 98 figs

  12. SIFT flow for large-displacement object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanlong; Hu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2014-09-20

    Traditional tracking methods place an emphasis on how to cope with the variations in target appearance effectively. However, when the motion displacement of the target between image frames becomes larger, these methods may be unstable. This paper presents a novel (to our knowledge) visual object tracking method. In this method, we first introduce scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow into the tracking problem and develop a real-time motion prediction method to capture large displacement between consecutive image frames. Then we use belief propagation (BP) to convert the problem of finding maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) to globally minimizing an energy function to get the best matching pairs of points for producing good candidate regions of the target. And last, the refined point trajectories are obtained according to the bidirectional flow field consistency estimation and covariance region descriptor matching, which can update model states efficiently so as to achieve enhanced robustness for visual tracking. Compared with the state-of-art tracking methods, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows favorable performance when the object undergoes large motion displacement between image frames. PMID:25322097

  13. General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, A., E-mail: alireza.dehghani@gmail.com, E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.

  14. Reconstruction of myocardial tissue motion and strain fields from displacement-encoded MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yi; Wen, Han; Gorman, Robert C; Pilla, James J.; Gorman, Joseph H; Buckberg, Gerald; Teague, Shawn D; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of myocardial mechanics is fundamental to understanding cardiac function, diagnosis of heart disease, and assessment of therapeutic intervention. Displacement encoding with stimulated-echo (DENSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was developed to track the three-dimensional (3D) displacement vector of discrete material grid points in the myocardial tissue. Despite the wealth of information gained from DENSE images, the current software only provides two-dimen...

  15. Surface-functionalized diatom microcapsules for drug delivery of water-insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Moom Sinn; Bariana, Manpreet; Yu, Yang; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

    2013-08-01

    Naturally available and biocompatible materials are potential substitutes for synthetic mesoporous materials as suitable drug carriers for the development of cost-effective drug delivery systems. This work investigates the application of a porous silica material derived from diatoms, also known as diatomaceous earth. The aim is to explore the surface functionalization of diatom microcapsules and their impact on the drug loading and release characteristics of water-insoluble drugs. Indomethacin was used as the model for poorly soluble drug. The surface modification on diatoms was performed with two organosilanes; 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine and phosphonic acids (2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid and 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid) providing organic surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Extensive characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry was performed to confirm covalent grafting of monolayer aminosilane and phosphonic acid on the diatom surfaces. Differences in loading capacity of diatoms (15-24%) and release time (6-15 days) were observed which is due to the presence of different functional groups on the surface. It was found that 2-carboxyethyl-phosphonic acid, 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl) ethylene diamine render diatom surfaces hydrophilic, due to polar carboxyl functional group (COOH) and active amine species (NH and NH2) that favor drug adsorption; better encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release of drugs, over the hydrophobic surface created by 16-phosphono-hexadecanoic acid. This work demonstrates diatom porous silica as a promising drug carrier, with possibility to further improve their performances by tailoring their surface functionalities to achieve the required drug loading and release characteristics for different therapeutic conditions. PMID:22457043

  16. Effect of heavy water on structure-function relationship of lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and functional behaviour of lactate dehydrogenase purified from Lactobacillus casei was compared in H2O and heavy water (D2O). The enzyme showed reduced activity in D2O, being only 45% of that observed in H2O. The modulations of the enzyme caused by the substrate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate examined at varying pH and pD values indicated decreased cooperativity in D2O. The elution profiles of the enzyme on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of the substrate and fructose 1, 6-diphosphate at varying pD values showed a shift towards lower molecular weight species. At pD 5,4 fructose diphosphate did not cause any further shift in the elution pattern which was otherwise observed in H2O. (author)

  17. On the analytical properties of the static dielectric function of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the behaviour of static dielectric function, ?(k), of water and other polar solvents on the basis of its relation to partial atomic structure factors with an emphasis on the problem of singularities on the real axis (divergence and negative values) discussed recently by various authors. We show that the behaviour of ?(k), particularly in the range of small k, is extremely sensitive to the form of a small difference between the structural factors at large distances, and to the values of parameters characterizing the intramolecular charge distribution. We show the origin of singular behaviour of ?(k), claimed in the mentioned works. We assert that the conclusions about the universality of the singular behaviour are premature in view of the instability of results for the structure factors in the range where they are essentially inaccurate, both in the experiment and computer simulation. (author). 38 refs, 5 figs

  18. Effects of heavy water on ultrastructural and functional status of Hep 2 and CHO cells lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy water effects on the ultrastructure and function of Hep 2 and CHO lysosomal cell compartment were investigated using electron microscopy and enzymatic studies. The cell viability, measured by neutral red uptake assay, and the total protein content determination, have shown a dose dependent decrease in cell growth for both studied cell types. The electron microscopy study has revealed a progressive increase in number and size of lysosomes and autophagosomes after 96 h exposure to different deuterium concentration media in a dose dependent manner. The enzymatic determination in the lysosomal pellet revealed an increased acid phosphatase activity in both cell types (15% and 33% for Hep 2 and 24% and 52% for CHO, respectively) exposed to media with high (65%, 90%) D2O content. (authors)

  19. Water Extract of Acer tegmentosum Reduces Bone Destruction by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunil Ha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The stem of Acer tegmentosum has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of hepatic disorders. In this study, we investigated the bone protective effect of water extract of the stem of Acer tegmentosum (WEAT. We found that WEAT inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine for osteoclast differentiation. In osteoclast precursor cells, WEAT inhibited RANKL-induced activation of JNK, NF-κB, and cAMP response element-binding protein, leading to suppression of the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, key transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation. In addition, WEAT inhibited bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, the oral administration of WEAT reduced RANKL-induced bone resorption and trabecular bone loss in mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that WEAT possesses a protective effect on bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

  20. Hazard-function modeling of early effects mortality risks associated with light water nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hazard-function modeling technique is used to derive risk estimators for mortality from specific early and continuing effects of exposure to radiations that could result from an accident at a light water nuclear power plant. The risk estimators allow for the accommodation of dose rate effects. Two modes of exposure are considered: (1) brief external exposure, mainly to cloud-shine and ground-shine gamma rays and (2) protracted internal exposure, mainly to beta radiation from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Critical organs considered are the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. The procedure used to develop the risk estimators is generic and, with additional parameters, could accommodate other types fo accidents, including those associated with plutonium or thorium fuel cycles. 16 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  1. Temperature-modulated water filtration using microgel-functionalized hollow-fiber membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne, Daniel; Pitsch, Fee; Wong, John E; Pich, Andrij; Wessling, Matthias

    2014-05-26

    In the present work, we investigate the potential of aqueous polymer microgels in membrane technology, especially for filtration applications. The poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)-based microgels exhibit thermoresponsive behavior and were employed to coat hollow-fiber membranes used for micro- and ultrafiltration. We discuss the preparation of microgel-modified membranes (by "inside-out" as well as "outside-in" filtration in dead-end mode). The clean-water permeability and stability of these membranes was studied not only as a function of time, but also of temperature. The microgel-modified membranes exhibit a reversible thermoresponsive behavior whereby both the resistance and the retention increased with decreasing temperature. PMID:24740583

  2. Desirability function based optimization of experimental data for air-water spray impingement cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nayak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research copes with the optimization of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a square mild steel test specimen by spray impingement cooling. A laboratory scale experimental setup was developed at School of Mechanical Engineering KIIT University, Odisha, India to investigate the role of various process parameters to enhance the heat transfer from the surface of the heated steal specimen. The mild steel plates of dimension 120 mm × 120 mm, and different thicknesses of 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm were used in the experiment. The effect of the process parameters such as thickness of the tested plate, nozzle to plate distance, air and water pressure upon the surface heat transfer coefficient (HTC was optimized. The optimization of the controlling parameters was carried out by using the desirability functions. The Design Expert 8 software was used to analyze the experimental results. A new correlation was developed for optimization of the surface heat transfer coefficient.

  3. Comparison of Geophysical Model Functions for SAR Wind Speed Retrieval in Japanese Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Badger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the accuracies of geophysical model functions (GMFs for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images in Japanese coastal waters characterized by short fetches and variable atmospheric stability conditions. In situ observations from two validation sites, Hiratsuka and Shirahama, are used for comparison of the retrieved sea surface wind speeds using CMOD (C-band model4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5.N. Of all the geophysical model functions (GMFs, the latest C-band GMF, CMOD5.N, has the smallest bias and root mean square error at both sites. All of the GMFs exhibit a negative bias in the retrieved wind speed. In order to understand the reason for this bias, all SAR-retrieved wind speeds are separated into two categories: onshore wind (blowing from sea to land and offshore wind (blowing from land to sea. Only offshore winds were found to exhibit the large negative bias, and short fetches from the coastline may be a possible reason for this. Moreover, it is clarified that in both the unstable and stable conditions, CMOD5.N has atmospheric stability effectiveness, and can keep the same accuracy with CMOD5 in the neutral condition. In short, at the moment, CMOD5.N is thought to be the most promising GMF for the SAR wind speed retrieval with the atmospheric stability correction in Japanese coastal waters, although there is ample room for future improvement for the effect from short fetch.

  4. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for Yellow Argisol and Yellow Latosol from the Brazilian Coastal Plains region. The Coastal Plains soils are mostly developed from Barreiras formation (pre-weathered sediments and their main uses are sugarcane, livestock, forestry and fruticulture. The database to generate the PTFs was composed from the selection of information derived from scientific works and soil survey reports of the region. Specific PTFs were generated for each soil class, in their respective A and B horizons and for solum, through multiple regression by stepwise package of R language programming. Due to the small pedological variability (small number of soil classes containing great geographical expression and mineralogical uniformity, usually observed in this environment, non-stratification of soil classes to create general PTFs presented similar or superior results compared to equations for each soil class. The adjustment of data demonstrated that water retention values at -33 kPa and -1500 kPa potentials can be estimated with adequate accuracy for the main soils of the Brazilian Coastal Plains through PTFs mainly from particle size distribution and secondarily from organic matter data.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONING OF WATER TRAMS IN GDAŃSK, BYDGOSZCZ AND KRAKÓW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Miszewska-Urbańsk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is to identify and juxtapose solutions implemented in transport provided by water trams for the following cities: Gdańsk, Bydgoszcz and Kraków. As a result of the conducted analysis of transport factors, the degree of conformity of project objectives to the actual role of the water tram has been determined. It was found that the Kraków Water Tram (also known as Cracow Water Tram is characterized by the greatest degree of conformity with project objectives. The solutions adopted in the project can be used to develop organizational and functional standards for this type of transport in Poland, since the lack of system solutions and little experience in implementation of water trams resulted in different organizational and technical approaches in their functioning.

  6. Density functional theory study on water-gas-shift reaction over molybdenum disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, X. R.; Wang, Shengguang

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the adsorption of reaction intermediates appearing during water-gas-shift reaction at the sulfur covered MoS2 (1 0 0)surfaces, Mo-termination with 37.5% S coverage and S-termination with 50% S coverage using periodic slabs. The pathway for water-gas-shift reaction on both terminations has been carefully studied where the most favorable reaction path precedes the redox mechanism, namely the reaction takes place as follows: CO + H2O --> CO + OH + H --> CO + O + 2H --> CO2 + H-2. The most likely reaction candidates for the formate species HCOO formation is the surface CO2 reaction with H as a side reaction of CO2 desorption on S-termination with 50% S coverage. The formed HCOO species will react further with adsorbed hydrogen yielding H2COO followed by breaking its C-O bond to form the surface CH2O and O species.

  7. Nanoporous membranes with cellulose nanocrystals as functional entity in chitosan: removal of dyes from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Zoheb; Mathew, Aji P; Grahn, Mattias; Mouzon, Johanne; Oksman, Kristiina

    2014-11-01

    Fully biobased composite membranes for water purification were fabricated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as functional entities in chitosan matrix via freeze-drying process followed by compacting. The chitosan (10 wt%) bound the CNCs in a stable and nanoporous membrane structure with thickness of 250-270 ?m, which was further stabilized by cross-linking with gluteraldehyde vapors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed well-individualized CNCs embedded in a matrix of chitosan. Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) measurements showed that the membranes were nanoporous with pores in the range of 13-10nm. In spite of the low water flux (64 Lm(-2) h(-1)), the membranes successfully removed 98%, 84% and 70% respectively of positively charged dyes like Victoria Blue 2B, Methyl Violet 2B and Rhodamine 6G, after a contact time of 24h. The removal of dyes was expected to be driven by the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged CNCs and the positively charged dyes. PMID:25129796

  8. Defluoridation of water using chitosan assisted ethylenediamine functionalized synthetic polymeric blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a new kind of approach undertakes for the synthesis of novel chitosan (CS) blended with ethylenediamine (ED) functionalized synthetic polymers viz., acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED) and styrene/divinylbenzene/vinylbenzyl chloride (CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED) for defluoridation of water. Under batch mode, various influencing parameters like shaking time, pH, competitor ions and temperature were optimized. The fluoride removal was reasonably explained using Freundlich, Langmuir and D-R isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters viz., ?G°, ?H° and ?S° indicates the nature of the fluoride sorption with the sorbents. The FT-IR, XRD and SEM with EDAX analysis were used to study the fluoride adsorption of CS@AN/DVB/VBC-ED and CS@ST/DVB/VBC-ED blends. The thermal stability of both the sorbents was tested using TGA/DSC analysis. Studies were also conducted to test the potential application of the prepared polymeric blends for fluoride removal from field water collected from the nearby fluoride endemic area. PMID:25036602

  9. Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kang, Zhou; Meng, Gui; Pinglan, Li; Shaohua, Xing; Tingting, Cui; Zhaohui, Peng.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 ºC) and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4%) on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was stu [...] died and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (µmax) and lag phase durations (LPD, ?) obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r², MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model.

  10. Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): A density-functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SrTiO3 is a technological oxide, with applications as photo-catalyst, gas-sensor or as substrate for film growth. In many of these applications the surface of SrTiO3 is deliberately or unintended in contact with water molecules. Aiming for the atomic-scale details of this interaction we perform density-functional theory calculations addressing the adsorption of H2O on both regular terminations of the SrTiO3(001) surface. We find that the binding energetics is crucially controlled by long-range surface relaxations. Using this energetics to construct a thermodynamic phase diagram we obtain a different propensity for hydroxylation of the two terminations that is consistent with recent experiments by Iwahori et al. Around room temperature the SrO-termination becomes hydroxylated already at lowest background humidity, whereas the TiO2-terminated domains stay practically water-free in the range of low and moderate H2O vapor pressures.

  11. Seafloor displacements of the 2003 Tokachi-oki and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes as inverted from tsunami waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, T.; Satake, K.; Namegaya, Y.; Sakai, S.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.

    2011-12-01

    We directly inverted tsunami waveform data for the ocean bottom displacement of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake without fault assumption. The result of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake indicates that short wavelength displacement exist in the coastal region to the west of Kushiro. The estimated displacement model well reproduce the observed coastal tsunami heights of 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, that were not explained by previous source models. The analysis result of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake earthquake indicates that the largest displacement is 5m and locates far off Miyagi prefecture, near the Japan trench axis. The Tokachi-oki earthquake (M_JMA8.0) occurred on 26 September 2003 off the southern coast of Hokkaido, Japan. We inverted tsunami waveform data for the ocean bottom displacement. We represented coseismic displacements with two different methods, and calculate tsunami Green functions from those displacements. The first method assumes a fault model, which is divided into subfaults (20km×20km), then calculates displacement for each subfault. The second method represents displacement with β-spline function at the equal interval (20 km) nodal points. As a result, short wavelength coastal displacement is estimated in inversion result without fault assumption. This short wavelength displacement is dominant to the west of Kushiro. Because the plate boundary beneath this region is deep, surface displacement from a fault slip has long wavelength and such a short wavelength cannot be reproduced. We compared the observed coastal tsunami heights and tsunami heights calculated from the tsunami source model estimated from inversion with and without fault assumption. The model estimated from inversion without fault assumption can reproduce the observed coastal tsunami heights better than the model with fault assumption, and can reproduce maximum tsunami height of 4 m at Mabiro. When short wavelength displacement is removed from the model without fault assumption, it can'tnot reproduce the observed coastal tsunami heights. This result indicates that a part of tsunami source exists shallower than the plate boundary to the west of Kushiro. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M_JMA9.0) occurred on 11 March off the eastern coast of Tohoku, Japan. We directly inverted tsunami waveform data for the ocean bottom displacement without fault assumption. We used the same method as analysis of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake. We set nodal points at equal interval (40km). We calculated tsunami Green function from displacements represented by β-spline function for inversion. The result indicates that the main tsunami source locates far off Miyagi, near the Japan trench axis and the largest displacement is 5m.

  12. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, October 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: characterization of functional groups of running water organisms, particularly macroconsumers; studies on relationship of functional groups to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of organic inputs to stream ecosystems; studies on relationship of functional groups to thermal regimes; and dimensioning the control of feeding and growth by temperature and food quality and quantity and determining the extent of compensatory action of each. (HLW)

  13. Britain's Redundancy Payments for Displaced Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Lawrence S.

    1987-01-01

    The Redundancy Payments Act of 1965 established the idea that an employee has property rights to a job based on years of company service. It instituted an entitlement program for displaced workers sponsored by firms and the government. The British layoff situtation differs from that of the United States. (Author/CH)

  14. Internal displacement in Nigeria: an urgent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past five years an estimated 800,000 people have been displaced in Africa’s most populous state. AddressingNigeria’s neglected IDP crisis must be a key priority in the run-up to the country’s 2007 presidential elections.

  15. Iraq: growing needs amid continuing displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Harper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven months after over 100 country representatives gathered in Geneva to address the Iraq displacement crisis, the humanitarian situation has markedly deteriorated. Expectations that highlighting the burdens of Iraq’s neighbours would result in financial and political support havebeen dashed. Support provided – relative to humanitarianneeds – has been negligible

  16. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Mahalingam

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  17. Education: protecting the rights of displaced children

    OpenAIRE

    Suba Mahalingam

    2002-01-01

    UNICEF and its partners work with displaced communitiesto provide material assistance and protection, using as their basis the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child1 and other internationallegal instruments. Education has proven a valuable tool in this effort, not only making children aware of their rights but also providing a way to participate in the realisation of these rights.

  18. Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO3 and KTaO3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

  19. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught as...

  20. The minimal displacement and extremal spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bolibok, Krzysztof; Wi?nicki, Andrzej; Wo?ko, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We show that both separable preduals of $L_{1}$ and non-type I $C^*$-algebras are strictly extremal with respect to the minimal displacement of $k$-Lipschitz mappings acting on the unit ball of a Banach space. In particular, every separable $C(K)$ space is strictly extremal.

  1. Iraq: growing needs amid continuing displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Harper

    2007-01-01

    Seven months after over 100 country representatives gathered in Geneva to address the Iraq displacement crisis, the humanitarian situation has markedly deteriorated. Expectations that highlighting the burdens of Iraq’s neighbours would result in financial and political support havebeen dashed. Support provided – relative to humanitarianneeds – has been negligible

  2. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  3. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  4. Wien's Displacement Law in Rindler Space

    CERN Document Server

    De, Sanchari; Ghosh, Sutapa; Chakrabarty, Somenath

    2015-01-01

    In this article we have developed a formalism to obtained the modified form of Wien's displacement law when the wall of the enclosure containing a photon gas is expanding adiabatically with a uniform acceleration. We have also studied the gravitational redshift of photons inside the enclosure using the prescription of extended relativistic dynamics with an upper limit of acceleration.

  5. Displacement of an electric arc by a stationary transverse magnetic field to different pressures of the ionized gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement of a wall-stabilized electric arc by a stationary transverse magnetic field is measured to different pressures of the ionized gas. The increase of the pressure makes the heat transfer function and the mass flow velocity in the arc column to raise, and it makes the arc displacement to decrease. (author)

  6. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  7. Stimulatory Effects of Balanced Deep Sea Water on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Geun; Park, Jung-Eun; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Shon, Yun Hee

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes, is increasing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recognized as a core feature of these diseases. Emerging evidence also suggests that defects in mitochondrial biogenesis, number, morphology, fusion, and fission, contribute to the development and progression of metabolic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BDSW regulates diabetes and obesity by studying its effects on mitochondrial metabolism. To determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and the expression of transcription factors and mitochondria specific genes, as well as on the phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondria biogenesis and its function in C2C12 myotubes. BDSW increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a time and dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that BDSW enhances gene expression of PGC-1?, NRF1, and TFAM for mitochondrial transcription; MFN1/2 and DRP1 for mitochondrial fusion; OPA1 for mitochondrial fission; TOMM40 and TIMM44 for mitochondrial protein import; CPT-1? and MCAD for fatty acid oxidation; CYTC for oxidative phosphorylation. Upregulation of these genes was validated by increased mitochondria staining, CS activity, CytC oxidase activity, NAD+ to NADH ratio, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as AMPK and SIRT1. Moreover, drinking BDSW remarkably improved mtDNA content in the muscles of HFD-induced obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the stimulatory effect of BDSW on mitochondrial biogenesis and function may provide further insights into the regulatory mechanism of BDSW-induced anti-diabetic and anti-obesity action. PMID:26068191

  8. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulphate droplets initiated by Humic Like Substances as a function of water activity

    OpenAIRE

    Y. J. Rigg; P. A. Alpert; Knopf, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing Leonardite (LEO) and Pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for Humic Like Substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity,

  9. Toward a unified picture of the water self-ions at the air-water interface: a density functional theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Marcel D; Kuo, I-Feng W; Tobias, Douglas J; Mundy, Christopher J

    2014-07-17

    The propensities of the water self-ions, H3O(+) and OH(-), for the air-water interface have implications for interfacial acid-base chemistry. Despite numerous experimental and computational studies, no consensus has been reached on the question of whether or not H3O(+) and/or OH(-) prefer to be at the water surface or in the bulk. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the bulk vs interfacial behavior of H3O(+) and OH(-) that employs forces derived from density functional theory with a generalized gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional (specifically, BLYP) and empirical dispersion corrections. We computed the potential of mean force (PMF) for H3O(+) as a function of the position of the ion in the vicinity of an air-water interface. The PMF suggests that H3O(+) has equal propensity for the interface and the bulk. We compare the PMF for H3O(+) to our previously computed PMF for OH(-) adsorption, which contains a shallow minimum at the interface, and we explore how differences in solvation of each ion at the interface vs in the bulk are connected with interfacial propensity. We find that the solvation shell of H3O(+) is only slightly dependent on its position in the water slab, while OH(-) partially desolvates as it approaches the interface, and we examine how this difference in solvation behavior is manifested in the electronic structure and chemistry of the two ions. PMID:24762096

  10. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy of a lateral displacement. However, for displacement vector measurements to describe complex tissue motions (eg, cardiac motion, if the axial coordinate corresponds to the depth direction in the target tissue, an ideal steering angle will be 45°. A two-dimensional echo simulation shows that for the block-matching methods, LM yields more accurate displacement vector measurements than ASTA, whereas with MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting and 1D methods, ASTA yields more accurate lateral displacement measurements than LM. The block-matching method requires fewer calculations than the moving average method; however, a lower degree of accuracy is obtained. As with LM, multidimensional measurement methods yield more accurate measurements with ASTA than the corresponding 1D measurement methods. Summarizing, for displacement vector measurements or lateral displacement measurements using the multidimensional measurement methods, the ranking of the degree of measurement accuracy and stability is ASTA with a mirror setting > LM with a moving average > LM with block matching > ASTA with block matching. Because every tissue has its own motion (heart, liver, etc and occasionally obstacles, such as bones, interfere with the measurements, the target tissue will determine the selection of the proper beamforming method with a choice between LM and ASTA. As for use with LM previously clarified, an appropriate displacement measurement method should also be selected for use with ASTA according to the echo signal-to-noise ratio, a required spatial resolution and a required calculation speed. ASTA, together with LM, can potentially enable the utilization of new aspects of displacement measurements.Keywords: a steering angle, lateral modulation, displacement vector measurement, lateral displacement measurement

  11. Study of degenerate parabolic system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a nuclear waste repository

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, Florian; Saad, Bilal; Saad, Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Our goal is the mathematical analysis of a two phase (liquid and gas) two components (water and hydrogen) system modeling the hydrogen displacement in a storage site for radioactive waste. We suppose that the water is only in the liquid phase and is incompressible. The hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed compressible and could be dissolved into the water with the Henry's law. The flow is described by the conservation of the mass of each components. The model is treated wit...

  12. Modelling of the Vajont rockslide displacements by delayed plasticity of interacting sliding blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanza, riccardo; Hedge, Amarnath; Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    In order to model complex sliding masses subject to continuous slow movements related to water table fluctuations it is convenient to: i) model the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of the materials by means of a viscous-plastic constitutive law; ii) assume the water table fluctuation as the main input to induce displacement acceleration; iii) consider, the 3D constrains by maintaining a level of simplicity such to allow the implementation into EWS (Early Warning System) for risk management. In this work a 1D pseudo-dynamic visco-plastic model (Secondi et al. 2011), based on Perzyna's delayed plasticity theory is applied. The sliding mass is considered as a rigid block subject to its self weight, inertial forces and seepage forces varying with time. All non-linearities are lumped in a thin layer positioned between the rigid block and the stable bedrock. The mechanical response of this interface is assumed to be visco-plastic. The viscous nucleus is assumed to be of the exponential type, so that irreversible strains develop for both positive and negative values of the yield function; the sliding mass is discretized in blocks to cope with complex rockslide geometries; the friction angle is assumed to reduce with strain rate assuming a sort of strain - rate law (Dietrich-Ruina law). To validate the improvements introduced in this paper the simulation of the displacements of the Vajont rockslide from 1960 to the failure, occurred on October the 9th 1963, is perfomed. It will be shown that, in its modified version, the model satisfactorily fits the Vajont pre-collapse displacements triggered by the fluctuation of the Vajont lake level and the associated groundwater level. The model is able to follow the critical acceleration of the motion with a minimal change in friction properties.The discretization in interacting sliding blocks confirms its suitability to model the complex 3D rockslide behaviour. We are currently implementing a multi-block model capable to include the mutual influence of multiple blocks, characterized by different geometry and groundwater levels, shear zone properties and type of interconnection. Secondi M., Crosta G., Di Prisco C., Frigerio G., Frattini P., Agliardi F. (2011) "Landslide motion forecasting by a dynamic visco-plastic model", Proc. The Second World Landslide Forum, L09 - Advances in slope modelling, Rome, 3-9 October 2011, paper WLF2-2011-0571

  13. Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a “beam on” tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI ?30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 ± 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 ± 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI ?30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

  14. Do displacement activities help preschool children to inhibit a forbidden action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Giulia; Addessi, Elsa; Schino, Gabriele; Bellagamba, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Displacement activities are commonly recognized as behavioral patterns, mostly including self-directed actions (e.g., scratching, self-touching), that often occur in situations involving conflicting motivational tendencies. In ethology, several researchers have suggested that displacement activities could facilitate individuals in dealing with the stress experienced in a frustrating context. In child developmental research, some authors have assessed whether distraction strategies could help children to inhibit a dominant response during delay of gratification tasks. However, little is known about the displacement activities that young children may produce in such situations. This study was aimed at investigating whether displacement activities had an effect on preschool children's ability to postpone an immediate gratification (i.e., interacting with an attractive toy, a musical box), thereby functioning as regulators of their emotional state. To this end, we administered 143 2- to 4-year-olds with a delay maintenance task and related their performance with displacement activities they produced during the task and with actions with an external object. Children's latency to touch the musical box was positively related to their rate of displacement activities. However, the rate of displacement activities increased progressively as long as the children were able to inhibit the interaction with the musical box. In addition, the rate of displacement activities during the first 1 min of test did not predict the ability of children to inhibit the interaction with the box. These results suggest that displacement activities represented a functionless by-product of motivational conflict rather than a strategy that children used to inhibit their response to an attractive stimulus. PMID:24907630

  15. Evaluation of temporomandibular joint disc displacement as a risk factor for osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, I M; Cordeiro, P C deF; Devito, K L; Tavares, M L F; Leite, I C G; Tesch, R deS

    2016-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement is a clinical sign often found in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and associated with TMJ osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthrosis is a degenerative joint disease that may be associated with pain and functional disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) of joints with disc displacement presenting osteoarthrosis via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. In total, 224 TMJ images from patients with signs and symptoms of a TMD were evaluated. The OR, a measure of association, was used to calculate the likelihood of TMJ disc displacement (with or without reduction) with osteoarthrosis. Joints with anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) were 2.73- and 8.25-times, respectively, more likely to have osteoarthrosis. A nine-times greater likelihood of osteophyte occurrence was observed in cases of ADDwoR, whereas a lower OR for their occurrence (OR 2.96) was observed in cases of ADDwR. The significant OR of joints with disc displacement presenting osteoarthrosis, particularly in cases of ADDwoR, emphasizes the importance of accurate assessment of changes in disc position, which may be associated with other painful and functional disorders of the TMJ. PMID:26474932

  16. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  17. Efficient classical density-functional theories of rigid-molecular fluids and a simplified free energy functional for liquid water

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Classical density-functional theory provides an efficient alternative to molecular dynamics simulations for understanding the equilibrium properties of inhomogeneous fluids. However, application of density-functional theory to multi-site molecular fluids has so far been limited by complications due to the implicit molecular geometry constraints on the site densities, whose resolution typically requires expensive Monte Carlo methods. Here, we present a general scheme of circumventing this so-called inversion problem: compressed representations of the orientation density. This approach allows us to combine the superior iterative convergence properties of multipole representations of the fluid configuration with the improved accuracy of site-density functionals. Next, from a computational perspective, we show how to extend the DFT++ algebraic formulation of electronic density-functional theory to the classical fluid case and present a basis-independent discretization of our formulation for molecular classical de...

  18. Spatial patterning of water quality in Biscayne Bay, Florida as a function of land use and water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Valentina G; Boyer, Joseph N

    2005-11-01

    An objective classification analysis was performed on a water quality data set from 25 sites collected monthly during 1994-2003. The water quality parameters measured included: TN, TON, DIN, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, TP, SRP, TN:TP ratio, TOC, DO, CHL A, turbidity, salinity and temperature. Based on this spatial analysis, Biscayne Bay was divided into five zones having similar water quality characteristics. A robust nutrient gradient, driven mostly by dissolved inorganic nitrogen, from alongshore to offshore in the main Bay, was a large determinant in the spatial clustering. Two of these zones (Alongshore and Inshore) were heavily influenced by freshwater input from four canals which drain the South Dade agricultural area, Black Point Landfill, and sewage treatment plant. The North Bay zone, with high turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, total phosphorus, and low DO, was affected by runoff from five canals, the Munisport Landfill, and the urban landscape. The South Bay zone, an embayment surrounded by mangrove wetlands with little urban development, was high in dissolved organic constituents but low in inorganic nutrients. The Main Bay was the area most influenced by water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean and showed the lowest nutrient concentrations. The water quality in Biscayne Bay is therefore highly dependent of the land use and influence from the watershed. PMID:16194552

  19. Halothane solvation in water and organic solvents from molecular simulations with new polarizable potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, Julia O; Johannes, Jonathan; Lev, Bogdan; Noskov, Sergei Yu

    2010-05-20

    The partitioning of a substrate from one phase into another is a complex process with widespread applications: from chemical technology to the pharmaceutical industry. One particularly well-known and well-studied example is 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (halothane) trafficking through the lipid bilayer. Halothane is a model volatile anesthetic known to impact functions of model lipid bilayers, altering the structure and thickness upon its partitioning from the bulk phase. A number of theoretical and experimental investigations suggest the importance of electronic polarizability, determining a preference for halothane to partition in the interfacial systems as in lipid bilayers or binary solvents. The recently published protocol for the development of polarizable force fields based on the classical Drude model has provided fresh impetus to efforts directed at understanding the molecular principles governing complex thermodynamics of the hydrophobic hydration. Here, molecular simulations were combined with free energy simulations to study solvation of halothane in polarizable water and methanol. The absolute free energy of halothane solvation in different solvents (water, methanol, and n-hexane) has been evaluated for additive and polarizable models. It was found that both additive and polarizable models provide an adequate description of the halothane solvation in high-dielectric (polar) solvents such as water, but explicit accounting for electronic polarization is imperative for a correct description of the solvation thermodynamics in nonpolar systems. To study halothane dynamics in binary mixtures, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for halothane-methanol mixtures in a wide range of concentrations were performed alongside an analysis of structural organization, dynamics, and thermodynamic properties to dissect the molecular determinants of the halothane solvation in polar and amphiphilic liquids such as methanol. Additionally, a theoretical test of the hypothesis on the weak hydrogen bonding of halothane and methanol in the condensed phase is provided, which was presented on the basis of spectroscopic analysis of the C-H vibrations in different gas-phase complexes. The simulations performed in the condensed phase suggest that hydrophobic interactions between halothane and methanol play a dominant role in preferential solvation. PMID:20411978

  20. MYTHIC DISPLACEMENT IN NIGERIAN NARRATIVES: AN INTRODUCTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignatius, Chukwumah.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five decades of resorting to humanistic critical procedures have bequeathed to the Nigerian critical practice the legacy of examining and discovering in Nigerian and African narratives the historical and social concepts of the time and times they are presumed to posit. These concepts include colonia [...] lism, corruption, war, political instability, and culture conflict. These procedures are undertaken without due regard to seeing the whole of the literary tradition as a stream out of which narratives emerge. This article, therefore, by way of introduction, seeks to retrieve Nigerian narratives from "every author" and humanistic critical approach by placing them in a realm where a holistic method such as Frye's could be applied. Here, the traverses of the structure of mythical imagery such as the mythos of crime and punishment as embodied in these narratives and how this structure was displaced/shrouded from Frye's first mimetic mode to the last, via the concept of mythic displacement, will be analysed.

  1. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  2. Selective spectral displacement projection for multifrequency MRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new motion encoding concept for the displacement vector in multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Selective spectral displacement projection (SDP)-MRE can be applied to a vibration spectrum composed of three frequencies and exploits the filter condition of MRE for selecting one frequency each per spatial motion encoding direction. The selected components are simultaneously encoded in the phase of the MR signal. Therefore, the total MR phase is represented by a sum of phase portions, each corresponding to a distinct spatial projection and vibration frequency. The individual components can be obtained by applying a Fourier-transform to the temporally resolved phase images. SDP-MRE reduces the number of temporally resolved MRE experiments for data acquisition by a factor of 3, while providing similar wave images as found using conventional monofrequency MRE. (paper)

  3. Energy simulation of displacement ventilation in offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, J.L.M. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Energy Systems Research Unit; Hamelinck, M.J.H. [Cauberg Huygen BV, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    Modelling and simulation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems in the context of building performance evaluation is rapidly gaining more and more interest. The objective of the case study described in this paper is to evaluate the performance of displacement systems in offices (i.e. an environment with a low air pollution load) in terms of thermal energy. The paper describes the modelling, how the model is verified, and summarises the simulation results. The main conclusion of this case study is that - from an thermal energy point of view - application of a displacement system in typical offices is only recommended when the casual gains are relatively low (i.e. up to 30 W m{sup -2}). (author)

  4. Relationships between leaf anatomy, morphology, and water use efficiency in Aloe vera (L) Burm f. as a function of water availability

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Herman, Silva; Susana, Sagardia; Mauricio, Ortiz; Nicolás, Franck; Marcela, Opazo; Madeleine, Quiroz; Cecilia, Baginsky; Cristián, Tapia.

    Full Text Available The effects of water availability were evaluated on the photosynthetic tissue anatomy in Aloe vera(L) Burm f. and its relationship with morphological, physiological parameters, and water use efficiency as a function of aerial biomass and gel production. Plants were subjected to four levels of water [...] availability equivalent to 20% (T1), 15% (T2), 10% (T3), and 5% (T4) of the atmospheric evaporative demand. The plants exhibited anatomical, morphological, and physiological responses to the different watering treatments. The extreme treatments produced negative responses due to excess water in T1 and water deficit in T4. Treatments T2 and T3 elicited positive responses in cell characteristics and productivity. Anatomical and structural characteristics were closely linked to physiology. Increased stomata number was negatively related to leaf length, width, and thickness (r = -0.85, -0.81, and -0.59, respectively) and to biomass production (r = -0.84), and positively related to the increase of cuticle thickness (r = 0.78). Treatment T2 showed the maximum efficiency of water use for biomass production (24.6 g L-1), which was closely related to cell size (r = 0.68) and number of stomata (r = -0.70).

  5. Incorporation of water into olivine during nebular condensation: Insights from density functional theory and thermodynamics, and implications for phyllosilicate formation and terrestrial water inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Abu; Muralidharan, Krishna; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    2015-04-01

    Using density functional theory, we have examined the hydration mechanism of olivine with the objective of understanding the reaction pathways toward the formation of crystalline serpentine and brucite. It is found that further supply of water beyond saturation of the adsorption sites on olivine surfaces leads to the formation of amorphous brucite and serpentine molecules, with the latter forming in the subsurface domain. The calculated activation energy for this process is ~25 kJ mol-1, which permits formation of the amorphous materials well within the life span of the solar nebula. In addition, molecular dynamic simulations show that the adsorbed water in olivine is stable at least up to 900 K—a finding that is in accord with independent experimental studies. Thus, adsorption plus subsurface reaction of H2O in olivine could have taken place at temperatures considerably higher than the stability limit of hydrous minerals in the nebular condition. Using the DFT derived enthalpy of adsorption data, and reasonable approximation for the entropy of adsorption, we have calculated the fractional coverage of the reactive surface sites of olivine grains of spherical geometry by adsorbed water, and the corresponding ocean equivalent water (OEW) that could have been accreted into the Earth. These results suggest that adsorption and the associated subsurface hydroxylation of olivine grains might have been responsible for a significant fraction of the Earth's water budget. The adsorption of water into olivine crystals in the solar nebula might also have led to the delivery of water to other planetary bodies.

  6. The sum is more than its parts: Key species in the functioning of cold-water coral reef communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, C. E

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity and biogeochemistry in the deep-sea, solely fuelled by external energy sources. Hence, food input, processing and recycling play a major role in the functioning of these ecosystems. In this thesis we aimed to study energy flow and metabolism of cold-water coral reef ecosystems by assessing the uptake and processing of different food sources by key species of the community (corals, worms and sponges) while including their (non-) trophic inter...

  7. Effects of Temperature on Immiscible Displacement of a Viscous NAPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Sleep, B. E.

    2005-12-01

    Thermal remediation techniques, such as hot water flooding, are emerging technologies that have been proposed to remove significant amounts of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface. These techniques were originally developed in the petroleum industry for enhanced petroleum recovery and later adapted for the remediation of NAPL contaminated sites. Hot water flooding exploits the temperature dependence of fluid properties, such as viscosity and interfacial tension, to improve NAPL removal efficiencies. Improved NAPL removal efficiencies result in reduced source longevity. Although hot water flooding has been applied at various remediation field sites it has received relatively little laboratory study in the contaminant hydrology community. This presentation describes results of a laboratory and modeling investigation designed to determine if hot water flooding techniques improve NAPL mass removal when compared to ambient temperature water flushing. Experiments were conducted in a bench scale two-dimensional sandbox (55 cm by 45 cm by 1.3 cm) and NAPL saturations were quantified using a light transmission apparatus in conjunction with a 14 bit CCD camera (1536 x 1024 pixels).Two immiscible displacement experiments were conducted in which the aqueous phase displaced a NAPL saturated zone. In the first experiment fluids were at ambient temperature (22 oC) and in the second fluid temperatures were elevated to approximately 50 oC. The hydraulic properties of the selected LNAPL, Voltesso 35, are strongly temperature dependent. At 50 oC Voltesso35 viscosity is 30 % of its value at ambient temperatures and the aqueous phase/Voltesso 35 interfacial tension is 83 % of its value at ambient temperatures. Experimental results of both the cold and hot water flooding experiments will be presented. A numerical simulator has been modified to include simultaneous flow of water and organic phases, energy transport, temperature and pressure. Model predictions of mass removal and NAPL saturation profiles compare well with observed behavior. A sensitivity analysis will be presented, exploring the temperature dependency of NAPL hydraulic properties, to assess the conditions under which it is advantageous to employ hot water flooding techniques.

  8. Polymer Accumulation at Oil-Water Displacement Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitha, Pacelli L. J.

    1997-08-01

    We present mathematical model to describe the expulsion of oil by a polymer solution from a granular porous material (polymer flooding). The model assumes essentially that polymer solution is much viscous than oil, and polymer adsorption on pore walls is negligible. The analysis reduces to treating the convection-dispersion of polymer in a mobile frame attached to the polymer-oil interface. We solve this problem by the Laplace transformation method using a symbolic software package (Matematica). The study illustrates how the use of a symbolic software makes the treatment of such complex problems easier.

  9. Study of the mechanism of gas displacement by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Dzhalilov, Z.I.; Tairov, N.D.; Vezirov, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on the model of gas-saturated bed 1 m long. A study was made of the dependence of the anyhdrous gas output of the bed on different factors. Experiments conducted with different initial bed pressures establish that the law, increase in anhydrous gas output with a rise in the pressure gradient with low values of it and independence of gas output on this parameter after a definite quantity, remains with all the adopted initial pressures. The difference is only quantitative. The lower the initial bed temperature, the higher the anhydrous gas output. The effect of mineralogical composition of rocks on gas output of the bed has not been studied. The content in rock of up to 15% clay has practically no influence on the anhydrous gas output of the flooded bed. Expansion of the range of change in pressure does not influence the dependence of gas output on the initial pressure. Regardless of the initial pressure with an increase in initial gas saturation of the bed, gas output rises rectilinearly. Permeability of the bed influences gas output with comparatively low values. Gas output does not depend on the content in the rock of clays up to 15%. Regardless of initial pressures and gas saturation, and bed permeability, the pressure differential increases gas output to quantity 0.3 MPa.

  10. Planar Displacement Detection with Point Feature Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Feng-Dong; Hong Bing-Rong; Liu Guo-Dong

    2009-01-01

    A novel planar displacement detection method is implemented using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) point feature matching on a calibrated optical grating-vision measuring platform. SIFT is a method for extracting and describing image key-points, which are robustly invariant to scale, rotation and translation as well as robust to illumination changes and limited changes of viewpoint. The platform is moved along its x axis step by step and a series of images are captured with correspond...

  11. Modelling human displacement through movement surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Hoehne, Antonio; Wachowicz, Monica; Maldonado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for predicting people displacement by means of movementsurfaces. These surfaces can allow the simulation of a person?s movement through the use of semanticmovement concepts such as those making up the environment, the people who are moving, eventsthat describe a human activity, and time of occurrences. In order to represent this movement we havetransformed the trajectory of a person or group of persons into a raindrop path over a surface. As araindrop flow...

  12. Displacement Phenomena in Lectin Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026

  13. Gangs, displaced, and group-based aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Lickel, Brian; Hennigan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Many urban areas experienced an alarming growth of gang activity and violence during the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. Gang members, motivated by various factors, commit a variety of different types of violent acts towards rivals and other targets. Our focus involves instances of displaced aggression, which generally refers to situations in which aggression is targeted towards individuals who have either not themselves committed an offense against the aggressor (s),...

  14. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows. PMID:21319721

  15. The Theme of Displacement in Contemporary Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John POTTS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les images et idées de dislocation dans des œuvres d'art récentes. Le thème du déplacement ou de la dislocation est traité dans le contexte de l'aspect globalisant de l'art contemporain, considéré lui-même comme un reflet de la mondialisation. Les principaux textes théoriques qui influencent et informent les pratiques en matière de conservation sont abordés, entre autres les écrits de Giorgio Agamben, Nicolas Bourriaud et Rex Butler. Le thème de la dislocation dans l'art contemporain est analysé au travers des œuvres de nombreux artistes, tels que Francis Alÿs, Bill Fontana, Allan Sekula, Chen Chieh-jen, Ai Wei Wei, Rosemary Laing, Mike Parr, Santiago Sierra, Rebecca Belmore et Tracey Moffatt.This essay considers images and ideas of displacement in recent works of art. The theme of displacement is examined in the context of the globalist aspect of contemporary art, itself a reflection of globalisation. Influential theoretical texts informing curatorial practice and the discourse of contemporary art theory are discussed, including the writings of Girogio Agamben, Nicolas Bourriaud and Rex Butler. The theme of displacement in contemporary art is analysed with regard to the work of many artists, including Francis Alÿs, Bill Fontana, Allan Sekula, Chen Chieh-jen, Ai Wei Wei, Rosemary Laing, Mike Parr, Santiago Sierra, Rebecca Belmore and Tracey Moffatt.

  16. Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoengold, Karina; Sunding, David L.; Moreno, Georgina

    2006-09-01

    Using panel data from a period of water rate reform, this paper estimates the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Price elasticity is decomposed into the direct effect of water management and the indirect effect of water price on choice of output and irrigation technology. The model is estimated using an instrumental variables strategy to account for the endogeneity of technology and output choices in the water demand equation. Estimation results indicate that the price elasticity of agricultural water demand is -0.79, which is greater than that found in previous studies.

  17. Development of A Continuous Process for Displacement Dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Beck

    2006-10-30

    The subject of this contract was to investigate the viability of a new process for dewatering paper called displacement pressing. The term “displacement pressing” was coined in the 1980s by researchers to describe a paper dewatering process where air is blown through a sheet of paper while it is being pressed. It was shown at that time that the combination of air and low pressing force could dramatically increase both sheet bulk and sheet solids which in theory would translate into huge savings in energy and fiber consumption. But there was a catch. Although the research results were dramatic, no one could figure out a commercially viable process to carry out displacement pressing. All research work had been done with batch processes, and there was no obvious way to convert these processes into a continuous process. By the end of the early1990’s no one was researching in this area because no continuous process existed. Recently we proposed a new method to carry out displacement pressing. Our process uses special pressing fabrics and a special 4 roll press that we call a “Beck Cluster Press” or BCP. The BCP provides a pressurized atmosphere that acts on a moving web of paper and fabrics. The special fabrics designed for this process use this atmosphere to press the sheet and at the same time, these special fabrics force air through the sheet to carry out displacement pressing. 1 Because of the complexity and cost of building the first functioning BCP, a simple simulator was built to confirm and study the process. Although results from this simulator were extremely favorable, financial times were hard in the paper industry. We are grateful for the DOE contract that allowed us to continue research that showed the tremendous benefits of displacement pressing. Specifically, accomplishments from the DOE contract are as follows: 1. A narrow (5” wide sheet) lab Beck Cluster Press (BCP) was started up, and made operational. This press accepts hand sheets and displacement presses them at conditions that duplicate commercial conditions for dwell time, and pressure. 2. The lab BCP machine was used to verify simulator results. Results showed the lab BCP gave paper dryness that exceeded simulator results for dryness. 3. Sheet samples were obtained for several paper grades. These samples were pressed conventionally (shoe and roll presses) and with the lab BCP. Results showed significant gains in bulk (5-48%) compared to commercially pressed sheets while producing similar or higher dryness. These results verified the predictions of the earlier research papers. 4. Sheet bulk exceeded the Agenda 2020 goal a 7% increase. This increase in bulk was reported by Agenda 2020 as being worth about 3 billion dollars per year in fiber savings. Potential energy savings due to dryness savings could be worth $1 billion per year. However energy savings and fiber savings are inter-related so while savings are likely in both energy and fiber at the same time, increasing one will cause the other to decrease. 5. Based on the significant results of small-scale BCP trials, a 1m pilot BCP press stand was built to determine scalability of the process. 6. 1m pilot press stand was started up. This machine was shown to hold design pressure. Drive issues however prevented operation at operating speed and pressure during the contact period. Improvements to the drive system since the end of the DOE contract have allowed us to reach operating pressure and speed. 7. The last DOE objective of passing paper through the 1m BCP was not reached due to drive issues and the desire to study and qualify sealing systems. All other original objectives and the added objective (by contract revision) of this ambitious project have been met. 8. Several paper companies have showed interest in helping us commercialize this process. Interest is so high that these companies appear willing to invest in further development.

  18. Method of studying the process of displacing hydrocarbon fluids and device for implementing it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasov, M.T.; Izadakarov, M.; Orudzhaliyev, F.G.

    1980-02-18

    A method is suggested for studying the process of displacing hydrocarbon fluids from a porous medium by water by injecting it with the help of compressed gas into a bed model and measuring the current values for recovery of fluids at the outlet of the model, pressure along the model and volume of injected water. In order to create the possibility of modeling the conditions of natural elastic-water pressure regime with continuous drop in pressure, the activity of displacement of hydrocarbons by water is regulated by changing the initial volume of compressed gas. The device for implementing the method contains a thermostatically controlled model, vessel with water and gas-pressure system, connected by pipelines. The gas-pressure system is made in the form of vessels of different volume connected by pipelines, and one of the vessels has variable volume. The vessels with compressed gas have a volume from 0.5 to 2 volumes of the bed model pores.

  19. Study of Rayleigh-Benard convection by pattern of water molecular flow observation as function of temperature difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluakan, Cosmas; Yusuf, Yusril; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2012-06-01

    An observation set up of Rayleigh Benard Convection (RBC) phenomenon has been developed. Observation set up made from glass box limited by two reservoirs, i.e. bottom and top reservoirs. The bottom reservoir is hotter than the top reservoir which has function to heat horizontal layers of fluid from below. The used media to observe fluid dynamics is water which mixed by teak saw dust as representation of water molecular. The observation show that increasing of temperature difference (?T) between two reservoirs causes the pattern of water molecular flow was different i.e. laminar and turbulent.

  20. Simulation of the radiolysis of water using Green's functions of the diffusion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, I; Cucinotta, F A

    2015-09-01

    Radiation chemistry is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionising radiation, notably with regard to DNA damage by indirect effect (e.g. damage by ·OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). In the recent years, Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDEs) have been used extensively in biochemistry, notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space. In the present work, an approach based on the GFDE will be used to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionising radiation on DNA. As a starting point, the code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) will be used to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of all radiolytic species formed during irradiation. The chemical reactions between these radiolytic species and with DNA will be done by using an efficient Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state that has been developed recently. These simulations should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage, particularly with regards to the formation of double-strand breaks. PMID:25897139

  1. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Shang; Ai-Rong Qian; Wei-Hong Guo; Yan Wang; Yue Liu; Huan-Huan Huang; Yong-Ming Liu; Chen-Yan Zhang; Jian-Yu Shi; Da-Chuan Yin; Hui-Ling Cao; Yun-Zhu Guo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity lev...

  2. A watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce regions through Water System Innovations: an integrated research initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with ecosystem functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, J.; Folke, C.; Gordon, L.; Hatibu, N.; Jewitt, G.; Penning de Vries, F.; Rwehumbiza, F.; Sally, H.; Savenije, H.; Schulze, R.

    The challenge of producing food for a rapidly increasing population in semi-arid agro-ecosystems in Southern Africa is daunting. More food necessarily means more consumptive use of so-called green water flow (vapour flow sustaining crop growth). Every increase in food production upstream in a watershed will impact on water user and using systems downstream. Intensifying agriculture has in the past often been carried out with negative side effects in terms of land and water degradation. Water legislation is increasingly incorporating the requirement to safeguard a water reserve to sustain instream ecology. To address the challenges of increasing food production, improving rural livelihoods, while safeguarding critical ecological functions, a research programme has recently been launched on “Smallholder System Innovations in Integrated Watershed Management” (SSI). The programme takes an integrated approach to agricultural water management, analysing the interactions between the adoption and participatory adaptation of water system innovations (such as water harvesting, drip irrigation, conservation farming, etc.), increased water use in agriculture and water flows to sustain ecological functions that deliver critical ecosystem services to humans. The research is carried out in the Pangani Basin in Tanzania and the Thukela Basin in South Africa. A nested scale approach is adopted, which will enable the analysis of scale interactions between water management at the farm level, and cascading hydrological impacts at watershed and basin scale. This paper describes the integrated research approach of the SSI programme, and indicates areas of potential to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarcity-prone agro-ecosystems while securing water for downstream use.

  3. Functional characterization of water transport and cellular localization of three aquaporin paralogs in the salmonid intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steffen S; Olesen, Jesper H; Bedal, Konstanze; Engelund, Morten Buch; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M; Tipsmark, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced in salmonids upon acclimation from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW); however, the molecular mechanism for water transport is unknown. We conducted a pharmacological characterization of water absorption in the rainbow trout intestine along with an in...

  4. Hydraulic differences along the water transport system of South American Nothofagus species: do leaves protect the stem functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Campanello, Paula I; Montti, Lia; Jimenez-Castillo, Mylthon; Rockwell, Fulton A; Manna, Ludmila La; Guerra, Pedro; Bernal, Pablo Lopez; Troncoso, Oscar; Enricci, Juan; Holbrook, Michele N; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2012-07-01

    Hydraulic traits were studied for six Nothofagus species from South America (Argentina and Chile), and for three of these species two populations were studied. The main goal was to determine if properties of the water conductive pathway in stems and leaves are functionally coordinated and to assess if leaves are more vulnerable to cavitation than stems, consistent with the theory of hydraulic segmentation along the vascular system of trees in ecosystems subject to seasonal drought. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic conductivity of stems and leaves, leaf water potential, wood density and leaf water relations were examined. Large variations in vulnerability to cavitation of stems and leaves were observed across populations and species, but leaves were consistently more vulnerable than stems. Water potential at 50% loss of maximum hydraulic efficiency (P(50)) ranged from -0.94 to -2.44 MPa in leaves and from -2.6 to -5.3 MPa in stems across species and populations. Populations in the driest sites had sapwood and leaves more vulnerable to cavitation than those grown in the wettest sites. Stronger diurnal down-regulation in leaf hydraulic conductance compared with stem hydraulic conductivity apparently has the function to slow down potential water loss in stems and protect stem hydraulics from cavitation. Species-specific differences in wood density and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(Leaf)) were observed. Both traits were functionally related: species with higher wood density had lower K(Leaf). Other stem and leaf hydraulic traits were functionally coordinated, resulting in Nothofagus species with an efficient delivery of water to the leaves. The integrity of the more expensive woody portion of the water transport pathway can thus be maintained at the expense of the replaceable portion (leaves) of the stem-leaf continuum under prolonged drought. Compensatory adjustments between hydraulic traits may help to decrease the rate of embolism formation in the trees more vulnerable to cavitation. PMID:22684354

  5. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShigekazuKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  6. Using in situ vertical displacements to characterize changes in moisture load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Lawrence C.; Freeman, Clay E.; Germanovich, Leonid N.; Thrash, Colby; DeWolf, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Changes in soil moisture content alter the load on underlying material, and we have developed a technique for characterizing this effect by using an extensometer to measure the displacement caused by the load change. The extensometer is pushed into soil at depths of 5 m or more, and displacement between two anchors separated by ˜1.5 m is measured with a resolution of better than 0.01 ?m (10-8 m). The instrument is sensitive to load changes at the ground surface within a radial distance that is roughly twice its depth, potentially providing a method for averaging changes in water content over hundreds of m2 or more. During a field trial at a site in South Carolina, compressive displacements in unsaturated saprolite were strongly correlated to rainfall with a calibration factor of 0.16 ?m displacement per mm of rainfall ±0.002 ?m/mm (R2 = 0.95). Estimates of the net change in water volume per unit area made using the calibration factor from rainfall were similar to independent estimates of evapotranspiration. The technique was affected by barometric pressure variations, but the sensitivity was less than expected and does not hinder meaningful application. A companion instrument demonstrated the displacement signal was repeatable. This article was corrected on 11 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  7. The elastic layer with a cylindrical hole subjected to a nonuniform axisymmetric radial displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, D. S.; Michalopoulos, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    A problem in the linear theory of elasticity is considered wherein a layer with a circular cylindrical hole is subjected to a nonuniform axisymmetric radial displacement. The solution utilizes Navier's equations of elasticity which are solved by means of extended Hankel transforms. A special case in which the radial displacement is a linear function of the axial coordinate is presented. Numerical results are given in graphical form for the case when hole radius and layer thickness are equal. The inversion integrals were evaluated numerically using Longman's technique for computing infinite integrals of oscillatory functions.

  8. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    OpenAIRE

    J. Moeys; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L; Brown, C.D.; Y. Coquet; Jarvis, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisation usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which account...

  9. Functional test of pedotransfer functions to predict water flow and solute transport with the dual-permeability model MACRO

    OpenAIRE

    J. Moeys; Larsbo, M.; Bergström, L; Brown, C.D.; Y. Coquet; Jarvis, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating pesticide leaching risks at the regional scale requires the ability to completely parameterise a pesticide fate model using only survey data, such as soil and land-use maps. Such parameterisations usually rely on a set of lookup tables and (pedo)transfer functions, relating elementary soil and site properties to model parameters. The aim of this paper is to describe and test a complete set of parameter estimation algorithms developed for the pesticide fate model MACRO, which accoun...

  10. Reproductive Health Education and Services Needs of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees following Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…

  11. Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Chance, M; Palczewski, K

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane {alpha}-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A2A-adenosine, {beta}1- and {beta}2-adrenergic receptors, permits comparative analysis of features common to these and likely all GPCRs. We provide an analysis of the distribution of water molecules in the transmembrane region of these GPCR structures and find conserved contacts with microdomains demonstrated to be involved in receptor activation. Colocalization of water molecules associating with highly conserved and functionally important residues in several of these GPCR crystal structures supports the notion that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, in the absence of large conformational changes in rhodopsin after photoactivation, we propose that ordered waters contribute to the functional plasticity needed to transmit activation signals from the retinal-binding pocket to the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin and that fundamental features of the mechanism of activation, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors.

  12. 24 CFR 886.138 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...maintain data on the race, ethnic, gender, and handicap status of displaced persons. (g) Definition of displaced person. (1) for purposes...be covered by this section. (h) Definition of initiation of negotiations....

  13. 24 CFR 236.1001 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...maintain data on the race, ethnic, gender, and disability status of displaced persons. (g) Definition of displaced person. (1) For purposes...be covered by this section. (h) Definition of initiation of negotiations....

  14. 24 CFR 941.207 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...including data indicating the race, ethnic, gender and disability status of displaced persons. (h) Definition of displaced person. (1) For purposes...be covered by this section. (i) Definition of initiation of negotiations. For...

  15. 24 CFR 886.338 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...maintain data on the race, ethnic, gender, and handicap status of displaced persons. (g) Definition of displaced person. (1) For purposes...be covered by this section. (h) Definition of initiation of negotiations....

  16. 24 CFR 882.810 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...maintain data on the racial, ethnic, gender, and disability status of displaced persons. (g) Definition of displaced person. (1) For purposes...be covered by this section. (h) Definition of initiation of negotiations....

  17. Voltage Gated Ion Channel Function: Gating, Conduction, and the Role of Water and Protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisher M. Kariev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels, which are found in every biological cell, regulate the concentration of electrolytes, and are responsible for multiple biological functions, including in particular the propagation of nerve impulses. The channels with the latter function are gated (opened by a voltage signal, which allows Na+ into the cell and K+ out. These channels have several positively charged amino acids on a transmembrane domain of their voltage sensor, and it is generally considered, based primarily on two lines of experimental evidence, that these charges move with respect to the membrane to open the channel. At least three forms of motion, with greatly differing extents and mechanisms of motion, have been proposed. There is a “gating current”, a capacitative current preceding the channel opening, that corresponds to several charges (for one class of channel typically 12–13 crossing the membrane field, which may not require protein physically crossing a large fraction of the membrane. The coupling to the opening of the channel would in these models depend on the motion. The conduction itself is usually assumed to require the “gate” of the channel to be pulled apart to allow ions to enter as a section of the protein partially crosses the membrane, and a selectivity filter at the opposite end of the channel determines the ion which is allowed to pass through. We will here primarily consider K+ channels, although Na+ channels are similar. We propose that the mechanism of gating differs from that which is generally accepted, in that the positively charged residues need not move (there may be some motion, but not as gating current. Instead, protons may constitute the gating current, causing the gate to open; opening consists of only increasing the diameter at the gate from approximately 6 Å to approximately 12 Å. We propose in addition that the gate oscillates rather than simply opens, and the ion experiences a barrier to its motion across the channel that is tuned by the water present within the channel. Our own quantum calculations as well as numerous experiments of others are interpreted in terms of this hypothesis. It is also shown that the evidence that supports the motion of the sensor as the gating current can also be consistent with the hypothesis we present.

  18. Systematic review of mini-implant displacement under orthodontic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Nienkemper, Manuel; Handschel, Jörg; Drescher, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of studies have reported that mini-implants do not remain in exactly the same position during treatment, although they remain stable. The aim of this review was to collect data regarding primary displacement immediately straight after loading and secondary displacement over time. A systematic review was performed to investigate primary and secondary displacement. The amount and type of displacement were recorded. A total of 27 studies were included. Sixteen in vitro studies o...

  19. Life cycle effects of job displacement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Jasper

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the consequences of the decline of the Brazilian manufacturing sector for displaced workers. I estimate that earnings decline by nearly 50% after displacement relative to one year prior. About a quarter of the initial earnings loss is attributable to reduced hours of work rather than lower wages. However, hours recover fully within one year of displacement, while wages remain about a third lower. Allowing the displacement effect to differ by age yields a surprising U-shap...

  20. Inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters with biogeochemical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aquatic environment, particles can be broadly separated into phytoplankton (PHY, non-algal particle (NAP and dissolved (or very small particle, VSP fractions. Typically, absorption spectra are inverted to quantify these fractions, but volume scattering functions (VSFs can also be used. Both absorption spectra and VSFs were used to calculate particle fractions for an experiment in Chesapeake Bay. A complete set of water inherent optical properties was measured using a suite of commercial instruments and a prototype Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter (MVSM; the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl] was determined using the HPLC method. The total scattering coefficient (measured by an ac-s and the VSF (at a few backward angles, measured by a HydroScat 6 and an ECO-VSF agreed with the LISST and MVSM data within 5%, thus indicating inter-instrument consistency. The size distribution and scattering parameters for PHY, NAP and VSP were inverted from measured VSFs. For the absorption inversion, the "dissolved" absorption spectra were measured for filtrate passing through a 0.2 ?m filter, whereas [Chl] and NAP absorption spectra were inverted from the particulate fraction. Even though the total scattering coefficient showed no correlation with [Chl], estimates of [Chl] from the VSF-inversion agreed well with the HPLC measurements (r = 0.68, mean relative error s = ?20%. The scattering associated with NAP and VSP both correlated well with the NAP and "dissolved" absorption coefficients, respectively. While NAP dominated forward, and hence total, scattering, our results also suggest that the scattering by VSP was far from negligible and dominated backscattering.

  1. Water makes the difference: rearrangement of water solvation layer triggers non-additivity of functional group contributions in protein-ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biela, Adam; Betz, Michael; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2012-08-01

    The binding of four congeneric peptide-like thermolysin inhibitors has been studied by high-resolution crystal structure analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ligands differ only by a terminal carboxylate and/or methyl group. A surprising non-additivity of functional group contributions for the carboxylate and/or methyl groups is detected. Adding the methyl first and then the carboxylate group results in a small Gibbs free energy increase and minor enthalpy/entropy partitioning for the first modification, whereas the second involves a strong affinity increase combined with large enthalpy/entropy changes. However, first adding the carboxylate and then the methyl group yields reverse effects: the acidic group attachment now causes minor effects, whereas the added methyl group provokes large changes. As all crystal structures show virtually identical binding modes, affinity changes are related to rearrangements of the first solvation layer next to the S(2)' pocket. About 20-25 water molecules are visible next to the studied complexes. The added COO(-) groups perturb the local water network in both carboxylated complexes, and the attached methyl groups provide favorable interaction sites for water molecules. Apart from one example, a contiguously connected water network between protein and ligand functional groups is observed in all complexes. In the complex with the carboxylated ligand, which still lacks the terminal methyl group, the water network is unfavorably ruptured. This results in a surprising thermodynamic signature showing only a minor affinity increase upon COO(-) group attachment. Because the further added methyl group provides a favorable interaction site for water, the network can be reestablished, and a strong affinity increase with a large enthalpy/entropy signature is then detected. PMID:22733601

  2. Sample displacement chromatography of plasmid DNA isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ernigoj, Urh; Martinu?, Urška; Cardoso, Sara; Sekirnik, Rok; Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-10-01

    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) is a chromatographic technique that utilises different relative binding affinities of components in a sample mixture and has been widely studied in the context of peptide and protein purification. Here, we report a use of SDC to separate plasmid DNA (pDNA) isoforms under overloading conditions, where supercoiled (sc) isoform acts as a displacer of open circular (oc) or linear isoform. Since displacement is more efficient when mass transfer between stationary and mobile chromatographic phases is not limited by diffusion, we investigated convective interaction media (CIM) monoliths as stationary phases for pDNA isoform separation. CIM monoliths with different hydrophobicities and thus different binding affinities for pDNA (CIM C4 HLD, CIM-histamine and CIM-pyridine) were tested under hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) conditions. SD efficiency for pDNA isoform separation was shown to be dependent on column selectivity for individual isoform, column efficiency and on ammonium sulfate (AS) concentration in loading buffer (binding strength). SD and negative mode elution often operate in parallel, therefore negative mode elution additionally influences the efficiency of the overall purification process. Optimisation of chromatographic conditions achieved 98% sc pDNA homogeneity and a dynamic binding capacity of over 1mg/mL at a relatively low concentration of AS. SDC was successfully implemented for the enrichment of sc pDNA for plasmid vectors of different sizes, and for separation of linear and and sc isoforms, independently of oc:sc isoform ratio, and flow-rate used. This study therefore identifies SDC as a promising new approach to large-scale pDNA purification, which is compatible with continuous, multicolumn chromatography systems, and could therefore be used to increase productivity of pDNA production in the future. PMID:26319374

  3. Study of fast neutron scattering. The displacement cross-section (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method for calculating the biological efficiency of fast neutrons emitted by in-pile fission sources. This method justifies the empirical theory of Albert and Welton. In making simple assumptions concerning the cross-sections, we have supposed that the propagation can ben reduced to a mono-kinetic problem. A system of orthonormal functions is then set up making it possible to calculate the flux leaving a planar source. This method generalises the results obtained by Platzek to the case where the elastic cross-sections are not isotropic, and make it possible in particular to define a displacement cross-section: extension of the diffusion coefficient. This method can be generalised to the case of neutron diffraction as a function of time, and to the study of slowing-down. Numerical results are given in an appendix for the following: H2O, D2O, Fe, Be, Pb, CH, CH2. These cross-sections have been verified experimentally in water and in graphite for neutrons of 2.5 and 14 MeV using a SAMES accelerator and a 2 MeV Van De Graaff. (author)

  4. Mirror displacement energies and neutron skins

    CERN Document Server

    Duflo, J

    2002-01-01

    Assuming isospin conservation, it is shown that a single expression accounts for both neutron and proton radii. Excellent fits to the former turn out to be consistent with different neutron skins. To fix their values the displacement energies between mirror nuclei, MDE, are calculated using an accurately derived Coulomb energy, and smooth averages of the charge symmetry breaking potentials constrained to state of the art values. Optimum agreement with observed MDE and neutron skins is obtained. The remaining uncertainties are shown to be due to shell effects.

  5. Dynamics and structure of energetic displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes recent progress in the understanding of energetic displacement cascades and the primary state of damage in metals. On the theoretical side, the availability of supercomputers has greatly enhanced our ability to simulate cascades by molecular dynamics. Recent application of this simulation technique to Cu and Ni provides new insight into the dynamics of cascade processes. On the experimental side, new data on ion beam mixing and in situ electron microscopy studies of ion damage at low temperatures reveal the role of the thermodynamic properties of the material on cascade dynamics and structure. 38 refs., 9 figs

  6. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92. The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  7. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Romero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  8. From Word to Image: Displacement and Meaning in "Greed."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindon, Leger

    1989-01-01

    Describes levels of displacement in Stroheim's film "Greed," including (1) the displacement of reason, pleasure, and life by the desire for gold; and (2) the displacement that points to a double movement in Stroheim's cinematic style. Argues that the film's sense of doom arises from the psychic nightmare operating through the mechanics of…

  9. Displaced Workers. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Juliet

    The displaced worker is an individual who has been laid off from a job and has little or no hope of returning to that particular position. The number of displaced workers is large and is apt to increase. Displaced workers are typically male, older, not highly educated, and are union members with several years of seniority and above-average wages.…

  10. Bayesian Speckle Tracking. Part II: Biased Ultrasound Displacement Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Byram, Brett; TRAHEY, GREGG E.; Palmeri, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic displacement estimates have numerous clinical uses including blood-flow, elastography, therapeutic guidance and ARFI imaging. These clinical tasks could be improved with better ultrasonic displacement estimates. Traditional ultrasonic displacement estimates are limited by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The CRLB can be surpassed using biased estimates. In this paper a framework for biased estimation using Bayes’ theorem is described.

  11. Year of displaced people’s rights in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Romero

    2007-01-01

    A Campaign for the Rights of Displaced People in Colombia, launched in 2007 by UNHCR, Colombian NGO CODHES and the Catholic Church, has tried to raise awareness in Colombia and the international community about the severity of the country’s displacement crisis and its failure to guarantee the rights of displaced people.

  12. Functionalization of Zr-based MOFs with alkyl and perfluoroalkyl groups: the effect on the water sorption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Bourrelly, S; Martineau, C; Saidi, F; Bloch, E; Lavrard, H; Taulelle, F; Horcajada, P; Serre, C; Llewellyn, P L; Magnier, E; Devic, T

    2015-12-01

    Stability and sorption of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) towards water are critical in many applications, and can a priori be modulated through the introduction of suitable organic functional groups on their backbone. We report here the preparation of a series of Zr(iv)-based MOFs functionalized with alkyl and perfluoroalkyl groups and their characterization by X-ray powder diffraction, multi-nuclei ((1)H, (13)C, (19)F) solid state nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, and nitrogen sorption measurements at 77 K. Their water sorption behavior was evaluated at 298 K and related to their physico-chemical features, highlighting both the effect of the confinement and the nature of the functional groups on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance. PMID:26473182

  13. Functional interactions in bacteriorhodopsin: a theoretical analysis of retinal hydrogen bonding with water.

    OpenAIRE

    Nina, M; Roux, B; Smith, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The light-driven proton pump, bacteriorhodopsin (bR) contains a retinal molecule with a Schiff base moiety that can participate in hydrogen-bonding interactions in an internal, water-containing channel. Here we combine quantum chemistry and molecular mechanics techniques to determine the geometries and energetics of retinal Schiff base-water interactions. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations are used to determine potential surfaces for water-Schiff base hydrogen-bonding and to characteriz...

  14. Comparison of Pattern Recognition, Artificial Neural Network and Pedotransfer Functions for Estimation of Soil Water Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin GORBANZADEH; Mohammad BANNAYAN AVAL; Amir LAKZIAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of three different approaches to estimate soil water content at defined values of soil water potential based on selected parameters of soil solid phase. Forty different sampling locations in northeast of Iran were selected and undisturbed samples were taken to measure the water content at field capacity (FC), -33 kPa, and permanent wilting point (PWP), -1500 kPa. At each location solid particle of each sample including the percentage of sand, silt and clay w...

  15. Atomic mean-square displacements in proteins by molecular dynamics: a case for analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragliano, Luca; Cottone, Grazia; Cordone, Lorenzo; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2004-05-01

    Information on protein internal motions is usually obtained through the analysis of atomic mean-square displacements, which are a measure of variability of the atomic positions distribution functions. We report a statistical approach to analyze molecular dynamics data on these displacements that is based on probability distribution functions. Using a technique inspired by the analysis of variance, we compute unbiased, reliable mean-square displacements of the atoms and analyze them statistically. We applied this procedure to characterize protein thermostability by comparing the results for a thermophilic enzyme and a mesophilic homolog. In agreement with previous experimental observations, our analysis suggests that the proteins surface regions can play a role in the different thermal behavior. PMID:15111395

  16. Enhanced electrocaloric effect in displacive-type organic ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, L. J.; Zhong, Y.; Fan, S. W.; Zhu, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    We explore the intrinsic feature of electrocaloric effect (ECE) accompanied by ferroelectric (FE)-paraelectric (PE) transition for displacive-type organic ferroelectrics using Green's function theory. It is demonstrated that decreasing elastic constant K or increasing spin-lattice coupling ? can enhance the ECE, as well as polarization P and transition temperature TC. Indeed, one expects that the optimal operating temperature for solid-state refrigeration is around room temperature, at which the ECE achieves its maximum. As TC is tuned to ˜310 K, it presents larger ECE response and remanent polarization with lower coercive field for smaller K value, suggesting that well flexible displacive-type organic ferroelectrics are excellent candidates both for electric cooling and data storage in the design of nonvolatile FE random-access memories. Furthermore, in an electric field, it provides a bridge between a Widom line that denotes FE-PE crossover above TC and a metaelectric transition line below TC that demonstrates an FE switching behavior with an antiparallel field.

  17. Functional, histological and biomechanical characterization of wheat water-mutant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascio, Agata; Rascio, Nicoletta; Rinaldi, Michele; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2015-06-01

    A wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) mutant, generated with sodium azide from wild-type (WT) cv. 'Trinakria', differs in its water affinity of dry leaves, and was designated as a water-mutant. Compared with the WT, water-mutant leaves have lower rates of water uptake, while stomatal and cuticular transpiration do not differ. The nuclear magnetic resonance proton signals used for image reconstruction of leaf cross sections showed differences between these genotypes for the T1 proton spin-density and the T2 proton spin-spin relaxation time. Structural and histochemical analyses at midrib level showed that the water-mutant has thinner leaves, with more and smaller cells per unit area of mesophyll and sclerenchyma, and has altered staining patterns of lignin and pectin-like substances. Stress-strain curves to examine the rheological properties of the leaves showed a biphasic trend, which reveals that the tensile strength at break load and the elastic modulus of the second phase of the water-mutant are significantly higher than for the WT. These data support the proposal of interrelationships among local biophysical properties of the leaf, the microscopic water structure, the rheological properties and the water flux rate across the leaf. This water-mutant can be used for analysis of the genetic basis of these differences, and for identification of gene(s) that govern these traits. PMID:25212239

  18. Water structure as a function of temperature from X-ray scatteringexperiments and ab initio molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hura, Greg; Russo, Daniela; Glaeser, Robert M.; Head-Gordon,Teresa; Krack, Matthias; Parrinello, Michele

    2003-03-01

    We present high-quality X-ray scattering experiments on pure water taken over a temperature range of 2 to 77 C using a synchrotron beam line at the advanced light source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The ALS X-ray scattering intensities are qualitatively different in trend of maximum intensity over this temperature range compared to older X-ray experiments. While the common procedure is to report both the intensity curve and radial distribution function(s), the proper extraction of the real-space pair correlation functions from the experimental scattering is very difficult due to uncertainty introduced in the experimental corrections, the proper weighting of OO, OH, and HH contributions, and numerical problems of Fourier transforming truncated data in Q-space. Instead, we consider the direct calculation of X-ray scattering spectra using electron densities derived from density functional theory based on real-space configurations generated with classical water models. The simulation of the experimental intensity is therefore definitive for determining radial distribution functions over a smaller Q-range. We find that the TIP4P, TIP5P and polarizable TIP4P-Pol2 water models, with DFT-LDA densities, show very good agreement with the experimental intensities, and TIP4P-Pol2 in particular shows quantitative agreement over the full temperature range. The resulting radial distribution functions from TIP4P-Pol2 provide the current best benchmarks for real-space water structure over the biologically relevant temperature range studied here.

  19. APPLICATION OF GPS DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING SLOPE DISPLACEMENTS AT A TUNNEL ENTRANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroaki; Tsutsui, Takanori; Ikeda, Keisuke; Shimizu, Norikazu

    A GPS displacement measurement system has been widely used for monitoring the slope stability. Tall trees and other obstacles on the slope often cause a disturbance to the signals transmitted from the satellites and a degradation of the measurement accuracy. It is an important issue to be overcome for applying GPS to monitoring the deformation of slopes. In this paper, "the mask method" developed by the authors is adopted for improving the measurement accuracy under overhead obstacles. It is proven that the method was effective for monitoring a slope at a tunnel entrance during tunnel construction. The measured results of three dimensional displacements are discussed for assessing the slope stability.

  20. Role of Bulk Water Environment in Regulation of Functional Hydrogen-Bond Network in Photoactive Yellow Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Koichi; Hayashi, Shigehiko

    2015-12-24

    Photoactive yellow protein is a soluble photoreceptor protein involved in signal transduction for phototaxis. A hydrogen-bond between the chromophore, p-coumaric acid (pCA), and a nearby carboxyl group of Glu46 at the active site is known to play a crucial role in the formation of the signaling state in the photoactivation. Since the hydrogen-bond at the active site as well as the extensive conformational changes of the protein in the formation of the signaling state are considered to be controlled by water molecules, we theoretically examined influence of bulk water environment on the functionally important hydrogen-bond by means of molecular simulations. Theoretical analysis of potential energy profiles of the proton transfer between pCA and Glu46 with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations revealed critical effect of electrostatic screening of bulk water on the electronic character of the hydrogen-bond. Moreover, QM/MM free energy geometry optimizations identified the water-penetrating state where Glu46 forming a putative low-barrier hydrogen-bond with pCA is hydrated by water molecules penetrating from bulk environment in addition to the water-excluded state which corresponds to X-ray crystallographic structures. The present results suggest that the water-penetrating state is a precursory conformational substate that leads to efficient formation of the signaling state. PMID:26598051

  1. Holding Water in the Landscape; striking a balance between food production and healthy catchment function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Adams, Russell

    2015-04-01

    Here it is proposed that ~5 % of the rural landscape could be modified to hold water during storm events. Hence ~95% of land remains for food production, commercial forestry and amenity. This is a catchment scale commitment to sustainably reducing flood and drought risk, improving water quality, biodiversity and thereby climate proofing our catchments. The farmed landscape has intensified and as a result, runoff rates are no longer in balance with the catchment needs, which in turn contributes to floods, droughts and water pollution problems. The loss of infiltration rates, soil water holding capacity and the increase in ditches and drains through intense farming has resulted in a reduction of the overall water holding capacity of the landscape, therefore deeper soil and aquifer recharge rates are lower. However, adequate raw water supply and food production is also vital. Here we consider how ~5% of productive land could be used to physically hold water during and after storms. This is a simple philosophy for water stewardship that could be delivered by farmers and land managers themselves. In this poster we consider a 'treatment train' of mitigation in headwaters by the construction of:- Rural SuDs - by creating swales, bunds and grassy filters; Buffer Strips - (designed to hold water); The Ditch of The Future - by creating the prime location for holding water and recovering lost top soil and finally the better use of Small Headwater Floodplains - by storing flood water, creating wetlands, planting new forest, installing woody debris and new habitats. We present examples of where and how these measures have been installed and show the cost-effectiveness of temporarily holding storm runoff in several case study catchments taken from the UK.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know if my tap water is contaminated with lead? The only way to know whether your tap water contains lead ... exposure. Therefore, for homes with children or pregnant women and with water lead levels exceeding EPA’s action level of 15 ppb, ...

  3. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  4. Robustness of localized DNA strand displacement cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Mario; Kopperger, Enzo; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2014-08-26

    Colocalization can strongly alter the kinetics and efficiency of chemical processes. For instance, in DNA-templated synthesis unfavorable reactions are sped up by placing reactants into close proximity onto a DNA scaffold. In biochemistry, clustering of enzymes has been demonstrated to enhance the reaction flux through some enzymatic cascades. Here we investigate the effect of colocalization on the performance of DNA strand displacement (DSD) reactions, an important class of reactions utilized in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. We study colocalization by immobilizing a two-stage DSD reaction cascade comprised of a “sender” and a “receiver” gate onto a DNA origami platform. The addition of a DNA (or RNA) input strand displaces a signal strand from the sender gate, which can then transfer to the receiver gate. The performance of the cascade is found to vary strongly with the distance between the gates. A cascade with an intermediate gate distance of ?20 nm exhibits faster kinetics than those with larger distances, whereas a cascade with smaller distance is corrupted by excessive intraorigami leak reactions. The 20 nm cascade is found to be considerably more robust with respect to a competing reaction, and implementation of multiple receiver gates further increases this robustness. Our results indicate that for the 20 nm distance a fraction of signal strands is transferred locally to a receiver gate on the same platform, probably involving direct physical contact between the gates. The performance of the cascade is consistent with a simple model that takes “local” and “global” transfer processes into account. PMID:25089925

  5. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called chromatin. The condensed nature of chromatin inhibits many DNA metabolizing activities, including NER. In order to promote efficient repair, detection of a lesion not only has to activate the NER pathway but also chromatin remodeling. In general, such remodeling is thought on the one hand to precede NER, thus allowing repair proteins to efficiently access DNA. On the other hand, after completion of the repair, the chromatin must be returned to its previous undamaged state. Chromatin remodeling can refer to three separate but interconnected processes, histone post-translational modifications, insertion of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  6. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g, 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air.

  7. Maximum Entropy Method for Operational Loads Feedback Using Concrete Dam Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmei Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety control of concrete dams is required due to the potential great loss of life and property in case of dam failure. The purpose of this paper is to feed back the operational control loads for concrete dam displacement using the maximum entropy method. The proposed method is not aimed at a judgement about the safety conditions of the dam. When a strong trend-line effect is evident, the method should be carefully applied. In these cases, the hydrostatic and temperature effects are added to the irreversible displacements, thus maximum operational loads should be accordingly reduced. The probability density function for the extreme load effect component of dam displacement can be selected by employing the principle of maximum entropy, which is effective to construct the least subjective probability density distribution merely given the moments information from the stated data. The critical load effect component in the warning criterion can be determined through the corresponding cumulative distribution function obtained by the maximum entropy method. Then the control loads feedback of concrete dam displacement is realized by the proposed warning criterion. The proposed method is applied to a concrete dam. A comparison of the results shows that the maximum entropy method can feed back rational control loads for the dam displacement. The control loads diagram obtained can be a straightforward and visual tool to the operation and management department of the concrete dam. The result from the proposed method is recommended to be used due to minimal subjectivity.

  8. Detachment, displacement and reattachment activity in a freshwater byssate mussel (Limnoperna fortunei): the effects of light, temperature and substratum orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchini, Daniela; Boltovskoy, Demetrio; Sylvester, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the freshwater bivalve Limnoperna fortunei to voluntarily detach from the substratum, crawl and reattach as a function of illumination, temperature, substratum orientation, and mussel size was investigated. Thirty-two per cent of the 879 experimental animals detached and reattached elsewhere at least once during five- to eight-day experiments. The proportions of mobile mussels were significantly higher in permanent darkness than under permanent illumination. Displacement distances were also higher in darkness, but statistical differences with illuminated individuals were inconclusive. No evidence of circadian rhythms was detected. Mobile mussels were often significantly smaller than non-mobile individuals. It was not possible to detect the effect of water temperature (22°C and 31°C), or substratum orientation (topside and underside) on mussel mobility, but because the power of the statistical tests was low, future experiments are needed to confirm this result. The ability of mussels to voluntarily detach and reattach elsewhere has important implications for biofouling control. PMID:26343201

  9. An advanced CFD model to study the effect of non-condensable gas on cavitation in positive displacement pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Aldo; Stickland, Matthew T.; Dempster, William M.

    2015-09-01

    An advanced transient CFD model of a positive displacement reciprocating pump was created to study its behavior and performance in cavitating condition during the inlet stroke. The "full" cavitation model developed by Singhal et al. was utilized, and a sensitivity analysis test on two air mass fraction amounts (1.5 and 15 parts per million) was carried out to study the influence of the dissolved air content in water on the cavitation phenomenon. The model was equipped with user defined functions to introduce the liquid compressibility, which stabilizes the simulation, and to handle the two-way coupling between the pressure field and the inlet valve lift history. Estimation of the performance is also presented in both cases.

  10. Covalent organic polymer functionalized activated carbon: A novel material for water contaminant removal and CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil; Hwang, Yuhoon; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Yavuz, Cafer T.

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) have emerged as one of the leading advanced materials for environmental applications, such as the capture and recovery of carbon dioxide and the removal of contaminants from polluted water. COPs exhibit many remarkable properties that other leading advanced......, these columns can subsequently degrade organic contaminants, e.g. halogenated solvents, azo dyes, antibiotics, etc., during the water treatment process. A first of its kind, activated carbon with a COP-functionalized shell provides a robust and regenerate-able material with the durability and...

  11. Pulse tube stirling machine with warm gas-driven displacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi

    2010-05-01

    A pulse tube type stirling machine with warm gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with numerical simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. Numerical results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.

  12. The effect of base pair mismatch on DNA strand displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Broadwater, Bo

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration, and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term, the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage t...

  13. Towards a unified picture of the water self-ions at the air-water interface: a density functional theory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Marcel D.; Kuo, I-F W.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-17

    The propensities of the water self ions, H3O+ and OH- , for the air-water interface has implications for interfacial acid-base chemistry. Despite numerous experimental and computational studies, no consensus has been reached on the question of whether or not H3O+ and/or OH- prefer to be at the water surface or in the bulk. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the bulk vs. interfacial behavior of H3O+ and OH- that employs forces derived from density functional theory with a generalized gradient approximation exchangecorrelation functional (specifically, BLYP) and empirical dispersion corrections. We computed the potential of mean force (PMF) for H3O+ as a function of the position of the ion in a 215-molecule water slab. The PMF is flat, suggesting that H3O+ has equal propensity for the air-water interface and the bulk. We compare the PMF for H3O+ to our previously computed PMF for OH- adsorption, which contains a shallow minimum at the interface, and we explore how differences in solvation of each ion at the interface vs. the bulk are connected with interfacial propensity. We find that the solvation shell of H3O+ is only slightly dependent on its position in the water slab, while OH- partially desolvates as it approaches the interface, and we examine how this difference in solvation behavior is manifested in the electronic structure and chemistry of the two ions. DJT was supported by National Science Foundation grant CHE-0909227. CJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The potential of mean force required resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DEAC05-00OR22725. The remaining simulations and analysis used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. at at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. MDB is grateful for the support of the Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program at PNNL.

  14. Beyond the hydrophobic effect: Critical function of water at biological phase boundaries--A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2015-07-01

    Many life-sustaining processes in living cells occur at the membrane-water interface. The pertinent questions that need to be asked are what is the evolutionary reason for biology to choose the membrane-water interface as the site for performing and/or controlling crucial biological reactions and what is the key physical principle that is singular to the membrane-water interface that biology exploits for regulating metabolic processes in cells? In this review, a hypothesis is developed, which espouses that cells control activities of membrane-bound enzymes and receptor activated processes via manipulating the thermodynamic activity of water at the membrane-water interfacial region. In support of this hypothesis, first we establish that the surface pressure of a lipid monolayer is a direct measure of a reduction in the thermodynamic activity of interfacial water. Second, we show that the surface pressure-dependent activation/inactivation of interfacial enzymes is fundamentally related to their dependence on interfacial water activity. We extend this argument to infer that cells might manipulate activities of membrane-associated biological processes via manipulating the activity of interfacial water via localized compression or expansion of the interface. In this paper, we critically analyze literature data on mechano-activation of large pore ion channels in Escherichia coli spheroplasts and G-proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles, and show that these pressure-induced activation processes are fundamentally and quantitatively related to changes in the thermodynamic state of interfacial water, caused by mechanical stretching of the bilayer. PMID:25888225

  15. Ankle Dorsiflexion Displacement During Landing is Associated With Initial Contact Kinematics but not Joint Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begalle, Rebecca L; Walsh, Meghan C; McGrath, Melanie L; Boling, Michelle C; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2015-08-01

    The ankle, knee, and hip joints work together in the sagittal plane to absorb landing forces. Reduced sagittal plane motion at the ankle may alter landing strategies at the knee and hip, potentially increasing injury risk; however, no studies have examined the kinematic relationships between the joints during jump landings. Healthy adults (N = 30; 15 male, 15 female) performed jump landings onto a force plate while three-dimensional kinematic data were collected. Joint displacement values were calculated during the loading phase as the difference between peak and initial contact angles. No relationship existed between ankle dorsiflexion displacement during landing and three-dimensional knee and hip displacements. However, less ankle dorsiflexion displacement was associated with landing at initial ground contact with larger hip flexion, hip internal rotation, knee flexion, knee varus, and smaller plantar flexion angles. Findings of the current study suggest that restrictions in ankle motion during landing may contribute to contacting the ground in a more flexed position but continuing through little additional motion to absorb the landing. Transverse plane hip and frontal plane knee positioning may also occur, which are known to increase the risk of lower extremity injury. PMID:25734492

  16. Light-induced water oxidation at silicon electrodes functionalized with a cobalt oxygen-evolving catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Pijpers, Joep J. H.; Winkler, Mark T.; Surendranath, Yogesh; Buonassisi, Tonio; Nocera, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    Integrating a silicon solar cell with a recently developed cobalt-based water-splitting catalyst (Co-Pi) yields a robust, monolithic, photo-assisted anode for the solar fuels process of water splitting to O2 at neutral pH. Deposition of the Co-Pi catalyst on the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-passivated p-side of a np-Si junction enables the majority of the voltage generated by the solar cell to be utilized for driving the water-splitting reaction. Operation under neutral pH conditions fosters enhanc...

  17. Optimal feedback synthesis and minimal time function for the bioremediation of water resources with two patches

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Hector; Rapaport, Alain; Riquelme, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the bioremediation, in minimal time, of a water resource or reservoir using a single continuous bioreactor. The bioreactor is connected to two pumps, at different locations in the reservoir, that pump polluted water and inject back sufficiently clean water with the same flow rate. This leads to a minimal-time optimal control problem where the control variables are related to the inflow rates of both pumps. We obtain a non-convex problem for which it is not possible to direc...

  18. Use of Analytical Solutions to Optimize Simulation of Multicomponent Three-Phase Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Tara

    2010-05-01

    The conservation law for oil/water/gas flow in porous media can be highly sensitive to numerical dispersive effects, particularly in systems with substantial partitioning of components between the gas and oil phases. As a consequence, it is not typically possible to perform field-scale simulations with a sufficiently fine-grid to accurately model compositional displacements such as CO2 injection into oil fields for storage or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The purpose of this study is to use analytical results to demonstrate the numerical errors in water and gas injection simulations in one dimension (1D) and to discuss the applicability of simplified models in obtaining an accurate simulated solution. Recently analytical solutions have become available for simultaneous water and gas (sWAG) flooding for three-phase multicomponent compositional systems (LaForce and Orr, 2009). This work showed the surprising result that excessive water injection can interfere with the development of multicontact miscibility (MCM) between the oil and gas phases. Multicontact miscibility occurs when a combination of thermodynamics and flow through porous media cause the formation of a single hydrocarbon phase. When MCM occurs hydrocarbons are displaced from the reservoir much more efficiently than in an immiscible gas or water flood. This presentation will compare and contrast the predicted displacements to a variety of models for sWAG flooding, including injection of water and a first-contact miscible (FCM) gas, three-phase compositional systems with developed miscibility and inert water (the aqueous phase contains only water, and water exists in only the aqueous phase) and compositional systems with developed miscibility in which all of the hydrocarbon components partition between all of the phases, but the water remains in the aqueous phase. Simulated solutions for each of the models are compared with the analytical solutions for various injection mixtures. This analysis can be used to determine when compositional simulation is necessary to achieve accurate results and when it is not worth the computational cost. The key results of this work are: 1) In compositional models where water is inert the analytical displacements using MCM and FCM models are nearly identical. In this case, 1D simulations using the MCM model are less accurate than the simulations of the simpler FCM system due to increased numerical dispersion in the compositional displacement. In this case the FCM model should be used for simulation in the reservoir. 2) In compositional models where there is a substantial partitioning of hydrocarbons into the aqueous phase the presence of excessive water can cause miscibility to fail to develop in compositional systems. For these displacements use of the FCM model will give an incorrect displacement and the fully compositional model must be used in simulations. However, when miscibility is developed, numerical effects again cause the 1D MCM simulation to be less accurate than the FCM solution. Reference: LaForce, T., and Orr, F.M, Jr. (2009) "Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part III Development of Miscibility," Transport in Porous Media, 10.1007/s11242-008-9311-z

  19. Hydrodynamic Excitation Forces on Floating Structures with Finite Displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten ThØtt; Nielsen, SØren R. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present an extended version of the classic linear wave excitation force theory. Linear wave theory implies that the wave load is applied in the referential state of the structure. In reality, the load is acting in the dynamically altered state. In the classic notation the wave excitation force is solely a function of time, hence the body is fixed in reference to the wave field. In this paper, the instantaneous position of the body is included in the calculation of the excitation force. Even though the displacement of the structure relative to a characteristic wavelength is generally small, it is demonstrated that the indicated nonlinear effect causes parametric instability at certain ratios between the wave frequency and the eigenfrequency of the structure. This calls for caution for structures designed to avoid resonance by having eigenfrequencies below the exciting wave frequencies.

  20. Experimental and simulated displacement of oil in sand berea cores using aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a mathematical algorithm to simulate the displacement of a resident fluid using a displacing one in a saturated anisotropic porous media is shown in this work. The algorithm was included in the simulator developed by the present authors in previous works to represent the anisotropic distribution of the porous media properties and the fluid injection [Ramirez A et al. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties. Chaos, solitons and Fractals 2008;38:778-88, Ramirez A et al. Simulation of uncompressible fluid flow through a porous media. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2009;39:1753-63] in a nested loop to analyze the participant nodes in the transport process and calculate the volumes of the resident and new fluids. The new routine developed takes in count the mobility of both fluids. Additionally experimental fluid displacement tests were done using heavy oil from Mexican reservoirs as a resident fluid in sand berea cores. The injection of new fluids in natural oil reservoirs is a part of the Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods used to improve the oil displacement and increase production after the primary stage of the oil recovery has been finished. Water is an available and economical resource to be used as a displacing fluid due to many of the producers (off-shores) of the oil industries are placed in the sea near the coast.